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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714692

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 is the most carcinogenic HPV genotype. We investigated if HPV16 L1 capsid protein and E2/E6 ratio, evaluated by cervical cytology, may be used as biomarkers of ≥cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 lesions. METHODS: Cervical specimens were obtained from 226 patients with HPV16 single infection. Using cytology specimen, L1 capsid protein and E2/E6 ratio were detected and the results were compared with those of the conventional histologic analysis of cervical tissues (CIN1–3 and squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]) to evaluate the association. RESULTS: The L1 positivity of CIN2/3 was significantly lower than that of normal cervical tissue (p < 0.001) and SCC demonstrated significantly lower L1 positivity than CIN1 (p < 0.001). The mean E2/E6 ratios of specimens graded as SCC (0.356) and CIN2/3 (0.483) were significantly lower than those of specimens graded as CIN1 (0.786) and normal (0.793) (p < 0.05). We observed that area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for E2/E6 ratio (0.844; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.793–0.895) was higher than that for L1 immunochemistry (0.636; 95% CI=0.562–0.711). A combination of E2/E6 ratio and L1 immunocytochemistry analyses showed the highest AUC (0.871; 95% CI=0.826–0.917) for the prediction of ≥CIN2 lesions. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to validate HPV L1 capsid protein expression and decreased HPV E2/E6 ratio as valuable predictive markers of ≥CIN2 cervical lesions. Cervical cytology may be analyzed longitudinally on an outpatient basis with noninvasive procedures as against invasive conventional histologic analysis.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Biomarkers , Capsid Proteins , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Epithelial Cells , Genotype , Humans , Immunochemistry , Immunohistochemistry , Outpatients , ROC Curve , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Virus Integration
2.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 36(supl.2): 14-24, ago. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-794013

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Uno de los factores de riesgo del carcinoma de células escamosas en la cavidad oral es la infección por el virus del papiloma humano (HPV), cuyas prevalencias dependen de la región geográfica. Objetivo. Identificar los tipos del virus del papiloma humano más frecuentes en el cáncer de la cavidad bucal, sus niveles de expresión y el estado físico del genoma viral. Materiales y métodos. Se seleccionaron 46 pacientes que asistían a los servicios de cirugía de cabeza y cuello en Bogotá, Manizales y Bucaramanga. El examen histopatológico de las muestras incluidas en el estudio demostró la presencia de carcinoma de células escamosas en la cavidad oral en todas ellas. Se extrajo el ADN para genotipificar el virus y determinar el estado físico de su genoma, y el ARN para determinar los transcritos virales mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real. Resultados. La prevalencia del virus del papiloma humano en los tumores fue de 21,74% (n=10) y el tipo viral más frecuente fue el HPV-16 (nueve casos). La expresión viral del HPV-16 fue baja (una de 11 copias) y el estado físico predominante fue el mixto (ocho casos), con prevalencia de la disrupción en el sitio de unión de E1 y E2 (2525 a 3720 nucleótidos). Conclusión. En los pacientes con carcinoma de cavidad oral incluidos en este trabajo, la frecuencia del virus del papiloma humano fue relativamente baja (21,7 %) y el tipo viral más frecuente fue el HPV-16, el cual se encontró en forma mixta y con baja expresión de E7 , lo cual puede ser indicativo de un mal pronóstico para el paciente.


Introduction: One of the risk factors for squamous cell oropharyngeal carcinoma is infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV), with prevalences that vary depending on the geographical region. Objective: To identify the most frequent HPV viral types in oropharyngeal cancer, the levels of expression and the physical condition of the viral genome. Materials and methods: Forty-six patients were included in the study from among those attending head and neck surgical services in the cities of Bogotá, Manizales and Bucaramanga. In the histopathological report all study samples were characterized as oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. DNA extraction was subsequently performed for HPV genotyping and to determine the physical state of the viral genome, as well as RNA to determine viral transcripts using real-time PCR. Results: HPV prevalence in tumors was 21.74% (n=10) and the most common viral type was HPV-16 (nine cases). Viral expression for HPV-16 was low (one of 11 copies) and the predominant physical state of the virus was mixed (eight cases), with disruption observed at the E1 - E2 binding site (2525 - 3720 nucleotides). Conclusion: The prevalence of HPV associated with oropharyngeal carcinoma among the Colombian study population was 21.7%, which is relatively low. The most frequent viral type was HPV-16, found in a mixed form and with low expression of E7 , possibly indicating a poor prognosis for these patients.


