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2.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 88(4): 228-236, ago. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515214

ABSTRACT

Insufficient vitamin D levels occur in 88.1% of the worlds population, which constitutes a global public health problem. We analyzed vitamin D deficiency and suggested vitamin D supplementation in the perinatal health of pregnant women living in geographical areas higher than 40° south-north latitude according to reviews from the last three decades and identifying midwives role. The methodology used was a qualitative systematic review of full text studies, conducted in geographical areas higher than 40°N and 40°S. Descriptors such as: "deficiency", "vitamin D", "pregnancy", "causes", "perinatal outcomes" and "supplementation", and their respective descriptors in Spanish. The matrices were tabulated according to the modified PRISMA. Eight studies were obtained in English from the Northern Hemisphere only, mostly with good quality evidence and related to the role of midwifing according to the expert round. The results showed risks such as: origin of the pregnant woman, ethnicity, low sun exposure, obesity, socioeconomic status, and perinatal risks. No studies were found in pregnant women from the Southern Hemisphere or related to the role of the midwife in this area. In conclusion, midwifery should considerer the social determinants of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women, especially those in extreme southern areas where incorporation of supplementation are suggested as a public policy.


Los niveles insuficientes de vitamina D se dan en el 88,1% de la población mundial, lo que constituye un problema de salud pública global. Se analizó la deficiencia y la sugerencia de suplementación de vitamina D en la salud perinatal de las gestantes residentes en áreas geográficas de latitud 40° sur-norte según revisiones de las últimas tres décadas identificando el rol de la matrona. La metodología utilizada fue una revisión sistemática cualitativa de estudios a texto completo, realizados en áreas geográficas mayores al paralelo 40°N y 40°S. Descriptores como: "deficiencia", "vitamina D", "embarazo", "causas", "resultados perinatales" y "suplementación", y sus respectivos descriptores en español. Las matrices se tabularon según el PRISMA modificado. Se obtuvo ocho estudios en inglés pertenecientes sólo al hemisferio norte, la mayoría con buena calidad de evidencia. Los resultados arrojaron factores como origen de la embarazada, etnia, baja exposición al sol, obesidad, nivel socioeconómico y riesgos perinatales. No se encontraron estudios en mujeres embarazadas del hemisferio sur o relacionados con el papel de la matrona. En conclusión, desde el ejercicio de la matronería se deben considerar los determinantes sociales de las mujeres embarazadas especialmente de zonas extremas del sur donde se sugiere investigación experimental e incorporación de la suplementación como política pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/prevention & control , Midwifery , Risk Factors , Perinatal Care , Extreme Weather
3.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(2): 75-83, jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1381397

ABSTRACT

The obesity worldwide has produced an increase in obesity-related diseases and can be associated with low concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D. Also obesity and low physical activity can decrease sun exposure, so the aim was to correlate vitamin D intake with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels and to assess sun exposure habits in schoolchildren with obesity. Materials and methods. A correlational study was performed from January 2017 to January 2018 on 103 children between 6-12 years of age, with a body mass index ≥+2SD for age and sex, according to the World Health Organization. Blood samples were taken to determine the serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D, a nutritional survey to determine the vitamin D intake and a sun exposure questionnaire were applied. A Spearman correlation coefficient analysis was performed. Results. Forty-seven percent of the children were girls. The median years of age was 10. The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels were 35.5 ng/mL, 74.8% had sufficient levels, 25.2% had insufficient levels. The median vitamin D intake was 214.7IU in boys and 231.9IU in girls. Regarding sun exposure, most of the children had excessive levels of sun exposure and inadequate sun protection practices. A positive correlation between vitamin D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D was identified only in boys (rho=0.276, p=0.041). Conclusion. A positive correlation between vitamin D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels was found in obese boys and excessive levels of sun exposure with inadequate sun protection practices in boys and girls(AU)


La obesidad se le ha asociado con distintas comorbilidades, bajas concentraciones séricas de 25-hidroxivitamina-D, sedentarismo que a su vez podría comprometer la exposición solar; por tanto, el objetivo fue relacionar la ingesta de vitamina D con los niveles séricos de 25-hidroxivitamina-D y determinar los hábitos de exposición solar en escolares con obesidad. Materiales y métodos. Estudio correlacional realizado de enero 2017 a enero 2018, en 103 niños entre 6 y 12 años, con un índice de masa corporal ≥+2DE para edad y sexo, según la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se extrajo muestras sanguíneas para determinar las concentraciones séricas de 25-hidroxivitamina-D, se aplicó una encuesta nutricional para determinar la ingesta de vitamina D y un cuestionario de exposición solar. Se realizó un análisis del coeficiente de correlación de Spearman. Resultados. El 47% de los sujetos eran niñas. La mediana de edad fue de 10. La mediana de los niveles séricos de 25-hidroxivitamina-D fue de 35,5 ng/mL, el 74,8% tenía niveles suficientes, el 25,2% tenía niveles insuficientes. La mediana de la ingesta de vitamina D fue de 214,7UI en niños y de 231,9UI en niñas. Con respecto a la exposición solar, la mayoría de los niños presentaban una exposición excesiva y prácticas inadecuadas de protección solar. Se identificó una correlación positiva entre la ingesta de vitamina D y la 25-hidroxivitamina-D sérica en los niños (rho=0,276, p=0,041). Conclusión. Se identificó una correlación positiva entre la ingesta de vitamina D y los niveles séricos de 25-hidroxivitamina-D en niños obesos y exposición excesiva con prácticas inadecuadas de protección solar en niños y niñas(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Solar Energy , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Sedentary Behavior , Obesity/complications , Students , Exercise , Body Mass Index , Surveys and Questionnaires , Feeding Behavior , Mexico
4.
Goiânia; SES-GO; 14 maio 2021. 1-15 p. fig, ilus, tab.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1224471

