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1.
Vive (El Alto) ; 6(16): 195-205, abr. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442278

ABSTRACT

El estrabismo es una alteración de la visión binocular, es decir, la pérdida de paralelismo de los ejes visuales. Las personas que padecen estrabismo presentan disminución de la profundidad visual y percepción de dimensionalidad. Se estima que este padecimiento ocular, afecta alrededor del 2 al 4 % de la población infantil. La clasificación de los estrabismos y su misma definición han sido parte de un debate mundial durante años. La edad de aparición, el ángulo de desviación, el ojo desviado, y la magnitud del ángulo en distancia de enfoque tambien; sin embargo, siempre debe confirmarse con exámenes más exhaustivos luego de un primer diagnóstico realizado por un profesional de la salud visual. Objetivo. Identificar las características de los estrabismos incomitantes, formas de diagnóstico, clasificación y factores para poder manejarlos específicamente y mejorar el pronóstico del caso. Metodología. Se realizó una síntesis de la información disponible de literatura sobre el estrabismo incomitante a través de un análisis bibliográfico donde se empleó descriptores de búsqueda para lo cual se revisaron las bases de datos: Google académico y Proquest Prisma. Se realizó el análisis de referencias desde el año 2010 al 2020 y como resultado se obtuvieron 34 referencias que describen una clasificación de estrabismos, tipo de diagnóstico y tratamiento. Conclusión. Se considera fundamental aumentar la conciencia pública sobre el tema del diagnóstico temprano de afectaciones oculares para generar medidas de prevención que busquen atenuar la ocurrencia de esta alteración. Delimitar el tipo de estrabismo incomitante podría evitar consecuencias irreparables para el paciente.


Strabismus is an alteration of binocular vision, that is, the loss of parallelism of the visual axes. People suffering from strabismus have decreased visual depth and dimensionality perception. It is estimated that this ocular condition affects about 2 to 4% of the child population. The classification of strabismus and its very definition have been part of a worldwide debate for years. The age of onset, the angle of deviation, the deviating eye, and the magnitude of the angle in focusing distance as well; however, it should always be confirmed with more exhaustive examinations after a first diagnosis by an eye care professional. Objective. To identify the characteristics of incomitant strabismus, ways of diagnosis, classification and factors to be able to manage them specifically and improve the prognosis of the case. Methodology. A synthesis of the information available in the literature on incomitant strabismus was made through a bibliographic analysis using search descriptors for which the following databases were reviewed: Google Scholar and Proquest Prisma. The analysis of references from 2010 to 2020 was carried out and as a result 34 references were obtained describing a classification of strabismus, type of diagnosis and treatment. Conclusion. It is considered essential to increase public awareness on the issue of early diagnosis of ocular disorders in order to generate preventive measures that seek to mitigate the occurrence of this disorder. Delimiting the type of incomitant strabismus could avoid irreparable consequences for the patient.


O estrabismo é um distúrbio da visão binocular, ou seja, a perda do paralelismo dos eixos visuais. As pessoas que sofrem de estrabismo têm uma percepção de profundidade e dimensionalidade visual reduzida. Estima-se que essa condição ocular afete cerca de 2 a 4% da população infantil. A classificação do estrabismo e sua própria definição têm sido parte de um debate mundial há anos. A idade de início, o ângulo de desvio, o olho desviado e a magnitude do ângulo na distância de focalização também; no entanto, devem sempre ser confirmados por exames adicionais após um primeiro diagnóstico feito por um oftalmologista. Objetivo. Identificar as características do estrabismo incomitante, as formas de diagnóstico, a classificação e os fatores para poder tratá-los especificamente e melhorar o prognóstico do caso. Metodologia. Foi feita uma síntese das informações disponíveis na literatura sobre estrabismo incomitante por meio de uma análise bibliográfica usando descritores de pesquisa para os quais foram revisados os seguintes bancos de dados: Google Scholar e Proquest Prisma. A análise das referências de 2010 a 2020 foi realizada e, como resultado, foram obtidas 34 referências que descrevem a classificação do estrabismo, o tipo de diagnóstico e o tratamento. Conclusões. Considera-se essencial aumentar a conscientização pública sobre a questão do diagnóstico precoce de distúrbios oculares para gerar medidas preventivas que busquem mitigar a ocorrência desse distúrbio. Delimitar o tipo de estrabismo incomitante poderia evitar consequências irreparáveis para o paciente.


Subject(s)
Vision, Binocular
2.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 382-387, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009369

