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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 278-288, abr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056435

ABSTRACT

This experiment was designed to study the effects of oral administration of artemether which is the most rapid-acting class of antimalarial drugs and the possible protective effect of vitamin E taken with it on the liver of albino rats. A total of twenty-four adult male albino rats were used in this study and were divided into four groups. Group one served as a control and rats in group two exposed to oral intake of artemether daily for fifteen days. The third and fourth groups treated with artemether plus low and high doses of vitamin E respectively. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed, and the livers were obtained and processed for histological, biochemical and statistical studies. Histological study of the hepatocytes of rats exposed to artemether showed nearly complete disintegration of most cellular contents except few numbers of mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Also, the cytoplasm of these cells had few lysosomes, many vacuoles and irregular nuclei with abnormal distribution of chromatin and were shown. The hepatic sinusoids were dilated and filled with blood and vacuoles and bile ductules were abnormal in its structure. Treatment with low and high doses of vitamin E in concomitant with artemether ameliorated the hepatic histopathological lesions and its parenchyma attained nearly normal structure. As far as biochemical changes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in rats treated with artemether were significantly elevated as compared to the control. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly increased in the liver in rats treated with artemether. However, vitamin E ameliorated the rise in ALT and AST with decreased MDA concentration and levels of SOD as compared to the corresponding artemether group values. Results of the present suggest that artemether has a harmful and stressful effect on hepatic tissue and the treatment with vitamin E may alleviate this toxicity.


Este experimento fue diseñado para estudiar los efectos de la administración oral de arteméter, la clase de medicamentos antipalúdicos de acción rápida, y el posible efecto protector de la vitamina E en el hígado de ratas albinas. Se utilizaron un total de 24 ratas albinas machos adultas y se dividieron en cuatro grupos. El grupo uno sirvió como control y las ratas en el grupo dos recibieron la dosis oral de arteméter diariamente durante 15 días. Los grupos tres y cuatro fueron tratados con arteméter, más dosis bajas y altas de vitamina E, respectivamente. Al final del experimento, se sacrificaron las ratas y se obtuvieron y procesaron los hígados para estudios histológicos, bioquímicos y estadísticos. El estudio histológico de los hepatocitos de ratas expuestas a arteméter mostró una desintegración casi completa de la mayoría de los contenidos celulares, excepto algunos mitocondrias y retículo endoplásmico rugoso. Además, el citoplasma de estas células tenía pocos lisosomas, muchas vacuolas y núcleos irregulares con distribución anormal de cromatina. Los sinusoides hepáticos estaban dilatados y llenos de sangre y vacuolas, y los conductos biliares tenían una estructura anormal. El tratamiento con dosis bajas y altas de vitamina E en forma concomitante con arteméter mejoró las lesiones histopatológicas hepáticas y su parénquima alcanzó una estructura casi normal. En cuanto a los cambios bioquímicos, la alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y la aspartato aminotransferasa (AST) en ratas tratadas con arteméter se elevaron significativamente en comparación con el control. Los niveles de superóxido dismutasa (SOD) y malondialdehído (MDA) aumentaron significativamente en el hígado en ratas tratadas con arteméter. Sin embargo, la vitamina E mejoró el aumento de ALT y AST con una disminución de la concentración de MDA y los niveles de SOD en comparación con los valores correspondientes del grupo de arteméter. Los resultados del presente estudio sugieren que el arteméter tiene un efecto dañino y estresante sobre el tejido hepático y el tratamiento con vitamina E puede aliviar esta toxicidad.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Artemisinins/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic/enzymology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Liver/drug effects , Antimalarials/toxicity
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 461-471, abr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056463

ABSTRACT

This experiment was designed to study the administration of normal doses of one of recent antimalarial drug and coadministration of vitamin E on the kidney tissue. A total twenty-four adult male albino rats were used and divided into four groups: the first one served as a control, the second received artemether orally for three days consecutively. The rats of the third and fourth groups received the same dose of artemether concomitantly with 50 and 100 mg/kg vitamin E orally daily for 2 weeks. After the last dose, the rats were sacrificed and the kidney tissues with blood samples obtained and processed for light, electron microscopic and biochemical analysis. Histologically, artemether treated kidneys showed atrophied glomeruli with widened urinary space and kidney tubules were degenerated with disturbed contour and some vacuoles inside it. Ultrastructurally, the glomeruli of this group showed hypertrophic endothelial cells, irregularity of its basement membrane, disrupted foot processes and filtration slits. The kidney tubule cells showed loss of basal infoldings, cytoplasmic vacuolation, polymorphic damaged swollen mitochondria a loss of its microvilli towards its capillary lumen. Artemether plus vitamin E of the rat kidney groups showed improvement of morphological changes compared to the changes seen in artemether alone. These data were confirmed by biochemical findings with marked improvement of blood urea and creatinine levels and increase of anti-oxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the vitamin E treated groups. The results of this study revealed that vitamins E can improve the adverse changes of artemether of rat renal tissue.