Subject(s)
Papilloma , Carcinoma , DNA Tumor Viruses , Oncogene Proteins , Oropharynx , Virus Integration
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-329176

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the prevalence of physical state of HPV-16 DNA in cervical cancer and cervical precancerous carcinoma.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Multiplex PCR was adopted to detect the physical state of HPV in samples from 252 patients with cervical carcinoma, including 48 samples of cervical cancer, 204 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN ) (125 CIN I, 46 CIN II and 33 CIN III) and 20 normal samples from the subjects with hysteromyoma undergoing hysterectomy, respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among 48 patients with cervical cancer, 31 (65.6%) were infected with HPV-16. Eighteen among 31 (58.1%) HPV-16 infected patients with cervical cancer were found to have integrated infection of HPV-16. The positive rates of HPV-16 infection in the patients with CIN I, CIN II and CIN III were 19.2%, 34.8% and 42.4%, and the integrated infection rates of HPV-16 were 16.7%, 18.8% and 35.7%, respectively. Compared with patients with different grades of CIN, the integrated rate of HPV-16 infection in those with cervical cancer was significantly elevated.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Among the patients with HPV-16 infection, the integrated state of HPV-16 is positively correlated with the severity of cervical lesions. Combined HPV typing test and detection of integrated viral state contribute to predicting the prognosis of patients with cervical precancerous lesions and increasing the accuracy of screening cervical cancer on the basis of HPV DNA detection.</p>


Subject(s)
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Virology , DNA, Viral , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Human papillomavirus 16 , Physiology , Humans , Papillomavirus Infections , Virology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Virology , Virus Integration
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220404

ABSTRACT

A small set of gastric adenocarcinomas (9%) harbor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA within malignant cells, and the virus is not an innocent bystander but rather is intimately linked to pathogenesis and tumor maintenance. Evidence comes from unique genomic features of host DNA, mRNA, microRNA and CpG methylation profiles as revealed by recent comprehensive genomic analysis by The Cancer Genome Atlas Network. Their data show that gastric cancer is not one disease but rather comprises four major classes: EBV-positive, microsatellite instability (MSI), genomically stable and chromosome instability. The EBV-positive class has even more marked CpG methylation than does the MSI class, and viral cancers have a unique pattern of methylation linked to the downregulation of CDKN2A (p16) but not MLH1. EBV-positive cancers often have mutated PIK3CA and ARID1A and an amplified 9p24.1 locus linked to overexpression of JAK2, CD274 (PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (PD-L2). Multiple noncoding viral RNAs are highly expressed. Patients who fail standard therapy may qualify for enrollment in clinical trials targeting cancer-related human gene pathways or promoting destruction of infected cells through lytic induction of EBV genes. Genomic tests such as the GastroGenus Gastric Cancer Classifier are available to identify actionable variants in formalin-fixed cancer tissue of affected patients.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , DNA Methylation , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Genomics/methods , Herpesvirus 4, Human/physiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Mutation , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Signal Transduction , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Virus Integration
5.
Rev. bras. hematol. hemoter ; 36(3): 213-218, May-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-713680

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Nowadays recombinant factor VIII is produced in murine cells including in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and baby hamster kidney cells (BHK). Previous studies, using the murine leukemia virus-derived retroviral vector pMFG-FVIII-P140K, modified two recombinant human cell lines, HepG2 and Hek293 to produce recombinant factor VIII. In order to characterize these cells, the present study aimed to analyze the integration pattern of retroviral vector pMFG-FVIII-P140K. METHODS: This study used ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction to locate the site of viral vector integration by sequencing polymerase chain reaction products. The sequences were compared to genomic databases to characterize respective clones. RESULTS: The retroviral vector presented different and non-random profiles of integration between cells lines. A preference of integration for chromosomes 19, 17 and 11 was observed for HepG2FVIIIdB/P140K and chromosome 9 for Hek293FVIIIdB/P140K. In genomic regions such as CpG islands and transcription factor binding sites, there was no difference in the integration profiles for both cell lines. Integration in intronic regions of encoding protein genes (RefSeq genes) was also observed in both cell lines. Twenty percent of integrations occurred at fragile sites in the genome of the HepG2 cell line and 17% in Hek293. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the cell type can affect the profile of chromosomal integration of the retroviral vector used; these differences may interfere in the level of expression of recombinant proteins. .


