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1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 166-180, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929081

ABSTRACT

Neuroscientists have emphasized visceral influences on consciousness and attention, but the potential neurophysiological pathways remain under exploration. Here, we found two neurophysiological pathways of heart-brain interaction based on the relationship between oxygen-transport by red blood cells (RBCs) and consciousness/attention. To this end, we collected a dataset based on the routine physical examination, the breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS) paradigm, and an attention network test (ANT) in 140 immigrants under the hypoxic Tibetan environment. We combined electroencephalography and multilevel mediation analysis to investigate the relationship between RBC properties and consciousness/attention. The results showed that RBC function, via two independent neurophysiological pathways, not only triggered interoceptive re-representations in the insula and awareness connected to orienting attention but also induced an immune response corresponding to consciousness and executive control. Importantly, consciousness played a fundamental role in executive function which might be associated with the level of perceived stress. These results indicated the important role of oxygen-transport in heart-brain interactions, in which the related stress response affected consciousness and executive control. The findings provide new insights into the neurophysiological schema of heart-brain interactions.


Subject(s)
Awareness , Brain , Consciousness , Humans , Oxygen , Visual Perception
2.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369961

ABSTRACT

Este artigo objetiva refletir sobre as percepções de professores de Educação Física acerca das contribuições de um núcleo de estudos, oferecido no âmbito de uma especialização em educação na cultura digital, para a sua prática pedagógica. Os dados produzidos para este estudo de caso de caráter qualitativo são oriundos de entrevistas semiestruturadas realizadas com 10 professores/cursistas. Para análise dos dados foi utilizada a análise de conteúdo. Os resultados versam sobre uma melhor compreensão acerca de como utilizar as tecnologias, aquisição de maior segurança para planejar, maior entendimento sobre as relações entre Educação Física e cultura digital, além das possibilidades de trabalho coletivo nas escolas, o que reforça a importância de se investir na formação continuada (AU).


This article aims to reflect on the perceptions of Physical Education teachers about the contributions of a study core, offered within the scope of a specialization in education in digital culture, for their pedagogical practice. The data produced for this qualitative case study come from semi-structured interviews conducted with 10 teachers / course participants. For data analysis, content analysis was used. The results are about a better understanding of how to use technologies, acquisition of greater security for planning, greater understanding of the relationships between Physical Education and digital culture, in addition to the possibilities of collective work in schools; which reinforces the importance of investing in continuing education (AU).


Este artículo tiene como objetivo reflexionar sobre las percepciones de los docentes de Educación Física sobre las contribuciones de un grupo de estudio, ofrecido dentro del alcance de una especialización en educación en cultura digital, para su práctica pedagógica. Los datos producidos para este estudio de caso cualitativo provienen de entrevistas semiestructuradas realizadas con 10 profesores / participantes del curso. Para el análisis de datos, se utilizó el análisis de contenido. Los resultados son sobre una mejor comprensión de cómo utilizar las tecnologías, la adquisición de una mayor seguridad para la planificación, una mayor comprensión de las relaciones entre la educación física y la cultura digital, además de las posibilidades de trabajo colectivo en las escuelas; lo que refuerza la importancia de invertir en educación continua (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Physical Education and Training , Visual Perception , Education, Continuing , Professional Training , Digital Technology/education , Schools , Faculty
3.
Ciênc. cogn ; 26(2): 349-359, 31 dez. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353871

ABSTRACT

A pesquisa sobre percepção de cenas é um esforço da comunidade científica em superar as dificuldades apresentadas ao estudo de estímulos complexos. As consistentes descobertas provaram a viabilidade do tema e encorajam uma abordagem mais holística e integrada nas investigações em percepção visual. Esse esforço e seus achados são, entretanto, pouco conhecidos pelos leitores em língua portuguesa e, até mesmo, entre alguns especialistas que se interessam pelo tema. O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer uma apresentação do campo, esboçar seu desenvolvimento, identificar suas principais questões e demonstrar sua pertinência e importância. Para isso, uma revisão seletiva de textos foi executada entre os autores que construíram os fundamentos da percepção de cenas. Ao concluir a leitura, espera-se que o leitor constate o papel relevante dos processos mnemônicos e do sujeito que observa no processo de captação visual do ambiente natural.