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the virtual reality-pattern visual evoked potential (VR-PVEP) P100 waveform characteristics of monocular visual impairment with different impaired degrees under simultaneous binocular perception and monocular stimulations.@*METHODS@#A total of 55 young volunteers with normal vision (using decimal recording method, far vision ≥0.8 and near vision ≥0.5) were selected to simulate three groups of monocular refractive visual impairment by interpolation method. The sum of near and far vision ≤0.2 was Group A, the severe visual impairment group; the sum of near and far vision <0.8 was Group B, the moderate visual impairment group; and the sum of near and far vision ≥0.8 was Group C, the mild visual impairment group. The volunteers' binocular normal visions were set as the control group. The VR-PVEP P100 peak times measured by simultaneous binocular perception and monocular stimulation were compared at four spatial frequencies 16×16, 24×24, 32×32 and 64×64.@*RESULTS@#In Group A, the differences between P100 peak times of simulant visual impairment eyes and simultaneous binocular perception at 24×24, 32×32 and 64×64 spatial frequencies were statistically significant (P<0.05); and the P100 peak time of normal vision eyes at 64×64 spatial frequency was significantly different from the simulant visual impairment eyes (P<0.05). In Group B, the differences between P100 peak times of simulant visual impairment eyes and simultaneous binocular perception at 16×16, 24×24 and 64×64 spatial frequencies were statistically significant (P<0.05); and the P100 peak time of normal vision eyes at 64×64 spatial frequency was significantly different from the simulant visual impairment eyes (P<0.05). In Group C, there was no significant difference between P100 peak times of simulant visual impairment eyes and simultaneous binocular perception at all spatial frequencies (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the P100 peak times measured at all spatial frequencies between simulant visual impairment eyes and simultaneous binocular perception in the control group (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#VR-PVEP can be used for visual acuity evaluation of patients with severe and moderate monocular visual impairment, which can reflect the visual impairment degree caused by ametropia. VR-PVEP has application value in the objective evaluation of visual function and forensic clinical identification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Vision, Ocular , Vision, Binocular/physiology , Vision Disorders/diagnosis , Virtual Reality
3.
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 206-210, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928889

ABSTRACT

Aiming at the medical service robot used in the indoor environment, this study proposes a method to test the pose accuracy of its working surface based on the binocular vision system. This method uses a binocular vision coordinate system to measure targets fixed on the working surface of the service robot, aligns the measurement system with the robot base coordinate system through the nonlinear least squares method, and integrates the multi-eye image data to achieve the accuracy test of the working surface. Finally, the vision test program was tested and verified on a mobile service robot model ABIR X8. According to the accuracy index given in GB/T 38124 Service Robot Performance Test Method, the test results of its pose accuracy were obtained.


Subject(s)
Optical Devices , Robotics , Vision, Binocular
4.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(5): 302-308, set.-out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137988

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: Study aimed to determine compliance of patients with strabismic amblyopia undergoing occlusion treatment, followed from January 1 st, 2011 to January 1 st, 2017 at an Ophthalmology Reference Center, and identify risk factors for poor compliance. Methods: Retrospective, consecutive cohort study. Compliance reported at each visit was related to visual acuity, family history, changes in occlusion schedules and in patients' care team during treatment. The patients were divided into two groups according to the compliance: poor compliance group and compliance group (subdivided in full compliance subgroup and partial compliance subgroup). Results: Age at treatment beginning vary from 3.7 to 13.7 years, esotropia was the most frequent deviation and the occlusion was realized from 5 to 7 hours a day. Of 220 patients, compliance was achieved by 193 (87.7%), 114 (51.8%) in full compliance subgroup and 79 (35.9%) in partial compliance subgroup, and 27 do not achieved compliance (12.3%). Poor compliance was significantly related to a history of epilepsy, higher rate of suspension of treatment due to inefficacy, higher evasion rate, lower recurrence, and lower rate of maintenance of prophylactic occlusion after treatment. Good compliance was related to family history of strabismus, higher recurrence rate, and higher maintenance of prophylactic occlusion after treatment. No relations were found between poor compliance and changes in occlusion schedules or in patients' care team during treatment. Conclusion: Compliance with occlusion treatment of strabismic ambliopia was similar to other studies that included refractive and strabismic amblyopia and not related to changes in occlusion schedules or in patients' care team during treatment. Family history of strabismus was a protective factor.


Resumo Objetivo: Determinar a adesão de pacientes com ambliopia estrabísmica submetidos a tratamento oclusivo, acompanhados em Centro de Referência em Oftalmologia do Centro-Oeste do Brasil, e identificar fatores de risco para baixa adesão. Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo e consecutivo. A adesão relatada em cada visita foi relacionada à acuidade visual, história familiar, mudanças no tempo de oclusão e na equipe de atendimento ao paciente durante o tratamento. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a adesão: grupo de não-adesão e grupo adesão (subdividido em subgrupo adesão total e subgrupo adesão parcial). Resultados: A idade ao início do tratamento variou de 3,7 a 13,7 anos, o desvio mais frequente foi a esotropia, o tempo médio de oclusão foi de 5 a 7 horas por dia. Dos 220 pacientes, 193 (87,7%) obtiveram adesão, 114 (51,8%) no subgrupo de adesão total e 79 (35,9%) no subgrupo de adesão parcial, e 27 não aderiram (12,3%). A não-adesão foi relacionada à história de epilepsia, maior taxa de suspensão do tratamento devido à ineficácia, maior taxa de evasão, menor recorrência e menor taxa de manutenção da oclusão profilática pós tratamento. A boa adesão foi relacionada à história familiar de estrabismo, maior taxa de recorrência e maior manutenção da oclusão profilática pós tratamento. Não houve relação entre não-adesão e mudanças nos horários de oclusão ou na equipe de atendimento durante o tratamento. Conclusão: A adesão ao tratamento oclusivo da ambliopia estrabísmica foi semelhante aos estudos que incluíram ambliopia refracional e estrabísmica e não se correlacionou a mudanças no tempo de oclusão ou na equipe de atendimento. A história familiar de estrabismo foi um fator de proteção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Vision Disorders/therapy , Vision, Binocular , Amblyopia/therapy , Strabismus/therapy , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies
5.
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 13-19, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942688