ABSTRACT

O termo vitamina D engloba um grupo de moléculas secosteroides derivadas do 7- deidrocolesterol (7-DHC ou provitamina D) interligadas através de uma cascata de reações fotolíticas e enzimáticas que acontecem em células de diferentes tecidos. (CASTRO, 2011). Nos seres humanos, apenas 10% a 20% da vitamina D necessária à adequada função do organismo provém da dieta. (CASTRO, 2011). O restante, cerca de 80%, da vitamina D é produzida na pele após a exposição à radiação ultravioleta B ­ UVB (HOLICK, 2008)


The term vitamin D encompasses a group of secosteroid molecules derived from 7- dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC or provitamin D) interconnected through a cascade of photolytic and enzymatic reactions that occur in cells of different tissues. (CASTRO, 2011). In humans, only 10% to 20% of the vitamin D needed for proper body function comes from the diet. (CASTRO, 2011). The remainder, about 80%, of vitamin D is produced in the skin after exposure to ultraviolet radiation B ­ UVB (HOLICK, 2008)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/biosynthesis
6.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(4): 159-165, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344801

ABSTRACT

La diabetes Tipo 1 (DT1) es una compleja enfermedad autoinmune con una etiología aún desconocida. La vitamina D ha sido ampliamente estudiada debido a su potencial terapéutico en los potenciales nuevos casos de DT1. Por otra parte, los microARNs (miRs) han sido propuestos como posibles biomarcadores en diversos procesos biológicos como en la apoptosis e inflamación. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la suplementación con vitamina D sobre el perfil de expresión del miR-21 y marcadores de apoptosis tales como: BCL2, STAT3, TIPE2 y DAXX, en células mononucleares periféricas provenientes de pacientes con DT1 y sujetos controles. RESULTADOS: El perfil de expresión de miR-21 se encontró disminuido en los pacientes con DT1 en comparación con los controles. La expresión relativa de BCL2 se encontró aumentada en controles al comparar con pacientes DT1 en todas las condiciones experimentales. La expresión relativa de DAXX mostró un perfil de expresión diferencial al comparar pacientes con DT1 versus controles (p=0.006). CONCLUSIÓN: El estímulo con vitamina D parece tener un posible efecto regulador sobre los genes BCL2 y DAXX.


Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a complex chronic autoimmune disease. Vitamin D has been one of the most studied therapeutic potential outbreaks related to T1D. Specific miRNAs have been proposed as potential biomarkers in several biological processes as apoptosis and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D on the expression profiles of miR-21 and apoptotic markers BCL2, STAT3, TIPE2 and DAXX, in PBMCs from T1D patients and control subjects. RESULTS: miR-21 expression was increased in controls regarding T1D patients. BCL2 was increased in controls compared to T1D patients in all experimental conditions. DAXX showed different expression patterns between T1D patients and controls (p=0.006). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D showed a possible regulation effect on apoptosis markers mainly through the regulation of BCL2 and DAXX


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Apoptosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Vitamin D/metabolism , Biomarkers , Molecular Chaperones/drug effects , Molecular Chaperones/genetics , Molecular Chaperones/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , MicroRNAs/drug effects , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/drug effects , STAT3 Transcription Factor/genetics , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Co-Repressor Proteins/drug effects , Co-Repressor Proteins/genetics , Co-Repressor Proteins/metabolism , Glucose/administration & dosage
7.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 39: e2020087, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250807

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on newborns and infants. Data sources: The present study is an integrative review of literature based on clinical trials published in journals indexed in the PubMed and Web of Science databases. Two searches were carried out, starting with the association (and) of the health term "vitamin D" with "pregnancy". In the search for information, selection criteria were established, and there was no language limitation and year of publication. Data synthesis: The final selection resulted in 44 clinical trials, most of which were randomized and double blind, which were carried out in outpatient clinics, referral hospitals and universities, mainly in Europe. The samples studied were predominantly of newborns. In these 44 trials, 23 types of different doses of vitamin D during pregnancy, with different doses, regimens and times of use, and 14 different outcomes were studied in newborns (NB) and infants. Of the 44 studies performed, 35 showed statistically significant beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on newborns and infants compared to control groups. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy for at least three months before delivery has the potential of positively influencing calcium metabolism, physical growth and immune system development in newborns and infants. However, there is insufficient knowledge to define the optimal dose and to guarantee the absence of possible long-term adverse effects.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar os efeitos da suplementação de vitamina D durante a gestação no recém-nascido e lactente. Fontes de dados: Revisão integrativa da literatura baseada em ensaios clínicos publicados em revistas indexadas nas bases de dados PubMed e Web of Science. Foi realizada uma busca em cada base de dados, que partiu da associação (and) dos descritores de saúde vitamin D e pregnancy. Na busca pelas informações, foram estabelecidos critérios de seleção e não houve limitação de idioma nem de ano de publicação. Síntese de dados: A seleção final resultou em 44 ensaios clínicos - a maioria randomizada e duplo-cego -, que foram realizados em ambulatórios, hospitais de referência e universidades sobretudo da Europa. As amostras estudadas foram predominantemente de recém-nascidos. Nesses 44 ensaios, foram testadas 23 formas de suplementação de vitamina D na gestação, com diferentes doses, regimes e tempos de uso, e estudaram-se 14 desfechos diferentes nos recém-nascidos e lactentes. Dos 44 estudos, 35 demonstraram efeitos benéficos da suplementação de vitamina D durante a gestação nos recém-nascidos e lactentes de forma estatisticamente significante, quando comparados aos do grupo controle. Conclusões: A suplementação de vitamina D na gestação, por no mínimo três meses antes do parto, potencialmente influencia de forma positiva o metabolismo do cálcio, o crescimento físico e o desenvolvimento do sistema imunológico dos recém-nascidos e lactentes, entretanto não há conhecimento suficiente para a definição da dose ideal nem para garantir a inexistência de possíveis efeitos adversos em longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Prenatal Care/methods , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(3): 149-153, set 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391841

