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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1497-1503, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131476

ABSTRACT

Avaliou-se o efeito da utilização de níveis crescentes de vitamina A sobre os parâmetros ósseos de codornas de corte de 15 a 35 dias de idade. Foram utilizadas 1520 codornas, não sexadas, com peso médio inicial de 85±4,25g, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, totalizando oito tratamentos com cinco repetições e 38 codornas por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de oito níveis de suplementação de vitamina A (0; 4.500; 6.000; 7.500; 9.000; 10.500; 12.000 e 13.500UI/kg da dieta). O período experimental foi de 15 a 35 dias de idade. Os ossos analisados apresentaram uma redução linear para o índice de Seedor, resistência óssea e teor de cinzas do fêmur e da tíbia de acordo com os níveis de suplementação de vitamina A. A suplementação de vitamina A para codornas de corte de 15 a 35 dias de idade mostrou resultados negativos para a qualidade óssea, com a necessidade de mais estudos sobre seu antagonismo com a vitamina D.(AU)


This study evaluated the effect of using increasing levels of vitamin A on bone parameters in meat-type quails from 15 to 35 days old. A total of 1520 unsexed quail with an average initial weight of 85g distributed in a completely randomized design, totaling eight treatments with five replicates and 38 quails per experimental unit were used. The treatments consisted of eight vitamin supplementation levels A (0; 4,500; 6,000; 7,500; 9,000; 10,500; 12,000 and 13,500IU / kg diet). The experimental period was 15 to 35 days of age. The bones analyzed showed a linear reduction to the Seedor index, bone strength and ash content of the femur and tibia according to vitamin supplementation levels Vitamin A supplementation for cutting quails from 15 to 35 days of age showed negative results for bone quality, with the need for more studies on its antagonism to vitamin D.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Tibia/growth & development , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology , Coturnix/growth & development , Diet/veterinary , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Densitometry/veterinary
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 827-835, May-June, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129486

ABSTRACT

O colágeno é sintetizado e segregado no espaço extracelular e organizados em fibrilas estriadas de acordo com o tipo de tecido. Utilizaram-se 24 coelhos brancos da raça Nova Zelândia, com idade de 12 meses e com 3,0kg de peso corporal, para avaliar a porcentagem de colágeno das feridas cutâneas tratadas com plasma rico em plaquetas de equino e pomada contendo gentamicina, sulfanilamida, sulfadiazina, ureia e vitamina A. Os animais foram separados em quatro grupos de igual número e submetidos à remoção de pele na região das linhas médias dorsal torácica (feridas tratadas) e lombar (feridas controle). As feridas torácicas foram tratadas com plasma rico em plaqueta de equino e pomada contendo gentamicina, sulfanilamida, sulfadiazina, ureia e vitamina A, e as do grupo controle somente com a pomada. Dos animais do grupo I, foi coletado tecido cutâneo, para a avaliação histológica e a ultraestrutural, com três dias de pós-operatório; dos animais do grupo II, com sete dias; do grupo III, com 14 dias; e do grupo IV, com 21 dias. Decorrido o período de avaliação de cada grupo, foi coletado fragmento de pele para avaliação da porcentagem de colágeno, bem como do diâmetro e da densidade da fibrila de colágeno por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. O tratamento com PRP de equino associado à aplicação tópica da pomada mostrou-se eficaz na maturação das fibrilas colágenas e na antecipação do processo cicatricial.(AU)


Collagen is synthesized and secreted into the extracellular space and organized into striated fibrils according to the tissue type. This study evaluated the concentration of collagen in rabbit skin wounds treated with equine platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and ointment containing gentamicin, sulfanilamide, sulfadiazine, urea, and vitamin A. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits aged 2 to 12 months and weighing 3.0kg were included. The animals were allocated equally into four groups and the skin was removed from the thoracic dorsal midline (treated wound) and lumbar (control wound) regions. The thoracic wounds were treated with equine PRP and ointment containing gentamicin, sulfanilamide, sulfadiazine, urea, and vitamin A, and the control group was treated with the ointment alone. For histological and ultrastructural assessment, cutaneous tissue was collected on postoperative days 3 (group I), 7 (group II), 14 (group III), and 21 (group IV). After the evaluation period, in each group, a skin fragment was collected for analysis of the collagen concentration, as well as the collagen fibril diameter and density by transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that treatment with equine PRP combined with topical application of the ointment was effective in facilitating the maturation of collagen fibrils and the wound healing process.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Wound Healing/physiology , Wounds and Injuries/rehabilitation , Wounds and Injuries/veterinary , Collagen/ultrastructure , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Sulfadiazine/administration & dosage , Sulfanilamides/administration & dosage , Urea/administration & dosage , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Gentamicins/administration & dosage , Horses
3.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(5): 240-247, May 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137829

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To compare the effect of high-dose vitamin A (HD Vit-A) use during postmolar follow-up of patients with low and plateauing (L&P) serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels, from the moment serum hCG plateaued (P-hCG) to the first normal serum hCG value (< 5IU/L). Methods The present retrospective series case study compared two nonconcurrent cohorts of patients. Control group (CG): 34 patients with L&P serum hCG levels who underwent expectant management for 6 months after uterine evacuation, from 1992 to 2010; study group (SG): 32 patients in similar conditions who received 200,000 IU of Vit-A daily, from the identification of a P-hCG level to the first normal hCG value or the diagnosis of progression to gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), from 2011 to 2017. The present study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the institution where it was conducted. Results In both groups, the prevalence of persistent L&P serum hCG levels was < 5%. In the SG, hCG levels at plateau were higher (CG = 85.5 versus SG = 195 IU/L; p = 0.028), the rate of postmolar GTN was lower (CG = 29.4% versus SG = 6.3%, p = 0.034) and follow-up was shorter (CG = 14 versus SG = 10 months, p < 0.001). During GTN follow-up, there were no differences in GTN staging or treatment aggressiveness in both groups. High-dose Vit-A use did not have any relevant toxic effect. There were no GTN relapses or deaths. Conclusion The limited use of HD Vit-A seems to have a safe and significant effect on the treatment of postmolar patients with L&P serum hCG levels and may decrease the development of postmolar GTN in this population.