Subject(s)
Factor VIII , Virus Integration , Leukemia Virus, Murine , Hemophilia A
6.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2014. xvii,97 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-774253

ABSTRACT

O timo é um órgão linfoide primário, sítio do desenvolvimento de células T, provendofatores críticos e coordenados que induzem e suportam o comprometimento delinhagem, diferenciação e sobrevivência dessas células. A presença das célulasnão-linfóides, principalmente as células epiteliais do timo (TEC) no parênquimatímico promove a migração e diferenciação coordenada dos linfócitos T. Os linfócitosT são o principal alvo do Virus linfotrópico T humano (HTLV-1), agente etiológico daleucemia/linfoma associado ao HTLV-1 (ATL) e de doença que compromete osistema nervoso/muscular (HAM/TSP). É desconhecida a causa que leva a uma ououtra doença. A resposta imune antiviral mediada por células T é ineficiente nessaspatologias. Mesmo que o vírus tenha tropismo pelos linfócitos T, ele é capaz deinfectar outros tipos celulares por contato direto entre células ou por partículas viraislivres. Linfócitos ativados recirculam pelos órgãos linfoides, incluindo o timo, onde ascélulas epiteliais tímicas (TEC) interagem intimamente com as células recirculantes,promovendo uma possível via de transmição do HTLV-1. No nosso trabalho,observamos que as TECs possuem os receptores para a entrada do vírus (GLUT-1e Neuropilina-1). Experimentos in vitro mostraram que as TECs podem serinfectadas pelo HTLV-1 por linhagens de linfócitos derivados de pacientesportadores de ATL e de HAM/TSP. Essas infecções ocorreram tanto por contatodireto entre as células, quanto por sobrenadante contendo partículas virais livresderivadas do sobrenadante dos linfócitos. O vírus pode ser observado após 24horas e 10 dias de cultivo, quando a maioria das células estava infectada. Atravésde microscopia eletrônica de transmissão, foram observadas partículas viraisbrotando de estruturas semelhantes a corpos multivesculares nas TECs...


The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ, site of developing T cells, providing acoordinated set of critical factors to induce and support lineage commitment,differentiation and survival of these cells. The presence of non-lymphoid cellsthrough the thymic parenchyma serves to provide coordinated migration anddifferentiation of T lymphocytes. T lymphocytes are the main target of Human TLymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1). This virus is the etiologic agent of HTLV-1associated lymphoma and leukemia (ATL) or a disease of muscular/nervous systems(HAM/TSP), but it is unknown what triggers to one or other disease. T-cell mediatedimmune response against viral proteins is not effective in both diseases. Althoughthe virus has T lymphocyte tropism, it can infect other cells by cell contact and cellfreevirus. Activated T lymphocytes circulates around lymphoid organs, including thethymus, where the thymic epithelial cells (TEC) strongly interact with recirculatingcells, so infected lymphocytes could transmit the virus to TEC. Interestingly, in ourwork we observed that TEC expresses molecules related to the HTLV-1 transmission(GLUT-1, Neuropilin 1). In vitro experiments showed that TEC could be infected bycell lineages derived from ATL and HAM/TSP patients. These infections happenedfrom cell contact and by cell-free virus derived from cell supernatants. The virus canbe seen after 24h and after 10 days, when most cells in the culture were infected. Bytransmission electron microscopy, virus particles were observed budding frommultivesicular bodies like structures in TEC. Cytokines and chemokines wereincreased at mRNA level soon after contact with HTLV-1 containing supernatantderived from lymphocytes. In addition, type 1 interferon and interferon stimulatedgenes were decreased in HTLV-1 infected TEC...


Subject(s)
Humans , Epithelial Cells , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Thymus Gland , Virus Integration , Leukemia, T-Cell , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812288

ABSTRACT

AIM@#To evaluate the anti-HIV activity and mechanism of action of wikstroelide M, a daphnane diterpene from Daphne acutiloba Rehder (Thymelaeaceae).@*METHODS@#The anti-HIV activities of wikstroelide M against different HIV strains were evaluated by cytopathic effect assay and p24 quantification assay with ELISA. The inhibitory effect of wikstroelide M on HIV reverse transcription was analyzed by real-time PCR and ELISA. The effect of wikstroelide M on HIV-1 integrase nuclear translocation was observed with a cell-based imaging assay. The effect of wikstroelide M on LEDGF/p75-IN interaction was assayed by molecular docking.@*RESULTS@#Wikstroelide M potently inhibited different HIV-1 strains, including HIV-1IIIB, HIV-1A17, and HIV-19495, induced a cytopathic effect, with EC50 values ranging from 3.81 to 15.65 ng·mL⁻¹. Wikstroelide M also had high inhibitory activities against HIV-2ROD and HIV-2CBL-20-induced cytopathic effects with EC50 values of 18.88 and 31.90 ng·mL⁻¹. The inhibitory activities of wikstroelide M on the three HIV-1 strains were further confirmed by p24 quantification assay, with EC50 values ranging from 15.16 to 35.57 ng·mL⁻¹. Wikstroelide M also potently inhibited HIV-1IIIB induced cytolysis in MT-4 cells, with an EC50 value of 9.60 ng·mL⁻¹. The mechanistic assay showed that wikstroelide M targeted HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and nuclear translocation of integrase through disrupting the interaction between integrase and LEDGF/p75.@*CONCLUSION@#Wikstroelide M may be a potent HIV-1 and HIV-2 inhibitor, the mechanisms of action may include inhibition of reverse trascriptase activity and inhibition of integrase nuclear translocation through disrupting the interaction between integrase and LEDGF/p75.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Cell Line , Daphne , Chemistry , Diterpenes , Pharmacology , HIV Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , HIV Integrase , Metabolism , HIV Integrase Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , HIV Reverse Transcriptase , HIV-1 , HIV-2 , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Metabolism , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Virus Integration , Virus Replication
8.
Niger. med. j. (Online) ; 54(3): 176-184, 2013.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1267634