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the link between calcium supplementa- tion and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women (aged 55 years or older). Methods: A standardized questionnaire was employed to collect data about calcium supplements, eart di- sease, and demographic of women attended at Primary Care in the South Region of Brazil. Generalized linear regression models were performed to evaluate the association and adjust for poten- tial confounders. Results: Overall, 1,057 women completed the questionnaire. Information about calcium supplementation was present in 1,035 questionnaires. The mean ± standard deviation of the age of participants was 67.2±7.6 years. The frequency of calcium supplementation was 18.6%. There was no association between heart failure, stroke, and ischemic heart disease and cal- cium supplementation (prevalence ratio; 95% confidence interval of 0.3; -0.9-0.4, -0.2; -0.8-0.4 and -0.5; -1.0-0.02, respectively. Con- clusions: Our study did not find an association of higher risk of cardiovascular disease in women using calcium supplementation at Primary Care in South Brazil.


Objetivo: Avaliar a ligação entre a suplementação de cálcio e doença cardiovascular em mulheres na pós-menopausa (com 55 anos ou mais). Métodos: Um questionário padronizado foi em- pregado para coletar dados sobre suplementos de cálcio, doenças cardíacas e demográficos de mulheres que frequentavam a Aten- ção Primária na Região Sul do Brasil. Modelos de regressão linear generalizada foram realizados para avaliar a associação e ajustar os potenciais fatores de confusão. Resultados: No total, 1.057 mulheres responderam ao questionário. As informações sobre su- plementação de cálcio estavam presentes em 1.035 questionários. A média ± desvio-padrão da idade dos participantes foi de 67,2 ± 7,6 anos. A frequência de suplementação de cálcio foi de 18,6%. Não houve associação entre insuficiência cardíaca, acidente vas- cular cerebral e doença cardíaca isquêmica e suplementação de cálcio (razão de prevalência; intervalo de confiança de 95% de -0,3; -0,9-0,4, -0,2; -0,8-0,4 e -0,5; -1,0-0,02, respectivamente). Con- clusão: Nosso estudo não encontrou associação de maior risco de doença cardiovascular em mulheres em uso de suplementação de cálcio na Atenção Primária no Sul do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Primary Health Care , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Postmenopause , Calcium Compounds/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Stroke/chemically induced , Bone Density Conservation Agents/administration & dosage , Heart Disease Risk Factors
9.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 6(4): 257-267, oct.-dic. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391136

ABSTRACT

La prevalencia de trastorno del espectro autista ha ido en aumento, sin embargo, en Chile no existen lineamientos nutricionales acerca del posible tratamiento de la condición. Es por ello que el objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar la evidencia actual en relación al uso de una dieta libre de gluten y caseína, suplementación de vitamina D y omega 3 y su impacto en el comportamiento de niños/as con trastorno del espectro autista. Hay evidencia con resultados en torno a los beneficios de la suplementación con vitamina D debido a su carácter neuroprotector y su función neuromuscular. A su vez, la evidencia con omega 3 (DHA) es estadísticamente significativa para irritabilidad, hiperactividad, letargo, comportamiento estereotipado, conciencia social, comunicación y disminución de la severidad del autismo. Respecto a la dieta libre de gluten y caseína lo observado es que no existe evidencia que respalde los beneficios que esta exclusión entregaría. Aún falta evidencia para declarar un manejo nutricional específico para el tratamiento de los síntomas gastrointestinales y de comportamiento, más allá de la suplementación con aquellos micronutrientes en déficit.