ABSTRACT

In robot-assisted eye surgery, such as retinal vascular bypass surgery, precise positioning of operating points is required. In this study, a binocular vision-based 3D reconstruction method is proposed to locate the incision points on retinal vessels. Vessels in the image were extracted by CLAHE algorithm to remove the influence of background, then stereo matching was performed. Finally, the retinal vessel image was reconstructed by using the principle of parallax in binocular vision. Experimental results show that this method can accurately locate the incision points on retinal vessels and meet the requirements of ophthalmic surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Algorithms , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Vision, Binocular
6.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 325-332, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766594

ABSTRACT

Strabismus is a pathologic condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other forming different images on the corresponding retinal points. Early diagnosis and appropriate management of strabismus in the sensitive period of visual maturation is critical for the development of normal binocular vision in children. Therefore, it is important to perform ophthalmologic examinations including cycloplegic refraction and ocular alignment as early as possible to detect risk factors for amblyopia and strabismus. Strabismus could also be a sign of intraocular pathology, brain diseases or myasthenia gravis which may require urgent treatment. Strabismus can be treated by surgical and non-surgical methods. The first step in the management of strabismus is to correct amblyogenic refractive errors and prescribe glasses if necessary. Bifocal lenses, prism glasses, occlusion therapy, and botulinum toxin injection could also be considered. Surgery is usually performed if non-surgical treatments are unsuccessful. Making an accurate diagnosis and setting practical goals and limitations of treatment is the key to success in the treatment of strabismus.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Amblyopia , Botulinum Toxins , Brain Diseases , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Eyeglasses , Glass , Myasthenia Gravis , Pathology , Refractive Errors , Retinaldehyde , Risk Factors , Strabismus , Vision, Binocular
7.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1266535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown a correlation between reading problems and binocular function, but few studies have assessed visual skills in dyslexic students, particularly in Iranian Farsi-language students. This study is aimed to determine some of the binocular functions of dyslexic children and compare it with a group of age, sex, and social class-matched control children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a case­control study on 27 dyslexic children and 40 age, sex, and social class-matched control children (all between 7 and 13 years old) in grades one to six. This study was performed at three elementary schools in Tehran, Iran. Monocular and binocular near point of accommodation (NPA) were measured using the subjective push-up method, near point of convergence (NPC) was determined using the standard push-up technique, and stereoacuity was tested with the Titmus stereotypes in all of the children. RESULTS: Mean NPA of the right eye was 6.90 cm in dyslexic group and 5.98 cm in the control group (P = 0. 003). Mean NPA of the left eye in dyslexic children was 7.32 cm and in the control group was 6.23 cm (P = 0. 003). Mean binocular NPA was 6.66 cm in dyslexic and 6 cm in the control group (P = 0. 049). However, mean NPC (P = 0.33) and mean stereoacuity (P = 0.785) did not differ significantly between the dyslexic and control groups. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed a reduced monocular and binocular NPA in dyslexic children so that this function should be assessed by an optometric clinician in children with dyslexia


Subject(s)
Adult , Anthropometry , Dyslexia , Educational Status , Nigeria , Refraction, Ocular , Vision, Binocular
8.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 76(5): 242-246, Sept.-Oct. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899085

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Investigar a prevalência de desconforto visual e insuficiência de convergência (IC) em docentes universitários. Métodos: Tratar-se de um estudo transversal, com 60 docentes de ambos os sexos, tendo sido utilizado o questionário Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey, validado para a população brasileira. Resultados: Dos docentes entrevistados 55,0% eram do sexo feminino. 48,3% responderam dedicar menos que duas horas por dia à leitura, sendo que 40,0% dos entrevistados disseram que fazem pausas de 30 minutos à uma hora durante a leitura e 63,3% afirmaram passar entre 2 a 5 horas por dia em frente ao computador. Em relação à investigação sobre as doenças do sistema visual, 25,0% relataram apresentar miopia, sendo que 55,0% dos indivíduos usam óculos e destes 41,7% o usam com frequência. Quanto à investigação da prevalência de insuficiência de convergência, obteve-se frequência de (1,8) %. Conclusão: Constatou-se que a maioria dos entrevistados se apresentou com desconforto visual e uma pequena porcentagem foram acometidos pela IC.


Abstract Objective: To investigate the prevalence of visual discomfort and convergence failure in professors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done, consisting of 60 teachers of both sexes, of the Centro Universitário FAG, which used the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey, validated for the Brazilian population. Results: Of those surveyed 55.0% are female. 48.3% respondents spend less than two hours a day reading, with 40.0% of respondents said they do 30-minute breaks for one hour during reading and 63.3% said they spend between 2-5 hours a day in front of the computer. With regard to research on diseases of the visual system, 25.0% reported having myopia, with 55.0% of individuals use these glasses and 41.7% use it frequently. The research of the prevalence of convergence insufficiency, gave an average of 12.4(1.8) %. Conclusion: It was found that most respondents presented with visual discomfort and small percentages were affected by CI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Ocular Motility Disorders/epidemiology , Asthenopia/epidemiology , Convergence, Ocular , Faculty , Universities , Vision, Binocular , Visual Acuity , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interviews as Topic , Surveys and Questionnaires , Accommodation, Ocular
9.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 29(4): 674-687, oct.-dic. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845051

