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1.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 37(1): 21-26, Ene-Jun 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147874

ABSTRACT

El tratamiento anticoagulante oral con fármacos inhibidores de la vitamina K como la warfarina se viene utilizando desde hace décadas para la terapia y prevención de la enfermedad tromboembólica con efectos secundarios ampliamente conocidos, pero con una utilidad clínica bien contrastada. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la proporción de mortalidad y hospitalización de la consulta de anticoagulación y trombosis del Centro Cardiovascular Regional ASCARDIO en el año 2017 para lo cual se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal que incluyó una muestra de 294 pacientes. La principal indicación de anticoagulación fue la fibrilación auricular (73%) seguida de la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa (13%) e isquemia miocárdica (9%). Se registró una mortalidad de 11,7% siendo la principal causa de muerte de origen cardíaco (58%). La edad promedio de los pacientes fallecidos fue de 65 años, siendo 53% del sexo femenino; para el momento de la muerte, el 65% de los pacientes estaba tomando warfarina. La hospitalización se observó en el 10% de la muestra siendo la principal causa de la misma la cardíaca (60%) seguida de causas hemorrágicas (18%); de los pacientes hospitalizados, la edad promedio fue de 66 años siendo 52% del sexo femenino; el 90% de los pacientes estaba tomando warfarina al momento de la hospitalización. El análisis de riesgo para mortalidad y hospitalización según causa y estatus de warfarina no mostró significancia estadística. No se evidenció relación de riesgo estadísticamente significativa entre muerte, hospitalización y estatus de la warfarina. Hubo mayor proporción de muertes (45%) y hospitalización (17%) en el grupo que ingresó con diagnóstico de isquemia miocárdica(AU)


Oral anticoagulant treatment with vitamin K inhibitor drugs such as warfarin has been used for decades for the therapy and prevention of thromboembolic disease with widely known side effects but with well-proven clinical utility. To determine the proportion of mortality and hospitalization of the anticoagulation and thrombosis clinic of the ASCARDIO Regional Cardiovascular Center in 2017 a descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out that included a sample of 294 patients. The results show that the main indication for anticoagulation was atrial fibrillation (73%) followed by venous thromboembolic disease (13%) and myocardial ischemia (9%). An 11.7% mortality rate was observed. The mean age of the deceased was 65 years with a slight prevalence of the female sex (53%). The main cause of death was cardiac (58%) and 65% of the deceased patients were taking warfarin at the moment of death. A 10% hospitalization rate was observed with an average age of hospitalized patients of 66 years; 52% were females. The main cause of hospitalization was cardiac (60%) followed by hemorrhage (18%) and 90% of the patients were taking warfarin at the time of hospitalization. The risk analysis for mortality and hospitalization according to cause and status of warfarin did not show statistical significance. There was a higher proportion of deaths (45%) and hospitalization (17%) in the group admitted with a diagnosis of myocardial ischemia(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Anticoagulants , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Thromboembolism , Vascular Diseases , Myocardial Ischemia/drug therapy
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(supl.4): 1-26, set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287231

ABSTRACT

Resumen El tratamiento de un paciente anticoagulado con antagonistas de la vitamina K (AVK) sigue siendo un desafío, especialmente en regiones donde, por el costo, los dicumarínicos son todavía la alternativa más buscada a la hora de elegir un anticoagulante oral. Las clínicas de anticoagulación han demostrado ser la forma más eficiente y segura de evitar complicaciones trombóticas y hemorrágicas y de mantener al paciente en rango óptimo de tratamiento. Sin embargo, requieren de una adecuada infraestructura y personal capacitado para que funcionen eficientemente. En este consenso argentino se propone una serie de parámetros para la gestión efectiva de una clínica de anticoagulación. El objetivo es lograr una elevada calidad desde el punto de vista clínico-asistencial a través de un laboratorio de hemostasia de excelencia. Los criterios desarrollados en el documento fueron consensuados por un amplio grupo de expertos especialistas en hematología y en bioquímica de todo el país. Estos criterios deben adaptarse a la irregular disponibilidad de recursos de cada centro, pero siempre se los debe tener en cuenta a la hora de indicar el tratamiento anticoagulante con estas drogas. Tener en consideración estas premisas nos permitirá optimizar la atención del enfermo anticoagulado con AVK y de esta forma minimizar las intercurrencias trombóticas y hemorrágicas a las que está expuesto, para así honrar nuestra promesa de no dañar al paciente.


Abstract Treating an anticoagulated patient with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) remains a challenge, especially in areas where dicoumarins are still the first drug of choice due to the cost of other oral anticoagulants. Anticoagulation clinics have proven to be the most efficient and safe way to avoid thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications and to keep patients in optimal treatment range. However, they require adequate infrastructure and trained personnel to work properly. In this Argentine consensus we propose a series of guidelines for the effective management of the anticoagulation clinics. The goal is to achieve the excellence in both the clinical healthcare and the hemostasis laboratory for the anticoagulated patient. The criteria developed in the document were agreed upon by a large group of expert specialists in hematology and biochemistry from all over the country. The criteria presented here must always be considered when indicating VKA although they had to be adapted to the unequal reality of each center. Taking these premises into consideration will allow us to optimize the management of the anticoagulated patient with VKA and thus minimize thrombotic and hemorrhagic intercurrences, in order to honor our promise not to harm the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Ambulatory Care Facilities/organization & administration , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , International Normalized Ratio , Consensus , Ambulatory Care Facilities/standards
3.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 470-477, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126146

ABSTRACT

Vitamin K is found in higher concentrations in dark green plant and in vegetable oils. The adequate intake of vitamin K is 90 and 120ug/day for adult elderly men and women, respectively. The main function of vitamin K is to act as an enzymatic cofactor for hepatic prothrombin synthesis, blood coagulation factors, and anticoagulant proteins. Prominent among the many available anticoagulants is warfarin, an antagonist of vitamin K, which exerts its anticoagulant effects by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K1 and vitamin KH2. From the beginning of the therapy it is necessary that the patients carry out the monitoring through the prothrombin time and the international normalized ratio. However, it is known that very low intake and/or fluctuations in vitamin K intake are as harmful as high consumption. In addition, other foods can interact with warfarin, despite their content of vitamin K. The aim of this study was to gather information on the drug interaction of warfarin with vitamin K and with dietary supplements and other foods.


