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Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(6): 639-642, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376770


ABSTRACT Introduction Research on scientific fitness exercises for the elderly has an important practical significance and can improve the physical fitness and health of the elderly. Chinese research on scientific conditioning exercises for the elderly is still lacking, especially when comparing results between different sports approaches in the elderly. Objective To study the effects of different types of exercise on the physical performance and health of the elderly. Methods 329 healthy elderly volunteers (161 men) with a mean age of 64.5 years from 6 different sports activities were selected. The following indicators of body shape and physical function were evaluated before and after training: height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, vital capacity, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. All indicators were collected following the standardized methods of China's national fitness monitoring system. Exercise intensity was monitored with the subject's target heart rate. Physical exercises were performed for 30 to 40 minutes, 3 to 4 times a week. Results The type of physical exercise has a significant association with human performance and health. Conclusion Exercise and fitness programs positively correlate with human performance and health. Evidence level II; Therapeutic Studies - Investigating the results.

RESUMO Introdução A pesquisa sobre exercícios de aptidão científica para idosos tem um importante significado prático, podendo melhorar a aptidão física e a saúde dos idosos. Atualmente, a pesquisa chinesa sobre exercícios de condicionamento científico para idosos ainda é deficiente, principalmente ao comparar resultados entre diferentes abordagens esportivas nos idosos. Objetivo Estudar os efeitos de diferentes tipos de exercícios no desempenho físico e na saúde dos idosos. Métodos 329 idosos voluntários saudáveis (161 homens) com idade média de 64,5 anos, de 6 diferentes atividades esportivas foram selecionados. Os seguintes indicadores de forma corporal e função física foram avaliados antes e após os treinos: altura, peso, circunferência da cintura, circunferência do quadril, capacidade vital, frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial sistólica e pressão arterial diastólica. Todos os indicadores foram coletados seguindo os métodos padronizados do sistema nacional de monitoramento de condicionamento físico da China. A intensidade do exercício foi monitorada com a frequência cardíaca alvo do indivíduo. Os exercícios físicos foram executados entre 30 a 40 minutos, 3 a 4 vezes por semana. Resultados O tipo de exercício físico tem uma associação significativa com o desempenho humano e a saúde. Conclusão Os programas de exercícios e condicionamento físico têm uma correlação positiva com o desempenho humano e a saúde. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - Investigação de resultados.

RESUMEN Introducción La investigación sobre ejercicios científicos de acondicionamiento físico para ancianos tiene un significado práctico importante y puede mejorar la condición física y la salud de las personas mayores. Actualmente, aún falta investigación china sobre ejercicios de acondicionamiento científico para personas mayores, especialmente cuando se comparan los resultados entre diferentes enfoques deportivos en ancianos. Objetivo Estudiar los efectos de diferentes tipos de ejercicio sobre el rendimiento físico y la salud de los adultos mayores. Métodos Se seleccionaron 329 voluntarios adultos mayores sanos (161 hombres) con una edad media de 64,5 años, de 6 actividades deportivas diferentes. Se evaluaron los siguientes indicadores de forma corporal y función física antes y después del entrenamiento: altura, peso, circunferencia de la cintura, circunferencia de la cadera, capacidad vital, frecuencia cardíaca, presión arterial sistólica y presión arterial diastólica. Todos los indicadores se recopilaron siguiendo los métodos estandarizados del sistema nacional de seguimiento del estado físico de China. La intensidad del ejercicio se controló con la frecuencia cardíaca objetivo del sujeto. Los ejercicios físicos se realizaron durante 30 a 40 minutos, 3 a 4 veces por semana. Resultados El tipo de ejercicio físico tiene una asociación significativa con el rendimiento humano y la salud. Conclusión Los programas de ejercicio y acondicionamiento físico tienen una correlación positiva con el rendimiento y la salud humana. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - Investigación de resultados.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise , Physical Fitness/physiology , Health of the Elderly , Blood Pressure/physiology , Vital Capacity/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 183-190, Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365348


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to ascertain the long-term respiratory effects of COVID-19 pneumonia through pulmonary function tests in follow-ups at 1 and 6 months. METHODS: Our study was conducted between August 1, 2020 and April 30, 2021. At 1 month after discharge, follow-up evaluations, PFTs, and lung imaging were performed on patients aged above 18 years who had been diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. In the 6th month, the PFTs were repeated for those with pulmonary dysfunction. RESULTS: A total of 219 patients (mean age, 49±11.9 years) were included. Pathological PFT results were noted in the 1st month for 80 patients and in the 6th month for 46 (7 had obstructive disorder, 15 had restrictive disorder, and 28 had small airway obstruction) patients. A significant difference was found between abnormal PFT results and patient-described dyspnea in the 1st month of follow-up. The 6-month PFT values (especially those for forced vital capacity) were statistically significantly lower in the patients for whom imaging did not indicate complete radiological improvement at the 1-month follow-up. No statistically significant difference was found between the severity of the first computed tomography findings or clinical condition on emergency admission and pulmonary dysfunction (Pearson's chi-square test, P=0.904; Fisher's exact test, P=0.727). CONCLUSION: It is important that patients with COVID-19 pneumonia be followed up for at least 1 month after discharge to be monitored for potential long-term lung damage. PFTs should be administered to those in whom ongoing dyspnea, which started with COVID-19, and/or full recovery were not identified in pulmonary imaging.