ABSTRACT

Aunque los tratamientos predominantes de la ambliopía son monoculares, estos tienen poca aceptación y baja efectividad en el restablecimiento de la combinación binocular. Numerosas evidencias apoyan la idea de que la ambliopía es en esencia un problema binocular y que la supresión juega un papel clave. En esta revisión se exponen dos estrategias para el tratamiento binocular de la ambliopía basado en la realidad virtual; la primera con el objetivo primario de mejorar la agudeza visual y la segunda con el propósito de mejorar las funciones binoculares a través de la reducción de la supresión. Este enfoque binocular expone al paciente a condiciones artificiales de visión con estímulos dicópticos en imágenes relacionadas. Los estudios clínicos realizados, tanto en niños como adultos, reportan mejorías de la agudeza visual y la estereopsia en un tiempo muy inferior al requerido por la oclusión. Los resultados clínicos sugieren que un enfoque binocular que combine ambas estrategias puede utilizarse como complemento de los tratamientos clásicos y como alternativa en adultos y niños con historial de tratamientos fracasados o rechazados(AU)


Although predominant amblyopia treatments are monocular, they have poor compliance and low effectiveness in re-establishing binocular combination. There are many evidences supporting the idea that amblyopia is essentially a binocular problem and its suppression plays a key role. This review showed two binocular treatment strategies of amblyopia based in Virtual Reality. In the first one, the primary goal is to improve visual acuity whereas in the second one the purpose is to improve the binocular functions through reduction of suppression. In this binocular approach, the patient is exposed to artificial vision conditions with dichoptic stimuli in related images. Clinical studies in children and adults have reported improvements of visual acuity and stereopsis in less time than that required by occlusion. Clinical outcomes suggest that a binocular approach with a combination of both strategies can be used as a supplement to classic treatment and as an alternative in adults and children with history of failed or rejected treatments(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Amblyopia/therapy , Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy/methods , Vision, Binocular , Visual Acuity
10.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 29(1): 0-0, ene.-mar. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-781208

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: describir los resultados quirúrgicos y la obtención de fusión y estereopsia en operados de esotropía congénita, después de cuatro años de seguimiento y su relación con el ángulo de desviación preoperatorio y la edad al momento de la primera cirugía. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo de una serie de casos, operados de esotropía congénita desde el año 2007 al 2010, seguidos durante cuatro años por consulta en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología Ramón Pando Ferrer. Se analizaron las variables edad al diagnóstico, ángulo de desviación preoperatorio y posoperatorio, edad al momento de la primera cirugía, presencia de fusión, estereopsia y desarrollo de ambliopía. Resultados: el ángulo de desviación preoperatorio promedio de los pacientes estudiados fue de 39,8 dioptrías y la media de la edad al momento de la primera cirugía fue 22,5 meses (DE 9,2). La media de supervivencia del alineamiento ocular fue de 39,3 meses, y fue superior en los pacientes con un ángulo de desviación preoperatorio menor de 40 dioptrías y con menos de 24 meses de edad al momento de la primera cirugía (p= 0,001). Presentaban fusión y estereopsia a los 4 años el 57,7 y el 26,9 por ciento de los pacientes. La media del número de cirugía fue de 1,42 (DE ± 0,504) a los 4 años. La causa más frecuente de segunda cirugía fue la hiperfunción del oblicuo inferior (19,2 por ciento). Conclusiones: la presencia de fusión y de estereopsia a los 4 años de evolución es mayor en aquellos pacientes con menor ángulo de desviación preoperatoria y con menos de 2 años de edad a la primera cirugía(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Depth Perception/genetics , Esotropia/congenital , Esotropia/surgery , Vision, Binocular/genetics , Amblyopia/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , Strabismus/surgery
11.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 75(1): 34-39, jan.-fev. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771114

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar e analisar fatores de risco associados ao estrabismo, dados oftalmológicos e antecedentes pessoais e familiares. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo, descritivo e analítico realizado com 240 pacientes que consultaram pela primeira vez nos ambulatórios de estrabismo. Foram avaliadas a frequência e associação entre estrabismo, dados de exames oftalmológicos e antecedentes pessoais e familiares para identificação dos fatores de risco. Resultados: Observou-se maior prevalência de estrabismo em mulheres (56,96%) em relação aos homens (43,02%). A faixa etária mais atendida no ambulatório de estrabismo foi composta de crianças até 15 anos de idade (83,54%). Encontrou-se mais esotropia (55,27%) que exotropia (42,20%) e parcela menor de estrabismo vertical isolado (2,53%). A prematuridade foi associada ao estrabismo convergente (p=0,023) e não ao divergente (p=0,086). O diabetes mellitus materno foi associado à esotropia (p=0,024) e exotropia (p=0,036) no filho, mas a hipertensão arterial materna, uso de medicamentos para hipertensão e diabetes durante a gravidez e drogas ilícitas não foram estatisticamente significativos. Pacientes com paralisia cerebral tiveram mais associação com exotropia (p=0,008) que esotropia (p=0,019). Malformações congênitas, consanguinidade entre os pais e traumas oculares não apresentaram associação estatisticamente significativa para o estrabismo. A maioria dos pacientes com estrabismo apresentou boa acuidade visual corrigida e fundoscopia normal. Na análise de proporções a hipermetropia foi mais frequente na esotropia (68,7%). Conclusão: Os fatores de riscos internos e externos podem interferir na formação e desenvolvimento do olho na fase de plasticidade ocular, com prejuízo da binocularidade visual, podendo resultar em estrabismo. Há divergências com relação aos fatores de risco realmente associados e mais estudos são necessários para a identificação.