Este proyecto fue diseñado para estudiar la administración de dosis normales de uno de los medicamentos antipalúdicos y de la administración de vitamina E en el tejido renal. Se utilizaron 24 ratas albinas machos adultas divididas en cuatro grupos: el primero sirvió como control, el segundo recibió arteméter por vía oral durante tres días consecutivos. Las ratas del tercer y cuarto grupos recibieron la misma dosis de arteméter concomitantemente con 50 y 100 mg / kg de vitamina E por vía oral diariamente durante 2 semanas. Después de la última dosis, las ratas fueron sacrificadas y se obtuvo el tejido renal de cada muestra los cuales fueron procesados para análisis con microscopías de luz y electrónica, además de exámenes bioquímicos. Histológicamente, los riñones tratados con arteméter mostraron atrofia glomerular con espacio urinario ensanchado y túbulos renales degenerados con contorno alterado y algunas vacuolas en su interior. Ultraestructuralmente, los glomérulos de este grupo mostraron células endoteliales hipertróficas, irregularidad de su membrana basal, procesos alterados del pie y hendiduras de filtración. Las células del túbulo renal mostraron pérdida de inflexiones basales, vacuolación citoplasmática, mitocondrias dañadas y pérdida de sus microvellosidades hacia la luz capilar. Arteméter más vitamina E en los grupos de riñón de rata mostraron una mejora de los cambios morfológicos, en comparación con los cambios observados en arteméter solamente. Estos datos fueron confirmados por hallazgos bioquímicos con una marcada mejoría de los niveles de urea y creatinina en sangre y un aumento de las actividades enzimáticas antioxidantes de la glutatión peroxidasa y la superóxido dismutasa en los grupos tratados con vitamina E. Los resultados de este estudio revelaron que la vitamina E puede mejorar los cambios adversos del arteméter del tejido renal de la rata.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Artemether/toxicity , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Microscopy, Electron , Biomarkers/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/ultrastructure , Antimalarials/toxicity
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1335-1341, Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040134

ABSTRACT

Food additives and flavour enhancers used in the food industry are potential health risks. We tested the hypothesis that the food additive and flavour enhancer, monosodium glutamate (MSG), which is the sodium salt of glutamic acid can induce ultrastructural alterations to the kidney, and the antioxidant vitamin E can protect against acute kidney injuries induced by a toxic dose of MSG in a rat model of the disease. The model group of rats received a daily dose of MSG (4 gm/kg) for 7 days, whereas the protective groups were either received a 100 mg/kg vitamin E plus MSG or 300 mg/kg vitamin E plus MSG for 7 days. Rats were then sacrificed on day 8. Transmission and light microscopy images revealed substantial kidney damage induced by MSG in the model group as demonstrated by degenerated epithelial cells with Pyknotic nuclei, swollen mitochondria, damaged brush margins, dilated tubules, and widening of Bowman's space with shrinkage and deformity of some glomeruli. Treatment of the model group with vitamin E showed a substantial protection of kidney tissue and renal ultrastructure by 300 mg/kg vitamin E compared to a partial protection by 100 mg/kg vitamin E. In addition, MSG significantly (p<0.05) increased serum levels of urea and creatinine, which were significantly (p<0.05) decreased with vitamin E. However, for serum creatinine, high doses of vitamin E (300 mg/kg) were more effective than lower doses (100 mg/kg) of vitamin E. These results indicate that vitamin E at 300 mg/kg effectively protects against MSG-induced acute kidney injury in rats.


Los aditivos alimentarios y los potenciadores del sabor utilizados en la industria alimentaria son riesgos potenciales para la salud. Probamos la hipótesis de que el aditivo alimentario y el potenciador del sabor, glutamato monosódico (MSG), la sal sódica del ácido glutámico, puede inducir alteraciones ultraestructurales del riñón, y que las propiedades antioxidantes de la vitamina E, pueden proteger contra las lesiones renales inducidas por una dosis tóxica de MSG en un modelo de rata. El grupo modelo de ratas recibió una dosis diaria de MSG (4 g / kg) durante 7 días, mientras que los grupos protectores recibieron una dosis de 100 mg / kg de vitamina E más MSG o 300 mg / kg de vitamina E más MSG durante 7 días. Las ratas se sacrificaron el día 8. Las imágenes de microscopía óptica y de transmisión revelaron un daño renal sustancial inducido por el MSG en el grupo modelo, como lo demuestran las células epiteliales degeneradas con núcleos picnóticos, mitocondrias hinchadas, bordes dañados, túbulos dilatados y ensanchamiento del espacio de Bowman, además de la deformidad de algunos glomérulos. El tratamiento del grupo modelo con vitamina E mostró una protección sustancial del tejido renal y la ultraestructura renal de 300 mg / kg de vitamina E en comparación con una protección parcial de 100 mg / kg de vitamina E. Además, el MSG aumentó significativamente (p <0,05) en el suero los niveles de urea y creatinina, disminuyeron significativamente (p <0,05) con la vitamina E. Sin embargo, para la creatinina sérica, las dosis altas de vitamina E (300 mg / kg) fueron más efectivas que las dosis más bajas (100 mg / kg) de vitamina E. Estos resultados indican que la vitamina E a 300 mg / kg protege eficazmente contra la lesión renal aguda inducida por MSG en ratas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sodium Glutamate/toxicity , Vitamin E/therapeutic use , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/ultrastructure
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1350-1355, Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975707