La vitamina K se encuentra en concentraciones más altas en plantas de color verde oscuro y en aceites vegetales. La ingesta adecuada de vitamina K es de 90 y 120 ug/día para hombres y mujeres adultos mayores, respectivamente. La función principal de la vitamina K es actuar como un cofactor enzimático para la síntesis de protrombina hepática, factores de coagulación de la sangre y proteínas anticoagulantes. Entre los muchos anticoagulantes disponibles destaca la warfarina, un antagonista de la vitamina K, que ejerce sus efectos anticoagulantes al inhibir la síntesis de la vitamina K1 y la vitamina KH2. Desde el inicio de la terapia, es necesario que los pacientes realicen el monitoreo a través del tiempo de protrombina y la proporción normalizada internacional. Sin embargo, se sabe que una ingesta muy baja y/o fluctuaciones en la ingesta de vitamina K son tan dañinas como un consumo alto. Además, otros alimentos pueden interactuar con la warfarina, a pesar de su contenido de vitamina K. El objetivo de este estudio fue recopilar información sobre la interacción de los medicamentos de la warfarina con la vitamina K y con los suplementos dietéticos y otros alimentos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Food-Drug Interactions , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Vitamin K/administration & dosage , Vitamin K/metabolism , Warfarin/metabolism , Dietary Supplements , International Normalized Ratio , Anticoagulants/metabolism
4.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(4): 382-392, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149097

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La llegada de los anticoagulantes directos (ACD) ha supuesto un cambio en el tratamiento de la fibrilación auricular no valvular (FANV) en los últimos años. Los objetivos de este estudio son determinar el grado de control de la anticoagulación con antivitamina K (AVK) y su posible implicación en efectos cardiovasculares adversos mayores (ECAM) y evaluar las diferencias entre el grupo en tratamiento con AVK respecto del grupo con ACD. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo que incluyó a pacientes consecutivos diagnosticados con FANV valorados en el Servicio de Cardiología con un seguimiento de 18 meses. Se analizaron diferencias demográficas, clínicas y analíticas entre grupos, incluido el grado de control de la anticoagulación del grupo AVK y su posible relación con ECAM. Resultados: Se incluyó a 273 pacientes: 46.5% tratados con AVK, 42.5% con ACD y 11% sin tratamiento anticoagulante. El control de la anticoagulación con AVK fue del 62.1%, sin diferencias en ECAM en función de control. El grupo ACD presentó menos ECAM que el grupo de AVK (13.4 vs. 4.3%; HR, 0.90; 0.83-0.98; p = 0.01), con una menor mortalidad cardiovascular (0.0 vs. 5.5%; HR, 0.94; 0.90-0.98; p = 0.01) y total (0.9 vs. 12.6%; HR, 0.88; 0.82-0.94; p menor que 0,01), aunque sin diferencias significativas en eventos hemorrágicos (0.9 vs. 4.7%; p = 0.07) ni isquémicos (2.6 vs. 0.8%; p = 0.27). Discusión: Los pacientes con AVK poseen un perfil clínico diferente en comparación con los que reciben ACD. El control de anticoagulación del grupo de AVK fue inadecuado en casi la mitad de los casos. El grupo de AVK presentó más ECAM que el grupo de ACD.


Abstract Introduction: The arrival of direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) has led to a change in the management of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in recent years. The objectives of this study are to determine the level of therapeutic control of anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and its possible involvement in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and to evaluate differences between the group on VKA with respect to the group on DOACs. Patients and methods: Prospective cohort study that included consecutive patients diagnosed with NVAF in Cardiology Consultations with a clinical follow-up of 18 months. Demographic, clinical and analytical differences between groups were analyzed, including the level of therapeutic control of anticoagulation on the VKA group and its association with MACE. Results: Overall, 273 patients were included: 46.5% on VKA, 42.5% on DOACs, 11% without antithrombotic treatment. Patients on VKA spent 62.1% of their time within therapeutic range (TTR by the Rosendaal formule). There were no differences in MACE depending on anticoagulation control. The DOACs group presented lesser MACE rate than the VKA group (13.4 vs. 4.3%; 0.90; HR 0.90; 0.83-0.98 p = 0.01) with lower cardiovascular mortality (0.0 vs. 5.5%; HR, 0.94; 0.90-0.98; p = 0.01) and total mortality (0.9 vs. 12.6%; HR, 0.88; 0.82-0.94; p less 0.01) although without significant differences in hemorrhagic (0.9 vs. 4.7 %; p = 0.07), or ischemic events (2.6 vs. 0.8%, p = 0.27). Conclusions: Patients on VKA have a different clinical profile than those who receive DOACs. Patients on VKA have an inadequate control of the anticoagulation in quite the half of the cases. The VKA group presented more MACE than the DOACs group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Administration, Oral , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
5.
Rev. inf. cient ; 98(4): 458-468, 2019. tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1023817

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la prescripción de fármacos inhibidores de la vitamina K exige el control del efecto anticoagulante. Objetivo: caracterizar a los pacientes con antecedentes de tratamiento con warfarina sódica al momento del ingreso en la unidad de terapia intensiva del Hospital General Docente Dr Agostinho Neto durante el periodo 2016- 2018. Método: se realizó estudio analítico, retrospectivo y longitudinal. Se estudiaron 54 pacientes con las características señaladas, que se agruparon en un grupo control (n=16) con anticoagulación adecuada y un grupo estudio (n=38) también con anticoagulación adecuada. Se estudiaron variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y de laboratorio. Resultados: Un total de 16 pacientes presentó nivel adecuado de anticoagulación y en, 38, nivel de anticoagulación fue inadecuado. La warfarina sódica se indicó más en pacientes con prótesis valvular cardiaca mecánica (20,0 por ciento), y en estos fue más común la anticoagulación inadecuada. Los factores más relacionados con la anticoagulación adecuada fueron la supervisión médica frecuente (p=0,0000), que no usaron fármacos que interfieran con la acción del fármaco (p=0,0000) y el cumplimiento del tratamiento (p=0,0000). En 22 pacientes se presentaron complicaciones hemorrágicas y la más común fue la hemorragia cerebral y, 16, presentaron complicaciones tromboembólicas y la más frecuente fue el embolismo cerebral. Fallecieron 3 pacientes por complicaciones hemorrágicas y 9 por complicaciones tromboembólicas. En 21 pacientes la indicación del fármaco fue inapropiada. Conclusiones: se revela la necesidad del control de la adecuada adherencia terapéutica del paciente pues el inadecuado efecto anticoagulante genera complicaciones que pueden determinar la muerte del paciente(AU)