ABSTRACT Objective: To identify and analyze risk factors associated with strabismus, the eye data and personal and family history. Methods: A prospective, descriptive and analytical study, with 240 patients who consulted for the first time in strabismus clinics. We evaluated the frequency and association between strabismus and data eye examination and personal and family history to identify risk factors. Results: There was a higher prevalence of strabismus in women (56.96%) compared to men (43.02%). The age group most satisfied in strabismus clinic are children up to 15 years of age (83.54%). Met more esotropia (55.27%) than exotropia (42.20%) and lower portion of isolated vertical strabismus (2.53%). Preterm birth was associated with convergent strabismus (p = 0.023) but not the diverging (p = 0.086). Maternal diabetes mellitus was associated with esotropia (p = 0.024) and exotropia (p = 0.036) on the child, but the mother’s high blood pressure, medications for hypertension and diabetes during pregnancy and illicit drugs was not statistically significant. Patients with cerebral palsy association with exotropes had more (p = 0.008) which esotropia (p = 0.019). Congenital malformations, consanguinity between parents and ocular trauma showed no statistically significant association for strabismus. Most patients with strabismus showed good visual acuity, normal fundus. In the analysis of proportions farsightedness was more common in esotropia (68.7%). Conclusions: Internal and external risk factors can interfere in the formation and development of the eye in eye plasticity phase with impaired visual binocularity and may result in strabismus. There are differences with respect to risk factors associated truly and more studies are needed to identify.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Vision, Binocular/physiology , Strabismus/etiology , Strabismus/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Unified Health System , Visual Acuity , Esotropia , Exotropia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Eye Movements
12.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 1656-1660, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199942

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of tamoxifen-induced retinopathy diagnosed using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). CASE SUMMARY: A 44-year-old female presented with metamorphopsia in the left eye and binocular vision loss which started 5 months prior. She had no record of external trauma, diabetes or high blood pressure; however, she had been taking 21.9 g tamoxifen (20 mg/day) since October 2012 after a surgery of her left breast due to cancer. On the initial visit, fundus photography showed crystalline dot-like deposits in both parafoveae. Additionally, fluorescence angiography revealed a small leakage around the macular area. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was obtained to differentiate from other diseases because fundus photography showed crystalline retinopathy. The OCT revealed a normal right eye but the left macula had a microcystic lesion. Based on the diagnosis of tamoxifen-induced retinopathy, the patient stopped taking tamoxifen. Three months after discontinuation of tamoxifen, fundus photography showed slightly decreased crystalline deposits in the parafoveal area and visual acuity of the right eye was slightly improved. However, SD-OCT showed a slightly aggravated disruption of the outer retina in both eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Although retinopathy caused by treatment with tamoxifen occurs infrequently, to prevent complications and irreversible damage, patients who take tamoxifen for medical purposes need to undergo a regular ophthalmologic examination.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Breast , Crystallins , Diagnosis , Fluorescein Angiography , Hypertension , Photography , Retina , Tamoxifen , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Vision Disorders , Vision, Binocular , Visual Acuity
13.
Rev. Investig. Salud. Univ. Boyacá ; 3(2): 127-145, 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-910674

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El cuestionario Convergence Insufficiency Symptoms Survey, (CISS-V15) es una herramienta para el diagnóstico y seguimiento del tratamiento de pacientes con insuficiencia de convergencia. Objetivo. Determinar la validez del cuestionario CISS-V15 para el diagnóstico de la insuficiencia de convergencia, frente a las pruebas clínicas con que se evalúa el estado motor ocular de los pacientes atendidos en consulta optométrica, en las ciudades de Recife y Salvador, Brasil. Métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio con enfoque cuantitativo, de tipo transversal y descriptivo, con 50 pacientes de dos instituciones educativas en Brasil. Se seleccionaron aquellos que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión para aplicar el cuestionario, y se identificaron los pacientes con insuficiencia de convergencia y aquellos con visión binocular normal. Se analizaron los resultados del cuestionario y las pruebas de motilidad ocular, para estimar medidas de tendencia central, y analizar los valores de sensibilidad y especificidad del cuestionario. Resultados. La prueba alcanzó una sensibilidad de 0,83 y una especificidad de 0,81. Conclusiones. Frente a las pruebas clínicas, el cuestionario CISS-V15 demostró tener validez diag-nóstica para las personas con insuficiencia de convergencia y aquellas con visión binocular normal, lo que lo convierte en una herramienta valiosa para el diagnóstico y seguimiento del tratamiento de los pacientes con insuficiencia de convergencia


Introduction: The Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey Questionnaire (CISS-V15) is a tool for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment of patients with convergence insufficiency. Objective: To determine the validity of the questionnaire CISS-V15 for the diagnosis of convergence insufficiency against clinical tests assessing the oculomotor state in optometric patients seen in con-sultation in the cities of Recife and Salvador, Brazil. Methods: A descriptive transversal study with a quantitative approach was conducted with 50 patients from two educational institutions in Brazil. Patients were selected from those that met the inclusion criteria for applying the questionnaire. Patients with convergence insufficiency and those with normal binocular vision were identified. The results of the questionnaire and ocular motility tests were analyzed to estimate central tendency measures and to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire. Results: The test had a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 0.81. Conclusions: Given the clinical test, the CISS-V15 questionnaire proved to be valid to classify individuals with convergence insufficiency, and those with normal binocular vision, which makes it a valuable tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of the treatment of patients with convergence insufficiency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ocular Motility Disorders , Asthenopia , Diplopia , Reproducibility of Results , Vision, Binocular
14.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 459-467, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160780