Scene perception research is a scientific community effort to overcome difficulties presented to the study of complex stimuli. Consistent findings support feasibility of the theme and encourage a more holistic and integrated approach to visual perception research. This effort and its findings are, however, poorly known by readers in Portuguese language, even among experts interested in the subject. The purpose of this paper is to introduce this field of research, outline its development, identify its main issues and demonstrate its relevance and importance. This task was accomplished by a selective review of papers from authors who built the foundations of scene perception. Upon completion of the reading, it is expected that the reader understands the relevant role of mnemonic processes and of the observer in the process of visual capture of natural environments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Space Perception/physiology , Visual Perception/physiology , Visual Fields/physiology
4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(11): 1026-1034, Nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350131

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Verticality misperception is relatively common among patients after stroke, and it may be evaluated in terms of (a) subjective visual vertical (SVV), (b) subjective haptic vertical (SHV) and (c) subjective postural vertical (SPV). To better understand these assessment methods, we conducted a systematic review of the methodological characteristics of different protocols for evaluating SVV, SHV and SPV among individuals after stroke. Objective: To standardize the methodological characteristics of protocols for evaluating verticality perception after stroke. Methods: We searched the following databases: PUBMED, regional BVS portal (MEDLINE, LILACS, IBECS, CUBMED, Psychology Index and LIS), CINAHL, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane Library and PEDro. Two review authors independently used the QUADAS method (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) and extracted data. Results: We included 21 studies in the review: most (80.9%) used SVV, eight (38.1%) used SPV and four (19.0%) used SHV. We observed high variability in assessments of verticality perception, due to patient positions, devices used, numbers of repetitions and angle of inclination for starting the tests. Conclusion: This systematic review was one of the first to explore all the methods of assessing verticality perception after stroke, and it provides crucial information on how to perform the tests, in order to guide future researchers/clinicians.


Resumo Antecedentes: A percepção errônea da verticalidade é relativamente comum em pacientes após Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC) e pode ser avaliada pelas: (a) vertical visual subjetiva (SVV), (b) vertical háptica subjetiva (SVH) e (c) vertical postural subjetiva (SPV). Para melhor compreender esses métodos de avaliação, realizamos uma revisão sistemática das características metodológicas de diferentes protocolos para avaliações de SVV, SHV e SVP em indivíduos após AVC. Objetivo: Padronizar as características metodológicas de protocolos de avaliação da verticalidade após AVC. Métodos: Foi realizada busca nas bases de dados PUBMED, Portal Regional da BVS (MEDLINE, LILACS, IBECS, CUBMED, Psychology Index, LIS), CINAHL, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Science Direct, Biblioteca Cochrane e PEDro. Dois revisores avaliaram independentemente o QUADAS (Avaliação da Qualidade dos Estudos de Precisão de Diagnóstico) e extraíram os resultados. Resultados: Foram incluídos 21 estudos: a maioria (80,9%) utilizando a SVV, oito (38,1%) a SPV e quatro (19,0%) a SHV. Observou-se grande variabilidade na avaliação da verticalidade, devido às posições dos pacientes, dispositivos utilizados, número de repetições e ângulo de inclinação para iniciar os testes. Conclusão: Esta revisão sistemática é uma das primeiras a explorar todos os métodos de avaliação da verticalidade após o AVC e fornece informações cruciais sobre como realizar os testes para orientar os futuros pesquisadores e clínicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Visual Perception , Stroke , Posture , Space Perception
5.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1454-1468, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922640

ABSTRACT

Visual object recognition in humans and nonhuman primates is achieved by the ventral visual pathway (ventral occipital-temporal cortex, VOTC), which shows a well-documented object domain structure. An on-going question is what type of information is processed in the higher-order VOTC that underlies such observations, with recent evidence suggesting effects of certain visual features. Combining computational vision models, fMRI experiment using a parametric-modulation approach, and natural image statistics of common objects, we depicted the neural distribution of a comprehensive set of visual features in the VOTC, identifying voxel sensitivities with specific feature sets across geometry/shape, Fourier power, and color. The visual feature combination pattern in the VOTC is significantly explained by their relationships to different types of response-action computation (fight-or-flight, navigation, and manipulation), as derived from behavioral ratings and natural image statistics. These results offer a comprehensive visual feature map in the VOTC and a plausible theoretical explanation as a mapping onto different types of downstream response-action systems.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Mapping , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Occipital Lobe , Pattern Recognition, Visual , Photic Stimulation , Temporal Lobe , Visual Pathways/diagnostic imaging , Visual Perception
6.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 26: e2427, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350150