The prevalence rate of autism spectrum disorder has been increasing, however, in Chile there are no nutritional guidelines about the possible treatment of the condition. That is the reason why the aim of this review is to analyze the current evidence regarding the use of a gluten and casein free diet, vitamin D and omega 3 supplementation and its impact in the behavior of children's with spectrum disorder autistic. There is evidence based on significant results regarding the benefits of vitamin D supplementation due to its neuroprotective character and neuromuscular function. At the same time the omega 3 evidence is statistically significant in the diminution of irritability hyperactivity, lethargy, stereotypical behavior, severity of autism and increase of social consciousness and communication. Regarding the gluten-free and casein-free diet, what was observed is that there is no evidence to support the benefits that this exclusion would provide. The evidence has not been conclusive to declare a specific nutritional management for the treatment of gastrointestinal and behavioral symptoms, beyond supplementation with those micronutrients in deficit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Caseins/administration & dosage , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Child Behavior/drug effects , Diet, Gluten-Free , Autism Spectrum Disorder/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements
10.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(5): 684-690, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144266

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El primer año de vida es un periodo de riesgo de deficiencia de vitamina D (VD). La administración de 400 UI diarias de VD no tiene una adherencia del 100%, en cambio dosis únicas de 100.000 UI de VD oral son seguras en recién nacidos. OBJETIVO: Comparar el efecto de la suplementación oral de VD en dosis única de 100.000 UI al mes de edad vs dosis diarias de 400 UI sobre las concentraciones séricas de VD, a los 6 meses de vida. SUJETOS Y MÉTODOS: Ensayo clínico aleatorizado, sin enmascaramiento. Se incluyeron 84 lactantes sanos de 1 mes de vida, asignados al azar al grupo de estudio (GE) que recibió una dosis única de VD de 100.000 UI oral o al grupo control (GC), que recibió dosis diarias de VD de 400 UI oral del 1er al 6to mes de vida. A los 6 meses de edad se determinó la concentración sérica de VD. RESULTADOS: 65 lactantes terminaron el estudio, 36 en GE y 29 en GC. No se encontró deficiencia de VD. La insuficiencia de VD fue de 5,5% y 6,8% en el GE y GC, respectivamente. La concentración sérica de VD a los 6 meses de vida, fue de 38,8 ± 5,2 ng/ml y 39,7 ± 6,3 ng/ml para GE y GC, respectivamente (NS). CONCLUSIONES: La suplementación con 100.000 UI de VD única al mes de edad logra concentraciones séricas de VD a los 6 meses de vida, similares a dosis diarias de 400 UI de VD, del 1er al 6to mes.


INTRODUCTION: Infants are a group at risk of vitamin D (VD) deficiency. The administration of 400 IU of VD per day during the first year of life does not achieve 100% adherence. A single dose of 100,000 IU of oral VD is safe in newborns. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of oral administration of VD between a single dose of 100,000 IU at one month of age vs daily doses of 400 IU on serum concentrations of VD, at 6 months of age. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Randomized clinical trial, without masking. 84 healthy infants were included at 1 month of age, randomized to the study group (SG) receiving a single oral dose of 100,000 IU or to the control group (CG), who received daily oral doses of VD of 400 IU from the 1st to the 6th month of life. At 6 months of life, the serum concentration of VD was determined. RESULTS: 65 infants completed the study, 36 in SG and 29 in CG. No VD deficiency was found. VD insufficient was 5.5% and 6.8% in the SG and CG, respectively. The serum concentration of VD at six months of age was 38.8 ± 5.2 ng/ml and 39.7 ± 6.3 ng/ml for the SG and CG, respectively (NS). CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of 100,000 IU of VD at one month age achieves serum concentrations of VD at 6 months of life similar to the administration of daily doses of 400 IU of VD from the 1st to the 6th month.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/prevention & control , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Drug Administration Schedule , Biomarkers/blood , Nutritional Status , Administration, Oral , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
11.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 31(2): e183, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138902

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La vitamina D, considerada más que una vitamina, una prohormona, se le atribuye múltiples e importantes funciones que van más allá de la homeostasis cálcica. El creciente interés por la vitamina D está relacionado con el descubrimiento de sus receptores y de la expresión de la enzima 1α-hidroxilasa en diferentes tejidos del organismo. Esto ha generado la descripción de un gran número de efectos de la vitamina D en diferentes tejidos y en diversos procesos fisiológicos como: actividad antitumoral, reparación del ácido desoxirribonucleico (DNA), control de la apoptosis, estrés oxidativo, inmunomodulación, adhesión celular y metabolismo y otras funciones aún por esclarecer, y aunque los estudios no son concluyentes, los mismos proponen una relación entre niveles bajos de la vitamina y algunas enfermedades crónicas, autoinmunes y oncológicas. Objetivo: El propósito del presente artículo es describir las funciones extraesqueléticas de la vitamina D y su relación con algunas enfermedades a partir de información actualizada. Método: Se utilizó como buscador de información científica el Google Académico. Se revisaron 101 artículos provenientes de diferentes bases de datos: PubMed, SciELO y páginas web en general; de los cuales fueron referenciados 74 documentos. Conclusiones: Existe evidencia del efecto extraóseo de la hormona vitamina D, así como de la influencia biológica desfavorable de sus bajos niveles, sin embargo, no existe consenso relativo al efecto beneficioso de la suplementación con esta hormona(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Vitamin D, considered, more than a vitamin, a prohormone, is attributed multiple and important functions beyond calcium homeostasis. The growing interest in vitamin D is related to the discovery of its receptors and the expression of the 1α-hydroxylase enzyme in different body tissues. This has generated the description of a large number of effects of vitamin D in different tissues and it involvement in various physiological processes such as antitumor activity, DNA repair, control of apoptosis, oxidative stress, immunomodulation, cell adhesion, and metabolism, as well as other functions still to be clarified; and, although studies are not conclusive, they suggest a relationship between low levels in the vitamin and some chronic, autoimmune and oncological diseases. Objective: The purpose of this article was to describe, based on updated information, the extraskeletal functions of vitamin D and its relationship with some diseases. Methods: Google Scholar was the search engine used to retrieve scientific information. We reviewed 101 articles from different databases, such as PubMed, SciElo, and web pages in general. Out of this number, 74 were chosen as referents. Conclusions: There is evidence about the extra-bone effect of the hormone known as vitamin D, as well as about the unfavorable biological influence of its low levels; however, there is no consensus regarding the beneficial effect of supplementation with this hormone(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Homeostasis/drug effects , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic/trends
12.
Actual. osteol ; 16(2): [116]-[131], mayo.-ago. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129745