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to compare the magnitude and axis of astigmatism induced by a combined inferior oblique (IO) anterior transposition procedure with lateral rectus (LR) recession versus LR recession alone. METHODS: Forty-six patients were retrospectively analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups: those having concurrent inferior oblique muscle overaction (IOOA) and intermittent exotropia (group 1, 20 patients) and those having only intermittent exotropia as a control (group 2, 26 patients). Group 1 underwent combined anterior transposition of IO with LR recession and group 2 underwent LR recession alone. Induced astigmatism was defined as the difference between preoperative and postoperative astigmatism using double-angle vector analysis. Cylinder power, axis of induced astigmatism, and spherical equivalent were analyzed at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery. RESULTS: Larger changes in the axis of induced astigmatism were observed in group 1, with 4.5° incyclotorsion, than in group 2 at 1 week after surgery (axis, 84.5° vs. 91°; p < 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant inter-group difference thereafter. Relaxation and rapid regression in the incyclotorsion of induced astigmatism were observed over-time. Spherical equivalent significantly decreased postoperatively at 1 month in both groups, indicating a myopic shift (p = 0.011 for group 1 and p = 0.019 for group 2) but did not show significant differences at 3 months after surgery (p = 0.107 for group 1 and p = 0.760 for group 2). CONCLUSIONS: Combined IO anterior transposition procedures caused an increased change in the axis of induced astigmatism, including temporary incyclotorsion, during the first week after surgery. However, this significant difference was not maintained thereafter. Thus, combined IO surgery with LR recession does not seem to produce a sustained astigmatic change, which can be a potential risk factor of postoperative amblyopia or diplopia compared with LR recession alone.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Astigmatism/diagnosis , Exotropia/diagnosis , Eye Movements/physiology , Follow-Up Studies , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Vision, Binocular/physiology
15.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 48-52, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197514

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare postoperative exodrift of the first unilateral lateral rectus (ULR) muscle recession with the exodrift of the second contralateral ULR muscle recession in patients with recurrent small-angle exotropia (XT). METHODS: We evaluated the results of a second ULR muscle recession in 19 patients with recurrent XT with deviation angles under 25 prism diopter (PD), following a first procedure of ULR muscle recession for small-angle XT. Recession of the lateral rectus muscle ranged from 8 to 9 mm. The postoperative motor alignment and degree of exodrift were investigated after the first ULR muscle recession and the second ULR muscle recession in the same patients. RESULTS: Observed differences in postoperative ocular alignment between the first ULR muscle recession and the second ULR muscle recession were statistically significant at follow-up periods of six months (7.84 +/- 4.43 vs. 3.89 +/- 3.47 PD), one year (9.58 +/- 4.97 vs. 5.21 +/- 4.94 PD), and at a final follow-up (21.11 +/- 2.98 vs. 7.52 +/- 4.06 PD) after surgery (p = 0.006, 0.013, and 0.000). Postoperative exodrift was statistically different between the first and second ULR muscle recessions at three to six months (2.89 +/-3.75 vs. 0.63 +/- 3.45 PD) and one year to final follow-up (11.52 +/- 5.50 vs. 2.32 +/- 3.53 PD) (p = 0.034 and 0.000). All of the first ULR muscle recession patients showed XT with deviation angles of more than 15 PD at the final follow-up. Regardless, the surgical success rate (<8 PD) after the second ULR recession was 63.16% (12 patients) among the total amount of patients with recurrent XT. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that changes in exodrift after a second ULR muscle recession are less than changes after the first URL muscle recession among patients with recurrent XT. A second ULR muscle recession may be a useful surgery for small-angle XT patients with deviation angles of 25 PD or less after a first ULR muscle recession.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Exotropia/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Oculomotor Muscles/physiopathology , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Complications , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Vision, Binocular/physiology
16.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 60-65, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197512

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the long-term clinical course of intermittent exotropia after surgical treatment to determine whether and when postoperative exo-drift stabilizes, and the required postsurgery follow-up duration in cases of intermittent exotropia. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed with intermittent exotropia who underwent surgical treatment between January 1992 and January 2006 at Yeungnam University Hospital and postoperatively performed regular follow-up examinations for up to 7 years. We also analyzed the difference in exo-drift stabilization, according to surgical procedure. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients were enrolled in the study. Thirty-one patients underwent lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection (R&R) and 70 patients underwent bilateral lateral rectus recession (BLR). The postoperative angles of deviation increased significantly during the initial 36 months, but no subsequent significant changes were observed for up to 84 months. Follow-ups for 7 years revealed that more than 50% of the total amount of exo-drift was observed within the first postoperative year. In addition, the angles of deviation at 1 year correlated with those at 7 years postoperatively (Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.517, p < 0.001). No significant exo-drift was observed after 36 months in patients who underwent BLR, whereas after 18 months in patients who underwent R&R. CONCLUSIONS: The minimum postoperative follow-up required after surgical treatment to ensure stable results is 36 months. In particular, careful follow-up is necessary during the first postoperative year to detect rapid exo-drift. Patients who underwent BLR required a longer follow-up than those who underwent R&R to ensure stable postoperative alignment.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Exotropia/physiopathology , Follow-Up Studies , Oculomotor Muscles/physiopathology , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Complications/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Vision, Binocular/physiology , Visual Acuity/physiology
17.
São Paulo; s.n; 2015. [98] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-870927