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: We sought to investigate the potential protective effect of Vitamin E supplementation against hepatocyte ultrastructural alterations induced by high fat diet (HFD) in a rat model of pre-diabetes. Therefore, rats were either fed with HFD (model group) or a standard laboratory chow (control group) for 12 weeks before being sacrificed. The protective group fed on a HFD and started the treatment with vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day, i.p) from day 1 until being sacrificed at week 12. The harvested liver tissues were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of liver injury and prediabetes. TEM images showed that HFD induced profound pathological changes to the hepatocyte ultrastructure as demonstrated by degenerated hepatocytes with damaged cytoplasm that have mitochondrial swelling, dilation of endoplasmic reticulum, blebbing of plasma membranes, and cytoplasmic accumulations of lipid droplets and vacuoles, which were substantially but not completely protected with vitamin E. In addition, HFD significantly (p<0.05) augmented biomarkers of liver injury and pre-diabetes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), malondialdehyde (MDA), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), which were significantly (p<0.05) reduced with vitamin E except TNF-α and TC. Furthermore, none of these biomarkers were reduced to the control level by vitamin E. We conclude that vitamin E is a partial protective agent against HFD-induced liver injury and pre-diabetes.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el posible efecto protector de la administración de suplementos de vitamina E contra las alteraciones ultraestructurales de los hepatocitos inducidas por una dieta rica en grasas (DRG) en un modelo de prediabetes en ratas. Antes de ser sacrificadas las ratas fueron alimentadas con DRG (grupo modelo) o un alimento estándar de laboratorio (grupo control) durante 12 semanas. El grupo protector se alimentó con una DRG y comenzó el tratamiento con vitamina E (100 mg/kg/día, i.p) desde el día 1 hasta sacrificarlo en la semana 12. Los tejidos hepáticos recolectados se examinaron mediante microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET) y se tomaron muestras de sangre y se analizaron los biomarcadores de daño hepático y prediabetes. Las imágenes de MET mostraron que el DRG indujo cambios patológicos profundos en la ultraestructura de los hepatocitos, como lo demuestran los hepatocitos degenerados con citoplasma dañado e hinchazón mitocondrial, dilatación del retículo endoplasmático, formación de ampollas en las membranas plasmáticas y acumulaciones citoplásmicas de gotas de lípidos y vacuolas, los que fueron sustancialmente protegidas con vitamina E. Además, DRG aumentó significativamente (p <0,05) los biomarcadores de daño hepático y prediabetes como alanina aminotransferasa (ALT), aspartato aminotransferasa (AST), factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α), malondialdehído (MDA), colesterol total (CT), triglicéridos (TG) y lipoproteína de colesterol de baja densidad (LDL-C), la cual se redujo significativamente (p <0,05) con vitamina E, excepto TNF-α y CT. Ninguno de estos biomarcadores se redujo al nivel de control por la vitamina E. Concluimos que la vitamina E es un agente protector parcial contra la lesión hepática inducida por DRG y la prediabetes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Prediabetic State/drug therapy , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases/drug effects , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Cholesterol/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hepatocytes/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Alanine Transaminase/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/prevention & control , Liver/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/analysis
5.
Biol. Res ; 51: 34, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent and its underlying pathogenesis involves dyslipidemia including pro-atherogenic high density lipoprotein (HDL) remodeling. Vitamins C and E have been proposed as atheroprotective agents for cardiovascular disease management. However, their effects and benefits on high density lipoprotein function and remodeling are unknown. In this study, we evaluated the role of vitamin C and E on non HDL lipoproteins as well as HDL function and remodeling, along with their effects on inflammation/ oxidation biomarkers and atherosclerosis in atherogenic diet-fed SR-B1 KO/ApoER61h/h mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were pre-treated for 5 weeks before and during atherogenic diet feeding with vitamin C and E added to water and diet, respectively. Compared to a control group, combined vitamin C and E administration reduced serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels by decreasing apo B-48-containing lipoproteins, remodeled HDL particles by reducing phospholipid as well as increasing PON1 and apo D content, and diminished PLTP activity and levels. Vitamin supplementation improved HDL antioxidant function and lowered serum TNF-α levels. Vitamin C and E combination attenuated atherogenesis and increased lifespan in atherogenic diet-fed SR-B1 KO/ApoER61h/h mice. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin C and E administration showed significant lipid metabolism regulating effects, including HDL remodeling and decreased levels of apoB-containing lipoproteins, in mice. In addition, this vitamin supplementation generated a cardioprotective effect in a murine model of severe and lethal atherosclerotic ischemic heart disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Myocardial Ischemia/prevention & control , Apolipoprotein B-48/drug effects , Hyperlipidemias/prevention & control , Lipoproteins, HDL/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Reference Values , Coronary Artery Disease/prevention & control , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Immunoblotting , Reproducibility of Results , Cytokines/blood , Treatment Outcome , Myocardial Ischemia/blood , Dietary Supplements , Phospholipid Transfer Proteins/blood , Diet, Atherogenic , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/drug effects , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/blood , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Apolipoprotein B-48/blood , Hyperlipidemias/blood , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Mice, Inbred C57BL
6.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 30(4): 638-648, sep.-dec. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Considerando um número estimado de cerca de 51 milhões de cirurgias a cada ano apenas nos EUA, podemos dizer que a hipertrofia cicatricial é um problema relevante, já que uma cicatriz fina, de boa qualidade, pode ser a linha divisória entre um bom resultado e uma cirurgia malsucedida. O objetivo é fazer uma revisão bibliográfica acerca dos métodos de tratamento não invasivos atualmente disponíveis para a prevenção da hipertrofia cicatricial pós-cirúrgica e discutir a sua eficácia baseada em evidências. Método: Foi realizada uma pesquisa nas bases de dados Pubmed, Lilacs e SciELO, utilizando os termos "scar prevention" and "hypertrophic scars", por ensaios clínicos, meta-análises e artigos de revisão publicados a partir de 2004, em inglês ou português. Resultados e Conclusões: Foram encontrados vários trabalhos utilizando o silicone, proporcionando alguma evidência acerca da sua eficácia; foram encontrados apenas três ensaios clínicos prospectivos relacionados ao uso do Contractubex®; dois ensaios clínicos prospectivos, controlados, randomizados, sendo apenas um deles duplo-cego, com o imiquimode a 5%; foi encontrado apenas um ensaio clínico bem desenhado utilizando o esparadrapo microporoso e outro trabalho relacionado ao uso da vitamina E, que não mostrou bons resultados; não foram encontrados ensaios clínicos sobre o uso da massagem e da pressão local. Apesar das deficiências dos estudos, o silicone é considerado a primeira opção na prevenção da hipertrofia cicatricial pós-cirúrgica. Não há evidências que comprovem a eficácia do esparadrapo microporoso, da massagem, da pressão local, do Contractubex, do imiquimode a 5% e da vitamina E.