Resumo Objetivo Comparar o efeito de alta dose de vitamina A (VitA) no seguimento pósmolar de pacientes com gonadotrofina coriônica humana (hCG) sérica apresentando valoresbaixoseem platô(L&P). Métodos Estudo retrospectivo de série de casos comparando duas coortes não simultâneas. Grupo controle (CG): 34 pacientes com títulos de hCG sérico L&P submetidos a manejo expectante por 6 meses após o esvaziamento uterino, de 1992 a 2010; Grupo de Estudo (SG): de 2011 a 2017, 32 pacientes em condições semelhantes de hCG receberam Vit-A na dose de 200.000 IU por dia, do momento da identificação dohCG em platôate o primeirohCG normaloudiagnóstico de progressão para neoplasia trofoblástica gestacional (NTG). O presente estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética da Instituição na qual foi desenvolvido. Resultados Em ambososgrupos, aprevalência de hCGL&P foi < 5%. No SG, os níveis de hCGemplatô forammaiores (CG = 85.5 versus SG = 195 IU/L; p = 0,028), e foram significantemente menores tanto a prevalência de NTG pós-molar (CG = 29.4% versus SG = 6.3%, p = 0,034) como o tempo de seguimento (CG = 14 versus SG = 10 meses, p < 0.001). Na evolução para NTG não houve diferença no estadiamento da Interna tional Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO, na sigla em inglês) ou na agressividade do tratamento. Com altas doses de Vit-A não houve qualquer efeito tóxico relevante. Não houve casos de recidiva de NTG ou de óbito. Conclusão O uso limitado de altas doses de Vit-A parace ser seguro e apresenta efeitos significativos na evolução de pacientes em controle pós-molar com títulos de hCG sérico L&P, e pode diminuir o desenvolvimento de NTG pós-molar nessa população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Uterine Neoplasms/blood , Vitamin A/therapeutic use , Hydatidiform Mole/blood , Chorionic Gonadotropin/blood , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Gestational Trophoblastic Disease/prevention & control , Middle Aged
4.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(6): 683-689, dic. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058130

ABSTRACT

To evaluate differences in dietary habits among women with breast cancer versus healthy controls. We conducted a case-control study with 160 women with and without cancer, pairing 1:1. Socio-demographic variables and food consumption were investigated through three food recalls, which was corrected for energy variation using the residual method. Data analysis was performed using Kolmogorov- Smirnov, Student's t, Mann-Whitney/Wilcoxon Two-Sample tests and calculating odds ratios with level of significance of p<0.05. The majority (87.5%) of women with breast cancer did not follow dietary recommendations. Women with breast cancer (cases) had higher odds of not following dietary recommendations compared to controls (OR= 3.37, 95%CI= 1.50-7.58, p= 0.004). Regarding consumption of micro and macronutrients, breast cancer patients had increased odds of insufficient vitamin A intake compared to controls (OR= 2.46, 95%CI= 1.19-5.05, p<0.01). The results suggest the women with breast cancer are more likely to not follow dietary recommendation and have insufficient consumption of vitamin A compared to women without breast cancer.


Evaluar diferencias en los hábitos alimentarios de mujeres con cáncer de mama y mujeres normales. Estudio de casos y controles con 160 mujeres con y sin cáncer y emparejamiento de l:l. Se investigaron las variablessociodemográ-ficas y el consumo de alimentos mediante tres encuestas alimentarias, sometidas a la corrección de la variación de energía por el método residual. El análisis fueran realizados por Kolmogorov-Smirnov, t-Student, Mann-Whitney/Wilcoxon y Odds Ratio con nivel de significación: p<0,05. La mayoría de las mujeres con cáncer de mama (87,5%) no siguió las recomendaciones dietéticas. Las mujeres con cáncer de mama tuvieron un mayor riesgo de no seguir las recomendaciones dietéticas en comparación con los controles 3.37 (IC 95%= 1.50-7.58, p= 0.004). Con respecto al consumo de micro y macronutrientes, las mujeres concáncer de mama tuvieron un mayor riesgo de ingesta insuficiente de vitamina A en comparación con los controles (OR= 2.46, IC 95%= 1.19-5.05, p<0.0l). Los resultados sugieren que las mujeres con cáncer de mama tienen más riesgo de no seguir las recomendaciones dietéticas con un consumo insuficiente de vitamina A en comparación con las mujeres sin cáncer de mama.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Breast Neoplasms/diet therapy , Patient Compliance , Diet , Case-Control Studies , Confidence Intervals , Odds Ratio , Nutrients/administration & dosage , Nutrition Surveys , Eating , Feeding Behavior
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(11): 4009-4018, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039503

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a associação entre o tipo de aleitamento no primeiro semestre de vida e o consumo de vitamina A e ferro do 6º ao 12º mês. Estudo de coorte com 226 crianças. Avaliou-se o tipo de aleitamento do 1º ao 6º mês de vida e o consumo alimentar do 6º ao 12º mês. O consumo de nutrientes entre os grupos foi comparado pelo teste Kruskal-Wallis. A análise da associação entre o consumo de nutrientes e o tipo de aleitamento se deu pela Regressão de Poisson. O consumo abaixo da recomendação de vitamina A e ferro foi de 33,6% e 67,7%, respectivamente. Crianças amamentadas de maneira exclusiva e predominante no 1º e 2º mês tiveram maior ingestão de vitamina A do 6º ao 12º mês de vida. Já as que estavam em aleitamento materno no 6º mês tiveram maior ingestão de vitamina A e menor de ferro na análise bivariada. O grupo que recebeu aleitamento materno misto e artificial no 1º mês e os não amamentados no 6º mês tiveram consumo de vitamina A abaixo do recomendado do 6º ao 12º mês de vida. Os resultados reforçam a importância do aleitamento materno exclusivo nos seis primeiros meses de vida, contribuindo para o maior consumo de vitamina A. O consumo de ferro foi menor entre as crianças amamentadas, porém, a biodisponibilidade desse nutriente no leite materno é maior.


Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the association between breastfeeding type in the first six months of life and intake of vitamin A and iron in children 6-12 months of age. It is a cohort study with 226 children. The type of breastfeeding from 1-6 months of life and the food intake from 6 to 12 months were evaluated. Nutrient intake between groups was compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test. The association between nutrient intake and type of breastfeeding was analyzed by Poisson Regression. Consumption below the recommendation of vitamin A and iron was 33.6% and 67.7%, respectively. Infants exclusively and predominantly breastfed from birth to two months had higher vitamin A intake from 6-12 months of life. Infants who were breastfeeding at 6 months had higher vitamin A intake and lower iron by the bivariate analysis. The group that received mixed feeding and artificial feeding at 1 month and the group non-breastfed at 6 months had vitamin A intake below the recommended from 6-12 month of life. The results reinforce the importance of exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life contributing to the higher vitamin A intake. Iron intake was lower among breastfed children, but the bioavailability of this nutrient in breast milk is higher.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Adult , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Breast Feeding/methods , Feeding Behavior , Iron/administration & dosage , Energy Intake , Cohort Studies , Age Factors
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1227-1235, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038598

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito metafilático de minerais traços e vitaminas A e E injetáveis, em parâmetros do estresse oxidativo e na função de neutrófilos em fêmeas da raça Holandesa no período de transição. Sessenta animais foram divididos em dois grupos: animais que receberam minerais traços e vitaminas A e E injetáveis (GMTV) (n= 30) e grupo controle (GC) (n= 30). Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos nos parâmetros avaliados, porém observou-se diferença significativa entre tratamento e dia para os valores da SOD, com maior atividade dessa enzima em fêmeas GMTV, nas semanas próximas ao parto. Observou-se diferença de dia e para interação tratamento e dia para o TBARS, em que fêmeas GMTV mostraram menores valores de TBARS em todos os momentos, exceto sete dias após o parto. Houve efeito significativo de dia para leucócitos, interação tratamento e dia para neutrófilos e interação tratamento e dia para fagocitose de neutrófilos, em que as fêmeas GMTV apresentaram valores menores de leucócitos e neutrófilos próximo ao parto, além de maior fagocitose de neutrófilos. Pode-se observar que houve melhora no sistema oxidativo e imune de fêmeas GMTV, resposta que provavelmente está relacionada com a administração dos minerais traços e vitaminas A e E.(AU)


This study evaluates the metaphylactic of the subcutaneous administration of a trace minerals and vitamins A and E, on the oxidative stress and neutrophil function in Holsteins cows under the transition period. Sixty females were divided in two groups: group with trace minerals and vitamins (GMTV) (n= 30) and group control (GC) (n= 30). There was no significant difference between those groups; however, we find significant difference between treatment and day for Superoxide dismutase (SOD) values with higher activity of this enzyme in females GMTV on the weeks next to the parturition. Still, there was difference on day and, for interactions between treatment and day for TBARS, were females GMTV showed lower values of TBARS in all moments, except on day seven after the parturition. For leucocytes, there is a significant effect by day, interaction on treatment and day on neutrophils, and interaction treatment and day for neutrophil phagocytosis, were females GMTV showed lower values of leucocytes and neutrophils next to the parturition, and an increase of neutrophils phagocytosis. In summary, cows from the GMTV group had an improvement on the immune and oxidative systems, probably correlated with the administration of this supplement.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Trace Elements/analysis , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Oxidative Stress , Neutrophils , Injections, Subcutaneous/veterinary
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 3037-3046, ago. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011885

ABSTRACT

Abstract 200 million pre-school age children are not developing properly. Delays in child development are associated with multiple factors. This study aims to analyze if vitamin A supplementation is associated with improved development and how this effect could be mediated by nutritional status. Population-based study surveyed a representative sample of 8000 households, 1232 children 0-35 months, in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The variables analysed included child developmental status, nutritional determinants and confounding factors. The main effects and interactions were evaluated using Cox regressive models. Vitamin A supplementation showed protective effect to delay in cognitive and motor development modified by interaction with nutritional status. While well-nourished supplemented children presented a 67% lower risk of cognitive delay (adjusted PRR = 0·33 [0·21-0·53]), stunted children had no benefit from supplementation (adjusted PRR = 0·97 [0·39-2·40]). Vitamin A supplementation has a protective effect on child development, but not in stunted children. This suggests that supplementation is effective in promoting child development, especially if associated to a joint effort to improve the nutritional status of children, given the importance of this mediator.


Resumo Duzentos milhões de crianças em idade pré-escolar não estão se desenvolvendo adequadamente. Os atrasos no desenvolvimento estão associados a múltiplos fatores. Este estudo pretende analisar se a suplementação de vitamina A está associada a melhor desenvolvimento e a forma como esse efeito pode ser mediado pelo estado nutricional. Estudo de base populacional com amostra de 8.000 famílias, 1.232 crianças 0-35 meses, no estado do Ceará, Brasil. As variáveis analisadas incluíram desenvolvimento, determinantes nutricionais e fatores de confusão. Os efeitos e as interações foram avaliados utilizando modelos regressivos de Cox. A suplementação de vitamina A foi protetora para atraso no desenvolvimento cognitivo e motor modificado pela interação com o estado nutricional. Crianças suplementadas bem nutridas apresentaram um risco 67% menor de atraso cognitivo (PRR ajustado = 0 33 [0 21-0 53]), já as crianças desnutridas não se beneficiaram (PRR ajustado = 0 97 [0 39-2 40]). A suplementação tem um efeito protetor sobre o desenvolvimento, mas não em crianças desnutridas. Isso sugere que a suplementação é eficaz na promoção do desenvolvimento, especialmente se associada a um esforço para melhorar o estado nutricional infantil, dada a importância desse mediador.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Child Nutrition Disorders/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Growth Disorders/prevention & control , Brazil , Child Development/physiology , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(3): 827-838, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989625

ABSTRACT

Abstract To evaluate the effect of vitamin A supplementation in postpartum infants and women on serum retinol levels and breast milk. The databases Medline, PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO were consulted. The descriptors used were vitamin A, dietary supplement, child, postpartum period, infant and nutrition programs policies. Search found 7432 articles. After elimination of duplicity and application of eligibility criteria, 8 studies remained. All evaluated the effect of vitamin A supplementation on immediate postpartum, five studies used retinyl palmitate supplementation, one with retinyl palmitate and two did not specify the form of supplementation. Six studies evaluated colostrum and two included supplementation of children. It was found that supplementation in the puerperium increases the concentrations of serum retinol and breast milk, however, this result was in the short term and was relevant when the previous concentrations of the mother were low. When maternal serum concentrations are adequate, the retinol content in milk does not change, with little relevance for children. Further studies should be performed to evaluate the effect of megadoses supplementation on serum concentrations of children.


