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1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(6): 366-369, nov.-dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156159

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Desenvolver um modelo de treinamento de cirurgias corneanas utilizando uvas. Métodos: Foram empregadas uvas como estruturas que mimetizam o tamanho do globo ocular humano, recobertas com materiais de látex, simulando a pratica de cirurgias de córnea utilizando um sistema de videomagnificação. Foram realizados oito pontos simples. Foi avaliado o tempo de confecção do procedimento. Resultados: Foram realizadas 25 simulações como o modelo descrito. O tempo médio de realização da rafia foi de 34,56 ±5,79 minutos. A análise da correlação entre o tempo e a ordem das cirurgias mostrou uma redução no tempo de confecção. Conclusão: O modelo de treinamento oftalmológico utilizando uvas mostrou-se capaz de simular as etapas básicas do treinamento de suturas microcirúrgicas.


Abstract Objective: Develop a training model for corneal surgery using grapes. Methods: Grapes were used as structures that mimic the size of the human eyeball, covered with latex materials, simulating the practice of corneal surgery using a videomagnification system. Eight simple stitches were performed. The surgical time was evaluated. Results: 25 simulations were carried out as the model described. The mean time taken for the raffia was 34.56 ± 5.79 minutes. The analysis of the correlation between the time and the order of the surgeries showed a reduction in the confection time. Conclusion: The ophthalmic training model using grapes proved to be capable of simulating the basic stages of microsurgery suture training.


Subject(s)
Sutures , Video Recording , Low Cost Technology , Vitis , Education, Medical , Simulation Training , Microsurgery , Epidemiology, Experimental , Cross-Sectional Studies , Animal Use Alternatives
2.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 1879-1889, 01-11-2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147950

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of rootstocks on grape production, quality and antioxidant capacity of 'Niagara Rosada' grape in two productive cycles. The work was developed in Jundiaí-SP, Brazil (26° 06' S, 46° 55' W and an average altitude of 745 m). The experimental design was in randomized blocks with subdivided plots, the plots being represented by the rootstocks and the subplots by the production cycles, with four replications, each consisting of 6 plants. The treatments consisted of a combination of 'IAC 313 Tropical', 'IAC 572 Jales', 'IAC 571-6 Jundiaí', 'IAC 766 Campinas' and '106-8 Mgt' as rootstocks and 'Niagara Rosada' as graft, and the production cycles were 2013 and 2014. The number of bunches, production and productivity of the vines, the physical characteristics of bunches, berries and stalks and the physicochemical composition of the must (soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and the relation soluble solids/titratable acidity) were evaluated in production cycles of 2013 and 2014). The content of chlorophylls, anthocyanins, carotenoids, flavonoids and total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of grapes were also evaluated in grape berries. The rootstocks did not influence the production and physical quality of 'Niagara Rosada' grapes. As for the chemical characteristics, rootstocks only had an effect on solids content, and 'IAC 766' and '106-8 Mgt' rootstocks promoted higher values of this characteristic. Likewise, the total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of the grapes were not influenced by the studied rootstocks. The vines in 2013 presented higher production and better physical characteristics of the grapes, however, the soluble solids content in this cycle was lower than in 2014.


Objetivou-se avaliar a influência de porta-enxertos na produção da videira, na qualidade e capacidade antioxidante da uva 'Niagara Rosada' em dois ciclos produtivos. O trabalho foi realizado em Jundiaí-SP, Brasil (26° 06' S, 46° 55' W e uma altitude média de 745m). O delineamento experimental foi de blocos causalizados em parcelas subdivididas, as parcelas foram representas pelos porta-enxertos e as subparcelas pelos ciclos de produção, com quatro repetições, constituídas de 6 plantas. Os tratamentos consistiram na combinação entre os porta-enxertos 'IAC 313 Tropical', 'IAC 572 Jales', 'IAC 571-6 Jundiaí', 'IAC 766 Campinas' e '106-8 Mgt' e a variedade copa 'Niagara Rosada', e os ciclos produtivos de 2013 e 2014. O número de cachos, produção e produtividade das videiras, as características físicas de cachos, bagas e engaços e a composição físico-química do mosto (teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, pH e relação sólidos solúveis/acidez titulável) foram avaliados nos ciclos de produção de 2013 e 2014. Avaliou-se ainda nas bagas das uvas o conteúdo de clorofilas, antocianinas, carotenoides, flavonoides e compostos fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante. Os porta-enxertos não influenciaram a produção e a qualidade física da uva 'Niagara Rosada'. Quanto as características químicas houve efeito dos porta-enxertos apenas no teor de sólidos solúveis, sendo que os porta-enxertos 'IAC 766' e '106-8 Mgt' promoveram maiores valores dessa característica. Da mesma forma, os compostos fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante das uvas não foram influenciados pelos porta-enxertos estudados. As videiras, em 2013 apresentaram maior produção e melhores características físicas das uvas, no entanto, o teor de sólidos solúveis nesse ciclo foi inferior ao de 2014.