Introduction: Considering that nearly 51 million surgeries are performed annually just in the USA, we can state that scar hypertrophy is a relevant problem, since a thin, good quality scar can be the dividing line between a good outcome and an unsuccessful surgery. The objective is to perform a bibliographic review of the noninvasive methods currently available to prevent postoperative hypertrophic scars and discuss their evidence-based effectiveness. Method: A search was performed in PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases, using the terms "scar prevention" and "hypertrophic scars," for clinical trials, meta-analyses, and review articles published since 2004 in English or Portuguese language. Results and Conclusions: Several studies using silicone were found, providing some evidence on its effectiveness; only 3 prospective clinical trials using Contractubex® were found; 2 controlled, randomized prospective clinical trials using 5% imiquimod were found, but only one was doubleblind; one well-designed clinical trial using a micropore adhesive tape was found; a similar clinical trial using vitamin E did not show good results. Clinical trials on the use of massage and local pressure were not found. Despite the limitations of the studies, silicone is considered the first treatment option for the prevention of postoperative hypertrophic scars. There is no evidence proving the effectiveness of micropore adhesive tape, massage, local pressure, Contractubex, 5% imiquimod, or vitamin E.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 21st Century , Postoperative Complications , Silicones , Vitamin E , Wounds and Injuries , Review Literature as Topic , Prospective Studies , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic , Clinical Study , Hypertrophy , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Silicones/therapeutic use , Vitamin E/therapeutic use , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/surgery , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/prevention & control , Hypertrophy/surgery , Hypertrophy/therapy
7.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 10-15, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741533

ABSTRACT

Introduction Neural response telemetry (NRT) is a method of capturing the action potential of the distal portion of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) users, using the CI itself to elicit and record the answers. In addition, it can alsomeasure the recovery function of the auditory nerve (REC), that is, the refractory properties of the nerve. It is not clear in the literature whether the responses from adults are the same as those from children. Objective To compare the results of NRT and REC between adults and children undergoing CI surgery. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive, and retrospective study of the results of NRT and REC for patients undergoing IC at our service. The NRT is assessed by the level of amplitude (microvolts) and REC as a function of three parameters: A (saturation level, in microvolts), t0 (absolute refractory period, in seconds), and tau (curve of the model function), measured in three electrodes (apical, medial, and basal). Results Fifty-two patients were evaluated with intraoperative NRT (26 adults and 26 children), and 24 with REC (12 adults and 12 children). No statistically significant difference was found between intraoperative responses of adults and children for NRTor for REC's three parameters, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. Conclusion The results of intraoperative NRT and REC were not different between adults and children, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Exercise , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Physical Endurance/drug effects , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Vitamins/pharmacology
8.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-8, 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gossypol is a chemical present in the seeds of cotton plants (Gossypium sp.) that reduces fertility in farm animals. Vitamin E is an antioxidant and may help to protect cells and tissues against the deleterious effects of free radicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms of reproductive toxicity of gossypol in rats and the protective effects of vitamin E. Forty Wistar rats were used, divided into four experimental groups (n = 10): DMSO/ saline + corn oil; DMSO/saline + vitamin E; gossypol + corn oil; and gossypol + vitamin E. RESULTS: Fertility was significantly reduced in male rats treated with gossypol in that a significant decrease in epididy-mal sperm count was observed (P < 0.05) and the number of offspring was significantly reduced in females mated with them (P < 0.05). This dysfunction was prevented by vitamin E. Gossypol caused a significant increase in the activity of the enzymes glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.01) and glutathione reductase (P < 0.01), but vitamin E did not reduce the enzyme activities (P > 0.05). The levels of reduced glutathione and pyridine nucleotides in testis homogen-ate were significantly reduced by gossypol (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) and this reduction was accompanied by increased levels of oxidized glutathione (P < 0.05). Vitamin E showed a preventive effect on the changes in the levels of these substances. Gossypol significantly increased the levels of malondialdehyde (P < 0.01), a lipid peroxida-tion indicator, whereas treatment with vitamin E inhibited the action of the gossypol. Vitamin E prevented a decrease in mitochondrial ATP induced by gossypol (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the reproductive dysfunction caused by gossypol may be related to oxidative stress and mitochondrial bioenergetic damage and that treatment with vitamin E can prevent the infertility caused by the toxin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Gossypol/pharmacology , Contraceptive Agents, Male/pharmacology , Fertility/drug effects , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Gossypol/adverse effects , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Glutathione Peroxidase , Glutathione Reductase , Malondialdehyde
9.
Reports of Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2015; 2 (1): 15-18
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-175164

ABSTRACT

Background: There is still no consensus regarding the optimum treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis and its management is still mainly supportive. Vitamin E has been shown to be effective in reducing the symptoms of oral mucositis


Objectives: Aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of prophylactic systemic and topical vitamin E in reducing the signs and symptoms of oral mucositis in patients receiving chemotherapy


Patients and Methods: We conducted a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial among 76 patients with a hematologic malignancy treated with chemotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned into three groups: supplementation with vitamin E paste [group 1] and 200 mg/d vitamin E pills [group 2]. Group 3 received placebo paste, identical in appearance and taste to the vit E paste, but consisting of the vehicle only. Patients were advised to use the administered medication from two days before each cycle of chemotherapy till at least 20 days after completion of each cycle. Oral exam was performed 10-14 days after each cycle of chemotherapy


Results: Patients in group 2 and 3 did not show any difference in degree of mucositis or severity of pain. However, after the second cycle, patients who were treated with topical vitamin E showed significantly less oral pain, and had fewer cases of severe mucositis compared to groups 2 and 3


Conclusions: Topical vitamin E could be beneficial in reducing the severity of oral mucositis, but no therapeutic gain would be achieved by using systemic vitamin E in this regard


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Antineoplastic Agents , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Vitamin E/pharmacology
10.
Salud colect ; 10(3): 365-377, sep.-dic. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-733296

ABSTRACT

El fenómeno de la transexualidad es un asunto en el que el peso social, en concreto de los colectivos transexuales, ha sido y sigue siendo crucial en muchos aspectos, desde la progresiva eliminación de la discriminación hasta la influencia para que el poder legislativo se pronuncie. En este artículo de investigación se tratará especialmente una de las reivindicaciones clásicas del colectivo, esto es, el tratamiento sanitario integral de la persona transexual dentro del Sistema Nacional de Salud. En este sentido, se observarán los avances en el desarrollo de un sistema sanitario adecuado para este colectivo, su tratamiento por parte de los distintos ordenamientos jurídicos en España, en general, y en alguna de sus comunidades autónomas con legislaciones más destacables (en especial Andalucía como comunidad autónoma pionera, el País Vasco y la Comunidad Foral de Navarra) y los retos pendientes, haciendo una especial investigación en torno a las sustanciales novedades que ha implantado en este ámbito la publicación de la quinta edición del Manual diagnóstico y estadístico de los trastornos mentales.