Introduction: the prescription of vitamin K inhibitor drugs requires control of the anticoagulant effect. Objective: to characterize patients with a history of treatment with warfarin sodium at the time of admission to the intensive care unit of the General Teaching Hospital Dr Agostinho Neto during the 2016-2018 period. Method: an analytical, retrospective and longitudinal study was carried out. 54 patients with the characteristics indicated were studied, which were grouped in a control group (n=16) with adequate anticoagulation and a study group (n=38) also with adequate anticoagulation. Sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory variables were studied. Results: A total of 16 patients presented adequate level of anticoagulation and, in 38, level of anticoagulation was inadequate. Sodium warfarin was indicated more in patients with mechanical cardiac valve prostheses (20.0per cent), and inadequate anticoagulation was more common in these. The factors most related to adequate anticoagulation were frequent medical supervision (p=0.0000), who did not use drugs that interfere with the action of the drug (p=0.0000) and treatment compliance (p=0.0000). In 22 patients there were hemorrhagic complications and the most common was cerebral hemorrhage and, 16, they presented thromboembolic complications and the most frequent was cerebral embolism. Three patients died from bleeding complications and 9 from thromboembolic complications. In 21 patients the indication of the drug was inappropriate. Conclusions: the need to control the adequate therapeutic adherence of the patient is revealed because the inadequate anticoagulant effect generates complications that can determine the death of the patient(AU)


Introdução: a prescrição de medicamentos inibidores da vitamina K requer controle do efeito anticoagulante. Objetivo: caracterizar pacientes com histórico de tratamento com varfarina sódica no momento da admissão na unidade de terapia intensiva do Hospital Geral de Ensino Dr Agostinho Neto no período 2016-2018.Método: estudo analítico, retrospectivo e longitudinal. Foram estudados 54 pacientes com as características indicadas, os quais foram agrupados em um grupo controle (n=16) com anticoagulação adequada e um grupo estudo (n=38) também com anticoagulação adequada. Foram estudadas variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e laboratoriais. Resultados: Um total de 16pacientes apresentou nível adequado de anticoagulação e, em 38, o nível de anticoagulação foi inadequado. A varfarina sódica foi mais indicada em pacientes com próteses valvares cardíacas mecânicas (20,0 por cento), sendo a anticoagulação inadequada mais comum. Os fatores mais relacionados à anticoagulação adequada foram a supervisão médica frequente (p=0,0000), que não utilizou medicamentos que interferem na ação do medicamento (p=0,0000) e adesão ao tratamento (p=0,0000) Em 22 pacientes houve complicações hemorrágicas e a mais comum foi hemorragia cerebral; 16 apresentaram complicações tromboembólicas e a mais frequente foi embolia cerebral. Três pacientes morreram por complicações hemorrágicas e 9 por complicações tromboembólicas. Em 21 pacientes, a indicação do medicamento foi inadequada. Conclusões: a necessidade de controlar a aderência terapêutica adequada do paciente é revelada, pois o efeito anticoagulante inadequado gera complicações que podem determinar a morte do paciente(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Thromboembolism/mortality , Cerebral Hemorrhage/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(2): 151-156, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888014

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The uninterrupted use of oral anticoagulation (OAC) with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for electrophysiology procedures has been more and more recommended. The clinical practice in our service recommends the continuous use of these drugs for atrial flutter ablation. There is little evidence as to the uninterrupted use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in this scenario. Objective: To compare the rates of complications related with the uninterrupted use of different types of oral anticoagulants in patients referred to atrial flutter (AFL) ablation. Methods: Historical, single-center cohort of ablation procedures by AFL conducted from November 2012 to April 2016. The primary outcome was the occurrence of hemorrhagic or embolic complication during the procedure. The secondary outcome was the occurrence of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) in follow-up. The statistical significance level was 5%. Results: There were 288 ablations per AFL; 154 were carried out with the uninterrupted use of OAC (57.8% with VKA and 42.2% with NOAC). Mean age was 57 ± 13 years. The rate of hemorrhagic complication during the procedure was 3% in each group (p = NS). The rate of stroke/TIA was, respectively, of 56/1,000 people-year in the VKA group against zero/1,000 people-year in the NOAC group (p = 0.02). Conclusion: In our population there were no hemorrhagic complications regarding the procedure of OAC use uninterruptedly, including NOACs. There was higher occurrence of stroke/TIA in the follow-up of the group of patients undergoing VKAs; however, this difference may not only be a result of the type of OAC used.