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Na perspectiva de se trabalhar o aprimoramento da fala de crianças com surdez, a atuação fonoaudiológica busca novas ferramentas condizentes com o cenário tecnológico atual, utilizando-se de aplicativos tecnológicos no auxílio de suas intervenções, pois os jogos digitais, além de estimular a percepção visual, favorecem momentos interativos como etapas do processo de aprendizagem. O presente estudo se propôs a analisar estratégias terapêuticas mediadas pelo uso de software na reabilitação das habilidades vocais e articulatórias de fala de crianças com surdez, usuárias de implante coclear. Tratou-se de pesquisa do tipo estudo de caso com três crianças, realizada por meio do levantamento de prontuário; avaliação da voz e da articulação e análise acústica das produções vocais das vogais [a], [i] e [u] e dos sons oclusivos [p] e [b]; aplicação do jogo digital VoxTraining para aprimoramento de aspectos vocais e de fala, realizada em cinco sessões terapêuticas. Observou-se que todas as crianças tiveram diagnóstico de perda auditiva e início de reabilitação tardios, estavam em fase de aquisição da Língua Brasileira de Sinais como língua materna e apresentavam alterações vocais e articulatórias. Os resultados sugerem que os participantes se interessaram pelo software devido às solicitações de repetição dos jogos e estes contribuíram para melhor entendimento sobre o exercício vocal e articulatório realizado, devido ao estímulo do feedback visual. Conclui-se que o trabalho com crianças surdas utilizando jogos digitais facilitam a terapia e proporcionam melhora na qualidade da voz e da fala.


ABSTRACT From the perspective of working on the improving the speech of deaf children, the speech therapy action, when seeking new tools beffitting the current technological scenario, can use technological applications to help its interventions with deaf children, because digital games, besides stimulating visual perception, favors interactive moments as phases of the learning process. The present study aimed to analyze therapeutic strategies mediated by the use of software in the rehabilitation of vocal and articulatory speech skills of deaf children using cochlear implants. It is a case study of three deaf children was carried out through the survey of medical records; evaluation of the voice and articulation and acoustic analysis of the vocal productions of the vowels [a], [i], [u], and of the occlusive sounds [p], [b]; and application of the digital game VoxTraining to improve vocal and speech aspects performed in five therapeutic sessions. It was observed that all children were diagnosed with hearing los and early rehabilitation. The children are also in the process of acquiring the Brazilian Sign Language as their mother tongue and presents vocal and articulatory speech alterations. The results suggest that the participants were interested in the software due to the request for repetition of the games by the children, and this fact contributed to a better understanding of the vocal and articulatory exercise to be performed due to the contribution of visual feedback. It was concluded that bilingual work with deaf children using digital games facilitates therapy and improves voice quality and speech.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Play and Playthings , Software , Cochlear Implantation/rehabilitation , Deafness/therapy , Language Therapy , Speech Therapy , Visual Perception , Voice Quality , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences , Learning
7.
CoDAS ; 33(6): e20200209, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286137

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar e classificar escolares disléxicos visuais, considerando que, subtipos de dislexia do desenvolvimento não são diferenciados na maioria dos diagnósticos e que os mesmos incidem em uma abordagem generalizada. Método Estudo transversal, observacional, analítico composto de 80 escolares, divididos em dois grupos, GA (disléxicos) e GB (sem queixa de dificuldade de aprendizagem) aplicando o PROLEC (prova de avaliação dos processos de leitura), o TVPS-3 (Teste Visual de Habilidades Perceptuais) e TPMBO (Teste de Proficiência Motora de Bruininks-Oseretsky) - subtestes 7 e 8. Resultados Comparando os grupos, os escolares do GA apresentaram desempenho inferior em todas as provas do PROLEC e no teste do TVPS−3. A execução nos testes de coordenação visuomotora e destreza manual do TPMBO foram inferiores. Em uma segunda etapa, triando os disléxicos visuais foram encontrados 12 (30%) escolares, que apresentaram melhor desempenho na leitura de palavras frequentes, quando comparados ao desempenho na leitura de palavras não frequentes e pseudopalavras. Nas habilidades perceptuais visuais (TVPS-3), obtiveram valores abaixo de 50%, exceto na subescala constância de forma. As ocorrências de trocas na leitura em voz alta, foram em confusão de letras, silabas ou palavras com pouca diferença na forma de escrever, mas diferentes na direção, os mesmos escolares não apresentaram trocas ou confusões entre letras, que possuem mesmo ponto e modo articulatório, e cujos sons são acusticamente próximos. Conclusão Assim caracterizar o subtipo da dislexia é fundamental, porque a aplicação das técnicas terapêuticas, dependerá do correto enfoque das alterações observadas. Portanto, é necessário um diagnóstico exato e multidisciplinar.