Humans , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Respiratory Function Tests , Vital Capacity , Follow-Up Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e56397, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363820


According to different researches, 30% of university graduates have a low level of health, and studying at university is one of the factors of its deterioration, besides the first year is considered critical. The purpose of research is to study the dynamics of physical development, physical fitness and functional state of young men during the first year of university studies. For the survey we used standard measurements and index calculations for 11 indicators of physical development, 9 indicators of physical fitness and 15 indicators of functional status. We calculated the arithmetic mean (M), the standard error of the mean (m), then evaluated differences by the Student criterion (t) for independent samples and considered them as reliable atр < 0.05. It is shown that during the first year of studies, young men have an increase in the Erismann index, the corpulence (Rohrer's) index, the body mass index and a decrease in the Pignet index. There is also an increase in the coefficient of endurance, adaptive capacity and diastolic pressure, while vital capacity of the lungs, the vital index, time of hanging on the bar and the speed of running 1000 m decrease. The dynamics of physical development is expressed in a change in mass-growth indices and indicates an increase in body weight. The dynamics of physical fitness is expressed in a decrease of the time of hanging on the bar and the speed of running 1000 m. The dynamics of the functional state is expressed in a decrease of vital capacity of the lungs, vital index, increase in the coefficient of endurance, adaptive capacity and diastolic blood pressure.

Humans , Male , Young Adult , Students , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Health Status , Physical Fitness/physiology , Athletic Performance/physiology , Motor Skills/physiology , Physical Endurance/physiology , Running/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Cardiovascular System , Body Mass Index , Vital Capacity/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Functional Status , Indicators and Reagents , Men
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935287


Objective: To explore the association between size-fractionated particle number concentrations (PNC) and respiratory health in children. Methods: From November 2018 to June 2019, there were 65 children aged 6-9 years from an elementary school in shanghai recruited in this panel study with three rounds of follow-up. The forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels were measured and buccal mucosa samples of children were collected at each follow-up visit. The level of PNC, temperature and humidity of the elementary school was monitored from 3 days before each physical examination to the end of the physical examination. The linear mixed effects model was used to analyze the association between PNC and indicators of respiratory health in children. Results: Linear mixed effects model analysis revealed that, at lag 2 day, an interquartile range increase in PNC for particles measuring 0.25-0.40 μm was associated with the absolute changes in FVC, FEV1 and abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) about -60.15 ml (95%CI:-88.97 ml, -31.32 ml), -34.26 ml (95%CI:-63.22 ml, -5.31 ml), -6.00 (95%CI:-9.15, -2.84) and percentage change in FeNO about 12.10% (95%CI: 3.05%, 21.95%), respectively. These adverse health effects increased with the decrease of particle size. Conclusion: The short-term exposure to particulate matter is associated with reduced lung function, buccal microbe diversity and higher airway inflammation level among children. These adverse health effects may increase with the decrease of particle size.

Air Pollutants/analysis , Child , China , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Lung , Nitric Oxide , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Vital Capacity
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 37(4): 285-292, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388163


INTRODUCCIÓN: El incremento del índice de masa corporal afecta la función pulmonar en el asma. Objetivo: determinar si existen diferencias entre asmáticos con estado nutricional normal, sobrepeso y obesidad en cuanto a alteraciones de la oscilometría de impulso (IOS) y espirometría. MÉTODO: Estudio realizado en niños y adolescentes con asma persistente. Se practicó sucesivamente IOS y Espirometría pre y post- broncodilatador según criterios ATS/ERS/SER. Los pacientes se clasificaron en: eutróficos (AE), con sobrepeso (ASP) y obesos (AO). Se compararon promedios de valores basales y con respuesta broncodilatadora (RB) en espirometría e IOS, con análisis de varianzas ANOVA y test de Tukey post hoc. Se consideró un poder de 80% y error α de 5%. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 559 pacientes, promedio de edad 9,2 años, 50,9% varones. AE 52,4%, ASP 31,3% y AO 16,3%. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre AO vs AE (X5, AX, D5-20, VEF1/CVF, FEF25-75/CVF, RB VEF1), y entre ASP vs AE (AX, D5-20, VEF1/CVF). También se encontraron diferencias significativas en varones, no encontradas en las mujeres (X5, D5-20, VEF1/CVF, RB CVF, RB VEF1). CONCLUSIONES: Los niños asmáticos con sobrepeso y obesidad, tienen un mayor compromiso de los índices de función pulmonar medida por espirometría e IOS que los asmáticos con estado nutricional normal. Existen diferencias de género en las alteraciones espirometría e IOS.

INTRODUCTION: Increased body mass index asthma affects lung function in asthma. Objective: to determine if asthmatics with overweight or obesity have alterations in Impulse oscillometry (IOS) and spirometry compared to eutrophic METHOD: Study carried out in children and adolescents with persistent asthma. IOS-Spirometry pre and post bronchodilator were performed successively according to ATS/ERS/SER criteria. The patients were classified as: eutrophic (AE), overweight (ASP) and obese (OA). Baseline and bronchodilator response (BR) averages were compared in spirometry and IOS with ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc analysis of variance. A power of 80% and α error of 5% were considered. RESULTS: 559 patients were analyzed, mean age 9.2 years, 50.9% male. AE 52.4%, ASP 31.3% and OA 16.3%. Significant differences were found between OA vs AE (X5, AX, D5-20, FEV1/FVC, FEF25-75 / FVC, RB FEV1), and between ASP vs AE (AX, D5-20, FEV1/FVC). Significant differences were also found in men, not women (X5, D5-20, FEV1/FVC, BR FVC, BR FEV1). CONCLUSIONS: Asthmatic children with overweight and obesity have a greater compromise of pulmonary function parameters measured by spirometry and IOS than asthmatics with normal nutritional status. There are gender differences in spirometry and IOS alterations.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Asthma/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology , Oscillometry , Spirometry , Vital Capacity , Forced Expiratory Volume , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Analysis of Variance , Overweight/physiopathology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(10): 1432-1436, Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351434