Resumo Fundamento: O uso ininterrupto de anticoagulação oral (ACO) com antagonistas da vitamina K (AVKs) para procedimentos de eletrofisiologia está sendo cada vez mais recomendado. A prática clínica em nosso serviço é de uso continuado dessas drogas para ablação de flutter atrial. Existem poucas evidências quanto ao uso ininterrupto dos anticoagulantes orais não antagonistas da vitamina K (NOACs) nesse cenário. Objetivos: Comparar as taxas de complicações relacionadas ao uso ininterrupto de diferentes tipos de anticoagulantes orais em pacientes referidos para ablação por flutter atrial (FLA). Métodos: Coorte histórica e unicêntrica dos procedimentos de ablação por FLA realizados no período de novembro de 2012 a abril de 2016. O desfecho primário foi o de ocorrência de complicação hemorrágica ou embólica durante o procedimento. O desfecho secundário foi o de ocorrência de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) ou acidente isquêmico transitório (AIT) no acompanhamento. O nível de significância estatística adotado foi de 5%. Resultados: Foram incluídas 288 ablações por FLA; 154 foram feitas com uso ininterrupto de ACO (57,8% com AVK e 42,2% com NOAC). A idade média foi de 57 ± 13 anos. A taxa de complicação hemorrágica durante o procedimento foi de 3% em cada grupo (p = NS). A taxa de AVC/AIT foi, respectivamente, de 56/1.000-pessoas-ano no grupo AVK contra zero/1.000-pessoas-ano no grupo NOAC (p = 0,02). Conclusão: Em nossa população não ocorreram complicações hemorrágicas relacionadas ao procedimento com uso de ACO de forma ininterrupta, incluindo NOACs. Houve maior ocorrência de AVC/AIT no seguimento no grupo de pacientes em uso de AVK, contudo essa diferença pode não ser decorrente apenas do tipo de ACO em uso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Flutter/complications , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Catheter Ablation , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Administration, Oral , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
8.
Clinics ; 73: e216, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890747

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is one of the most prevalent forms of pulmonary hypertension and is a major complication of acute pulmonary embolism. One mainstay of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension treatment is lifelong anticoagulation. The recent advent of direct oral anticoagulants for acute pulmonary embolism treatment has provided a viable and effective alternative for treating this condition. However, little is known about the efficacy of this new class of drugs for treating chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants in the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. METHODS: A cohort of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients who initiated treatment with direct oral anticoagulants between June 2015 and November 2016 were enrolled in this study. RESULTS: Sixteen patients used rivaroxaban, three used dabigatran and one used apixaban for a mean follow-up of 20.9 months. The mean age was 51 years, and eighteen patients were classified as functional class II/III. Eight patients underwent a pulmonary endarterectomy and exhibited clinical, hemodynamic and functional improvement and currently continue to use direct oral anticoagulants. No episode of venous thromboembolism recurrence was identified during the follow-up period, but there was one episode of major bleeding after a traumatic fall. CONCLUSIONS: Although direct oral anticoagulants appear to be a safe and effective alternative for treating chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, larger studies are needed to support their routine use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Antithrombins/administration & dosage , Dabigatran/administration & dosage , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Chronic Disease , Administration, Oral , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome
9.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(5): 339-346, dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142140

ABSTRACT

Resumen De acuerdo a las guías actuales, aún es materia de debate el uso de anticoagulación en los primeros 3 meses en pacientes de bajo riesgo trombótico sometidos a cambio valvular aórtico con prótesis biológicas. En base a la evidencia actual, la aspirina a dosis bajas es razonable como alternativa a los antagonistas de la vitamina K (AVK) durante el posquirúrgico temprano en pacientes con prótesis biológicas en posición aórtica. Se comparó la incidencia de complicaciones trombóticas o hemorrágicas de acuerdo a la estrategia de terapia antitrombótica en los pacientes de bajo riesgo trombótico sometidos a cambio valvular aórtico con válvulas biológicas en el Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. La hipótesis: la aspirina como monoterapia antitrombótica tiene un efecto benéfico comparado con los AVK. Se estudiaron los pacientes de bajo riesgo trombótico sometidos a cambio valvular aórtico con válvulas biológicas en el Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Se incluyeron los pacientes operados del año 2011 al 2015. Se identificó en el seguimiento a un año la presencia de complicaciones trombóticas o hemorrágicas y si se manejaron con cualquiera de las siguientes: aspirina únicamente, AVK solo y la combinación aspirina más AVK. Se analizaron 231 pacientes. Solo se presentó una complicación hemorrágica en un paciente tratado con AVK. No hubo complicaciones trombóticas. No se presentaron complicaciones trombóticas en pacientes que no recibieron anticoagulación oral formal durante los primeros 3 meses posquirúrgicos, lo que indica que es seguro el uso de aspirina como monoterapia en estos pacientes de bajo riesgo trombótico.


Abstract According to current guidelines, in patients without additional risk factors who have undergone aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis, anticoagulation in the first 3 months after surgery is still a matter of debate. According to current evidence, aspirin in low doses is a reasonable alternative to vitamin K antagonists (VKA). A comparison is made between the incidence of thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications in patients with low thrombotic risk who underwent aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis in the National Institute of Cardiology of Ignacio Chávez of Mexico. The hypothesis: aspirin as monotherapy has a beneficial effect compared to VKA. The studied patients were the low thrombotic risk patients who underwent aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis in the National Institute of Cardiology of Ignacio Chávez of Mexico from 2011 to 2015. The groups studied were: aspirin only, VKA only, and the combination of VKA plus aspirin. The patients were retrospectively followed-up for 12 months, and the thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications were documented. Of the 231 patients included in the study, only one patient in the VKA only group presented with a haemorrhagic complication. No thrombotic complications were observed. In the present study no thrombotic complications were observed in patients who did not receive anticoagulation in the first 3 months after an aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis after a follow up period of 12 months. This suggests that the use of aspirin only is safe during this period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Aortic Valve/surgery , Thrombosis/etiology , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Bioprosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Aspirin/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Mexico , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
10.
Rev. chil. cir ; 70(1): 84-91, 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899662

ABSTRACT

Resumen La terapia anticoagulante es ampliamente utilizada en la práctica clínica, como profilaxis en pacientes con riesgo de presentar fenómenos tromboembólicos o como tratamiento en aquellos que han presentado algún evento trombótico. Cada vez es más frecuente enfrentarse a pacientes en tratamiento anticoagulante crónico que serán intervenidos mediante procedimientos quirúrgicos, por lo que es importante y necesario conocer el manejo perioperatorio de los diferentes fármacos anticoagulantes, para disminuir los riesgos y complicaciones asociados a la suspensión o mantención de estos en el período perioperatorio. Para lograr este objetivo se debe evaluar y balancear el riesgo de sangrado versus el riesgo de eventos tromboembólicos, considerando la condición médica de cada paciente y el tipo de procedimiento quirúrgico que recibirá. La recomendación para fármacos anticoagulantes orales antagonistas de vitamina K es mantenerlos en cirugías con bajo riesgo de sangrado y suspenderlos 5 días antes de procedimientos quirúrgicos con riesgo hemorrágico moderado y alto, controlando el international normalized ratio el día previo a la cirugía. Los nuevos anticoagulantes orales no requieren monitorización de rutina, recomendándose suspenderlos a las 24-96 h previas al procedimiento quirúrgico, dependiendo del riesgo hemorrágico de cada cirugía y de la función renal. En relación con los anticoagulantes parenterales, la heparina no fraccionada en infusión intravenosa se recomienda suspenderla 4-5 h antes de la cirugía, mientras que la utilizada vía subcutánea, 12 h previas a la intervención quirúrgica. Las heparinas de bajo peso molecular en dosis de tratamiento se sugiere descontinuarlas 24 h previas a la cirugía, mientras que las usadas en dosis profilácticas, solo 12 h antes.