ABSTRACT Purpose to evaluate and classify visual dyslexic students, considering that developmental dyslexia subtypes are not differentiated in most diagnoses and that they affect a generalized approach. Methods Cross-sectional, observational, analytical study composed of 80 students, divided into two groups, GA (dyslexics) and GB (without complaints of learning difficulties) using PROLEC (proof of assessment of reading processes), TVPS - 3 (Visual Test of Perceptual Skills) and TPMBO (Bruininks-Oseretsky Motor Proficiency Test) - subtests 7 and 8. Results Comparing the groups, the students of GA presented inferior performance in all the PROLEC tests and in the TVPS3 tests. The TPMBO tests of visuomotor coordination and manual dexterity tests were inferior. In a second stage, screening the visual dyslexics, 12 (30%) schoolchildren were found, who presented better performance in reading frequent words, when compared to the performance in reading infrequent words and pseudowords. In the visual perceptual skills (TVPS-3), they obtained values below 50%, except for the subscale constancy of form. The occurrences of exchanges in reading aloud were in confusion of letters, syllables or words with little difference in the way of writing, but different in the direction, the same students did not present exchanges or confusions between letters, which have the same point and manner of articulation, and whose sounds are acoustically close. Conclusion Thus, characterizing the dyslexia subtype is fundamental, because the application of therapeutic techniques will depend on the correct focus of the observed changes. Therefore, an accurate and multidisciplinary diagnosis is required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Reading , Dyslexia/diagnosis , Perception , Students , Visual Perception , Writing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cognition
8.
Psico USF ; 26(spe): 21-32, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1376029

ABSTRACT

Este estudo verificou o valor preditivo das tarefas do teste Figuras Complexas de Rey (tipo de cópia e tipo de memória) e do Desenho da Figura Humana (inteligência não verbal) para avaliar o rendimento escolar em crianças do Ensino Fundamental I. Realizou-se um estudo com delineamento transversal em que participaram 344 alunos, com idades entre os seis e 10 anos (M = 7,99; DP = 1,47). Aplicou-se coletivamente, em sala de aula, as Figuras Complexas de Rey e o Desenho da Figura Humana. Os resultados evidenciaram correlações significativas positivas entre a percepção visual, a memória imediata e a inteligência não verbal com as notas de português e matemática. O modelo de path analysis indicou que a inteligência não verbal foi capaz de predizer o rendimento escolar das disciplinas de língua portuguesa e matemática, enquanto as habilidades de planejamento e percepção visual foram significativas para predizer o rendimento em matemática (AU).


This study verified the predictive value of the tasks of the Rey Complex Figures test (type of copy and type of memory) and the Drawing of the Human Figure (non-verbal intelligence) to assess school performance in children of Elementary School I. A cross-sectional study involving 344 students, aged between six and 10 years old (M = 7.99; SD = 1.47). Rey Complex Figures and the Human Figure Drawing were applied collectively in the classroom. The results showed significant positive correlations between visual perception, immediate memory and non-verbal intelligence with Portuguese and math scores. The path analysis model indicated that non-verbal intelligence was able to predict school performance in Portuguese and mathematics subjects, while planning and visual perception skills were significant in predicting math performance (AU).


Este estudio verificó el valor predictivo de las tareas del Test de la Figura Compleja de Rey (tipo de copia y tipo de memoria) y del Dibujo de la Figura Humana (inteligencia no verbal) para evaluar el desempeño escolar de los niños de la Escuela Primaria I. Se realizó un estudio transversal en el que participaron 344 alumnos con edades entre 6 y 10 años (M = 7.99; SD = 1.47). Los tests de la Figura Compleja de Rey y del Dibujo de la Figura Humana fueron aplicados colectivamente en clase. Los resultados mostraron correlaciones positivas significativas entre la percepción visual, la memoria inmediata y la inteligencia no verbal con el rendimiento en las asignaturas de lengua portuguesa y matemáticas. El modelo de path analysis indicó que la inteligencia no verbal fue capaz de predecir el rendimiento en lengua portuguesa y matemáticas, mientras que las habilidades de planificación y percepción visual fueron significativas para predecir el rendimiento en matemáticas (AU).