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Lung age estimation is a useful approach to determine pulmonary pathologies. In literature, no studies have evaluated and compared lung age in athletes with healthy volunteers. This study aims to compare lung age and respiratory muscle strength in female volleyball players and age-matched healthy volunteers. METHODS: A total of 18 female volleyball players (22.39±4.97 years) and 20 female healthy volunteers (24.85±3.33 years) were included. Pulmonary functions and respiratory muscle strength were assessed using a spirometer and mouth pressure device, respectively. The lung age was calculated using reference equations associated with gender, height, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second. RESULTS: Lung age was significantly lower, and forced expiratory volume in 1 L, forced vital capacity, and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (cmH2O, %) were higher in female volleyball players compared with healthy volunteers (p≤0.05). CONCLUSION: The lung age and respiratory muscle strength of female volleyball players were better than healthy volunteers. Regular training in female volleyball players may improve respiratory functions and lung age.

Humans , Female , Volleyball , Respiratory Muscles , Vital Capacity , Muscle Strength , Lung
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(2): e1108, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341420


Introducción: Existen pocas publicaciones relacionadas con las pruebas de esfuerzo cardiopulmonar de soldados heridos en combate, y las diversas complicaciones que puede ocasionar el trauma de guerra. Objetivo: Describir las variables cardiopulmonares en soldados con trauma torácico de guerra, sometidos a pruebas de esfuerzo. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, entre los años 2010 - 2016, en el Hospital Militar Central de Bogotá, D.C., Colombia. La población de estudio estuvo constituida por 27 pacientes con antecedente de trauma torácico derivado de la guerra, quienes fueron sometidos a pruebas de esfuerzo cardiopulmonar. Se exploran las variables edad, sexo, síntomas, consumo de oxígeno, variables cardiopulmonares medidas por espirometría, tipo de cirugía, trauma y arma. Resultados: El consumo de oxígeno pico medio ml/min fue 2 891,8 (DE: 621,86), consumo de oxígeno pico mL/kg/min 43,25 (DS: 9,72), capacidad vital forzada prebroncodilatador (L) 4,5 (DS: 1, 3) y posbroncodilatador (L) 4,3 (DS: 1,01). El análisis exploratorio encontró diferencias significativas entre quienes tenían heridas por arma de fuego de alta velocidad, y heridas por otros tipos de armas. Conclusión: En pacientes con antecedentes de trauma de guerra, el consumo de oxígeno pico ml/min, oxígeno pico mL/kg/min y capacidad vital forzada, es menor que en población sana; aparentemente, el tipo de herida por arma de fuego de alta velocidad afecta en mayor medida a estas variables evaluadas por las pruebas de esfuerzo cardiopulmonar(AU)

Introduction: There are few publications related to cardiopulmonary stress tests in soldiers wounded in combat, and the various complications cause war trauma. Objective: To describe the cardiopulmonary variables in patients with war thoracic trauma submitted to stress tests. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out between 2010 and 2016, at the Hospital Militar Central de Bogotá, D.C., Colombia. The study population consisted of 27 patients with a history of war-derived thoracic trauma, who were submitted to cardiopulmonary stress tests. The variables of age, sex, symptoms, oxygen consumption, cardiopulmonary variables measured by spirometry, type of surgery, trauma and weapon were explored. Results: A total of 27 participants were included. Mean oxygen consumption peak ml / min was 2 891,8 (SD: 621,86), oxygen consumption peak mL/kg/min 43,25 (DS: 9,72), forced vital capacity pre-bronchodilator (L) 4,5 (DS: 1, 3) and post-bronchodilator (L) 4,3 (DS: 1,01). Exploratory analysis found significant differences among those who had a high velocity firearm wounds against other types of weapons. Conclusions: In patients with a history of trauma, peak oxygen consumption ml / min, peak oxygen mL/kg/min and forced vital capacity is lower than in the healthy population; Apparently, the type of high-velocity firearm wound has a greater effect on these variables evaluated by cardiopulmonary stress tests(AU)

Humans , Wounds, Gunshot , Bronchodilator Agents , Vital Capacity , Exercise Test , Military Personnel
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe): 14-16, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156148


ABSTRACT College students are often under great pressure, and their physical and mental health is the focus of attention in college education. In order to cultivate high-quality talents and relieve the pressure of college students, many colleges and universities have set up a variety of sports courses, including tennis courses. Analyzing the influence of tennis on the physical and mental health of college students, this study studies the situation of college students participating in tennis by consulting literature, designing questionnaires and using an experimental measurement method, while it constructs the physical health evaluation index and mental health evaluation index of college students. On this basis, this study evaluates the influence of tennis on students' physical and mental health. The results show that tennis has a positive impact on the physical and mental health of college students. Tennis can not only enhance college students' cardiopulmonary function and muscle strength, but also cultivate students' independent personality, eliminate depression tendency, make students independent, flexible and active, which is conducive to the development of students' mental health. It is hoped that this study can provide some reference for the research of college students' physical and mental health exercise based on tennis.