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Aproximadamente 20% das crianças brasileiras em idade escolar apresentam algum problema oftalmológico e cerca de 95% dos distúrbios poderiam ser evitados ou minorados com promoção de saúde e assistência. A triagem visual é realizada por agentes comunitários de saúde, professores e alfabetizadores. Apesar do treinamento que os professores recebem, muitas crianças são dispensadas na triagem realizada nos serviços especializados e ainda existe um alto índice de absenteísmo, evidenciando-se a necessidade de melhorar a gestão dos recursos humanos e financeiros envolvidos no rastreamento visual e refrativo de escolares do ensino fundamental. OBJETIVOS: O estudo buscou comparar o rastreamento visual com corte de acuidade visual monocular, sem correção, <= 0,7, corte <= 0,6, medida de acuidade visual binocular e corte <= 0,7 e rastreamento refrativo com Spot Vision ScreeningTM PediaVision (SPOT). O segundo objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a performance do SPOT como auto-refrator. MÉTODOS: Durante o Projeto Visão do Futuro, ocorrido em 2012, no HCFMUSP, avaliamos 1554 crianças, que preencheram os critérios de inclusão do estudo e destas, 148 foram submetidas ao photoscreening. RESULTADOS: A adoção de corte <= 0,6 no rastreamento visual monocular reduziria em 29% o número de crianças encaminhadas para avaliação oftalmológica e a triagem binocular com corte <= 0,7 em 41,1%, porém 61 casos de ambliopia deixariam de ser diagnosticados. O SPOT apresentou sensibilidade em detectar erro refracional com necessidade de prescrição de 73,3% e especificidade de 93,18% e, em média, a diferença da refração do Spot com a refração clínica subjetiva foi de + 0,63 DE com -0,33 DC no eixo de 4°, para o olho direito de cada paciente. CONCLUSÕES: As mudanças de corte para 0,6 e binocular 0,7 reduzem consideravelmente o número de avaliações, porém, a última deixa de diagnosticar parcela importante das crianças amblíopes. O SPOT apresentou bons índices de...


BACKGROUND: Approximately 20% of brazilian children of school age have some eye problem and about 95% of the disorders could be prevented or reduced with health promotion and care. The visual screening is performed by community health agent and teachers. Despite training that teachers receive, many children are over-referred and also there's a high index of absence students, highlighting the need to improve the management of human and financial resources involved in visual and refractive screening of elementary school. PURPOSES: The present study aimed to compare visual screening by monocular visual acuity with cut-off of 0,7, 0,6, binocular visual acuity and cut-off 0,7 and photoscreening by Spot Vision ScreeningTM PediaVision (SPOT). The second objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Spot as auto-refractor. METHODS: During the Program "Visão do Futuro", in 2012, at HCFMUSP, 1554 children that met the inclusion criteria were examined, 148 of these were photoscreened. RESULTS: The adoption of cut-off <= 0.6 in monocular visual screening would reduce by 29% the number of children referred for ophthalmic evaluation and binocular screening with cutting <= 0.7 to 41.1%, however 61 cases of amblyopia would not be diagnosticated. SPOT had a sensitivity to detect refractive error requiring prescription of 73.3% and specificity of 93.18%. The mean difference between refraction obtained by Spot and clinical subjective refraction was of +0.63 SD combined with -0,33 CD in the 4° axis for right eye of each patient. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing cut-off in monocular visual acuity to 0.6 or 0.7 binocular considerably reduce the number of evaluations, however, the last leaves to diagnose significant portion of amblyopic children. The SPOT showed good levels of sensitivity and specificity in refractive screening of school children and refraction values obtained with this equipment are clinically similar to the values of subjective clinical refraction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Child , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological , Education, Primary and Secondary , Refraction, Ocular , Vision Screening , Vision, Binocular , Vision, Monocular , Visual Acuity
18.
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 166-169, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310246

ABSTRACT

To ensure the meridian can be measured and displayed correctly on the human body surface, a visualization method based on impedance and binocular vision is proposed. First of all, using alternating constant current source to inject current signal into the human skin surface, then according to the low impedance characteristics of meridian, the multi-channel detecting instrument detects voltage of each pair of electrodes, thereby obtaining the channel of the meridian location, through the serial port communication, data is transmitted to the host computer. Secondly, intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of cameras are obtained by Zhang's camera calibration method, and 3D information of meridian location is got by corner selection and matching of the optical target, and then transform coordinate of 3D information according to the binocular vision principle. Finally, using curve fitting and image fusion technology realizes the meridian visualization. The test results show that the system can realize real-time detection and accurate display of meridian.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calibration , Electric Impedance , Electrodes , Meridians , Vision, Binocular
19.
Rev. salud bosque ; 5(1): 33-42, 2015. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-772929