The social weight of transsexual groups has been and continues to be crucial in many aspects regarding transsexuality, from the progressive elimination of discrimination to influence in the legislative branch. This paper especially discusses a classic demand of these groups, comprehensive medical treatment of transsexual people within the National Health System. Thus, progress in the development of an adequate healthcare system for these groups, their treatment in the legal systems of Spain in general and of some of its autonomous communities with more noteworthy laws (especially in Andalusia, an autonomous community that has been pioneering in this regard, as well as the Basque Country and Navarre) and remaining challenges will be observed in this work. The article will also take particular note of the substantial developments that the publication of the Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has established in this area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms , Vitamin E/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun/analysis , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Tocopherols , Tumor Cells, Cultured
11.
IJPM-International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2014; 5 (12): 1567-1577
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-167682

ABSTRACT

Little information about the effects of conjugated linoleic acids [CLAs] on inflammation and immune function in humans is available. This study investigated the effects of CLAs, with and without Vitamin E on immunity and inflammatory parameters in adults with active rheumatoid arthritis [RA]. In a double-blind clinical trial, 78 patients were randomly divided into four groups, each group receiving one of the following daily supplement for 3 months; group C: 2.5 g CLAs, group E: 400 mg Vitamin E, group CE: CLAs plus Vitamin E, group P: Placebo. Cytokines, matrix metalloproteinase 3 [MMP-3] and citrullinated antibody [CCP-A] were measured by ELISA method and Vitamin E by high-performance liquid chromatography. Consider statistical methods there were no significant differences between groups in cytokines interleukin-2 [IL-2], IL-4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha[TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-2/IL-4, CCP-A white blood cells and neutrophils, lymphocyte, monocytes, and eosinophils numbers. TNF-alpha decreased in all groups, but its reduction was significant in group CE. IL-1beta increased in groups P [P = 0.004] and E [P = 0.041] but the difference between group P and CE was significant. IL-4 decreased in groups C, CE and E [P = 0.03, P =0.03P = 0.07 respectively]. IL2 did not change significantly within groups. CCP-A increased in groups P [P = 0.035] and E [P = 0.05], while it decreased in groups CE [P = 0.034]. CCP-A and MMP-3 decrease were significant between groups P and CE. MMP-3 reduction was significant in group CE. Co-supplementation CLAs and Vitamin E may be effective in the level of inflammatory markers in RA patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Immunity/drug effects , Inflammation , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Adult , Double-Blind Method
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 101(4): 304-310, out. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-690578

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: A doença de Chagas continua a ser uma importante doença endêmica no país, sendo o acometimento cardíaco a sua manifestação mais grave. OBJETIVO: Verificar se o uso concomitante de carvedilol potencializará o efeito antioxidante das vitaminas E e C na atenuação do estresse oxidativo sistêmico na cardiopatia chagásica crônica. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 42 pacientes com cardiopatia chagásica, agrupados de acordo com a classificação modificada de Los Andes, em quatro grupos: 10 pacientes no grupo IA (eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma normais: sem envolvimento do coração), 20 pacientes do grupo IB (eletrocardiograma normal e ecocardiograma anormal: ligeiro envolvimento cardíaco), oito pacientes no grupo II (eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma anormais, sem insuficiência cardíaca: moderado envolvimento cardíaco) e quatro pacientes no grupo III (eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma anormais com insuficiência cardíaca: grave envolvimento cardíaco). Os marcadores de estresse oxidativo foram medidos no sangue, antes e após um período de seis meses de tratamento com carvedilol e após seis meses de terapia combinada com vitaminas E e C. Os marcadores foram: atividades da superóxido dismutase, catalase, glutationa peroxidase, glutationa S-transferase e redutase, mieloperoxidase e adenosina deaminase, e os níveis de glutationa reduzida, de espécies reativas do ácido tiobarbitúrico, proteína carbonilada, vitamina E e óxido nítrico. RESULTADOS: Após o tratamento com carvedilol, todos os grupos apresentaram diminuições significativas dos níveis de proteína carbonilada e glutationa reduzida, enquanto os níveis de óxido nítrico e atividade da adenosina aumentaram significativamente apenas no grupo menos acometido (IA). Além disso, a maioria das enzimas antioxidantes mostrou atividades diminuídas nos grupos menos acometidos (IA e IB). Com a adição das vitaminas ao carvedilol houve diminuição dos danos em proteínas, nos níveis de glutationa e na maior parte da atividade das enzimas antioxidantes. CONCLUSÕES: A queda dos níveis de estresse oxidativo, verificada pelos marcadores testados, foi mais acentuada quando da associação do fármaco carvedilol com as vitaminas antioxidantes. Os dados sugerem que tanto o carvedilol isoladamente como sua associação com as vitaminas foram eficazes em atenuar o dano oxidativo sistêmico em pacientes com CC, especialmente aqueles menos acometidos, sugerindo a possibilidade de sinergismo entre esses compostos.


BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is still an important endemic disease in Brazil, and the cardiac involvement is its more severe manifestation. OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the concomitant use of carvedilol will enhance the antioxidant effect of vitamins E and C in reducing the systemic oxidative stress in chronic Chagas heart disease. METHODS: A total of 42 patients with Chagas heart disease were studied. They were divided into four groups according to the modified Los Andes classification: 10 patients in group IA (normal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram; no cardiac involvement); 20 patients in group IB (normal electrocardiogram and abnormal echocardiogram; mild cardiac involvement); eight patients in group II (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram; no heart failure; moderate cardiac involvement); and four patients in group III (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram with heart failure; severe cardiac involvement). Blood levels of markers of oxidative stress were determined before and after a six-month period of treatment with carvedilol, and six months after combined therapy of carvedilol with vitamins E and C. The markers analyzed were as follows: activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and reductase, myeloperoxidade and adenosine deaminase; and the levels of reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, vitamin E, and nitric oxide. RESULTS: After treatment with carvedilol, all groups showed significant decrease in protein carbonyls and reduced glutathione levels, whereas nitric oxide levels and adenosine activity increased significantly only in the less severely affected group (IA). In addition, the activity of most of the antioxidant enzymes was decreased in the less severely affected groups (IA and IB). By combining the vitamins with carvedilol, a reduction in protein damage, in glutathione levels, and in the activity of most of the antioxidant enzymes were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in oxidative stress levels observed by means of the markers tested was more significant when carvedilol was used in combination with the antioxidant vitamins. The findings suggest that both carvedilol alone and in combination with the vitamins were effective in attenuating the systemic oxidative stress in patients with Chagas heart disease, especially those less severely affected, thus suggesting the possibility of synergism between these compounds.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Propanolamines/pharmacology , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/analysis , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Chronic Disease , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Chagas Disease/metabolism , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Prospective Studies , Propanolamines/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin E/therapeutic use
13.
Biol. Res ; 46(1): 33-38, 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676818

ABSTRACT

Organophosphate (OP) pesticides such as dichlorvos (DDVP) intoxication has been shown to produce oxidative stress due to the generation of free radicals, which alter the antioxidant defense system in erythrocytes. In this study, the effects of DDVP (1, 10, 100 µM) or DDVP + vitamin C (VC; 10 µM) or vitamin E (VE; 30 µM), on the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in human erythrocytes were examined in vitro. There were no statistical differences between all groups for 1 µM concentration of DDVP. Treatment with DDVP alone produced an increase in the level of MDA and decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes (P < 0.05). Groups treated with vitamins and DDVP showed protective effects of vitamins against DDVP-induced changes in antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) (10 µM). At 100 µM concentration of DDVP vitamins had no effect on DDVP-induced toxicity. The results show that administration of DDVP resulted in the induction of erythrocyte LPO and alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be involved in the toxic effects of DDVP. Also the data show that the plasma level of VC and VE may ameliorate OP-induced oxidative stress by decreasing LPO in erythrocytes at certain doses of OP pesicides.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Dichlorvos/toxicity , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Insecticides/toxicity , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/blood , Catalase/analysis , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Free Radicals/chemistry , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Vitamin E/blood
14.
New Iraqi Journal of Medicine [The]. 2013; 9 (2): 62-65
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-127376

ABSTRACT

Acute liver injury is a clinical condition that results from severe extensive damage of liver tissue associated with Jaundice and it is experimentally induced by hepatotoxic agents like ccl[4]. Thirty five healthy rabbits were involved in the present study. They were allocated to five groups. Each group was given one of the following agents: vitamin E, zinc sulfate, amlodipine besylate, distilled water two hours before administration of ccl[4]. The same doses of the tested agents were continued for two days after ccl[4] administration. The effect of drugs was evaluated at two occasions 24 and 72 hours after ALI induction on the basis of biochemical analysis of liver function tests as well as histopathological examination to the liver of treated animals. All the tested agents produced significant reduction in ALT, AST, ALP, and TSB with a significant elevation of TSP levels as compared with treated control group. The histopathological examination showed clear improvements in the sections of liver tissue that support the effect of these agents on the liver. The study showed that 30% of women were anemic; the effect of anemia on thyroid function was not clear as 98% of the studied women have normal thyroxin and only 1% has low thyroxin level while 1% showed high concentration of thyroxin level. All the tested agents proved to have hepatoprotective effect of varying degree on ALI model


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Amlodipine/pharmacology , Zinc Sulfate/pharmacology , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Rabbits , Liver , Carbon Tetrachloride/pharmacology
15.
Clinics ; 67(2): 135-143, 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614637

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Human diploid fibroblasts undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular aging. The beneficial effects of vitamin E in aging have been established, but studies to determine the mechanisms of these effects are ongoing. This study determined the molecular mechanism of γ-tocotrienol, a vitamin E homolog, in the prevention of cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts using the expression of senescence-associated genes. METHODS: Primary cultures of young, pre-senescent, and senescent fibroblast cells were incubated with γ-tocotrienol for 24 h. The expression levels of ELN, COL1A1, MMP1, CCND1, RB1, and IL6 genes were determined using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell cycle profiles were determined using a FACSCalibur Flow Cytometer. RESULTS: The cell cycle was arrested in the G0/G1 phase, and the percentage of cells in S phase decreased with senescence. CCND1, RB1, MMP1, and IL6 were upregulated in senescent fibroblasts. A similar upregulation was not observed in young cells. Incubation with γ-tocotrienol decreased CCND1 and RB1 expression in senescent fibroblasts, decreased cell populations in the G0/G1 phase and increased cell populations in the G2/M phase. γ-Tocotrienol treatment also upregulated ELN and COL1A1 and downregulated MMP1 and IL6 expression in young and senescent fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: γ-Tocotrienol prevented cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts, which was indicated by the modulation of the cell cycle profile and senescence-associated gene expression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Chromans/pharmacology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Vitamin E/analogs & derivatives , beta-Galactosidase/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Biomarkers/analysis , Cells, Cultured , Cellular Senescence/genetics , Cell Cycle/genetics , Collagen Type I/genetics , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Cyclin D1/genetics , Cyclin D1/metabolism , Diploidy , Fibroblasts/cytology , Fibroblasts/metabolism , /genetics , /metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Retinoblastoma Protein/genetics , Retinoblastoma Protein/metabolism , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Vitamin E/pharmacology , beta-Galactosidase/metabolism
16.
IJMS-Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2012; 37 (3): 173-180
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-146141