Subject(s)
Vitis , Phenolic Compounds , Antioxidants
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 95-100, nov. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An efficient regeneration protocol is a priority for the successful application of plant biotechnology. Grape nodal explants were used to develop a micropropagation protocol for Thompson Seedless and Taify cvs. Explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with Kinetin or benzylaminopurine (BA) and indolebutyric acid (IBA). RESULTS: For both cultivars, axillary buds were grown, only, on a medium enriched with kinetin, moreover, shoot tip necrosis and callus formation were observed on Thompson Seedless cv. cultures grown on a medium with BA. Supplementing the growth medium with 100 mM (boron) B and 2.5 mM (calcium) Ca successfully help overcome these phenomena. The highest regenerated shoot numbers (14 and 6.2 explant 1 ) for Taify and Thompson Seedless cvs., respectively, were on media supplemented with 13.2 mM BA + 4.9 mM IBA and BA 13.2 mM + 5.8 mM IBA, respectively. Moreover, these media supported the developing shoots to have the heaviest dry weights (1.46 and 0.72 mg explant 1 ) for Taify and Thompson Seedless cvs., respectively. Thompson Seedless cv. regenerated shoot numbers and their dry weights were significantly increased by increasing the MS medium PO4 concentration. However, these two parameters were significantly decreased for Taify cv. Developing shoots were elongated and rooted on MS medium enriched with 4.9 mM, IBA 100 mM B and 2.5 mM Ca. Plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred to the greenhouse conditions. CONCLUSIONS: A novel promising protocol for Thomson Seedless and Taify cvs. micropropagation using single nodes has been developed.


Subject(s)
Phosphates/chemistry , Boron/chemistry , Calcium/chemistry , Vitis/growth & development , Regeneration , Biotechnology , Plant Shoots , Necrosis/prevention & control
4.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 512-520, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137306

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Ischemia-associated mortality caused by aortic cross-clamps, as in ruptured abdominal aorta aneurysm surgeries, and reperfusion following their removal represent some of the main emergency conditions in cardiovascular surgery. The purpose of our study was to examine the potential protective effect of tea grape against aortic occlusion-induced lung injury using biochemical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and quantitative analyses. Methods: Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups: control (healthy), glycerol + ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) (sham), I/R, and I/R + tea grape. Results: Following aortic occlusion, we observed apoptotic pneumocytes, thickening in the alveolar wall, edematous areas in interstitial regions, and vascular congestion. We also observed an increase in pulmonary malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and decrease in pulmonary glutathione (GSH). However, tea grape reduced apoptotic pneumocytes, edema, vascular congestion, and MDA levels, while increased GSH levels in lung tissue. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that tea grape is effective against aortic occlusion-induced lung injury by reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Vitis , Lung Injury/etiology , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Aorta, Abdominal/surgery , Tea , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Lung
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18467, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249175

ABSTRACT

The processing of grapes for the manufacture of juices and wines, generates large quantities of by-products rich in metabolites with antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cicatrizing activities. The high homology between human enzymes and snake venoms makes the latter valuable laboratory tools for the study of pathophysiological processes. Proteases and phospholipases A2 act in processes related to hemostasis and inflammatory response. Thus, in this work, dried pomace obtained from grape (Isabel, Niagara, Bordô, BRS Violeta and Blend cultivars) processing were evaluated on phospholipase, proteolytic, hemolytic and thrombolytic activities induced by snakes venoms and the content of phenolic compounds and minerals was evaluated. The dried pomace exerted inhibitory and potentiating actions in all analyzed activities. The enzymatic modulators present in the evaluated dried pomace have potential for therapeutic use, although their broad characterization is still necessary, in order to define adequate amounts and formulations to obtain efficacy and safety in their use.