RESUMO Los estudiantes universitarios a menudo se encuentran bajo una gran presión y su salud física y mental es el centro de atención en la educación universitaria. Para cultivar talentos de alta calidad y aliviar la presión de los estudiantes universitarios, muchos colegios y universidades han establecido una variedad de cursos deportivos, incluidos cursos de tenis. Al analizar la influencia del tenis en la salud física y mental de los estudiantes universitarios, este estudio considera la situación de los estudiantes universitarios que participan en el tenis. Para ello usa la consulta de literatura, el diseño de cuestionarios y un método de medición experimental para construir el índice de evaluación de la salud física y la salud mental. Sobre esta base, este estudio evalúa la influencia del tenis en la salud física y mental de los estudiantes. Los resultados muestran que el tenis tiene un impacto positivo en la salud física y mental de los estudiantes universitarios. El tenis no solo puede mejorar la función cardiopulmonar y la fuerza muscular de los estudiantes universitarios, sino también cultivar la personalidad independiente de los estudiantes, eliminar la tendencia a la depresión, hacer que los estudiantes sean independientes, flexibles y activos, lo que favorece el desarrollo de la salud mental de los estudiantes. Se espera que este estudio pueda proporcionar alguna referencia para la investigación del ejercicio de salud física y mental de estudiantes universitarios basado en el tenis.

RESUMEN Estudantes universitários estão frequentemente sob grande pressão, e sua saúde física e mental é o foco da atenção na educação universitária. A fim de cultivar talentos de alta qualidade e aliviar a pressão dos estudantes universitários, muitas faculdades e universidades criaram diversos cursos de esporte, incluindo cursos de tênis. Analisando a influência do tênis na saúde física e mental dos estudantes universitários, este estudo investiga a situação dos estudantes universitários que praticam tênis através de consultas de literatura, elaboração de questionário e do método de medição experimental, enquanto constrói o índice de avaliação da saúde física e da saúde mental de avaliação dos estudantes universitários. Nesta base, o estudo avalia a influência do tênis na saúde física e mental dos estudantes. Os resultados mostram que o tênis tem um impacto positivo na saúde física e mental dos estudantes universitários. O tênis pode não só aumentar a função cardiopulmonar e a força muscular dos estudantes universitários, mas também cultivar a personalidade independente dos estudantes, eliminar a tendência de depressão, torna-los alunos independentes, flexíveis e ativos, o que favorece o desenvolvimento da saúde mental dos estudantes. Espera-se que este estudo possa fornecer alguma referência para a pesquisa do exercício de saúde física e mental dos estudantes universitários com base no tênis.

Humans , Students/psychology , Tennis/physiology , Tennis/psychology , Vital Capacity/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Universities , Surveys and Questionnaires
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(1): 37-43, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154715


Abstract Objective: To compare quantitative CT parameters between children with severe asthma and healthy subjects, correlating to their clinical features. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed CT data from 19 school-aged children (5-17 years) with severe asthma and 19 control school-aged children with pectus excavatum. The following CT parameters were evaluated: total lung volume (TLV), mean lung density (MLD), CT air trapping index (AT%) (attenuation ≤856 HU), airway wall thickness (AWT), and percentage of airway wall thickness (AWT%). Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) data were correlated to the following clinical parameters: forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory flow at 25-75% (FEF 25-75%), FEV1/FVC ratio, sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage analysis, serum IgE levels, and previous hospitalizations due to asthma. Results: Asthma patients presented higher mean values of AT% (23.8 ± 6.7% vs. controls, 9.7 ± 3.2%), AWT (1.46 ± 0.22 mm vs. controls, 0.47 ± −735 ± 28 HU vs. controls, −666 ± 19 HU). Mean AT% was 29.0 ± 4.7% in subjects with previous hospitalization against 19.2 ± 5.0% in those with no prior hospitalization (p < 0.001). AT% presented very strong negative correlations with FVC (r = −0.933, p < 0.001) and FEV1 (r = −0.841, p < 0.001) and a moderate correlation with FEF 25-75% (r = −0.608, p = 0.007). AT% correlation with FEV1/FVC ratio and serum IgE was weak (r = −0.184, p = 0.452, and r = −0.363, p = 0.202) Conclusion: Children with severe asthma present differences in quantitative chest CT scans compared to healthy controls with strong correlations with pulmonary function tests and previous hospitalizations due to asthma.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Aged , Asthma/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Function Tests , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vital Capacity , Forced Expiratory Volume , Retrospective Studies , Lung/diagnostic imaging
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(5): e10040, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153551


Although pulmonary involvement is the most common extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), traditional pulmonary function tests (PFTs) do not show a good correlation with the field tests usually performed in these patients. In recent decades, measurement of ventilation distribution heterogeneity through the nitrogen single-breath washout (N2SBW) test and evaluation of functional capacity during exercise using the Glittre activities of daily living test (GA-T) have been increasingly used. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate predictors of GA-T outcomes in women with RA considering demographic, anthropometric, clinical, functional variables, and chest computed tomography (CT) findings. Forty-three women with RA underwent the GA-T, the N2SBW test, spirometry, measurement of the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), measurement of respiratory muscle strength, and evaluation of physical function of the lower and upper limbs through the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Chest CT scans were analyzed retrospectively. The GA-T time showed significant correlations with the DLco (rs=-0.397, P=0.008), forced vital capacity/DLco (rs=0.307, P=0.044), phase III slope of the N2SBW test (SIIIN2, rs=0.644, P<0.0001), and the HAQ-DI (rs=0.482, P=0.001). Disease extent as assessed by chest CT was associated with the GA-T time. On multiple regression analysis, the SIIIN2 and HAQ-DI were the only predictors of the GA-T time, explaining 40% of its variability. Thus, ventilation distribution heterogeneity and worse physical function substantially explain the variability in GA-T time in women with RA and varying extents of disease on chest CT.