ABSTRACT

The role of oxidative stress in endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity has been implicated. This study was performed to evaluate the possible protective effect of vitamins E and C, against endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Fifty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups [n=10 each]. The groups included a control receiving vehicle, a group treated with endosulfan [10 mg/kg/day] alone, and three endosulfan-treated group receiving vitamin C [20 mg/kg/day], vitamin E [200 mg/kg/day], or vitamine C+vitamin E at the same doses. After 10 days of treatment, sperm parameters, plasma lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], plasma testosterone and malondialdehyde [MDA] levels in the testis were determined. Oral administration of endosulfan caused a reduction in the sperm motility, viability, daily sperm production [DSP] and increased the number of sperm with abnormal chromatin condensation. Endosulfan administration increased testis MDA and plasma LDH. Supplementation of vitamin C and vitamin E to endosulfan-treated rats reduced the toxic effect of endosulfan on sperm parameters and lipid peroxidation in the testis. Vitamin E was more protective than vitamin C in reducing the adverse effects of the endosulfan. The findings data suggest that administration of vitamins C and E ameliorated the endosulfan-induced oxidative stress and sperm toxicity in rat. The effect of vitamin E in preventing endosulfan-induced sperm toxicity was superior to that of vitamin C


Subject(s)
Male , Animals, Laboratory , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Reproduction/drug effects , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Random Allocation
17.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine [The]. 2012; 46 (January): 115-131
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-162136

ABSTRACT

The present study is carrying out for investigating the effect of supplementation with some vitamins [A, EandC] as natural antioxidant extracts in renal dysfunction in rates. 40 adult male Sprague - Dawley rats [150 - 200 g] divided to two groups. First group: 8 rats were fed on standard diet [S.D.], as a control group. Second group: 32 rats were injected intraperitonial with a single dose of Cis-diammine dichloride Platinum II [CDDP] for inducing renal dysfunction [2.5 mg/Kg] then it was divided to six subgroups each one contained 8 rats. [1]: fed on [S.D.] nephrotoxic group. [2]: fed on [S.D.] + Vitamin A [15 mg/Kg body weight/day]. [3]: fed on [S.D.] + Vitamin E [317 I.U. /kg body weight/day]. [4]: fed on [S.D.] + Vitamin C [280 I.U. /kg body weight/day]. The experimental period was four weeks, results were statistically analyzed. The results proved that groups of nephrotoxicity rats supplemented with Vitamin A,E and C showed significant increase in food intakes, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio [FER] [28.9%, 29.4% and 19.2%], [870.5%, 1615.6% and 409.8%] and [652.5%, 122502% and 327.3%] respectively, compared with nephrotoxic group. The nephrotoxicity rats supplemented with Vitamin A and showed significant reduction in serum vitamin E and kidney glutathione content [9.3% and 47.9%], while nephrotoxicity rats supplemented with Vitamin E and C showed significant increase in serum vitamin E and kidney glutathione content [27.9% and 116.6%], [13.7% and 55.8%]respectively. The results showed that nephrotoxicity rats supplemented with Vitamin A, E and C showed significant reduction in serum urea nitrogen and creatinine [48.01% and 55.2%], [52.6% and 60.3%] and [57.0% and 63.04%] respectively. Best results in histopathological examination of kidney were in vitamin A and vitamin C groups. These results suggest that natural antioxidants could be beneficial as additional therapy in renal dysfunction


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Vitamin A/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Renal Insufficiency , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Glutathione
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210924

ABSTRACT

The balance between tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) regulates fibrinolysis. PAI-1 expression increases in atherosclerotic arteries and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are one of major constituents of atheroma. We investigated the impact of lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), an active component of oxidized low-density lipoprotein, on the plasminogen activator system of the rat VSMCs. The lysoPC stimulated the protein and gene expressions of PAI-1 but did not affect the protein expression of t-PA. Fibrin overlay zymography revealed that lysoPC increased the activity of PAI-1 in the conditioned media, while concurrently decreasing that of free t-PA. Vitamin E inhibited the lysoPC-induced PAI-1 expression. Further, lysoPC increased the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an inhibitor of NF-kappaB, blocked this lysoPC effect. Indeed, lysoPC induced the NF-kappaB-mediated transcriptional activity as measured by luciferase reporter assay. In addition, genistein, an inhibitor of protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK), diminished the lysoPC effect, while 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, a stimulator of PTK, stimulated PAI-1 production. In conclusion, lysoPC does not affect t-PA expression but induces PAI-1 expression in the VSMC by mediating NF-kappaB and the genistein-sensitive PTK signaling pathways via oxidative stress. Importantly, lysoPC stimulates the enzyme activity of PAI-1 and suppresses that of t-PA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benz(a)Anthracenes/pharmacology , Caffeic Acids/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Genistein/pharmacology , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Lysophosphatidylcholines/pharmacology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Phenylethyl Alcohol/analogs & derivatives , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/agonists , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Vitamin E/pharmacology
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 29(4): 1093-1098, dic. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626970

ABSTRACT

To evaluate histopathologic differences in the thymus of Wistar Albino rat fetuses prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA), folic acid (FA) and vitamin E (Vit-E). VPA (400 mg/kg), FA (400 mcg/kg) and Vit -E (250 mg/kg) were administered to rats on each of gestation days 8, 9 and 10. The fetuses (n:24) were divided into four groups: control, VPA, VPA+Vit-E and VPA+FA groups. On the 20th day of gestation, all pregnant rats were sacrificed and the fetuses were extracted. Thin sections from thymus of live fetuses were stained with uranyl acetate-lead citrate and were examined under transmission electron microscope. The histopathological findings of control group was normal. In VPA group, it showed extensive degenerative changes by VPA were on all tissue compartments when compared to controls. In VPA-FA group, vacuoles, mitochondrial cristalysis and swelling were decreased in cytoplasm. In VPA-Vit-E group, lipid storage and vacuolization were observed. Mitochondrial cristalysis decreased. Our aim in the present study is to analyze histopathological changes which may occur in a high risk experimental model after giving of VPA. In addition, protective roles of the administration of FA and Vit-E are assessed.