Anticoagulant therapy is widely used in clinical practice, as prophylaxis in patients at risk of presenting thromboembolic phenomena or as treatment in those who have presented a thrombotic event. It is increasingly the number of patients on chronic anticoagulant therapy to undergo surgical procedures, so it is important and necessary to know the perioperative management of the different anticoagulant drugs to reduce the risks and complications associated with suspension or maintenance of these in the perioperative period. To achieve this goal, the risk of bleeding should be evaluated and balanced against the risk of thromboembolic events, considering the medical condition of each patient and the type of surgical procedure to which they have undergone. The recommendation for vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant drugs is to maintain them for surgeries at low risk of bleeding and to suspend them 5 days before surgical procedures with moderate and high bleeding risk, controlling 'International Normalized Ratio' the day before surgery. The new oral anticoagulants do not require routine monitoring, recommending suspending them 24-96 h prior to the surgical procedure, depending on the hemorrhagic risk of each surgery and renal function of patient. In relation to parenteral anticoagulants, unfractionated heparin in intravenous infusion is recommended to be discontinued 4-5 h prior to surgery, while the subcutaneous route, 12 h prior to surgery. Low-molecular-weight heparins in treatment doses should be suspended 24 h prior to surgery, while in prophylactic doses, only 12 h earlier.


Subject(s)
Humans , Perioperative Care/methods , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Heparin/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Risk Assessment , Coumarins/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Hemorrhage/prevention & control
11.
Rev. inf. cient ; 97(2): i:307-f:314, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-997821

ABSTRACT

Introducción: se recomienda la predicción del riesgo de sangrado durante la anticoagulación terapéutica. Objetivo: diseñar un modelo predictivo del control de la anticoagulación en pacientes tratados con warfarina sódica. Método: se realizó un estudio explicativo y prospectivo en 50 pacientes tratados con warfarina sódica en el Hospital General Docente Dr Agostinho Neto durante el período 2015-2016. Estos se agruparon en un grupo control (n=25, aquellos con adecuada anticoagulación, INR entre 2.0 - 3.0) y un grupo estudio (n=25, con inadecuada anticoagulación, INR < 2.0). Resultados: Los factores más predictivos del efecto anticoagulante insatisfactorio fueron: vivir solo y el uso de fármacos que interfieren con más constancia e intensidad en el efecto del fármaco. Conclusiones: se diseñó un modelo predictivo del control de la anticoagulación con warfarina, ajustado a los servicios del Hospital Dr Agostinho Neto(AU)


Introduction: it recommends the prediction of the risk of bleeding during the therapeutic anticoagulation. Aim: design a predictive model of the control of the anticoagulant in patients treated with warfarina sódica. Method: it realised an explanatory and prospective study in 50 patients treated with warfarina sódica in the Educational General Hospital "Dr. Agostinho Neto" during the period 2015-2016. These grouped in a group control (n=25, those with suitable anticoagulation, INR between 2.0-3.0) and a group study (n=25, with unsuitable anticoagulation, INR < 2.0). Results: The most predictive factors of the effect unsatisfactory anticoagulant were: live alone and the use of drugs that interfere with more proof and intensity in the effect of the drug. Conclusions: it designed a predictive model of the control of the anticoagulation with warfarina, adjusted to the services of the Hospital Dr Agostinho Neto(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Warfarin , Anticoagulants/analysis , Prospective Studies
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(8): 963-971, ago. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902573

ABSTRACT

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with high rates of death, ischemic stroke and systemic embolism (SE). There is scarce information about clinical characteristics and use of anti-thrombotic therapies in Chilean patients with non-valvular AF. Aim: To describe the characteristics and 1-year outcomes of patients with recently diagnosed AF recruited in Chile into the prospective global GARFIELD-AF registry. Material and Methods: Between 2011-2016, we prospectively registered information of 971 patients recruited at 15 centers, 85% of them from the public system and 15% from the private sector. Demographics, clinical characteristics and use of antithrombotic therapies were recorded for all patients. Adverse clinical outcomes were analyzed in 711 patients with 1-year follow-up. Results: The mean age was 71.5 years (66-79), 50% were men. Mean CHAD2S2 Vasc and HAS BLED scores for stroke risk were 3.3 (2.0-4.0) and 1.5 (1.0-2.0) respectively. Oral anticoagulants were prescribed in 82% of patients. Seventy percent received Vitamin K antagonists, 10% novel direct anticoagulants or antiplatelet therapy and only 8% did not receive any antithrombotic therapy. Mean time in optimal therapeutic range (an international normalized ratio of 2 to 3), was achieved in only 40.7% (23.0-54.8) of patients receiving Vitamin K antagonists. One year rates of death, stroke/systemic embolism and bleeding were 4.75 (3.36-6.71), 2.40 (1.47-3.92) and 1.64% (0.91-2.97) per 100 person-years. Ischemic stroke occurred in 1.8% and hemorrhagic stroke in 0.8% of patients at 1-year of follow up. Conclusions: Although the use of vitamin K antagonists at baseline was high, the mean time in optimal therapeutic range was low. Mortality and stroke rates are higher than those reported in other contemporary registries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Time Factors , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Chile/epidemiology , Registries , Antithrombins/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(4): 290-296, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838729