ABSTRACT

"Los coronavirus pertenecen a una gran familia de virus (Coronaviridae) que infectan aves y varios mamíferos. El coronavirus actualmente denominado SARS-CoV-2, fue descubierto en diciembre de 2019 en Wuhan, provincia de Hubei, China, y es el agente causal de la epidemia de neumonía atípica actual" (COVID-19; Coronavirus Disease 2019). Los casos más graves presentan un síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda que puede conducir a la muerte. La vitamina D (VD), además del efecto bien conocido y positivo sobre la salud ósea y la homeostasis del calcio, tiene efecto pleiotrópico en varios órganos, con distribución casi universal del receptor de VD y de las enzimas de metabolización de 25 hidroxivitamina D (25OHD) en las células del organismo. Estas acciones extraesqueléticas dependen de la síntesis en dichas células del metabolito activo 1,25 dihidroxivitamina D por regulación paracrina y autocrina, dependiente de niveles circulantes óptimos de 25OHD. Por sus acciones inmunomoduladora, antiinflamatoria, antimicrobiana, reguladora del sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona, favorecedora de la indemnidad del epitelio respiratorio y la homeostasis redox celular, la VD podría tener efecto protector en la infección por COVID-19. Entre los grupos de riesgo para COVID-19 figuran los adultos mayores, obesos, diabéticos, hipertensos, con afecciones cardiovasculares, patologías con mayor incidencia en individuos con hipovitaminosis VD. La suplementación con VD, para alcanzar niveles óptimos de 25OHD de 40-60 ng/ml, podría reducir la incidencia, severidad y riesgo de muerte en la actual pandemia por COVID-19, como medida complementaria mientras se desarrollan la vacuna y otras medicaciones específicas. (AU)


Coronaviruses belong to a large family of viruses (Coronaviridae) that infect birds and various mammals. The novel coronavirus currently known as SARS-CoV-2 was discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China and is the causal agent of the current atypical pneumonia epidemic (COVID-19: Coronavirus Disease 2019); The most severe cases present with acute respiratory distress syndrome that can lead to death. Vitamin D (VD) has a pleiotropic effect on several organs, in addition to its wellknown and positive effect on bone health and calcium homeostasis, with an almost universal distribution of the VD receptor and the metabolites of 25hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in all cells of the body. These extra-skeletal actions depend on the synthesis of the active metabolite 1,25dihydroxyvitamin D in the cells depending on the optimal circulating levels of 25OHD and though paracrine and autocrine regulation. Due to its immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and regulatory actions on the renin angiotensin aldosterone system, which favors the compensation of the respiratory epithelium and cellular redox homeostasis, the VD could have a protective effect on COVID-19 infection. Among the risk groups for COVID-19 are obese, diabetic, and hypertensive patients, subjects with cardiovascular conditions, and elderly people. All these pathologies show a higher incidence in individuals with VD hypovitaminosis. VD supplementation, to achieve optimal 25OHD levels of 40-60 ng/ml, could reduce the incidence, severity, and risk of death in the current COVID-19 pandemic, as a complementary measure while the vaccine and other specific therapies are being developed. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vitamin D/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/biosynthesis , Vitamin D/physiology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Calcifediol/biosynthesis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus
13.
Buenos Aires; IECS; 28 jul. 2020.
Non-conventional in Spanish | BRISA, LILACS | ID: biblio-1119361