ABSTRACT

Human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) women have a higher risk of developing invasive cervical cancer compared with uninfected women. This study aims to document programmatic experience of integrating cervical cancer screening using Visual Inspection and Acetic Acid (VIA) into HIV care as well as to describe patients' characteristics associated with positive VIA findings amongst HIV+ women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study analysed routine service data collected at the antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cervical cancer screening services. Our program integrated screening for cervical cancer using VIA technique to HIV care and treatment services through a combination of stakeholder engagement; capacity building for health workers; creating a bi-directional referral between HIV and reproductive health (RH) services and provider initiated counselling and screening for cervical cancer. Information on patients' baseline and clinical characteristics were captured using an electronic medical records system and then exported to Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Logistic regression model was used to estimate factors that influence VIA results. Results: A total of 834 HIV+ women were offered VIA screening between April 2010 and April 2011; and 805 (96.5) accepted it. Complete data was available for 802 (96.2) women. The mean age at screening and first sexual contact were 32.0 (SD 6.6) and 18.8 (SD 3.5) years; respectively. VIA was positive in 52 (6.5) women while 199 (24.8) women while 199 (24.8) had a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Of the 199 who had a STI; eight (4.0) had genital ulcer syndrome; 30 (15.1) had lower abdominal pain syndrome and 161 (80.9) had vaginal discharge syndrome. Presence of lower abdominal pain syndrome was found to be a significant predictor of a positive VIA result ( P = 0.001). Women with lower abdominal pain syndrome appeared to be more likely (OR 47.9; 95 CI: 4.8-480.4; P = 0.001) to have a positive VIA result. Conclusion: The high burden of both HIV and cervical cancer in developing countries makes it a necessity for integrating services that offer early detection and treatment for both diseases. The findings from our study suggest that integrating VIA screening into the package of care offered to HIV+ women is feasible and acceptable


Subject(s)
HIV , Acetic Acid , Anatomic Landmarks , Developing Countries , Early Detection of Cancer , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Virus Integration , Women
9.
Sahara J (Online) ; 9: 11-18, 2012.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1271519

ABSTRACT

In South Africa; the HIVetAIDS education policy documents indicate opportunities for integration across disciplines/subjects. There are different interpretations of integration/inclusion and mainstreaming HIVetAIDS education; and numerous levels of integration. Integration ensures that learners experience the disciplines/subjects as being linked and related; and integration is required to support and expand the learners' opportunities to attain skills; acquire knowledge and develop attitudes and values across the curriculum. This study makes use of self-study methodology where I; a teacher educator; aim to improve my practice through including HIVetAIDS statistics in Mathematics Education. This article focuses on how I used HIVetAIDS statistics to facilitate pre-service teacher reflection and introduce them to integration of HIVetAIDS education across the curriculum. After pre-service teachers were provided with HIV statistics; they drew a pie chart which graphically illustrated the situation and reflected on issues relating to HIVetAIDS. Three themes emerged from the analysis of their reflections. The themes relate to the need for further HIVetAIDS education; the changing pastoral role of teachers and the changing context of teaching. This information indicates that the use of statistics is an appropriate means of initiating the integration of HIVetAIDS education into the academic curriculum


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV Infections , Mainstreaming, Education , Virus Integration
10.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 468-471, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261969