Resumo Avaliar o efeito da suplementação de vitamina A, em lactentes e mulheres no pós-parto, nos níveis de retinol sérico e no leite materno. Foram consultadas as bases de dados Medline, PubMed, Lilacs e SciELO. Os descritores utilizados foram: vitamin A, dietary supplement, child, postpartum period, infant e nutrition programs policies. A busca identificou 7432 artigos. Após eliminação da duplicidade e aplicação dos critérios de elegibilidade permaneceram 8 estudos. Todos avaliaram o efeito da suplementação de vitamina A no pós parto imediato, cinco estudos utilizaram a suplementação com retinil palmitato, um com palmitato de retinila e dois não especificaram a forma de suplementação. Seis estudos avaliaram o colostro e dois incluíram a suplementação de crianças. Encontrou-se que a suplementação no puerpério aumenta as concentrações de retinol sérico e do leite materno, no entanto, este resultado foi a curto prazo e foi relevante quando as concentrações prévias da mãe eram baixas. Quando as concentrações séricas maternas encontram-se adequadas, pouco se altera o teor de retinol no leite, tendo pouco relevância para as crianças. Mais estudos devem ser realizados para avaliar o efeito da suplementação com megadoses nas concentrações séricas de crianças.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Vitamin A/analogs & derivatives , Dietary Supplements , Milk, Human/chemistry , Time Factors , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Vitamin A/metabolism , Vitamin A Deficiency/prevention & control , Colostrum/chemistry , Postpartum Period , Diterpenes
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(3): 445-450, jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-950024

ABSTRACT

La hipertensión endocraneana idiopàtica se asocia infrecuentemente con la hipovitaminosis A y D. Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 8 años con visión borrosa de 24 horas y papiledema bilateral. Resonancia magnética nuclear normal. Presión de apertura de líquido cefalorraquídeo: 260 mm^O. Presentó déficit de vitamina A y D, e inició un tratamiento sustitutivo. El segundo caso corresponde a un paciente masculino de 12 años con fiebre y odinofagia de 3 días. Con antecedente de glomerulonefritis y sobrepeso. Presentaba edema bipalpebral y papiledema. Tomografia axial computada de la órbita: aumento de líquido en la vaina de ambos nervios ópticos. Resonancia magnética nuclear: aracnoidocele intraselar. Presión de apertura de líquido cefalorraquídeo: 400 mm^O. Presentó déficit de vitamina D y B6, e inició el tratamiento sustitutivo. La elevación de la presión intracraneal desencadena mecanismos de compensación que, al fallar, pueden comprometer la vida o provocar graves discapacidades neurológicas. Reconocer la causa para un enfoque terapéutico preciso es clave para disminuir la morbimortalidad asociada a esta patología.


Idiopathic endocranial hypertension is infrequently associated with hypovitaminosis A and D. The case of an 8-year-old female with 24-hour blurred vision and bilateral papilledema is presented. Nuclear magnetic resonance was normal. Opening pressure of cerebrospinal fluid: 260 mm^O. She presented vitamin A and D deficiency and started replacement therapy. The second case corresponds to a 12-year-old male with fever and odynophagia of 3 days. History of glomerulonephritis and overweight. He had bipalpebral edema and papilledema. Computed tomography scan of the orbit: increase of fluid in the sheath of both optic nerves. Nuclear magnetic resonance: intrasellar arachnoidocele. Opening pressure of cerebrospinal fluid: 400 mmH2O. He presented vitamin D and B6 deficiency and started replacement treatment. The elevation of intracranial pressure triggers compensation mechanisms that, when they fail, can compromise life or cause serious neurological disabilities. Recognizing the cause for an accurate therapeutic approach is key to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Vitamin B 6 Deficiency/complications , Vitamin A Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Pseudotumor Cerebri/diagnosis , Vitamin B 6 Deficiency/drug therapy , Vision Disorders/etiology , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Vitamin A Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Pseudotumor Cerebri/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Papilledema/etiology , Intracranial Hypertension/diagnosis , Intracranial Hypertension/etiology , Vitamin B 6/administration & dosage
10.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 21(7): 2305-2313, Jul. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-785906

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo é analisar o registro de ações para a prevenção de morbidade na infância, a partir das informações de vacinação, suplementação de ferro e vitamina A presentes na caderneta de saúde da criança.Trata-se de um estudo transversal, com abordagem quantitativa, realizado em Unidades de Saúde da Família de João Pessoa-Paraíba, com amostragem por conveniência,totalizando 116 cadernetas. Os dados foram coletados a partir da observação dos registros nas cadernetas e analisados conforme estatística simples. A maior porcentagem das crianças estava com o calendário vacinal em dia (92,2%) e as que estavam em atraso tinham entre 6 e 12 meses de idade. Em 78,9% das cadernetas não constavam registros das duas suplementações de ferro e vitamina A. Em outras, havia apenas registro de uma das suplementações. A situação vacinal das crianças no primeiro ano de vida encontra-se satisfatória, porém foram observadas falhas nos registros da suplementação de ferro e vitamina A, o que dificulta o acompanhamento das condutas realizadas na criança pelos profissionais de saúde. Espera-se que este estudo possa contribuir para subsidiar discussões e estratégias que visem melhorar o acompanhamento e os registros das vacinações e das suplementações dos micronutrientes na caderneta de saúde da criança.


Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the registering of preventative actions in relation to child morbidity using information regarding vaccinations, as well as iron and vitamin A supplements, which are recorded in children’s health cards. This transversal study used a quantitative approach and was performed in Family Health Units in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba; the sampling was by convenience and totaled 116 children’s health cards. The data was collected by observing the cards and the analysis was simple, statistical. The highest percentage of children had their vaccination cards up to date (92.2%) and those that did not were aged between 6 and 12 months: 78.9% of the cards did not have records relating to iron and vitamin A supplements and others only had records of one of the supplements being administered. The vaccination status of children in the first year of life was found to be satisfactory; however, discrepancies were observed in the recordings of the administration of iron and vitamin A supplements, which complicates monitoring performed by child health care professionals. It is hoped that this study will contribute to discussions and strategies aimed at improving the monitoring and recording of micronutrients in children’s health cards.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Medical Records , Primary Prevention/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Supplements , Immunization , Iron/administration & dosage , Vitamin A/administration & dosage
11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(1): 29-35, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-774620

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on serum Th17 (IL-6, IL-17, IFNγ) and Treg (TGF-β, IL-10) related cytokines in obese and non-obese women. Subjects and methods In a randomized double blind placebo controlled design, 56 obese women were randomly assigned to receive either an oral dose of 25,000 IU retinyl palmitate or placebo per day for 4 months. Twenty eight ages matched non-obese women were also received vitamin A. At the study entry, anthropometric variables were measured and serum Th17 and Treg related cytokine profile were determined at baseline and 4 months after intervention. Results Significantly higher baseline concentrations of IL-6 were observed in obese compared with non-obese women (P < 0.05). However, the initial concentrations of other cytokines were not significantly different between groups. The mean concentrations of IL-17 and TGF-β were significantly decreased after vitamin A supplementation in non-obese and obese women respectively. Positive relationships between IL-17 and IL-10 (r = 0.42, P < 0.001), TGF-β and IL-17 (r = 0.35, P < 0.001) and between IL-10 and IFN-γ (r = 0.41, P = 0.002) in total participants were also observed. Conclusions The results of the present study showed for the first time that vitamin A supplementation reduces serum concentrations of IL-17 and TGF-β in reproductive age women. Further studies are needed to explore the possible underlying mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Cytokines/blood , Dietary Supplements , Obesity/blood , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Vitamin A/therapeutic use , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Analysis of Variance , Double-Blind Method , Interferon-gamma/blood , /blood , /blood , /blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , /metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/blood , Vitamins/therapeutic use
12.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 18(4): 824-836, Out.-Dez. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776680

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto da suplementação com vitamina A (VA) em gestantes e puérperas adultas no Brasil sobre o teor de VA e imunoglobulina A secretora (IgAS) do colostro e leite materno, nas condições de saúde infantil e no status de VA do binômio mãe-filho. Métodos: Realizou-se uma busca eletrônica nas bases MEDLINE, Scopus , Web of Science e Lilacs por estudos publicados entre janeiro de 2000 e janeiro de 2014. A qualidade metodológica dos estudos foi avaliada conforme a escala de Jadad. A busca pelas publicações ocorreu em janeiro de 2014 de forma independente por dois autores. Resultados: Encontraram-se sete estudos sobre os efeitos da suplementação com VA no puerpério sobre leite materno e morbidade infantil. Nenhum estudo com suplementação em gestantes foi detectado. A suplementação no puerpério elevou o teor de retinol no leite materno, aumentando a oferta de VA para a criança, e também a concentração de IgAS no colostro. Efeitos sobre a redução na morbidade infantil não foram descritos. Conclusão: Constata-se que os benefícios descritos sobre a suplementação no pós-parto ainda não foram completamente evidenciados no programa brasileiro, embora a suplementação contribua para a melhora do estado nutricional de VA da criança e da puérpera e na oferta da vitamina, pelo leite materno, ao recém-nascido.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the impact of vitamin A supplementation on adult pregnant and puerperal women in Brazil regarding the content of vitamin A and secretory immunoglobulin A on colostrum and breast milk, in child's health conditions, and in mother-child binomial vitamin A status. Methods: A research was conducted in Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Lilacs electronic databases for the studies published between January 2000 and January 2014. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed according to Jadad scale. The study search was conducted in January 2014, independently by two authors. Results: Seven studies were found concerning the effects of vitamin A supplementation in the puerperal period on breast milk and infant morbidity. No study regarding pregnant women supplementation was found. The supplementation in the puerperal period raised the retinol content on breast milk, thus increasing the offer of vitamin A for the child and the concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A on colostrum. There was no description of effects on infant morbidity. Conclusion: It seems that the advantages of postpartum supplementation were not established in the Brazilian program, although the supplementation contributes to a better nutritional status of vitamin A for both the child and the puerperal woman and increases the offer of vitamin A for the newborn through the breast milk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Brazil , Milk, Human , Postpartum Period , Vitamin A Deficiency
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158466

ABSTRACT

During the last century, vitamin A has evolved from its classical role as a fat-soluble vitamin and attained the status of para-/autocrine hormone. Besides its well-established role in embryogenesis, growth and development, reproduction and vision, vitamin A has also been implicated in several other physiological processes. Emerging experimental evidences emphasize adipose tissue as an active endocrine organ with great propensity to continuous growth (throughout life). Due to various genetic and lifestyle factors, excess energy accumulates in adipose tissue as fat, resulting in obesity and other complications such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shed light on vitamin A metabolites; retinaldehyde and retinoic acid and participation of their pathway proteins in the regulation of adipose tissue metabolism and thus, obesity. In this context, we discuss here some of our important findings, which establish the role of vitamin A (supplementation) in obesity and its associated disorders by employing an obese rat model; WNIN/Ob strain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Models, Animal , Obesity/complications , Obesity/diet therapy , Rats , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Vitamin A/therapeutic use
14.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 91(1): 81-86, Jan-Feb/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741571