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTO CLÍNICO: La enfermedad por el Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), por su sigla en inglés Coronavirus Disease 2019) es una enfermedad respiratoria de humanos por un nuevo Coronovirus identificado con la sigla SARS-CoV-2. TECNOLOGÍA: La vitamina C o ácido ascórbico es una vitamina soluble en agua con una función conocida sobre la síntesis de colágeno en tejidos conectivos y actúa como antioxidante. La vitamina D no solo es un nutriente sino también una hormona, que puede sintetizarse en nuestro cuerpo con la ayuda de la luz solar. El zinc es un oligoelemento dietético y es importante para el mantenimiento y el desarrollo de las células inmunes del sistema inmunitario innato y adaptativo. La deficiencia de Zinc resulta en la disfunción de la inmunidad humoral y mediada por células y aumenta la susceptibilidad a enfermedades infecciosas. OBJETIVO: El objetivo del presente informe es evaluar la evidencia disponible acerca de la eficacia, seguridad y aspectos relacionados a las políticas de cobertura del uso de suplementos vitamínicos (Vit. C, D) y Zinc en la infección por COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una búsqueda en las principales bases de datos bibliográficas, en buscadores genéricos de internet, financiadores de salud. Se priorizó la inclusión de revisiones sistemáticas (RS), ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados (ECAs), evaluaciones de tecnologías sanitarias (ETS), evaluaciones económicas, guías de práctica clínica (GPC) y recomendaciones de diferentes organizaciones de salud. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron una RS con MA, un protocolo de RS, un estudio observacional retrospectivo y ocho recomendaciones de sociedades científicas. No se hallaron estudios que evalúen la suplementación con vitaminas C y D para la prevención o tratamiento de la infección por COVID-19. Para Zinc, se halló un solo estudio que lo utiliza combinado con tratamientos discontinuados para esta patología por alertas en su seguridad. CONCLUSIONES: No hallaron estudios que evalúen la suplementación con las vitaminas C y D, solas o combinadas con otros tratamientos, en la prevención o tratamiento de la infección por COVID-19. Tampoco se encontraron estudios preventivos que evaluén el uso de Zinc. En el caso de su uso terapéutico, evidencia de muy baja calidad no permite determinar los efectos de la suplementación con Zinc en pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19. Aunque se desconoce el efecto preventivo en relación al COVID-19, se halló evidencia de alta calidad de estudios realizados durante la era pre- COVID-19 que muestra que, en población general, la suplementación con vitamina D reduce el riesgo de infecciones respiratorias agudas. La incertidumbre actual podría reducirse a corto o mediano plazo debido a que se encuentran en curso aproximadamente 90 estudios que evaluarán el efecto de la administración C y D, y Zinc, solas o en combinación con otros tratamientos, para la prevención o tratamiento de la infección por COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Zinc/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Health Evaluation , Cost-Benefit Analysis
14.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Quito) ; 45(1): 21-27, junio 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362007

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La vitamina D en la piel tras la exposición solar se constituye en precursor y agente anabólico óseo que esti- mula el transporte activo de calcio a través de la mucosa intestinal. La Sociedad Europea de Aspectos Clínicos y Económicos de la osteoporosis y osteoartritis, recomienda que pacientes postmenopáusicas con niveles de 25 (OH) D menores de 50 nmol/L reciban suplementación entre 800 y 1000 UI diarias de vitamina D. Objetivo: Determinar en mujeres con osteoporosis el cambio porcentual de 25 (OH) D en sangre, con la administración de 100.000 UI. de vitamina D cápsulas una vez al mes, así como seguridad y grado de satisfacción con el tratamiento. Sujetos y métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, longitudinal, en el que se incluyeron 44 mujeres que recibieron 100.000 UI de vitamina D una vez al mes por tres meses. Se realizó control de laboratorio pre y post-tratamiento a una sub- muestra no probabilística de 10 pacientes. Resultados: El 70% de casos refirió no tener comorbilidades. El valor inicial de vitamina D en la sub-muestra fue 23,5±10,1nmol/l; al final el promedio fue 27,2±9,6 nmol/l. Post-tratamiento los niveles de vitamina D aumentaron un 20% en más del 50% de casos. El 93% de casos no refirieron eventos adversos. Los eventos adversos reportados fueron gastro-intestinales, eventos ósteo-articulares y cefalea. La mayoría de casos reportaron encontrarse satisfechos con el tratamiento. Conclusión: El tratamiento fue muy bien tolerado, la mayoría de casos refirieron estar satisfechos con el tratamiento. Se observaron incrementos porcentuales significativos de 25 (OH) D en sangre luego de 12 semanas de tratamiento. Palabras clave: Vitamina D, osteoporosis, caracterización.


"Introduction: Vitamin D in the skin after sun exposure constitutes precursor and bone anabolic agent that stimulates the active transport of calcium through the intestinal mucosa. The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Os- teoporosis and Osteoarthritis, recommends that postmenopausal patients with 25 (OH) D levels less than 50 nmol / L receive supplementation between 800 and 1000 IU daily of vitamin D. Objective: Determine in women with osteoporosis the percentage change of 25 (OH) vitamin D in blood, with the adminis-tration of 100,000 IU of vitamin D caps once a month, as well as safety and degree of satisfaction with the treatment. Subjects and methods: Observational, descriptive and longitudinal study, which included 44 women who received 100,000 IU of vitamin D once a month for three months. Pre and Post-treatment laboratory control was performed on a non-proba- bilistic subsample of 10 patients. Results: The 70% of cases reported not having comorbidities. The initial value of vitamin D was 23.5 ± 10.1 nmol/l at the end the average was 27.2 ± 9.6 nmol/l in the subsample. Post-treatment increased Vit D. levels 20.4% in more than 50% of cases, 93% of cases did not report adverse events. The adverse events reported were gastro-intestinal, osteo-articular events and headache. The majority of cases reported being satisfied with the treatment. Conclusion: Treatment was very well tolerated, the majority of cases reported being satisfied with the treatment. Significant percentage increases of 25 (OH) D were observed in blood after 12 weeks of treatment. Key words: Vitamin D, osteoporosis, characterization."