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Child , Psychological Tests , Underachievement , Child Development , Predictive Value of Tests , Students/psychology , Visual Perception , Chi-Square Distribution , Cognition , Education, Primary and Secondary , Memory, Short-Term
9.
Ciênc. cogn ; 25(1): 157-171, 30 nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292888

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O Critical Flicker Fusioné um método não invasivo que pode ser utilizado para rastreio de distúrbio cognitivo (DC), contribuindo para o diagnóstico mais objetivo das demências. Objetivos: Comparar a velocidade de percepção visual e valores do Mini-Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM) de indivíduos com e sem DC. Metodologia: Estudo observacional analítico realizado de agosto de 2017 a julho de 2018. A amostra foi formada por pacientes atendidos num serviço de geriatria local. Procedeu-se aferição de CFF cujos resultados foram comparados com valores recentes de MEEM. Utilizou-se o qui-quadrado para comparar proporções e o t de Student para comparar médias. As correlações lineares foram avaliadas pelo r de Pearson ou rho de Spearman. Definiu-se significância estatística p<0,05. Resultados: A amostra final foi composta por 63 indivíduos, cujos valores de CFF demonstraram estar correlacionados à idade (p<0,001) e aos valores de MEEM (p<0,05). Ainda, o CFF foi capaz de discriminar os pacientes por presença de DC, não sendo influenciado pela escolaridade. Conclusão: O CFF se mostrou capaz de diagnosticar a presença de DC, além de ser um teste mais objetivo que o MEEM. Contudo, novos estudos são necessários para definir seu ponto de corte ideal, bem como sua real acurácia.


Introduction: Critical Flicker Fusion is a non-invasive method that can be used to screen for cognitive deficit (CD), contributing to the more objective diagnosis of dementias. Objectives: To compare the speed of visual perception and values of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) of individuals with and without CD. Methodology: Analytical study carried out from August 2017 to July 2018. The sample consisted of patients from a local geriatric service. CFF measurement was performed, and the results were compared with recent MMSE values. Chi-square was used to compare proportions and Student's t to compare means. Linear correlations were assessed using Pearson's r or Spearman's rho. Statistical significance was set at p<0,05. Results: The final sample consisted of 63 individuals, whose CFF values were correlated with age (p<0,001) and MMSE values (p<0,05). Still, the CFF was able to discriminate patients or the presence of CD, not being influenced by education level. Conclusion: The CFF proved to be capable of diagnosing the presence of CD, in addition to being a more objective test than the MMSE. However, further studies are needed to define its ideal cutoff point, as well as itsreal accuracy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Dementia , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Visual Perception
10.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1224711

ABSTRACT

Con base en un trasfondo teórico sobre las concepciones modulares de la mente de Fodor (2001) y Pinker (2005), el objetivo del presente texto es analizar cualitativemente la solidez de la evidencia experimental de una muestra de artículos publicados entre 2002 y 2017, que apoyan la tesis de la penetrabilidad cognitiva en la percepción visual temprana. El estudio se justifica por las implicaciones que pueden tener los resultados de estas investigaciones para las diferentes concepciones sobre arquitectura mental en funciones perceptuales, procesamiento de la información intra e intermodular, e isomorfismo entre arquitectura mental y cerebral. La metodología que se utilizó para realizar este estudio implicó: establecimiento de la tesis y de los criterios de inclusión de los artículos a revisar, selección final de los artículos más representativos sobre las subáreas seleccionadas, análisis de la calidad metodológica y de los resultados de éstos, identificación de aportes específicos de cada estudio a la tesis planteada, e interpretación y síntesis de los hallazgos. De 26 artículos revisados sobre el tema, se reportan y analizan 7, que se consideran representativos de 4 subáreas: penetrabilidad de expectativas, de percepción del color, de rasgos faciales y de reconocimiento de objetos. Se concluye que hay una amplia y sólida evidencia convergente (perceptual y neurofisiológica) a favor de los fenómenos penetrativos en la visión temprana, lo cual apoyaría indirectamente la hipótesis de permeabilidad de los módulos mentales de Pinker. Se formulan recomendaciones sobre aspectos por investigar y variables a controlar en experimentos sobre este tema.


Based on a theoretical background on the modular conceptions of the mind of Fodor (2001) and Pinker (2005), the objective of this text is to qualitatively analyze the strength of the experimental evidence from a sample of experimental articles published between 2002 and 2017 that support the thesis of cognitive penetrability in early visual perception. The study is justified by the implications that the results of these investigations may have for the different conceptions about mental architecture in perceptual functions, intra and intermodular information processing and isomorphism between mental and brain architecture. The methodology used to carry out this study involved: establishment of the thesis and the inclusion criteria of the articles to be reviewed, final selection of the most representative articles on the selected subareas, analysis of the methodological quality and


Subject(s)
Humans , Visual Perception , Electronic Data Processing , Vision, Ocular , Methodology as a Subject
12.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(3): 323-328, set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058703