ABSTRACT

To identify the integration sites in the host genome for the hepatitis B virus (HBV)-encoded X protein (HBx) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biopsies that are positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). HCC biopsies were obtained from six patients that were HBV carriers, as demonstrated by the presence of HBsAg in their serum and sero-negativity for antibody to HBsAg. DNA was extracted from the tissue, fractionated, and circularized. Primers were designed according to the HBx sequence and used to amplify the circularized DNA templates by inverse polymerase chain reaction (IPCR). The amplified DNA fragments were checked by electrophoresis, cloned into the PMD18-T expression vector, and sequenced. Sequence alignment was performed by the Blast algorithms. Seven electrophoresis bands yielded 22 sequencing results, which represented a total of three HBx integration sites in the host genome: 19q12, 2q32.2, 22q12. The 19q12 integration site encompasses the CCNE1 gene, which encodes a G1/S-specific cyclin-E1. HBx-related integration sites exist in HBsAg-positive HCC biopsies. The CCNE1 gene may play a role in the development of HBx-related HCC.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Blood , Genetics , Cyclin E , Genetics , DNA Primers , DNA, Viral , Genetics , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Metabolism , Hepatitis B virus , Genetics , Physiology , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Blood , Genetics , Oncogene Proteins , Genetics , Trans-Activators , Genetics , Virus Integration
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-137354

ABSTRACT

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is a global health concern. To control its transmission, safe sex has been proposed as one of the strategies. Microbicides- intravaginal/intrarectal topical formulations of anti-HIV agents have also been proposed to prevent HIV transmission. Microbicides would provide protection by directly inactivating HIV or preventing the attachment, entry or replication of HIV in susceptible target cells as well as their dissemination from target cells present in semen or the host cells lining the vaginal/rectal wall to other migratory cells. Microbicides must be safe, effective following vaginal or rectal administration, and should cause minimal or no genital symptoms or inflammations following long-term repeated usage. However, a safe and efficacious anti-HIV microbicide is not yet available despite the fact that more than 60 candidate agents have been identified to have in vitro activity against HIV, several of which have advanced to clinical testing. Nonetheless, proof-of-concept of microbicides has been established based on the results of recent CAPRISA 004 clinical trials. In this article, the trends and challenges in the development of effective and safe microbicides to combat HIV transmission are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravaginal , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Drug Discovery/trends , Female , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV-1/drug effects , Humans , Virus Integration/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-137353

ABSTRACT

Although the HIV incidence rate has slowed in some countries, HIV remains a serious health challenge, particularly in the developing world. The epidemic is increasingly feminised, with young women at high risk of acquiring the virus. There is thus a clear requirement for acceptable woman-initiated methods of HIV prevention. Foremost among these are vaginally-applied substances known as microbicides; early research into potential microbicides focussed on non-HIV-specific compounds such as surfactants and polyanionic entry inhibitors. However, proof of the microbicide concept as a viable prevention strategy was not provided until the CAPRISA 004 trial of a microbicide containing the HIV-specific antiretroviral tenofovir was completed in mid-2010. Confirmation of the proof of concept provided by CAPRISA 004 by at least two major trials will hopefully lead to licensure of the product by 2018. Parallel studies are planned to ascertain the feasibility of implementation of these products in the public sector with subsequent research focussed on appropriate and acceptable methods of delivery of the active ingredient, and to increase adherence through other delivery systems such as vaginal rings.


Subject(s)
Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Administration, Intravaginal , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Drug Discovery/trends , Female , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV-1/drug effects , Humans , Virus Integration/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects
13.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 30(5): 422-430, nov. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-610068

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Caracterizar el ambiente genómico de las secuencias adyacentes al virus linfotrópico humano de células T tipo 1 (HTLV-1) en pacientes con paraparesia espßstica tropical y mielopatía asociada a la infección con HTLV-1 (PET/MAH) de diferentes regiones de Colombia y del Japón. MÉTODOS: Se enfrentaron 71 clones recombinantes con secuencias del genoma humano adyacentes al 5'-LTR de pacientes con PET/MAH, a las bases de datos del Genome Browser y del Gen-Bank. Se identificaron y analizaron estadísticamente 16 variables genómicas estructurales y composicionales mediante el programa informßtico R, versión 2.8.1, en una ventana de 0,5 Mb. RESULTADOS: El 43,0 por ciento de los provirus se localizaron en los cromosomas del grupo C; 74 por ciento de las secuencias se ubicaron en regiones teloméricas y subteloméricas (P < 0,05). Un anßlisis de conglomerados permitió establecer las relaciones jerßrquicas entre las características genómicas incluidas en el estudio; el anßlisis de componentes principales identificó las componentes que definieron los ambientes genómicos preferidos para la integración proviral en casos de PET/MAH. CONCLUSIONES: El HTLV-1 se integró con mayor frecuencia en regiones de la cromatina ricas en islas de citocina fosfato guanina (CpG), de alta densidad de genes y de repeticiones tipo LINE (elemento disperso largo [long interspersed element]) y transposones de ADN que, en conjunto, conformarían los ambientes genómicos blanco de integración. Este nuevo escenario promoverß cambios sustanciales en el campo de la salud pública y en el manejo epidemiológico de las enfermedades infecciosas, y permitirß desarrollar potentes herramientas para incrementar la eficiencia de la vigilancia epidemiológica.