Humans , Female , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnostic imaging , Activities of Daily Living , Respiratory Function Tests , Vital Capacity , Retrospective Studies
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(1): 17-22, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284149


Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common neuromuscular diseases. Its evolution with well-defined stages related to motor and functional alterations, allows easily establishing relationships with respiratory function through a simple laboratory assessment including vital capacity (VC) measurements as well as peak cough flows. Without any treatment with respiratory rehabilitation, the main cause of morbidity and mortality is ventilatory failure, secondary to respiratory pump muscles weakness and inefficient cough. The VC plateau is reached during the non-ambulatory stages, generally after 13 years old. Respiratory rehabilitation protocols, including air stacking techniques, manual and mechanical assisted coughing and non-invasive ventilatory support, can effectively addressed the VC decline as well as the decrease in peak cough flows, despite advancing to stages with practically non-existent lung capacity. Non-invasive ventilatory support may be applied after 19 years old, initially at night and then extending it during the day. In this way, survival is prolonged, with good quality of life, avoiding ventilatory failure, endotracheal intubation and tracheostomy. This article proposes staggered interventions for respiratory rehabilitation based on the functional stages expected in the patient with DMD who has lost ambulation.

La distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD) es una de las enfermedades neuromusculares más frecuentes. Su curso evolutivo con etapas de declinación en la funcionalidad motora bien definidas, permite fácilmente establecer relaciones con la función respiratoria a través de un laboratorio de evaluación sencilla, básicamente de la capacidad vital (CV) y la capacidad tusígena. Sin intervenciones en rehabilitación respiratoria, la principal causa de morbimortalidad es la insuficiencia ventilatoria secundaria a debilidad de músculos de la bomba respiratoria e ineficiencia de la tos. En las etapas no ambulantes, se alcanza la meseta de la CV, generalmente después de los 13 años, su declinación junto con la disminución de la capacidad tusígena puede ser enfrentada efectivamente con la utilización de protocolos de rehabilitación respiratoria. Estos deben considerar la restitución de la CV con técnicas de insuflación activa o apilamiento de aire, tos asistida manual y mecánica, más soporte ventilatorio no invasivo, inicialmente nocturno después de los 19 años y luego diurno, pese a avanzar a etapas con capacidad pulmonar prácticamente inexistente. De esta manera, se prolonga la sobrevida, con buena calidad de vida, evitando el fallo ventilatorio, eventos de intubación endotraqueal y traqueostomía. Este artículo, hace propuestas escalonadas de intervención en rehabilitación respiratoria basadas en las etapas funcionales esperables en el paciente con DMD que ha perdido la capacidad de marcha.

Humans , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/rehabilitation , Scoliosis/rehabilitation , Vital Capacity , Noninvasive Ventilation
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(1): 23-29, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284182


Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a disease of the anterior horn of the spinal cord, which causes muscle weakness that leads to a progressive decrease in vital capacity and diminished cough flows. Respiratory morbidity and mortality are a function of the degree of respiratory and bulbar-innervated muscle. The former can be quantitated by the sequential evaluation of vital capacity to determine the lifetime maximum (plateau) and its subsequent rate of decline, progressing to ventilatory failure. SMA types 1 and 2 benefit from non-invasive respiratory care in early childhood and school age, improving quality and life expectancy. This document synthesizes these recommendations with special reference to interventions guided by stages that include air stacking, assisted cough protocols, preparation for spinal arthrodesis and non-invasive ventilatory support, even in those patients with loss of respiratory autonomy, minimizing the risk tracheostomy. Failure to consider these recommendations in the regular assessment of patients reduces the offer of timely treatments.

La Atrofia Muscular Espinal (AME) es una enfermedad genética del asta anterior de la medula espinal, que cursa con debilidad muscular progresiva. La intensidad y precocidad de la debilidad muscular presenta diferentes grados de afectación de los grupos musculares respiratorios, determinando la meseta en la capacidad vital y progresión a la insuficiencia ventilatoria, como también el compromiso de los músculos inervados bulbares. Los AME tipo 1 y 2, se benefician con cuidados respiratorios no invasivos en la infancia temprana y edad escolar, mejorando la calidad y esperanza de vida. Este documento sintetiza dichas recomendaciones, con especial referencia a intervenciones guiadas por etapas, que incluyan apilamiento de aire, protocolos de tos asistida, preparación para la artrodesis de columna y soporte ventilatorio no invasivo, incluso en aquellos pacientes con pérdida de la autonomía respiratoria, minimizando el riesgo de traqueostomía. La no consideración de estas recomendaciones en la valoración regular de los pacientes resta la oferta de tratamientos oportunos.

Humans , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/therapy , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/physiopathology , Vital Capacity/physiology , Noninvasive Ventilation
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(6): e20210124, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356421