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting and postprandial conditions. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study, with before and after assessments, conducted with 33 patients treated at a public maternity hospital. Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. A second colostrum collection occurred two hours after the first meal of the day, at which time a mega dose of 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate was administered. On the following day, the colostrum was collected again under fasting and postprandial conditions. Serum and colostrum retinol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The serum retinol concentration was 37.3 (16.8-62.2) µg/dL, indicating adequate nutritional status. The colostrum retinol concentration before supplementation was 46.8 (29.7-158.9) µg/dL in fasting and 67.3 (31.1-148.7) µg/dL in postprandial condition (p < 0.05), showing an increase of 43.8%. After supplementation, the values were 89.5 (32.9-264.2) µg/dL and 102.7 (37.3-378.3) µg/dL in fasting and postprandial conditions, respectively (p < 0.05), representing an increase of 14.7%. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A in postpartum resulted in a significant increase of the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting conditions, with an even greater increase after a meal. .


OBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito da suplementação com vitamina A sobre a concentração de retinol no leite colostro em condições de jejum e pós-prandial. MÉTODOS: Estudo quase-experimental, do tipo antes e depois, realizado com 33 parturientes atendidas em uma maternidade pública, das quais foram coletadas, em jejum, amostras de sangue e leite colostro, no pós-parto imediato. Uma segunda coleta de colostro ocorreu duas horas após a primeira refeição do dia, momento em que uma megadose de 200.000 UI de palmitato de retinila foi administrada. No dia seguinte, uma nova coleta de colostro foi realizada em condições de jejum e pós-prandial. As concentrações de retinol no soro e no colostro foram determinadas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. RESULTADOS: A concentração de retinol sérico foi de 37,3 (16,8-62,2) µg/dL, evidenciando um estado nutricional adequado. No colostro, a concentração de retinol antes da suplementação foi de 46,8 (29,7-158,9) µg/dL em jejum e 67,3 (31,1-148,7) µg/dL em condições pós-prandiais (p < 0,05), mostrando um aumento de 43,8%. Após a suplementação, os valores foram de 89,5 (32,9-264,2) µg/dL e 102,7 (37,3-378,3) µg/dL em jejum e pós-prandial, respectivamente (p < 0,05), representando um aumento de 14,7%. CONCLUSÕES: Este trabalho demonstrou que a suplementação materna com altas doses de vitamina A no pós-parto resultou em um aumento significativo da concentração de retinol no colostro em condições de jejum, sendo este valor ainda maior após a refeição. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Colostrum/chemistry , Dietary Supplements , Vitamin A/analysis , Vitamin A/analogs & derivatives , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Colostrum/drug effects , Fasting/metabolism , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Postpartum Period , Postprandial Period , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Vitamin A/blood , Vitamin A/pharmacokinetics
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 60(6): 555-559, Nov-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-736316

ABSTRACT

Objective: to investigate dietary intake of antioxidants in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: this is a cross-sectional case series study with 53 women accompanied at the Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas/UFPE, from January to October 2012. Demographic and anthropometric parameters (weight, height, body mass index, weight change) were collected by means of a form. The assessment of food consumption was conducted using a semi-quantitative food frequency survey, analyzed according to a food composition table. Database construction and statistical analysis were performed using Excel and SPSS version 18.0, using chi-squared test, Anova, and Student’s t-test, at a confidence level of 5%. Results: the sample was composed of 53 women with a mean age of 54.51 ± 4.24 years and BMI of 25.97 ± 5.94 kg/m². In the sociodemographic variables, statistically significant differences in origin, occupation, and income were observed. Daily consumption showed significance for vitamins A, C, and zinc. In adults, vitamins A and C were in accordance with recommendations, while in the elderly a low intake of vitamin E and selenium was observed. The relation between vitamin E and origin was significant. Conclusion: the sample was composed of 53 women with a mean age of 54.51 ± 4.24 years and BMI of 25.97 ± 5.94 kg/m². In the sociodemographic variables, statistically significant differences in origin, occupation, and income were observed. Daily consumption showed significance for vitamins A, C, and zinc. In adults, vitamins A and C were in accordance with recommendations, while in the elderly a low intake of vitamin E and selenium was observed. The relation between vitamin E and origin was significant. .


Objectivo: investigar o consumo alimentar de antioxidantes em pacientes portadores de artrite reumatoide. Métodos: estudo transversal do tipo série de casos com 53 mulheres acompanhadas no Ambulatório de Reumatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (HC-UFPE), de janeiro a outubro de 2012. Por meio de formulário, foram coletados parâmetros sociodemográficos e antropométricos (peso, estatura, índice de massa corpórea [IMC], alteração ponderal). A avaliação do consumo alimentar foi realizada por questionário de frequência alimentar semiquantitativo, analisado por tabela de composição de alimentos. A construção do banco de dados e a análise estatística foram realizadas por Excel e SPSS versão 18.0, com aplicação de testes Qui-quadrado, Anova e t-Student, com nível de confiança de 5%. Resultados: demonstrou-se que os pacientes apresentaram baixo consumo de vitaminas A, C e zinco. Portanto, ressalta-se a importância de maior consumo de alimentos fontes em antioxidantes, a fim de contribuir para a prevenção da lesão articular e a perda da função reumática, melhorando a qualidade de vida do paciente. Conclusão: demonstrou-se que os pacientes apresentaram baixo consumo de vitaminas A, C e zinco. Portanto, ressalta-se a importância de maior consumo de alimentos fontes em antioxidantes, a fim de contribuir para a prevenção da lesão articular e a perda da função reumática, melhorando a qualidade de vida do paciente. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Energy Intake/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Body Weight , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nutritional Status , Surveys and Questionnaires , Selenium/administration & dosage , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Zinc/administration & dosage
16.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(7): 744-749, 10/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-726257