OBJECTIVE: Characterize the genomic environment of the sequences adjacent to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) in patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in different regions of Colombia and Japan. METHODS: A total of 71 recombinant clones with human genome sequences adjacent to 5' LTR in patients with HAM/TSP were compared to the Genome Browser and GenBank databases. Sixteen structural and compositional genome variables were identified, and statistical analysis was conducted in the R computer program, version 2.8.1, in a 0.5 Mb window. RESULTS: A total of 43.0 percent of the proviruses were located in the group C chromosomes; 74 percent of the sequences were located in the telomeric and subtelomeric regions (P < 0.05). A cluster analysis was used to establish the hierarchical relations between the genome characteristics included in the study. The analysis of principal components identified the components that defined the preferred genome environments for proviral integration in cases of HAM/TSP. CONCLUSIONS: HTLV-1 was integrated more often in chromatin regions rich in CpG islands with a high density of genes and LINE type repetitions, and DNA transposons which, overall, would form the genomic environments targeted for integration. This new scenario will promote substantial changes in the field of public health and in epidemiological management of infectious diseases. It will also foster the development of powerful tools for increasing the efficiency of epidemiological surveillance.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Genome, Human , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/genetics , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/genetics , Proviruses/genetics , Terminal Repeat Sequences/genetics , Virus Integration/genetics , Chromosome Mapping , CpG Islands , Chromosomes, Human/genetics , Colombia/epidemiology , DNA, Recombinant/genetics , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/epidemiology , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/virology , Retroelements/genetics , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
14.
Rev. salud pública ; 13(1): 129-140, feb. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-602862

ABSTRACT

Objetivos Establecer la relación entre el número de provirus VLHT-1 y las características de la cromatina adyacente en casos de Leucemia Linfoma de Células T del Adulto. Metodología Se realizó una revisión sistemática y un metaanálisis de la literatura publica que considero como variables de estudio los provirus por cromosoma y características estructurales y funcionales de la cromatina adyacente a los sitios de integración. La concordancia entre los resultados de la evaluación que emitieron dos expertos fue evaluada con el coeficiente de Spearman Rho. Se evaluó el sesgo de publicación mediante el gráfico de embudo y el estadígrafo Egger. De acuerdo con los resultados de la evaluación de la heterogeneidad se aplicó el modelo de efectos fijos para la combinación de los resultados de las integraciones que ocurrieron en: secuencias codificantes y secuencias codificantes de acuerdo con su función molecular. Resultados La concordancia entre expertos evaluadores fue de 0,7. No se encontró sesgo de publicación. Se determinó homogeneidad entre los estudios seleccionados (p>0,05). El provirus VLHT-1 se integró en secuencias en regiones teloméricas y subteloméricas. La combinación de los resultados mostró una integración sitio dirigida hacia regiones codificantes del genoma humano (p<0,05). Conclusión En su conjunto los resultados permiten concluir que la integración proviral no es al azar en LCCTA; ésta ocurrió en regiones reguladoras o de control; que explicarían algunos de los proceso moleculares involucrado en leukomogénesis.


Objectives Establishing a correlation between the number of HTLV-1 provirus and the characteristics of the genomic environment in ATL cases. Methodology A systematic search was made of publications as well as a meta-analysis of the pertinent literature considering proviruses per chromosome and structural and functional characteristics of flanking chromatin regions as variables. The concordance of experts' study was evaluated by Spearman Rho correlation. Publication bias was analysed by funnel plot and the Egger statisgrapher. A fixed effects model was applied according to heterogeneity evaluation to combine the results of integration occurring in coding sequences as well as coding sequences according to their molecular function. Results The expert concepts' Kappa index was 0.7 and no publication bias was observed. The meta-analysis result was homogeneous (p>0.05). HTLV-1 integration was directed towards several chromosomes' telomeric and subtelomeric regions. The combination of published results in the articles which were analysed supported the hypothesis of integration events being site-directed towards coding regions of the human genome (p<0.05). Moreover, the groups of genes having enzymatic and receptor functions was statistically significant. Conclusion The results led to concluding that HTLV-I integration in the ATLL cases analysed here was not random but was directed towards regulatory regions. Such results could help to explain the role of some processes involved in leukemogenesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/genetics , Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell/virology , Virus Integration , Computational Biology , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/physiology , Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell/epidemiology , Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell/genetics
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135371