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The SAMe-TT2R2 score was developed to predict which patients on oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) will reach an adequate time in therapeutic range (TTR) (> 65%-70%). Studies have reported a relationship between this score and the occurrence of adverse events. Objective: To describe the TTR according to the score, in addition to relating the score obtained with the occurrence of adverse events in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) on oral anticoagulation with VKAs. Methods: Retrospective cohort study including patients with nonvalvular AF attending an outpatient anticoagulation clinic of a tertiary hospital. Visits to the outpatient clinic and emergency, as well as hospital admissions to the institution, during 2014 were evaluated. The TTR was calculated through the Rosendaal´s method. Results: We analyzed 263 patients (median TTR, 62.5%). The low-risk group (score 0-1) had a better median TTR as compared with the high-risk group (score ≥ 2): 69.2% vs. 56.3%, p = 0.002. Similarly, the percentage of patients with TTR ≥ 60%, 65% or 70% was higher in the low-risk group (p < 0.001, p = 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively). The high-risk group had a higher percentage of adverse events (11.2% vs. 7.2%), although not significant (p = 0.369). Conclusions: The SAMe-TT2R2 score proved to be effective to predict patients with a better TTR, but was not associated with adverse events.


Resumo Fundamento: O escore SAMe-TT2R2 foi desenvolvido visando predizer quais pacientes em anticoagulação oral com antagonistas da vitamina K (AVKs) atingirão um tempo na faixa terapêutica (TFT) adequado (> 65%-70%) no seguimento. Estudos também o relacionaram com a ocorrência de eventos adversos. Objetivos: Descrever o TFT de acordo com o escore, além de relacionar a pontuação obtida com a ocorrência de eventos adversos adversos em pacientes com fibrilação atrial (FA) não valvar em anticoagulação oral com AVKs. Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo incluindo pacientes com FA não valvar em acompanhamento em ambulatório de anticoagulação de um hospital terciário. Foi realizada uma avaliação retrospectiva de consultas ambulatoriais, visitas a emergência e internações hospitalares na instituição no período de janeiro-dezembro/2014. O TFT foi calculado aplicando-se o método de Rosendaal. Resultados: Foram analisados 263 pacientes com TFT mediano de 62,5%. O grupo de baixo risco (0-1 ponto) obteve um TFT mediano maior em comparação com o grupo de alto risco (≥ 2 pontos): 69,2% vs. 56,3%, p = 0,002. Da mesma forma, o percentual de pacientes com TFT ≥ 60%, 65% ou 70% foi superior nos pacientes de baixo risco (p < 0,001, p = 0,001 e p = 0,003, respectivamente). Os pacientes de alto risco tiveram um percentual maior de eventos adversos (11,2% vs. 7,2%), embora não significativo (p = 0,369). Conclusões: O escore SAMe-TT2R2 foi uma ferramenta eficaz na predição do TFT em pacientes com FA em uso de AVKs para anticoagulação, porém não se associou à ocorrência de eventos adversos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Stroke/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Prothrombin Time , Thromboembolism/etiology , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Warfarin/adverse effects , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Decision Support Techniques , Disease-Free Survival , International Normalized Ratio , Stroke/etiology
14.
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(2): 125-131, 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-848006

ABSTRACT

A trombose é uma doença caracterizada por eventos de hipercoagulabilidade. A terapêutica anticoagulante oral com antagonistas da vitamina K (AVKs) é amplamente indicada para prevenção e/ou controle de distúrbios da coagulação. O manuseio de administração dos AVKs é difícil devido à complexidade da definição da dose. Em geral, o monitoramento de indivíduos submetidos à terapêutica com AVK é realizado pela determinação do tempo de protrombina, em que se avalia o grau de anticoagulação através do coeficiente internacional normatizado. Invariavelmente, o fluxo do processamento laboratorial, que compreende as fases pré-analítica, analítica e pós-analítica, é importante para a fidedignidade dos resultados, repercutindo na conduta médica de forma determinante. O objetivo deste estudo foi a realização de uma revisão da literatura científica descritiva utilizando bases de dados eletrônicos para busca de materiais científicos, como Google Scholar, MEDLINE, LILACS, PubMed, SciELO e Science Direct. Abordamos alguns aspectos relacionados ao fluxo analítico da monitoração laboratorial em um laboratório de análises clínicas. Em conclusão, é necessária uma apropriada condução das fases analíticas para que seja possível o sucesso terapêutico com uso dos AVKs (AU)


Thrombosis is a disease characterized by hypercoagulable events. Oral anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) is widely indicated for prevention and/or control of coagulation disorders. The administration of VKAs is difficult because of the complexity of dose setting. In general, individuals submitted to VKA therapy are monitored by prothrombin time, in which the degree of anticoagulation is assessed by the international normalized ratio. Invariably, the flow of laboratory processing, which comprises pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical phases, is of importance to the trustworthiness of results, with significant consequences to the medical practice. The purpose of this study was to carry out a review of the scientific literature using electronic databases to search for scientific materials, such as Google Scholar, MEDLINE, LILACS, PubMed, SciELO, and Science Direct. We discuss some aspects related to the analytical flow of laboratory monitoring in a clinical laboratory. In conclusion, appropriate management of the analytical phases is necessary so that therapeutic success using VKAs is possible (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Coagulation Tests/standards , Blood Specimen Collection/standards , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Diagnostic Errors/prevention & control , Drug Monitoring/methods , Laboratories , Thrombosis/drug therapy
15.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 134(6): 534-542, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846268

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: To examine stroke risk factors, including atrial fibrillation, management and prevention, and stroke outcomes across Latin America. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review conducted at Piedmont Heart Institute, United States. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for stroke AND "Latin America" AND epidemiology (between January 2009 and March 2015). Further studies in the SciELO, World Health Organization and Pan-American Health Organization databases were used to address specific points. RESULTS: Countries categorized as low or middle-income nations by the World Bank, which includes most of Latin America, account for two-thirds of all strokes. Globally, fewer than half of patients (median treatment level: 43.9%) with atrial fibrillation receive adequate anticoagulation to reduce stroke risk, which correlates with data from Latin America, where 46% of outpatients did not receive guideline-compliant anticoagulation, ranging from 41.8% in Brazil to 54.8% in Colombia. CONCLUSIONS: Atrial fibrillation-related stroke carries a heavy burden. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anti-coagulants provide options for reducing the risk of atrial fibrillation-related stroke. However, cost-effectiveness comparisons with warfarin are warranted before observational health-economics study results can be applied clinically. Initiatives to remedy inequalities and improve access to care across Latin America should accompany risk factor modification and guideline-based prevention.


RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Examinar os fatores de risco para acidente vascular cerebral (derrame), incluindo fibrilação atrial, manejo e prevenção, e desfechos do derrame na América Latina. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Revisão narrativa da literatura, realizada no Instituto do Coração Piedmont, Estados Unidos. MÉTODOS: Os termos "derrame" E "América Latina" E epidemiologia (entre janeiro de 2009 e março de 2015) foram buscados nas bases de dados PubMed, Embase e Cochrane. Estudos adicionais nas bases de SciELO, Organização Mundial da Saúde e Organização Pan-Americana de Saúde foram utilizados para discutir pontos específicos. RESULTADOS: Os países classificados como de baixa ou média renda pelo Banco Mundial, que incluem a maior parte da América Latina, representam dois terços de todos os derrames. Mundialmente, menos da metade dos pacientes (nível de tratamento mediano: 43,9%) com fibrilação atrial recebe anticoagulação adequada para reduzir o risco de derrame, o que correlaciona com os dados da América Latina, onde 46% dos pacientes ambulatoriais não receberam anticoagulação conforme as diretrizes, variando de 41,8% no Brasil a 54,8% na Colômbia. CONCLUSÕES: Derrames associados à fibrilação atrial impõem um ônus significativo. Anticoagulantes orais antagônicos sem vitamina K oferecem opções de redução do risco de derrames associados a fibrilação atrial. No entanto, comparações do custo-benefício com varfarina são justificáveis antes da aplicação clínica de resultados dos estudos observacionais relativos à economia da saúde. Iniciativas para solucionar diferenças e melhorar o acesso aos cuidados médicos na América Latina devem acompanhar a modificação dos fatores de risco e a prevenção baseada em orientações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Risk Assessment/methods , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology , Latin America/epidemiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 14(3): 133-138, jul. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-2124

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Comparar parâmetros clínicos relacionados aos pacientes em uso de varfarina sódica. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, cujos dados foram buscados em prontuários e, em seguida, os pacientes foram categorizados em dois grupos: Grupo 1, composto por indivíduos que passaram por consultas nas quais apresentaram ao menos um episódio de valor de Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado (INR) abaixo do limite de normalidade, e Grupo 2, com ao menos uma dosagem de valor de INR acima do limite de normalidade. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 73 pacientes que totalizaram 363 consultas em uso de anticoagulante oral, sendo 42 pacientes homens. O intervalo médio entre as consultas foi de 36 dias. Quanto à etnia, a mais prevalente foi a branca, com 56,16%, e a escolaridade mais prevalente foi o primeiro grau completo (72,6%). As doses semanais de varfarina 5mg não diferiram entre as indicações de uso (F=0,218; p=0,953). CONCLUSÃO: Mais da metade das consultas estava fora da faixa terapêutica, demonstrando que a estratégia atual no atendimento clínico-ambulatorial tem suas limitações como o grande intervalo interconsultas e a dificuldade de comunicação com o paciente, seja pelo baixo grau de instrução ou pelo alto fluxo de pacientes. As interações medicamentosas e a interferência do sexo e de comorbidades nos valores de INR devem ser melhores avaliadas em estudos controlados


OBJECTIVE: To compare some clinical parameters related to patients taking warfarin sodium. METHODS: This is a retrospective study, the data of which was collected in medical records, with patients then being categorized into two groups: Group 1, consisting of individuals presenting for consultation who had at least one episode of an International Normalized Ratio (INR) value below the normal range, and Group 2, with at least one dose of INR values above the normal range. RESULTS: The study included 73 patients with a total of 363 visits, on oral anticoagulant therapy, with 42 patients b eing males. The average interval between visits was 36 days. As for ethnicity, the most prevalent was the white one with 56,16%, and the most prevalent educational level was primary school (72.6%). The weekly doses of warfarin 5mg did not differ within the indications of use (F=0.218, p=0.953). CONCLUSION: More than half of the visits were outside therapeutic range, demonstrating that the current strategy in clinical and ambulatory care has its limitations, such as the large interval between consultations, and the difficulty of communication with the patient, either because of the low educational level or the high flow of patients. Drug interactions, the interference of gender, and comorbidities


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Ambulatory Care , Anticoagulants/pharmacokinetics , Vitamin K/administration & dosage , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Warfarin/administration & dosage , International Normalized Ratio/methods , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin K/administration & dosage
17.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 31(3): 239-245, May.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796128

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: In patients with mechanical prosthetic heart valves or atrial fibrillation requiring anticoagulation to prevent thromboembolic events, several factors influence adherence and anticoagulation complications. Objective: To evaluate the factors that interfere with the quality and complications of anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 100 patients, in the period from 2011 to 2014, was performed. Anticoagulation conditions in the last year, regarding the presence of complications (embolisms/bleeding) and inadequate treatment were assessed: achievement of less than 8 annual prothrombin times and International Normalized Ratio outside therapeutic target in more than 40% of prothrombin times. Results: There were 31 complications (22 minor bleeding without hospitalization and 9 major complications: 7 bleeding with hospitalization and two emboli); 70 were with International Normalized Ratio outside the target in more than 40% of the tests and 36 with insufficient number of prothrombin times. Socioeconomic factors, anticoagulant type and anticoagulation reason had no relationship with complications or with inadequate treatment. There were more complications in patients with longer duration of anticoagulation (P=0.001). Women had more International Normalized Ratio outside the target range (OR 2.61, CI:1.0-6.5; P=0.04). Patients with lower number of annual prothrombin times had longer times of anticoagulation (P=0.03), less annual consultations (P=0.02) and less dose adjustments (P=0.003). Patients with longer duration of anticoagulation have more complications (P=0.001). Conclusion: There was a high rate of major complications and International Normalized Ratio was outside the goal. Less annual prothrombin times was related to longer duration of anticoagulation, less annual consultations and less dose adjustments. More major complications occurred in patients with longer duration of anticoagulation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Postoperative Hemorrhage/etiology , Ambulatory Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Prothrombin Time/statistics & numerical data , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Socioeconomic Factors , Thromboembolism/complications , Thromboembolism/etiology , Time Factors , Vitamin K/adverse effects , Warfarin/adverse effects , International Normalized Ratio/statistics & numerical data , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 13(1)abr. 2015. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-749219