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Osteoporosis , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/adverse effects , Vitamin D/blood
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): 95-101, abr. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1099857

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El objetivo fue evaluar la concentración de vitamina D en niños sanos de 12 a 24 meses suplementados con vitamina D (400 UI/día) durante el primer año.Métodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal entre junio de 2015 y mayo de 2016 en Estambul. Se incluyó a niños de 12 a 24 meses en seguimiento en la clínica del niño sano y con suplementación con vitamina D durante el primer año. Se midió calcio, fósforo, fosfatasa alcalina, hormona paratiroidea y 25-hidroxivitamina D [25(OH)D]. Se definió suficiencia (>20 ng/ml), insuficiencia (15-20 ng/ml) y deficiencia (<15 ng/ml) de vitamina D.Resultados. El estudio incluyó 197 niños. El 26,9 % (n = 53) siguió recibiendo suplementación después del año (dosis media: 491 ± 267 UI/día). La concentración media de 25(OH)D fue 38,0 ± 13,9 ng/ml. La ingesta regular de vitamina D en menores de un año (p = 0,008) y la continuación de suplementación después del año (p = 0,042) aumentaron la concentración de 25(OH)D en niños de 12 a 24 meses. Hubo deficiencia en 4,1 % e insuficiencia en 7,1 %. El nivel educativo materno (p = 0,009) y la leche maternizada (p = 0,012) fueron factores protectores contra deficiencia o insuficiencia.Conclusiones. La concentración de 25(OH)D era suficiente en el 88,8 % de los niños de 12 a 24 meses con suplementación con vitamina D (400 UI/día) durante el primer año. Los niños sanos de 12 a 24 meses con una suplementación correcta de vitamina D en el primer año podrían no requerir suplementación.


Introduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin D levels between 12-24 month-old healthy children supplemented with vitamin D (400 IU/day) during the first year.Methods. Descriptive-sectional study conducted between June 2015, and May 2016, in Istanbul (latitude 41ºN). Children aged 12-24 months followed up by the well-child clinic who had vitamin D supplementation in the first year were included in the study. The levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured. Vitamin D status was defined as >20 ng/mL: sufficiency, 15-20 ng/mL: insufficiency and <15 ng/mL: deficiency.Results. The study was completed with 197 children. 26.9 % of children (n = 53) went on receiving supplementation after one year (mean dose 491 ± 267 IU/day). The mean 25(OH)D level was 38.0 ± 13.9 ng/mL. It was found that regular vitamin D intake under one year of age (p = 0.008) and continued support after one year of age (p = 0.042) increased level of 25(OH)D in children aged 12-24 months. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 4.1 % and vitamin D insufficiency in 7.1 %. Mother's education (p = 0.009) and use of formula (p = 0.012) were protective factors in relation to development of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency.Conclusions. The level of 25(OH)D was sufficient in 88.8 % of children aged 12-24 months receiving 400 IU/day vitamin D supplementation in the first year. Vitamin D supplementation could not be required in healthy children aged 12-24 months who received properly vitamin D supplementation in the first year.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Vitamin D/blood , Dietary Supplements , Turkey , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical
16.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(4): 205-209, dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087949

ABSTRACT

The main source of Vitamin D is the bioconversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholecalciferol, however, the level of sun exposition has been drastically reduced during the last decades, so it is not unusual to find a high deficit of Vitamin D in the population. There is evidence to suggest that the deficit of Vitamin D is associated with a worse evolution of asthma and a greater risk of serious exacerbations. Possibly prenatal Vitamin D supplementation to pregnant mothers reduces the risk of wheezing and asthma in the offspring, and supplementation to asthmatic children could improve the evolution of the disease.


La principal fuente de Vitamina D es la bioconversión del 7-dehidrocolesterol a colecalciferol, sin embargo, el nivel de exposición solar se ha reducido drásticamente durante las últimas décadas, por lo que no es extraño encontrar un déficit elevado de Vitamina D en la población. Existe evidencia que sugiere que el déficit de Vitamina D se asocia a peor evolución del asma y mayor riesgo de exacerbaciones graves. Posiblemente la suplementación prenatal de Vitamina D a madres embarazadas reduzca el riesgo de sibilancias y asma en los hijos que nacerán, y la suplementación a niños asmáticos podría mejorar la evolución de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma/therapy , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Asthma/etiology , Asthma/prevention & control , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Dietary Supplements
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(11): 1415-1422, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094171

ABSTRACT

Background Sun exposure is the main source of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D. Since anesthesiologists work inside operating rooms, they are identified as a deficiency risk group. As medical activity in general occurs indoors, added to the work excess and sedentary lifestyle, physicians in general have low sun exposure. Aim To investigate the determinants of vitamin D levels in physicians. Material and Methods Anesthesiologists and physicians not working in operating rooms were included. A survey that comprised working hours, diet, skin color, sunscreen use and outdoor activities was also applied. Measurements of vitamin D and parathormone levels in blood were performed. Results We analyzed samples from 81 volunteers. Median vitamin D values of the whole sample were in the range of insufficiency (25.3 [interquartile range 12.4] ng/ml). Multiple linear regression analysis detected no differences between anesthesiologists and non-anesthesiologists. A higher body mass index was a risk factor for vitamin D deficiency, (p = 0.025). The only protective factor was the intake of a vitamin D supplement (p < 0.01). Conclusions Anesthesiologists and other specialists were both at risk for vitamin D deficiency. Obesity was a risk factor and the use of a vitamin D supplement was the only protective factor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Dietary Supplements , Anesthesiologists/statistics & numerical data , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
18.
Actual. osteol ; 15(2): 94-102, mayo - ago. 2019. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048478