ABSTRACT

One of the major pathogenic determinants of Vibrio cholerae, the cholera toxin, is encoded in the genome of a filamentous phage, CTX. CTX makes use of the chromosome dimer resolution system of V. cholerae to integrate its single stranded genome into one, the other, or both V. cholerae chromosomes. Here, we review current knowledge about this smart integration process.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages/genetics , Base Sequence , Cholera/microbiology , Cholera Toxin/genetics , Genome, Bacterial , Genome, Viral , Vibrio cholerae/chemistry , Vibrio cholerae/genetics , Vibrio cholerae/pathogenicity , Virus Integration
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1541-1548, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304547

ABSTRACT

Four out of 10 patients of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) were finally developed leukemia after receiving the treatment of gene therapy delivered by gamma-retroviral vectors. This is due to the vector integrated to the proximity of lmo2 etc proto-oncogene promoters, leading to the activation of onco-gene expression, which raises the concern of the bio-safety of gene therapy vectors. Lentiviral vectors, especially self-inactivating lentiviral vectors, are considered to be much safer than gamma-retroviral vectors. However self-inactivating lentiviral vectors also have encountered with some unsafe factors and one of them is the problem of transcriptional "read-through" . During the past years, achievements have been made to reduce lentiviral vector transcriptional read-through, which are reviewed herein.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Therapy , Methods , Genetic Vectors , Genetics , Humans , Lentivirus , Genetics , Metabolism , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Proto-Oncogene Proteins , Genetics , Transcription, Genetic , Genetics , Virus Inactivation , Virus Integration
17.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 741-745, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285651

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVES</b>To study the phenomena of hepatitis B virus (HBV) integration into the tissues of hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) and to identify the integration sites in the host genome.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ten fresh HCCA samples were collected from the tissues by surgical ablation, 1 normal hilar bile duct sample selected as control. Cellular DNA were extracted by Wizard SV Genomic DNA Purification System. PCR-derived assay (HBV-Alu-PCR) was employed to amplify the viral-host junctions which contain the HBV sequence and the adjacent cellular flanking sequences. The PCR products were purified and subjected to sequencing by ABI-3730XL Auto DNA Analyzer. The sequence analysis of viral-host junctions was performed by DNASIS MAX 3.0 bioinformatics software. The insertion sites between viral and cellular sequences were identified through homology comparison using NCBI BLAST and MapViewer search.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In 10 HCCA samples, 5 were demonstrated to have HBV integration fragments with total 6 inserted sites identified. Sequence analysis from viral-host junction showed that HBV X gene inserted into host genome at random distribution with truncated fragments. HBV integration recurrently targeted the unknown region in upstream of CXXC finger protein-1 (CpG-binding protein) gene (4 cases). p53 tumor suppressor gene was also found at the integration site.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>There is high integration rate of HBV DNA into cellular genome of HCCA. HBV integration is found frequently into or close to cancer-related genes. The findings demonstrate that HBV infection might have association with the pathogenesis of HCCA.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Base Sequence , Bile Duct Neoplasms , Genetics , Virology , Cholangiocarcinoma , Genetics , Virology , DNA, Viral , Genetics , Female , Hepatitis B , Virology , Hepatitis B virus , Genetics , Humans , Male , Virus Integration
18.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 14(5): 513-518, Sept.-Oct. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-570569

ABSTRACT

This review will summarize the role of integrase in HIV-1 infection, the mechanism of integrase inhibitors and resistance with an emphasis on raltegravir (RAL), the first integrase inhibitor licensed to treat HIV-1 infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , HIV Infections/virology , HIV Integrase Inhibitors/pharmacology , HIV Integrase/genetics , HIV-1 , Virus Integration/drug effects , HIV Integrase/drug effects , HIV-1
19.
Prensa méd. argent ; 97(1): 28-36, mar. 2010. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-598257