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los trastornos vestibulares funcionales se constituyen como una de las causas más frecuentes de consulta por vértigo y trastornos del equilibrio. El mareo postural perceptual persistente (MPPP) es un síndrome recientemente definido, enmarcado en la categoría de síndromes vestibulares crónicos, que agrupa trastornos vestibulares funcionales crónicos como el vértigo postural fóbico, el malestar con el movimiento espacial, el vértigo visual y el mareo subjetivo crónico. El MPPP se manifiesta por síntomas de mareo, inestabilidad y/o vértigo no rotatorio, persistentes, exacerbados por cambios posturales, movimientos y exposición a distintos estímulos visuales. El tratamiento de este cuadro es más sencillo de lo que parece, basado en psicoeducación efectiva respecto a la patología como primer abordaje, adicionando o no rehabilitación vestibular, uso de inhibidores selectivos de la recaptación de serotonina y/o terapia cognitivo conductual. Se presentan dos casos clínicos de pacientes diagnosticados con MPPP y su respuesta a tratamiento.


ABSTRACT Functional vestibular disorders are one of the most frequent causes of consultation due to vertigo and balance disorders. Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD) is a recently defined syndrome, categorized as a chronic vestibular syndrome, that includes functional vestibular disorders such as phobic postural vertigo, space-motion discomfort, visual vertigo and chronic subjective dizziness. PPPD manifests with dizziness, unsteadiness and/or non-spinning vertigo, which are persistent, exacerbated by postural changes, movements and exposure to various visual stimuli. PPPD treatment is simpler than it may seem initially. It is based on effective psychoeducation related to the pathology in the first place, followed, or not, by vestibular rehabilitation, use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and/or cognitive behavioral therapy. We present two clinical cases of patients diagnosed with PPPD and their response to treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Dizziness/diagnosis , Dizziness/therapy , Posture , Visual Perception , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Vestibular Diseases , Chronic Disease , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sertraline/therapeutic use , Dizziness/physiopathology
13.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(3): 374-380, set. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058710

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los sistemas vestibular, visual y somatosensorial coordinan el control postural y se adaptan a las actividades cotidianas en diferentes contextos, sin embargo, cuando existe un cuadro clínico con sintomatología vestibular, las ponderaciones de estos sistemas cambian mayoritariamente al sistema visual, creando una dependencia visual. El cerebelo, que es el principal encargado de generar una compensación vestibular en casos de hipofunción vestibular, juega un rol destacado en el aprendizaje motor generando comportamientos adaptativos que se transforman en puntos claves en la rehabilitación vestibular. Este artículo pretende exponer lo que la literatura informa en relación a la dependencia visual en pacientes con hipofunción vestibular.


ABSTRACT The vestibular, visual and somatosensory systems coordinate postural control and adapt to daily activities in different contexts, however, when there is a clinical picture with vestibular symptoms, the weights of these systems change mainly to the visual system, creating a visual dependence. The cerebellum, which is the main responsible for generating vestibular compensation in cases of vestibular hypofunction, plays a prominent role in motor learning generating adaptive behaviors that become key points in vestibular rehabilitation. This article aims to expose what the literature reports in relation to visual dependence in patients with vestibular hypofunction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Visual Perception/physiology , Vestibular Diseases/physiopathology , Vestibular Diseases/rehabilitation , Vestibular Diseases/diagnosis , Vertigo , Motion Sickness , Postural Balance , Neurotology
14.
Rev. salud pública ; 21(4): e374959, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127210

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Percibir la contaminación atmosférica por partículas finas (PM25) en el organismo humano en la zona urbana del Área Metropolitana de Monterrey [AMM], Nuevo León; considerando sus efectos y capacidad de detección sensorial a razón y percepción de cada sujeto. Materiales y Métodos Se realizó una investigación con 504 sujetos participantes de los efectos producidos por dicha exposición de contaminantes en el AMM, Nuevo León, teniendo en cuenta en el diseño los antecedentes del sujeto y su percepción inconsciente, con motivo de evitar el posible sesgo en el resultado. Resultados Se encontró que los niveles de contaminación presentes en el ambiente por partículas finas afectaron de manera distinta a los sujetos participantes sanos que a los reportados con alguna susceptibilidad o enfermedad visual y/o respiratoria. Discusión Se determinó que los niveles prevalecientes de contaminación atmosférica en el AMM han alcanzado grados de afectación en organismos de personas con susceptibilidad o problemas, ya sea visuales o respiratorios, cuando realizan sus actividades en ambientes exteriores.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective Perceive the air pollution atmospheric by fine particles (PM25) in the human organism on the Metropolitan Urban Area of Monterrey [MUAM], Nuevo León; considering its effects and the sensorial detection capability by each subject's perception. Materials and Methods This research was made with 504 participating subjects exposed to the effects of the contaminants mentioned on the MUAM, Nuevo León, considering the background of each subject and their unconscious perception, in order to avoid the possible bias in the result. Results It was found that the present levels of environment pollution by fine particles affected on different ways the healthy participant subjects than the ones reported with any susceptibility or visual affection and/or respiratory illness. Discussion It was determined that the current levels of environment contaminants in the MUAM have reached degrees of affectation in organisms of people with susceptibility or problems either visual or respiratory, when they carry out their activities in external environments.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Visual Perception , Colombia , Olfaction Disorders
15.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(1,supl.1): 51-56, abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002605