ABSTRACT Objective: The identification of persistent airway obstruction is key to making a diagnosis of COPD. The GOLD guidelines suggest a fixed criterion-a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio < 70%-to define obstruction, although other guidelines suggest that a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio < the lower limit of normal (LLN) is the most accurate criterion. Methods: This was an observational study of individuals ≥ 40 years of age with risk factors for COPD who were referred to our pulmonary function laboratory for spirometry. Respiratory symptoms were also recorded. We calculated the prevalence of airway obstruction and of no airway obstruction, according to the GOLD criterion (GOLD+ and GOLD−, respectively) and according to the LLN criterion (LLN+ and LLN−, respectively). We also evaluated the level of agreement between the two criteria. Results: A total of 241 individuals were included. Airway obstruction was identified according to the GOLD criterion in 42 individuals (17.4%) and according to the LLN criterion in 23 (9.5%). The overall level of agreement between the two criteria was good (k = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.52-0.81), although it was lower among the individuals ≥ 70 years of age (k = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.12-0.72). The proportion of obese individuals was lower in the GOLD+/LLN+ category than in the GOLD+/LLN− category (p = 0.03), as was the median DLCO (p = 0.04). Conclusions: The use of the GOLD criterion appears to be associated with a higher prevalence of COPD. The agreement between the GOLD and LLN criteria also appears to be good, albeit weaker in older individuals. The use of different criteria to define airway obstruction seems to identify individuals with different characteristics. It is essential to understand the clinical meaning of discordance between such criteria. Until more data are available, we recommend a holistic, individualized approach to, as well as close follow-up of, patients with discordant results for airway obstruction.

RESUMO Objetivo: A identificação de obstrução persistente das vias aéreas é fundamental para o diagnóstico de DPOC. As diretrizes da GOLD sugerem um critério fixo - relação VEF1/CVF pós-broncodilatador < 70% - para definir obstrução, embora outras diretrizes sugiram que a relação VEF1/CVF pós-broncodilatador < o limite inferior da normalidade (LIN) é o critério mais preciso. Métodos: Estudo observacional com indivíduos ≥ 40 anos de idade com fatores de risco para DPOC encaminhados ao nosso laboratório de função pulmonar para espirometria. Também foram registrados sintomas respiratórios. Calculamos a prevalência de obstrução e de ausência de obstrução das vias aéreas segundo o critério GOLD (GOLD+ e GOLD−, respectivamente) e segundo o critério LIN (LIN+ e LIN−, respectivamente). Avaliamos também o grau de concordância entre os dois critérios. Resultados: Foram incluídos 241 indivíduos. Obstrução das vias aéreas foi identificada segundo o critério GOLD em 42 indivíduos (17,4%) e segundo o critério LIN em 23 (9,5%). A concordância global entre os dois critérios foi boa (k = 0,67; IC95%: 0,52-0,81), embora tenha sido menor entre os indivíduos ≥ 70 anos de idade (k = 0,42; IC95%: 0,12-0,72). A proporção de obesos foi menor na categoria GOLD+/LIN+ do que na categoria GOLD+/LIN− (p = 0,03), assim como a mediana de DLCO (p = 0,04). Conclusões: A utilização do critério GOLD parece estar associada a uma maior prevalência de DPOC. A concordância entre os critérios GOLD e LIN também parece ser boa, embora seja mais fraca em indivíduos mais velhos. A utilização de diferentes critérios para definir obstrução das vias aéreas parece identificar indivíduos com diferentes características. É essencial compreender o significado clínico da discordância entre esses critérios. Até que mais dados estejam disponíveis, recomendamos uma abordagem holística e individualizada e também um acompanhamento cuidadoso dos pacientes com resultados discordantes para obstrução das vias aéreas.

Humans , Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Airway Obstruction/diagnosis , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Airway Obstruction/epidemiology , Spirometry , Vital Capacity , Forced Expiratory Volume , Risk Factors
Rev. CEFAC ; 23(4): e9720, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250700


ABSTRACT Purpose: to evaluate the reliability of the maximum phonation time (MPT) and Vital Capacity intra and inter-examiner, by means of the single-breath counting test (CT) and the sustained /a/ phoneme, and the slow vital capacity (SVC). Methods: a reliability study carried out in three groups of healthy individuals, each group with 30 volunteers, allocated according to age. SVC was measured using a spirometer, while the MPT was assessed by the phoneme /a/ and CT. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Initially, descriptive statistics were used and for data reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) were considered excellent, with significant results above 0.92 for SVC and greater than 0.79 for CT and phoneme /a/. Regarding the inter-examiner evaluation, the ICCs were also significant for both SVC with values greater than 0.96, and for CT and the phoneme /a/ with values greater than 0.85. The error inherent in the technique was assessed using the standard error of the measurement for intra and inter-examiner analyses with values ranging from 1.79 to 3.29 for phoneme /a/, 3.20 to 6.58 for CT and 65, 05 to 206.73 for SVCml. Conclusion: phonation techniques with the phoneme /a/ and CT, as well as SVC, have an excellent reliability, due to intra and inter-examiner agreement measures.

RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a concordância do tempo máximo de fonação (TMF) com a Capacidade Vital, intra e interexaminador, por meio da técnica de contagem numérica em uma única respiração (TC) e do fonema /a/ sustentado e da capacidade vital lenta (CVL). Métodos: trata-se de um estudo de concordância realizado em três grupos de indivíduos saudáveis, cada grupo com 30 voluntários, alocados de acordo a idade. A CVL foi mensurada por meio do espirômetro, enquanto o TMF foi avaliado pela emissão do fonema/a/ e da TC. Os dados foram analisados pelo programa SPSS versão 20.0. Inicialmente utilizou-se estatística descritiva e para concordância dos dados foi utilizado o coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI). Resultados: os Coeficientes de Correlação Intraclasse (CCI) intraexaminadores foram considerados excelentes, com resultados significantes acima de 0,92 para a CVL e maiores que 0.79 para a TC e fonema/a/. Em relação à avaliação interexaminadores, os CCIs também foram significantes tanto para a CVL com valores maiores que 0,96 quanto para a TC e o fonema/a/ com valores maiores que 0,85. O erro inerente a técnica foi avaliada por meio do erro padrão da medida para as analises intra e interexaminadores com valores que variaram de 1,79 a 3,29 para fonema/a/, 3,20 a 6,58 para TC e 65,05 a 206,73 para CVLml. Conclusão: as técnicas de fonação com o fonema /a/ e TC, assim como a CVL, demonstraram uma excelente concordância intra e interexaminadores.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Phonation/physiology , Vital Capacity/physiology , Spirometry , Time Factors , Observer Variation
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 39: e2019326, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136780