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el Papilomavirus Humano (HPV) ha sido identificado como agente causal del cáncer cervical, induciendo lesiones cervicales de bajo grado que, eventualmente, se malignizan debido a distintos factores. La expresión de oncogenes virales y el estado de integración viral son necesarios para el desarrollo de neoplasias, por lo que podrían utilizarse como marcadores de progresión maligna en éste tipo de lesiones. Objetivo: evaluar la expresión de los oncogenes virales E6/E7 de HPV16 y 18 y el estado del genoma viral como posibles marcadores de progresión maligna. Materiales y métodos: se evaluaron muestras de lesiones cervicales (n = 27 controles (Ctrl), n = 18 CIN I, n= 24 CIN II/III y n = 32 Carcinomas invasivos (CC) derivadas del Hospital Gral. de Agudos C. Durand, CABA. Se evaluó la presencia de genoma consenso HPV y específico HPV16 y 18 mediante dPCR. Se determinó la expresión de oncogenes virales E6/E7 de HPV16 y HPV 18 y el estado de integración viral se analizó mediante PCR-APOT. Resultados: se observó un aumento significativo de presencia de genoma viral en correlación con el grado de lesión analizada CIN I: 77,8 %, CIN II/III: 83,3 % y CC: 100 % en comparación con el grupo control (25,9 %, p<0,001). La infección con HPV16 fue significativamente mayor en todos los grupos (vs. HPV18, p<0,001), encontrándose coinfección en varios casos. La expresión de los oncogenes virales de HPV16 fue significativamente mayor en comparación con HPV18 (p<0,0001). El estado físico de los genomas virales mostró una tendencia a la forma integrada en correlación con el grado de lesión analizada, encontrándose mayor presencia de genomas integrados en CC (vs. Episomal y/o episomal e integrado p<0,02) de HPV16. Para HPV18, sólo pudimos observar genomas integrados en CIN II/III (100 %) y CC (50 %). Sólo el 12,5 % de los genomas HPV 18 fueron detectados episomal e integrado. Conclusiones: observamos altas frecuencias de infección con HPV16 en comparación con HPV 18...


Introduction: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as causal agent of cervical cancer, inducing cervical low grade lesions that, eventually, maligniza due to different factors. Viral oncogene expression and integration status are necessary for neoplasic development, and they could be used as malignant progression markers in these types of lesions. Aim: Evaluate HPV16 and 18 (E6/E7) viral oncogene expression and genome integration status as possible malignant progression markers. Materials and methods: Cervical samples derived from Hospital GA C. Durand (CABA) were evaluated (n = 27 healthy controls -Ctrl-, n = 18 CINI, n = 24 CIN II/III abd b = 32 Invasive Carcinomas (CC). HPV consensus and HPV16 and 18 specific genomes were evaluated by PCR. Viral oncogene expression (E6/E7) of HPV16 and HPV18 was determined, as well as viral integration status was determined by means of PCR-APOT. Results: A significant increase in viral genome presence was observed in correlation with the degree of the lesion analyzed CIN I: 77,9%, CIN II/III: 83,3% y CC: 100% in comparison to control Group (25,9% p<0,001). The infection with HPV16 was significantly greater in all the groups in comparison with HPV18 (p<0,001); co-infection was detected in several cases. HPV 16 oncogene expression was greater than the one showed by HPV-18 (p<0,0001). The physcal state of the viral genomes showed a tendency to the integrated form in correlation with the degree of analyzed lesion, detecting most of integrated HPV16 genomes in CC group (vs. episomal and/or episomal and integrated, p<0,02), FORM II/III (100%) and CC (50%). Only a minor fraction of HPV18 genomes in CC where found to be, both, episomal and integrated (12,5%). Conclusions: We have detected higher HPV16 infection frequencies in comparison with HPV18 in all analyzed groups. On the other hand, we observed an increase in HPV-16 onocogene expression in comparison to HPV18 ones. HPV16 was found predominantly integrated...


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Genome, Viral , Papillomavirus Infections/pathology , Oncogenes , Statistical Analysis , Virus Integration , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Disease Progression
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-316890

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the performance of Inverse-PCR, Alu-PCR and Cassette-ligation-mediated PCR (CLM-PCR) in HBV DNA integration sites identification.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One HCC biopsy was obtained from surgically resected sample. The patient was positive for serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The genomic DNA was purified by the standard phenol/chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation method. Seperated set of primers were designed to amplify the HBV DNA integration region by means of 3 different PCR methods respectively. The PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis, then cloned to PMD18-T vector for DNA sequencing. The sequence alignment was performed under Blast software.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>7 bands and 22 sequencing results was obtained from IPCR and 3 integration sites was identified. Alu-PCR provided 12 bands and 32 sequencing results, and CLM-PCR showed 12 bands and 4 sequencing results. No integration site was identified from the latter two.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>IPCR compared with another two methods showed a reliable capacity in HBV DNA integration site identification.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Pathology , Virology , Hepatitis B virus , Genetics , Physiology , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Pathology , Virology , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methods , Virus Integration
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