ABSTRACT

The vitamin K antagonists are the most widely used oral anticoagulant. Although bleedings are common side effect, development of hemothorax is rare. Most cases are associated with impairment in pleura or parenchyma structural alteration in the presence of INR values outside therapeutic range. We report the case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis presenting with massive hemothorax under anticoagulation with warfarin and present an overview of the main aspects related to warfarin overdose. A 58-year-old woman was evaluated due to transvaginal bleeding and dry cough. In her past medical history, rheumatoid arthritis, smoking and deep venous thrombosis was reported. She had clinical signs of anemia and pulmonary auscultation revealed no lung sounds in the lower third of the right hemithorax. The hemoglobin was 7,2g/dL and the international normalized ratio (INR) was greater than 9. The tomographic study showed pleural effusion and pulmonary embolism in the left pulmonary artery with chronic characteristics, but was negative for pulmonary infarct. The patient received crystalloids, vitamin K and transfusions of blood products. Thoracentesis demonstrated presence of hemothorax. After recovery and hospital discharge, an elective pleural biopsy reveals pleural tissue without histological changes and no signs of malignancy. Despite the fact that hemothorax is a rare complication in patients on oral anticoagulants, this occurrence can be life threatening. The evidence of pleural effusion in these patients should always raise the suspicion of hemothorax. Comorbidities that may affect the lung may be predisposing factors for the occurrence of hemothorax, but the roll of pleural and parenchymal diseases of the lung is not fully clarified and investigation of such conditions should be encouraged.


Os antagonistas da vitamina K são os anticoagulantes orais mais utilizados. Embora sangramentos sejam efeitos colaterais comuns, o desenvolvimento de hemotórax é raro. A maioria dos casos está associada ao comprometimento da pleura ou alteração estrutural do parênquima na presença de valores de INR fora da faixa terapêutica. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com artrite reumatóide e em anticoagulação com varfarina que apresentou-se com hemotórax maciço. Apresentamos também uma visão geral sobre os principais aspectos relacionados à intoxicação varfarínica. Uma mulher de 58 anos de idade foi avaliada devido a sangramento transvaginal e tosse seca. Em seu histórico médico, artrite reumatóide, tabagismo e trombose venosa profunda foram relatados. Ela tinha sinais clínicos de anemia e a ausculta pulmonar revelou ruídos abolidos no terço inferior do hemitórax direito. A hemoglobina era de 7,2g/dL e a relação normatizada internacional (RNI) maior do que 9. O estudo tomográfico mostrou derrame pleural e embolia na artéria pulmonar esquerda com características crônicas, mas foi negativo para infarto pulmonar. O paciente recebeu cristalóides, vitamina K e transfusões de hemocomponentes. A toracocentese demonstrou presença de hemotórax. Após a recuperação e alta hospitalar, uma biópsia pleural eletiva revelou tecido pleural sem alterações histológicas e sem sinais de malignidade. Apesar do fato de que hemotórax é uma complicação rara em pacientes que tomam anticoagulantes orais, esta ocorrência pode ser fatal. A evidência de derrame pleural nesses pacientes deve sempre levantara suspeita de hemotórax. Co-morbidades que podem afetar o pulmão podem ser fatores predisponentes para a ocorrência de hemotórax, mas o papel de doenças pleurais e parenquimatosas do pulmão não está totalmente esclarecido e a investigação de tais condições deve ser incentivada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Hemothorax/etiology , Warfarin/adverse effects , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors
20.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 26(2): 223-233, mar. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128823

ABSTRACT

La fibrilación auricular es la arritmia más frecuente y se relaciona con una alta tasa de accidente cerebrovascular y embolia sistéc)mica. La terapia establecida tanto para prevención primaria como secundaria es la anticoagulación con warfarina, antagonista de la vitamina K. Existen escalas que predicen el riesgo tromboembólico y la probabilidad de beneficiarse de terapia antitrombótica. El CHADS2ha sido la más simple y ampliamente utilizada, pero actualmente el CHA2DS2-VASc ha incorporado otros factores de riesgo, otorgando una mejor estratificación. El estrecho margen terapéc)utico de la warfarina y la interacción con fármacos y alimentos requiere controles seriados de la intensidad de la anticoagulación, limitando su uso clínico. Han aparecido nuevos anticoagulantes que ofrecen ventajas sobre los antagonistas de vitamina K. Estos actúan en dos sitios distintos de la cascada de la coagulación: inhibiendo directamente la trombina como el dabigatran, o el factor X activado como el rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban y betrixaban. Estos nuevos fármacos han ido reemplazando a la warfarina y ya están incluidos en las guías de manejo de fibrilación auricular no valvular.


Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia and is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke and systemic embolism. The therapy for primary and secondary prevention is the anticoagulation with warfarin; antagonist of vitamin K. There are scores to predict the risk of thromboembolism and the benefit of the antitrombotic therapy. The CHADS2 score has been the easiest one and it has been used widely, but today the CHA2DS2-VASc score includes new risk factors and gives a better risk stratification. The narrow therapeutic. margin and the interaction with food and drugs requires frequents tests of intensity of anticoagulation limiting usefulness in clinical practice. There are new anticoagulants that offer advantages compared with warfarin. These drugs act in two different points of the cascade of anticoagulation; directly inhibiting thrombin like dabigatran or factor X activated like rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban and betrixaban. These new agents are replacing warfarin and they are already included in the guidelines of atrial fibrillation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Thrombin/antagonists & inhibitors , Administration, Oral , Risk Assessment , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Rivaroxaban/administration & dosage
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