ABSTRACT Objective: To verify the reproducibility of the six-minute walk test (6MWT) performance and its physiological variables in healthy students. Methods: This is as prospective cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of healthy students aged 6-12 years old from public and private schools in the region of Florianópolis City, Santa Catarina State, (Southern Brazil). The medical state was considered according to the health records and scores on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and the spirometric values of forced expiratory volume in the first second and forced vital capacity above 80% of what was predicted. Two 6MWTs were conducted with a 30-minute interval between them, following the recommendations from the American Thoracic Society. Physiologic variables were recorded using the portable telemetric gas analyzer K4b2 (Cosmed®, Italy). For analysis, the dyspnea index, the perception of effort and performance variables identified in both 6MWT were considered. Data distribution was verified with the Shapiro-Wilk test and statistical analysis included paired t-test or Wilcoxon test, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The significance level adopted was 5%. Results: A total of 22 students with a mean age of 10.2±1.5 years participated in the study. The covered distance and the variation of oxygen consumption reproducibility between the two 6MWTs presented ICC=0.76 and ICC=0.86, respectively. There was also similar behavior of the physiological variables when comparing the two tests (p=0.001), especially the minute volume (MV), the oxygen consumption (VO2), and the carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Conclusions: The 6MWT showed reproducible values, both in performance and physiological parameters, in the healthy students analyzed.

RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a reprodutibilidade do desempenho e das variáveis fisiológicas do teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6) realizado por escolares saudáveis. Métodos: Estudo transversal prospectivo. A amostra foi composta de escolares saudáveis, entre 6 e 12 anos, provenientes de escolas públicas e privadas da Grande Florianópolis, SC, Brasil. A higidez foi controlada por meio do recordatório de saúde, do questionário International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) e dos valores espirométricos de volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1) e capacidade vital forçada (CVF) acima de 80% do predito. Foram registradas as variáveis fisiológicas utilizando-se o analisador de gases telemétrico portátil K4b2 (Cosmed®, Itália), e, para análise, consideraram-se o índice de dispneia, a percepção de esforço e as variáveis de desempenho identificadas nos dois TC6. Verificou-se a distribuição dos dados pelo teste de Shapiro-Wilk, e a análise estatística incluiu: teste t de Student pareado, ou teste de Wilcoxon, e o coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (ICC). O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Resultados: Participaram 22 escolares com idade média de 10,2±1,5 anos. Identificou-se reprodutibilidade da distância percorrida e da variação do consumo de oxigênio entre os dois TC6, com ICC=0,76 e ICC=0,87, respectivamente. Houve similaridade no comportamento das variáveis fisiológicas na comparação entre os dois testes (p=0,001), destacando-se o volume minuto (VE), o consumo de oxigênio (VO2) e a produção de dióxido de carbono (VCO2). Conclusões: O TC6 apresentou valores reprodutíveis tanto no desempenho como nos parâmetros fisiológicos nos escolares saudáveis estudados.

Walk Test , Physical Functional Performance , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Spirometry , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1552-1560, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887612


BACKGROUND@#Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common public health problem worldwide. Recent studies have reported that socioeconomic status (SES) is related to the incidence of COPD. This study aimed to investigate the association between SES and COPD among adults in Jiangsu province, China, and to determine the possible direct and indirect effects of SES on the morbidity of COPD.@*METHODS@#A cross-sectional study was conducted among adults aged 40 years and above between May and December of 2015 in Jiangsu province, China. Participants were selected using a multistage sampling approach. COPD, the outcome variable, was diagnosed by physicians based on spirometry, respiratory symptoms, and risk factors. Education, occupation, and monthly family average income (FAI) were used to separately indicate SES as the explanatory variable. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were introduced to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for examining the SES-COPD relationship. A pathway analysis was conducted to further explore the pulmonary function impairment of patients with different SES.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of the 2421 participants was 56.63 ± 9.62 years. The prevalence of COPD was 11.8% (95% CI: 10.5%-13.1%) among the overall sample population. After adjustment for age, gender, residence, outdoor and indoor air pollution, body weight status, cigarette smoking, and potential study area-level clustering effects, educational attainment was negatively associated with COPD prevalence in men; white collars were at lower risk (OR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.43-0.83) of experiencing COPD than blue collars; compared with those within the lower FAI subgroup, participants in the upper (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.49-0.97) tertiles were less likely to experience COPD. Such negative associations between all these three SES indicators and COPD were significant among men only. Education, FAI, and occupation had direct or indirect effects on pulmonary function including post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), FEV1, FVC, and FEV1 percentage of predicted. Education, FAI, and occupation had indirect effects on pulmonary function indices of all participants mainly through smoking status, indoor air pollution, and outdoor air pollution. We also found that occupation could affect post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC through body mass index.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Education, occupation, and FAI had an adverse relationship with COPD prevalence in Jiangsu province, China. SES has both direct and indirect associations with pulmonary function impairment. SES is of great significance for COPD morbidity. It is important that population-based COPD prevention strategies should be tailored for people with different SES.

Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Social Class , Spirometry , Vital Capacity
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879844


OBJECTIVE@#To study the correlation between the bronchial dilation test (BDT) and asthma control level in children with asthma.@*METHODS@#A total of 153 children with asthma, aged 5-14 years, who attended the outpatient service from March 2016 to March 2018 were enrolled. According to the presence or absence of atopic constitution, they were divided into an allergic group with 79 children and a non-allergic group with 74 children. The correlation between BDT and Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) scores was analyzed for both groups.@*RESULTS@#All basic pulmonary function parameters were positively correlated with C-ACT scores in the non-allergic group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The improvement rate of BDT is well correlated with C-ACT scores in children with asthma, suggesting that BDT can be used as an index for predicting asthma control level.

Adolescent , Asthma , Child , Child, Preschool , Dilatation , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Lung , Vital Capacity
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922399


OBJECTIVES@#To establish a predictive equation for commonly used pulmonary ventilation function parameters in children aged 6-<16 years in northeast China.@*METHODS@#A total of 504 healthy children from Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces of China were selected for the prospective study, among whom there were 242 boys and 262 girls. The JAEGER MasterScreen Pneumo spirometer was used to measure pulmonary ventilation function. With the measured values of 10 parameters, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV@*RESULTS@#The boys aged 9-<10 years and 15-<16 years had significantly higher body height, FVC, and FEV@*CONCLUSIONS@#A new predictive equation for the main pulmonary ventilation function parameters has been established in this study for children aged 6-<16 years in northeast China, which provides a basis for accurate judgment of pulmonary function abnormalities in clinical practice.

Child , China , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Ventilation , Reference Values , Schools , Vital Capacity
Rev. invest. clín ; 72(6): 386-393, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289734


Abstract Background: A 6 s spirometry with an inexpensive pocket spirometer efficiently selects individuals for a diagnostic-quality spirometry for airflow limitation, but could also be useful to identify individuals with a restrictive pattern. Objectives: We evaluated an inexpensive simplified spirometer (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]-6) as a screening tool to identify spirometric abnormalities. Methods: A population-based survey in Mexico City, with 742 participants performing pre- and post-BD spirometry and a three-maneuver 6 s spirometry (pre-BD) with a COPD-6. We evaluated forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV6, and FEV1/FEV6 from the COPD-6, crude and expressed as the percentage of predicted (%P), to discriminate post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction (FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC] <5th percentile) or restriction (FVC or FEV1 <5th percentile with normal FEV1/FVC) through receiver operating characteristics and their area under the curve (AUC). Results: FEV1%P was the best predictor to identify pre- and post-BD ventilatory abnormalities (best cutoff point 87%P, AUC 92% for restrictive pattern, 89% for obstructive pattern, and 91% for any spirometric abnormality). Deriving to clinical spirometry only those with <87%P (26% of the sample) missed only 12% of spirometric abnormalities most of the latter mild. Conclusions: An FEV1 <87%P from a pre-BD 6 s spirometry correctly identified individuals with spirometric ventilatory defects, either obstructive or restrictive.

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Spirometry , Mass Screening/methods , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Vital Capacity , Forced Expiratory Volume , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Mexico
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(4): 283-289, Jul.-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249912


Abstract Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most prevalent respiratory problem in the world. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have a higher prevalence of smoking and recurrent lung infections and are at higher risk of COPD. Objective: To determine the prevalence of COPD in HIV-diagnosed patients referred to an infectious diseases hospital. Method: Individuals with HIV infection without previous or ongoing antiretroviral treatment, with chronic respiratory symptoms, with or without a history of exposure for the development of COPD were included. Pre- and post-bronchodilation spirometry, high-resolution computed tomography, viral load determination and CD4 count were carried out. Spirometry measurements were compared with Wilcoxon’s test. Results: Sixty-six HIV-diagnosed patients, with a mean age of 31.5 years were included; 64 were males and two females. The prevalence of COPD was 7.6 %. The group with obstruction had a lower CD4 count (27.3 versus 225.9) and higher viral load (165,000 versus 57,722), in comparison with the group without obstruction. A positive correlation was observed between lower viral load and higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio. Conclusion: HIV-positive patients with a lower CD4 count and a higher viral load show a decrease in spirometry values.

Resumen Introducción: La enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) es el problema respiratorio de mayor prevalencia en el mundo. Los pacientes con infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) tienen mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo e infecciones pulmonares recurrentes y mayor riesgo de EPOC. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de la EPOC en pacientes con diagnóstico de VIH referidos a un hospital de infectología. Método: Se incluyeron individuos con infección por VIH sin tratamiento antirretroviral previo o actual, con sintomatología respiratoria crónica, con o sin antecedentes de exposición para desarrollar EPOC. Se realizó espirometría pre y posbroncodilatación, tomografía computarizada de alta resolución, determinación de carga viral y conteo de CD4. Las mediciones espirométricas se compararon con prueba de Wilcoxon. Resultados: Se incluyeron 66 pacientes con diagnóstico de VIH, con edad de 31.5 años; 64 hombres y dos mujeres. La prevalencia de EPOC fue de 7.6 %. El grupo con obstrucción presentó menor conteo de CD4 (27.3 versus 225.9) y mayor carga viral (165 000 versus 57 722), en comparación con el grupo sin obstrucción. Se observó correlación positiva entre menor carga viral y mayor relación de volumen espiratorio forzado al primer segundo/capacidad vital forzada. Conclusión: Los pacientes VIH-positivos con menor conteo de CD4 y mayor carga viral presentan disminución de los valores espirométricos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Smoking/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Spirometry , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , HIV Infections/virology , Vital Capacity , Forced Expiratory Volume , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load