ABSTRACT

El propósito de la terapia en el desorden del metabolismo óseo mineral asociado a la enfermedad renal crónica (IRC) consiste en restaurar el balance mineral, y, en la osteoporosis, mantener o aumentar la masa ósea. Ambas terapias tratan de evitar la fractura ósea. La mayoría de los osteoactivos están contraindicados en la insuficiencia renal crónica avanzada (estadios 4 y 5), y las terapias son empíricas. Algunos autores opinan que sin anomalías bioquímicas del desorden del metabolismo óseo mineral asociado a la enfermedad renal crónica avanzada se podría intentar el tratamiento estándar para la osteoporosis. Antes de intentar la terapia osteoactiva se debe corregir el desorden mineral óseo que pudiera presentarse asociado a la IRC, y en la indicación del tipo de osteoactivo se sugiere seleccionar al paciente según su estado óseo. Se aconseja que la administración de los antirresortivos se realice a dosis menores con respecto a los que tienen mejor función renal junto con aportes adecuados de calcio y vitamina D, antes y durante el tratamiento para prevenir el riesgo de severas hipocalcemias y un efecto óseo excesivo. Se presenta el caso clínico de una mujer de 65 años, con diagnóstico de osteoporosis de etiología multifactorial, fractura de pelvis, múltiples fracturas vertebrales e insuficiencia renal crónica avanzada, entre otras comorbilidades, y probable enfermedad ósea adinámica. Recibió inicialmente terapia con teriparatide y luego con denosumab, complicándose con hipocalcemia asintomática. (AU)


The purpose of therapy for the bone mineral metabolism disorder associated with chronic kidney disease is to restore the mineral balance; and to maintain or increase bone mass in osteoporosis. The goal of both types of therapy is to avoid bone fractures. Most antiosteoporotic drugs are contraindicated in advanced chronic renal failure (CRF) stages 4 and 5, and the therapies are empirical. Some authors believe that without biochemical abnormalities of the mineral bone metabolism disorder associated with advanced chronic kidney disease, standard treatment for osteoporosis could be attempted. Before attempting antiosteoporotic therapy, the bone mineral disorder that may be associated with CRF must be corrected, and in the indication of the type drug it is suggested that the patient be selected according to their bone status. It is advised that the administration of anti-resorptives be performed at lower doses in individuals with poor renal function compared to those with better renal function together with adequate calcium and vitamin D, before and during treatment to prevent the risk of severe hypocalcemia, and an excessive bone effect. We present the clinical case of a 65-year-old woman with a diagnosis of osteoporosis of multifactorial etiology, pelvic fracture, multiple vertebral fractures and advanced chronic renal failure, among other comorbidities and probable adynamic bone disease. The patient received initial therapy with teriparatide and followed by denosumab administration and exhibited asymptomatic hypocalcemia. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/drug therapy , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Osteoporosis/therapy , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/complications , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/metabolism , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/therapy , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Calcium/administration & dosage , Calcium/therapeutic use , Alendronate/therapeutic use , Teriparatide/administration & dosage , Teriparatide/adverse effects , Teriparatide/therapeutic use , Diphosphonates/administration & dosage , Diphosphonates/adverse effects , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Cinacalcet/therapeutic use , Risedronic Acid/therapeutic use , Denosumab/administration & dosage , Denosumab/adverse effects , Denosumab/therapeutic use , Hypocalcemia/prevention & control
20.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(4): 228-234, jun 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046179

ABSTRACT

Introduction. With age, there is a growing risk of vitamin D deficiency and cognitive impairment. Maintaining the older people's health is socially relevant to health systems in the light of the population ageing trend. The study was aimed at identifying the relationship of vitamin D levels and symptoms of moderate cognitive impairment in older people. Methods. The authors conducted a cross-sectional screening of vitamin D status and cognitive impairment using the memory impairment screen (MIS) questionnaire, as well as the clinical, placebo-controlled study of vitamin D intake at a dose of 2,000 IU/day for 6 months. Results. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency in older patients with signs of cognitive impairment totaled 90.91 %, which was significantly more frequently compared with the group without cognitive impairment, where vitamin D deficiency was found only in 11.36 % of cases. In the dynamics on the background of the vitamin D intake for 6 months, the concentration in the intervention group amounted to 52.34 ± 2.43 ng/ml vs 14.71 ± 1.54 ng/ ml in the placebo group. The results of the study of cognitive impairment using MIS for the treatment group were 3.63 ± 0.01 points, which was significantly higher compared with the placebo group ­ 1.78 ± 0.22 points. A correlation analysis of vitamin D levels and MIS points showed a strong positive relationship, with a correlation coefficient of 0.92. Conclusion. The study identified a positive relationship of increasing vitamin D levels and reducing the symptoms of mild cognitive impairment in older people. Achieving vitamin D levels of over 40 ng/ ml greatly reduces the symptoms of cognitive impairment identified by the MIS questionnaire, however, the issue of treatment of impaired cognitive functions with vitamin D remains debatable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Treatment Outcome , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Controlled Clinical Trial , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy
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