Se realizó este estudio para evaluar las diferencias histopatológicas en el timo de fetos de ratas Wistar Albinas expuestas prenatalmente a ácido valproico (VPA), ácido fólico (AF) y vitamina E (Vit-E). VPA (400 mg/kg), FA (400 mcg/kg) y vitamina E (250mg/kg) administradas a ratas en los días 8, 9 y 10 de gestación. Los fetos (n=24) fueron divididos en cuatro grupos: control, APV, APV + vitamina E y VPA + FA. En el día 20 de gestación, todas las ratas preñadas fueron sacrificadas y los fetos fueron extraídos. Se obtuvieron secciones delgadas del timo de los fetos y se tiñeron con citrato de uranilo - acetato de plomo, siendo examinados al microscopio electrónico de transmisión. Los hallazgos histopatológicos del grupo control fueron normales. En el grupo VPA, se observaron cambios degenerativos en todos los compartimentos de tejido en comparación con los controles. En el grupo VPA+FA, las vacuolas, cristalisis mitocondrial e inflamación se redujeron en el citoplasma. En grupo VPA + Vitamina E, se observó el almacenamiento de lípidos y vacuolización. La cristalisis mitocondrial disminuyó. El estudio permitió analizar los cambios histopatológicos que pueden ocurrir en un modelo experimental de alto riesgo después de la administración de VPA, además, las funciones de protección por la administración de AF y vitamina E.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Folic Acid/pharmacology , Valproic Acid/pharmacology , Thymus Gland , Thymus Gland/pathology , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Fetal Development , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Models, Animal , Rats, Wistar , Thymus Gland/embryology , Thymus Gland/ultrastructure
20.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 29(6): 399-403, June 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-608269

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a concentração de alfa-tocoferol no colostro humano em condições de suplementação com cápsulas de vitamina A acrescidas de vitamina E sintética. MÉTODOS: Foram recrutadas para o estudo 30 parturientes saudáveis atendidas em uma maternidade pública. Após jejum noturno, foram coletadas amostras de sangue e de colostro (2 mL) das parturientes. Após a primeira coleta, as mesmas receberam suplemento na forma de uma cápsula de palmitato de retinila (200000 UI ou 60 mg) acrescido de vitamina E sintética (49,4 mg de dl-alfa-tocoferol). Após 24 horas da suplementação, foi realizada nova coleta de 2 mL de colostro, também em jejum. RESULTADOS: A concentração sérica de alfa-tocoferol foi de 1 042,9 ± 319,0 μg/dL. Os teores de alfa-tocoferol no colostro antes da suplementação foram de 1155,4 ± 811,0 μg/dL, vs. 1396,3 ± 862,2 μg/dL 24 horas depois da suplementação (P > 0,05). Foi encontrada correlação entre o alfa-tocoferol do colostro na condição de jejum antes da suplementação e 24 horas após a suplementação (P = 0,001; r = 0,58), mas não entre soro e o colostro em nenhuma das condições acima citadas. CONCLUSÕES: Não houve aumento na concentração de alfa-tocoferol do colostro 24 horas após a suplementação. Isso indica que não é vantajoso suplementar a mãe com vitamina E sintética. Entretanto, os resultados também sugerem que, se o estado nutricional prévio à suplementação estiver adequado, mais tocoferol será encontrado no colostro após a suplementação. Novos estudos devem ser realizados para investigar o efeito da suplementação com a forma natural do alfa-tocoferol.


OBJECTIVE: To assess the levels of alpha-tocopherol in human colostrum following supplementation with capsules containing vitamin A plus synthetic vitamin E. METHODS: Thirty healthy women about to give birth were recruited from a public maternity hospital. After overnight fasting, blood samples as well as colostrum samples (2 mL) were collected. After the first collection, the women received supplementation with a capsule containing retinyl palmitate (200 000 IU or 60 mg) plus synthetic vitamin E (49.4 mg dl-alpha tocopherol). Twenty-four hours after supplementation, a second 2 mL colostrum sample was collected after overnight fasting. RESULTS: The serum concentration of alpha-tocopherol was 1 042,9 ± 319.0 µg/dL. The concentration of alpha-tocopherol in colostrum before supplementation was 155.4 ± 811.0 µg/dL, vs. 1 396.3 ± 862.2 µg/dL 24 hours after supplementation (P > 0.05). A correlation was found between fasting levels of alpha-tocopherol in colostrum before supplementation and 24 hours after supplementation (P = 0.001; r = 0.58), but not between the concentrations in serum and colostrum. CONCLUSIONS: There was no increase in the levels of alpha-tocopherol in colostrum 24 hours after supplementation. This suggests that supplementation with synthetic vitamin E is not advantageous. However, the present results also suggest that if the nutritional state is adequate prior to supplementation, more tocopherol will be available in colostrum after supplementation. Further studies should be carried out to investigate the effects of supplementation with the natural form of alpha-tocopherol.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Colostrum/chemistry , Dietary Supplements , Milk, Human/chemistry , Pregnancy/blood , Vitamin E/pharmacology , alpha-Tocopherol/blood , Body Weight , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fasting/blood , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Vitamin A/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Vitamin E/pharmacokinetics
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