ABSTRACT

Estudio de casos prospectivo longitudinal, cuyo propósito es valorar los cambios de las condiciones binoculares, en pacientes diagnosticados con insuficiencia de convergencia, tras el tratamiento sugerido de ortóptica durante tres meses, con el fin de establecer el porcentaje de mejoría. Durante el desarrollo de esta investigación, se establecieron como criterios de inclusión: exoforia (X´) en visión próxima <20 Dioptrías prismáticas (Dpt), reservas fusiónales positivas (RFP) <15 Dpt, amplitud de acomodación baja (AA), punto próximo de convergencia (PPC) ≥6cm, acomodación relativa positiva (ARP) <2.50 y edades entre 18-25 años. Un total de 7 pacientes fueron incluidos; quienes firmaron el consentimiento informado. Inicialmente se valoró el estado oculomotor de cada paciente y respondieron la encuesta de síntomas pre-tratamiento; posteriormente fueron instruidos para realizar ejerciciosy/o terapia visual diarios en casa por 30 minutos. Una vez, finalizado el tratamiento, se tomaron medidas, las cuales evidenciaron cambios significativos en el PPC con luz ruptura/ recuperación (p = 0.0022) / (p = 0.0017); PPC con objeto real ruptura/ recuperación (p = 0.0040) / (p= 0.0017); reservas fusiónales positivas en visión próxima ruptura/ recobro (p = 0.0017) / (p = 0.0027). El 100% de los pacientes presentaron una ruptura ≤6cm y una recuperación de 7 ±3,6 cm en el PPC con luz; con objeto real el 71,4% presento una ruptura ≤ 6cm y una recuperación de 9 ±1,2 cm; las RFP incrementaron en el 85,7% siendo esta ≥15Δ en ruptura y una recuperación ≥15Δ en el 71,4% y en la encuesta el 48% de los pacientes reportaron mejoría de sus síntomas. Con lo anterior, se puede concluir que el tratamiento sugerido de ortoptica, presentó cambios y mejoras significativas de los signos clínicos los cuales se acompañan de una reducción de síntomas, los que permiten mejoras en la calidad de vida de los jóvenes universitarios y el restablecimiento de las condiciones binoculares.


Prospective longitudinal study of cases, the purpose is evaluate the changes in binocular conditions, in patients diagnosed with convergence insufficiency after orthoptic suggested treatment for three months, with the objective of determine the percentage of improvement. During the development of this investigation, were established as inclusion criteria: exophoria (X) in near vision <20 prism diopters (DPT), positive fusional reserves (RFP) <15 Dpt, low amplitude accommodation (AA), next point Convergence (CPP) ≥6cm, positive relative accommodation (PRA) low and ages 18-25 years. A total of 7 patients were included; They signed the informed consent. Initially the oculomotor status of each patient were evaluated and respondents survey of pretreatment symptoms; then they were instructed to perform exercises and / or vision therapy daily at home for 30 minutes.. Once treatment is completed, measures were taken, which showed significant changes in the PPC with break light / recovery (p = 0.0022) / (p = 0.0017); PPC real object breakdown / recovery (p = 0.0040) / (p = 0.0017); positive fusional reserves near sighted ness breakdown / recovery (p = 0.0017) / (p = 0.0027). 100% of patients had a breakdown and recovery ≤6cm 7 ± 3.6 cm in the PPC with light; real object with 71.4% showed a break ≤ 6cm and a recovery of 9 ± 1.2 cm; RFPs increased by 85.7% this being ≥15Δ in breaking ≥15Δ recovery and 71.4% in the survey and 48% of patients reported improvement in their symptoms. With this, one can conclude that the treatment suggested orthotopic, introduced significant changes and improvements in the clinical signs which are accompanied by a reduction in symptoms, which allow improvements in the quality of life in college students and restoring binocular conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Orthoptics , Vision Tests , Ocular Motility Disorders , Vision, Binocular , Colombia
20.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 411-417, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55928

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to compare the surgical outcomes and near stereoacuities after unilateral medial rectus (MR) muscle resection and lateral rectus (LR) recession according to deviation angle in basic intermittent exotropia, X(T). METHODS: Ninety patients with basic type X(T) were included in this study. They underwent unilateral recession of the LR and resection of the MR and were followed postoperatively for at least 12 months. Patients were divided into three groups according to their preoperative deviation angle: group 1 or =40 PD. Surgical outcomes and near stereoacuities one year after surgery were evaluated. Surgical success was defined as having a deviation angle range within +/-10 PD for both near and distance fixation. RESULTS: Among 90 patients, groups 1, 2, and 3 included 30 patients each. The mean age in groups 1, 2, and 3 was 9.4 years, 9.4 years, and 11.0 years, respectively. The surgical success rates one year after surgery for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 80.0%, 73.3%, and 73.3% (chi-square test, p = 0.769), respectively. The undercorrection rates for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 16.7%, 23.3%, and 26.7%, and the overcorrection rates were 3.3%, 3.3%, and 0%, respectively. The mean preoperative near stereoacuities for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 224.3 arcsec, 302.0 arcsec, and 1,107.3 arcsec, and the mean postoperative near stereoacuities were 218.3 arcsec, 214.7 arcsec, and 743.0 arcsec (paired t-test; p = 0.858, p = 0.379, p = 0.083), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In basic X(T) patients, the amount of angle deviation has no influence on surgical outcomes in unilateral LR recession and MR resection. The near stereoacuities by one year after LR recession and MR resection for intermittent X(T) were not different among patient groups separated by preoperative deviation angle.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Exotropia/physiopathology , Follow-Up Studies , Oculomotor Muscles/physiopathology , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Vision, Binocular/physiology , Visual Acuity/physiology
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