ABSTRACT

Para evaluar los procesos atencionales a estímulos visuales que no requieren repuesta motora, se llevó a cabo un estudio con potenciales evocados a 17 niños con trastornos del déficit de atención/ hiperactividad (TDAH-I) con predominio inatento y a 15 controles de edades entre 7 y 11 años. Se analizó la latencia y localización de fuentes de los potenciales evocados visuales tempranos P100 y N100 durante la realización de una tarea oddball visual (20% rayas horizontales y 80% verticales) en que las rayas verticales no exigían respuesta motora. Los resultados indican que los niños con TDAH-I procesan la información visual que no requiere respuesta motora con un mayor aumento de la actividad cerebral y mediante la vía temporal ventral mientras que el grupo control lo hace mediante la vía parietal dorsal. Este proceso neurobiológico de procesamiento de la información visual vía temporal ventral de los niños con TDAH-I podría deberse a alteraciones en los procesos emocionales que influyen directamente en el reconocimiento visual o a un déficit en el control de los procesos atencionales por parte de la vía parietal dorsal.


To evaluate attentional processes to visual stimuli that do not require motor response, a study with evoked potentials was carried out on 17 children with attention deficit disorder predominantly inattentive (ADDH-I) and 15 controls between the ages of 7 and 11 years. The latency and localization of sources of the early visual evoked potentials P100 and N100 were analyzed during the performance of a visual oddball task (20% horizontal and 80% vertical lines) where the vertical lines did not require motor response. The results indicate that ADDH-I group process visual information that does not require motor response with a greater increase in brain activity and through the ventral temporal pathway, while the control group does so by means of the dorsal parietal stream. This neurobiological process of visual information processing by ventral temporal pathway of ADDH-I group could be due to alterations in emotional processes that directly influence visual recognition or as consequence of deficit in the control of attentional processes by the dorsal parietal pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology , Evoked Potentials, Visual/physiology , Parietal Lobe/physiology , Attention/physiology , Temporal Lobe/physiology , Visual Perception/physiology , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials/physiology
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(2): 113-120, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001211

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective There is controversy regarding cognitive function in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). This study is aimed at the assessment of cognitive functions in children with CAH, and their relation to hydrocortisone (HC) therapy and testosterone levels. Subjects and methods Thirty children with CAH due to 21 hydroxylase deficiency were compared with twenty age- and sex-matched healthy controls. HC daily and cumulative doses were calculated, the socioeconomic standard was assessed, and free testosterone was measured. Cognitive function assessment was performed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale - Revised for Children and Adults (WISC), the Benton Visual Retention Test, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Results The mean age (SD) of patients was 10.22 (3.17) years [11 males (36.7%), 19 females (63.3%)]. Mean (SD) HC dose was 15.78 (4.36) mg/m 2 /day. Mean (SD) cumulative HC dose 44,689. 9 (26,892.02) mg. Patients had significantly lower scores in all domains of the WISC test, performed significantly worse in some components of the Benton Visual Retention Test, as well as in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. There was no significant difference in cognitive performance when patients were subdivided according to daily HC dose (< 10, 10 - 15, > 15 mg/m 2 /day). A positive correlation existed between cumulative HC dose and worse results of the Benton test. No correlation existed between free testosterone and any of the three tests. Conclusion Patients with CAH are at risk of some cognitive impairment. Hydrocortisone therapy may be implicated. This study highlights the need to assess cognitive functions in CAH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Hydrocortisone/administration & dosage , Cognition/drug effects , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/psychology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Socioeconomic Factors , Testosterone/blood , Visual Perception/drug effects , Wechsler Scales , Hydrocortisone/pharmacology , Case-Control Studies , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/metabolism , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Intellectual Disability/diagnosis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Neuropsychological Tests
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785332