ABSTRACT

Objective Our goal was to assess the effects of weight loss on antioxidant enzymes of red blood cells and it’s relation with vitamins A, E and C intake in 30 obese women. Subjects and methods General information, anthropometric measurements, 3-day food recall, and fasting blood samples were collected from 30 obese women at the beginning of the study and after 3 months intervention. Weight loss was set at about 10% of their weight before the intervention. Results Glutathione reductase and catalase activities showed a significant increase (P < 0.01) after weight reduction, but no significant changes were seen in the superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. There was a positive linear correlation between daily vitamin C intake with superoxide dismutase enzyme after intervention (P = 0.004, r = 0.507). There was a negative linear correlation between vitamin E intake and glutathione peroxidase activity before intervention (P = 0.005, r = -0.5). A negative correlation was found between daily vitamin A intake and glutathione reductase enzyme before and after intervention (r = -0.385, r = -0.397, P < 0.05) respectively. No significant correlation was observed between vitamins A, C, E amounts and catalase activity. Conclusions Ten percent weight reduction can have a significant role in increasing antioxidant enzymes activities, especially glutathione reductase, and catalase enzymes in obese women. However, it is important to take into consideration a balanced amount of certain nutrients while administering a diet with limited energy. .


Objetivo Nosso objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos da perda de peso sobre as enzimas antioxidantes de eritrócitos, e a relação destas com a ingestão das vitaminas A, E e C. Sujeitos e métodos Foram coletadas informações gerais e medidas antropométricas, registro alimentar de três dias e amostras de sangue em jejum de 30 mulheres obesas no início do estudo e depois de três meses da intervenção. A perda de peso determinada antes da intervenção foi de 10% do peso. Resultados As atividades da glutationa redutase e da catalase mostraram aumento significativo (P < 0,01) depois da perda de peso, mas não houve mudanças significativas nas atividades da superóxido dismutase e da glutationa peroxidase. Foi observada uma correlação linear positiva entre a ingestão diária de vitamina C e a enzima superóxido dismutase após a intervenção (P = 0,004, r = 0,507). Houve uma correlação linear negativa entre a ingestão de vitamina E e a atividade da glutationa peroxidase antes da intervenção (P = 0,005, r = -0,5). Foi observada uma correlação negativa entre a ingestão diária de vitamina A e a enzima glutationa redutase antes e depois da intervenção (r = -0,385, r = -0,397, P < 0,05), respectivamente. Não foram observadas correlações significativas entre as vitaminas A, C, E e os níveis e a atividade da catalase. Conclusões Uma redução de 10% no peso pode ter um papel significativo no aumento da atividade das enzimas antioxidantes, especialmente na glutationa redutase e catalase em mulheres obesas. Entretanto, é importante levar em consideração uma ingestão equilibrada de certos nutrientes ao se recomendar uma dieta com níveis de energia restritos. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Obesity/diet therapy , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Vitamin E/metabolism , Weight Loss/physiology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Ascorbic Acid/metabolism , Body Weight/physiology , Caloric Restriction , Catalase/blood , Glutathione Peroxidase/blood , Glutathione Reductase/blood , Hemoglobins/analysis , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , Oxidoreductases/analysis , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Vitamin A/metabolism , Weight Loss/drug effects
17.
Clinics ; 69(4): 225-233, 4/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705784

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of supplemental zinc, vitamin A, and glutamine alone or in combination on growth, intestinal barrier function, stress and satiety-related hormones among Brazilian shantytown children with low median height-for-age z-scores. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in children aged two months to nine years from the urban shanty compound community of Fortaleza, Brazil. Demographic and anthropometric information was assessed. The random treatment groups available for testing (a total of 120 children) were as follows: (1) glutamine alone, n = 38; (2) glutamine plus vitamin A plus zinc, n = 37; and a placebo (zinc plus vitamin A vehicle) plus glycine (isonitrogenous to glutamine) control treatment, n = 38. Leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), and plasma levels of cortisol were measured with immune-enzymatic assays; urinary lactulose/mannitol and serum amino acids were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00133406. RESULTS: Glutamine treatment significantly improved weight-for-height z-scores compared to the placebo-glycine control treatment. Either glutamine alone or all nutrients combined prevented disruption of the intestinal barrier function, as measured by the percentage of lactulose urinary excretion and the lactulose:mannitol absorption ratio. Plasma leptin was negatively correlated with plasma glutamine (p = 0.002) and arginine (p = 0.001) levels at baseline. After glutamine treatment, leptin was correlated with weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ) (p≤0.002) at a 4-month follow-up. In addition, glutamine and all combined nutrients (glutamine, vitamin A, and zinc) improved the intestinal barrier function in these children. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings reveal the benefits of glutamine alone or in combination ...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Dietary Supplements , Glutamine/administration & dosage , Growth and Development/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Zinc/administration & dosage , Anthropometry , Brazil , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Hormones/blood , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/drug effects , Malnutrition/drug therapy , Poverty Areas , Stress, Physiological/drug effects , Treatment Outcome
18.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 63(4): 321-328, dic. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-749955

ABSTRACT

La deficiencia de vitamina A es uno de los problemas de salud pública mas prevalentes a nivel mundial, principalmente a los países menos desarrollados, afectando especialmente a mujeres y niños. La causa más común de deficiencia de vitamina A es la ingesta inadecuada, sobre todo en presencia de infección. Las consecuencias de la deficiencia son xeroftalmia, ceguera nocturna, anemia, mayor susceptibilidad a infecciones y el aun controversial aumento de la mortalidad neonatal. Los datos nacionales no son suficientes para establecer los requerimientos, por esto, igual que en la revisión del año 2000, las recomendaciones actuales se basan en las definidas para la población de Estados Unidos. La Ingesta Dietética Recomendada (RDA) para Venezuela es: menores de 1 año 400-500 ER/día, niños 300-400 ER/día, adolescentes 600 ER/día y para adultos 900 ER/día para hombres y 700 ER/día para mujeres, aumentando a 750 ER/día por embarazo y a 1200-1300 ER/día por lactancia, dependiendo de la edad. El Requerimiento Promedio Estimado (EAR) es 210 a 275 ER/día para niños, 445 ER/día para adolescentes varones, 420 ER/día para adolescentes hembras, 630 ER/día para hombres y 485 ER/día para mujeres, aumentando a 530-550 ER/día por el embarazo y a 885-900 ER/día durante la lactancia, dependiendo de la edad. Los Niveles de Ingesta Máximos Tolerables (UL) para vitamina A son 600 ER/día para niños, 1700 a 2800 ER/día para adolescentes y 3000 ER/día para adultos, hombres y mujeres.


Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent nutritional deficiencies worldwide, mainly affecting children and women. The cause of vitamin A deficiency is insufficient intake, especially in presence of infection and the consequences of the deficiency are xerophthalmia, night blindness, anemia, increased susceptibility to infections and the still controversial increase in infant mortality. National evidence at this point is insufficient to establish the recommendation, and as in the 2000 review of the Venezuelan RDAs, the actual recommendations are based on the reported for the United States population. The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for Venezuela are 400-500 RE/day for infants, 300-400 RE/day for children 600 RE/day for adolescents, 900 RE/day for men and 700 RE/day for women, increasing to 750 RE/day for pregnancy and to 1200-1300 RE/day during lactation, depending on the age. The estimated average requirement (EAR) is between 210 and 275 RE/day for children, 445 RE/day for male adolescents, 420 RE/day for female adolescents, 630 RE/day for men and 485 RE/day for women, increasing to 530-550 and 885-900 RE/ day during pregnancy and lactation, respectively. The tolerable upper intake levels (UL) for vitamin A are 600 RE/day for children, 1700 a 2800 RE/day for adolescents and 3000 RE/day for adults, males and females.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Age Factors , Body Weight , Energy Intake , Reference Values , Sex Factors , Venezuela
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(supl.1): 58-62, dez. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705853

ABSTRACT

Horses used for the game of polo experience abrupt and frequent changes in exercise intensity. To meet this variable energy demand, the horses use both aerobic and anaerobic pathways in varying proportions and intensities. In this context, there must be a balance between the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the action of antioxidants to prevent oxidative stress and its consequences. The effect of supplementation with an ADE vitamin complex on oxidative metabolism was evaluated in 18 crossbred horses randomly divided between a treated group (TG) and a control group (CG). The TG animals received the ADE vitamin complex (1mL/50 kg of body weight) by deep intramuscular injection at 30 and 15 days before the game. The CG horses received 10ml of saline by the same administration route and schedule. During the polo match, the animals played for a total of 7.5 min. Blood samples were collected on the same days as the treatments were administered, and immediately before and at 15, 90 and 180 minutes after the game. The concentrations of creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lactate, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the blood samples. After the game, the TG demonstrated higher levels of AST, lactate and glucose than the CG, suggesting more efficient energy use by the treated animals. The higher GSH and lower lactate levels in the TG before the game suggest the presence of a greater antioxidant supply in the treated animals. The maintenance of the MDA levels indicates that neither of the groups exhibited oxidative stress.


O jogo de pólo se caracteriza por mudanças abruptas e frequentes na intensidade do exercício dos cavalos. Para satisfazer esta demanda inconstante de energia, os animais utilizam as vias aeróbia e anaeróbia em proporções e intensidade variáveis. Neste contexto deve haver equilíbrio entre a formação das espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROs) e a ação das substâncias antioxidantes a fim de evitar o estresse oxidativo e suas consequências. Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação com vitaminas ADE no metabolismo oxidativo destes animais. Para tanto, 18 equinos mestiços foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: tratado e controle (GT) e controle (GC).Os animais do GT receberam complexo vitamínico ADE (1 mL/50 kg de peso vivo) pela via intramuscular profunda aos 30 e 15 dias antes do jogo. Os cavalos do GC receberam, pela mesma via de administração e nos mesmos momentos, 10mL de solução fisiológica. Os animais jogaram um tempo de 7,5min. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue nos mesmos dias de tratamento e imediatamente antes e aos 15, 90 e 180 minutos após o jogo. Foram determinadas as concentrações sanguíneas de CK, LDH, lactato, glicose, AST, GSH, SOD e MDA. Após o jogo o GT apresentou maiores valores para AST, lactato e glicemia que o GC, sugerindo melhor aproveitamento energético dos animais tratados. Os valores maiores de GSH e menores de lactato no GT antes da prova sugerem maior aporte antioxidante nos animais tratados. A manutenção dos teores de MDA indica que nenhum dos grupos entrou em estresse oxidativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Horses/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal/adverse effects , Veterinary Sports Medicine/trends , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Dietary Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin E/administration & dosage
20.
Clinics ; 68(3): 351-358, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify the impact of supplemental zinc, vitamin A, and glutamine, alone or in combination, on long-term cognitive outcomes among Brazilian shantytown children with low median height-for-age z-scores. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in children aged three months to nine years old from the urban shanty compound community of Fortaleza, Brazil. Demographic and anthropometric information was assessed. The random treatment groups available for cognitive testing (total of 167 children) were: (1) placebo, n = 25; (2) glutamine, n = 23; (3) zinc, n = 18; (4) vitamin A, n = 19; (5) glutamine+zinc, n = 20; (6) glutamine+vitamin A, n = 21; (7) zinc+vitamin A, n = 23; and (8) glutamine+zinc+vitamin A, n = 18. Neuropsychological tests were administered for the cognitive domains of non-verbal intelligence and abstraction, psychomotor speed, verbal memory and recall ability, and semantic and phonetic verbal fluency. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 16.0. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00133406. RESULTS: Girls receiving a combination of glutamine, zinc, and vitamin A had higher mean age-adjusted verbal learning scores than girls receiving only placebo (9.5 versus 6.4, p = 0.007) and girls receiving zinc+vitamin A (9.5 versus 6.5, p = 0.006). Similar group differences were not found between male study children. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that combination therapy offers a sex-specific advantage on tests of verbal learning, similar to that seen among female patients following traumatic brain injury.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Dietary Supplements , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Glutamine/administration & dosage , Verbal Learning/drug effects , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Zinc/administration & dosage , Brazil , Cognition/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Neuropsychological Tests , Poverty Areas , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Treatment Outcome
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