ABSTRACT

Some patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) present with cognitive dysfunctions. The pathophysiology underlying this complication is not well understood. Type 1 DM has been associated with a decrease in the speed of information processing, psychomotor efficiency, attention, mental flexibility, and visual perception. Longitudinal epidemiological studies of type 1 DM have indicated that chronic hyperglycemia and microvascular disease, rather than repeated severe hypoglycemia, are associated with the pathogenesis of DM-related cognitive dysfunction. However, severe hypoglycemic episodes may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in high-risk patients with DM. Type 2 DM has been associated with memory deficits, decreased psychomotor speed, and reduced frontal lobe/executive function. In type 2 DM, chronic hyperglycemia, long duration of DM, presence of vascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension and obesity), and microvascular and macrovascular complications are associated with the increased risk of developing cognitive dysfunction. The pathophysiology of cognitive dysfunction in individuals with DM include the following: (1) role of hyperglycemia, (2) role of vascular disease, (3) role of hypoglycemia, and (4) role of insulin resistance and amyloid. Recently, some investigators have proposed that type 3 DM is correlated to sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. The molecular and biochemical consequences of insulin and insulin-like growth factor resistance in the brain compromise neuronal survival, energy production, gene expression, plasticity, and white matter integrity. If patients claim that their performance is worsening or if they ask about the effects of DM on functioning, screening and assessment are recommended.


Subject(s)
Amyloid , Electronic Data Processing , Brain , Cognition , Dementia , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Epidemiologic Studies , Gene Expression , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Hypertension , Hypoglycemia , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Mass Screening , Memory Disorders , Neurons , Plastics , Pliability , Research Personnel , Risk Factors , Vascular Diseases , Visual Perception , White Matter
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760720

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effects of Prism Adaptation (PA) plus functional electrical stimulation (FES) on stroke patients with unilateral neglect, and suggest a new intervention method for acute-phase stroke patients. METHODS: There were 30 patients included in this study from April to October 2016 that had unilateral neglect whilst hospitalized following a stroke (diagnosed by a professional). The participants, who were patients receiving occupational therapy, understood the purpose of the study and agreed to participate. The patients were randomly divided into 3 groups: PA plus FES group (Group A), PA group (Group B), and FES group (Group C). Treatments lasted for 50 minutes per day, 5 times per week, for 3 weeks in total. Reevaluation was conducted after 3 weeks of intervention. RESULTS: All 3 groups showed unilateral neglect reduction after the intervention, but PA plus FES (complex intervention method) was more effective than PA or FES alone [effect size: Motor-free Visual Perception Test (0.80), Albert test (0.98), CBS (0.92)]. CONCLUSION: The results of this study support further studies to examine complex intervention for the treatment of unilateral neglect.


Subject(s)
Electric Stimulation , Humans , Methods , Occupational Therapy , Stroke , Visual Perception
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 1-10, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777215

ABSTRACT

Attention shapes what we see and what we act upon by allocating limited resources to certain parts of visual display in a selective and adaptive manner. While most previous studies in visual attention mainly focused on the attentional distribution over space or features, recent studies have revealed that temporal dynamics also plays a crucial function in visual attention. This paper reviews the representation, function and neural mechanism of temporal dynamics in visual attention from the following four aspects: (1) Tracking dynamic structure of external stimulus by attention; (2) Intrinsic dynamic characteristics of attention; (3) Time-based multiple object representation; (4) Relationship between visual dynamics and classical attentional phenomena. We propose that the dynamic structure and temporal organization are fundamental to visual attention, and the research on it might provide new solutions to many unresolved issues in visual attention research.


Subject(s)
Attention , Humans , Visual Perception
20.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 11-21, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777214

ABSTRACT

Because of a limited capacity of information processing in the brain, the efficient processing of visual information requires selecting only a very small fraction of visual inputs at any given moment in time. Attention is the main mechanism that controls this selection process, namely selective attention. Selective attention is the mechanism by which the subset of incoming information is preferentially processed from the complex external environment. Research on selective attention has two key issues. One is what targets (inputs) are selected by attention. There are three different types of selective attention according to its selected target: space-based, feature-based, and object-based attention. Another issue is how selective attention is generated. There are two different types of selective attention according to its generating source: top-down and bottom-up attention. In this review, these two issues are introduced to systematically discuss the neural mechanism of visual selective attention.


Subject(s)
Attention , Brain , Physiology , Cognition , Humans , Visual Perception
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