Subject(s)
Snake Venoms/adverse effects , Wine/classification , Enzymes/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phospholipases A2/analysis , Vitis/classification , Industrial Waste/analysis
6.
Biol. Res ; 53: 02, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089077

ABSTRACT

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been considered for more than 20 years as a premier model organ- ism for biological sciences, also being the main microorganism used in wide industrial applications, like alcoholic fermentation in the winemaking process. Grape juice is a challenging environment for S. cerevisiae , with nitrogen deficiencies impairing fermentation rate and yeast biomass production, causing stuck or sluggish fermentations, thus generating sizeable economic losses for wine industry. In the present review, we summarize some recent efforts in the search of causative genes that account for yeast adaptation to low nitrogen environments, specially focused in wine fermentation conditions. We start presenting a brief perspective of yeast nitrogen utilization under wine fermentative conditions, highlighting yeast preference for some nitrogen sources above others. Then, we give an outlook of S. cerevisiae genetic diversity studies, paying special attention to efforts in genome sequencing for population structure determination and presenting QTL mapping as a powerful tool for phenotype-genotype correlations. Finally, we do a recapitulation of S. cerevisiae natural diversity related to low nitrogen adaptation, specially showing how different studies have left in evidence the central role of the TORC1 signalling pathway in nitrogen utilization and positioned wild S. cerevisiae strains as a reservoir of beneficial alleles with potential industrial applications (e.g. improvement of industrial yeasts for wine production). More studies focused in disentangling the genetic bases of S. cerevisiae adaptation in wine fermentation will be key to determine the domestication effects over low nitrogen adaptation, as well as to definitely proof that wild S. cerevisiae strains have potential genetic determinants for better adaptation to low nitrogen conditions.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Wine/microbiology , Adaptation, Physiological , Vitis/metabolism , Fermentation , Nitrogen/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/growth & development , Vitis/microbiology
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(5): 1356-1368, sept./oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048943

ABSTRACT

Wines are known for its high content of bioactive compounds that can be influenced by the region and climate where the grapes are produced. New regions of production are normally developed using techniques and standards for other traditional regions, but is important to characterize the wine profile, which is different according to the terroir, and can be important for future geographic indications. The aim of this study was to evaluate color, antioxidant activity, anthocyanin content and phenolic compounds profile in wines produced in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Wines were produced in different wineries of the same region using the varieties Syrah, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc (red), Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc (white) and Syrah (rose), from municipalities of Cordislândia, Boa Esperança and Três Corações, located in the south of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Wines produced in Minas Gerais State presented contents of t-resveratrol, total phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols and phenolic acids consistent to the contents observed in wines from traditional regions of production. However, the terroir and the grape variety can result in a differentiation of compounds observed in wines. Syrah red wines produced in Boa Esperança stood out with higher amounts of anthocyanins (24.29 mg L-1), phenolic acids (123,19 mg L-1 ) and flavonols (35.55 mg L-1), when compared to wines from the same variety from other municipalities and other evaluated red wines. Sauvignon Blanc wines from Boa Esperança presented higher contents of phenolic acids and total flavonols, when compared to wines of the same variety produced in Cordislândia. Chardonay wines presented higher total phenolics content, when compared to ohther evaluated white wines. Rose wine produced in the South of Minas Gerais presented the phenolic acids content of 36,33 mg L-1 and total flavonols content of 29,7 mg L-1. The highest antioxidant activity using the DPPH method, (% of free radicals scavenging - FRS) was observed for Syrah wines from Três Corações, (75.37%), but not different from Cabernet Sauvignon wines from Cordislândia (72.50%), values that can be correlated with the largest content of phenolics observed in wines as phenolic compounds (3009 mg L-1). No differences were observed in the contents of the antioxidant activity of white wines. This results indicate that the studied wines present the necessary nutritional and beneficial characteristics to compete in the supply of bioactive compounds during consumption, when compared to wines produced in traditional and different regions in Brazil and other countries.


Vinhos são conhecidos por seu alto teor de compostos bioativos, os quais podem ser influenciados pela região e clima de cultivo das uvas. Novas regiões de produção são normalmente desenvolvidas utilizando técnicas padrões estabelecidos em regiões produtoras tradicionais, mas é importante a caracterização do perfil do vinho obtido, que é diferente de acordo com o terroir e pode ser importante em futuras indicações geográficas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a cor, capacidade antioxidante, teor de antocianinas e perfil de compostos fenólicos em vinhos produzidos no estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil. Vinhos foram produzidos em diferentes vinícolas do estafo utilizando as variedades Syrah, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc (tintos), Chardonnay e Sauvignon Blanc (brancos) e vinhos Syrah (rose) roses dos municípios de Cordislândia, Boa Esperança e Três Corações, localizados no sul de Minas Gerais. Vinhos produzidos no estado de Minas Gerais apresentaram teores de t-resveraatrol, fenólicos totais, antocianinas, flavonóis, favanois e ácidos fenólicos consistentes com os observados em vinhos de outras regiões produtoras. No entanto, o terroir e a variedade de uva podem resultar em uma diferenciação de compostos observados em vinhos. Vinhos Syrah produzidos em Boa Esperança se destacaram com altos teores de antocianinas (24.29 mg L-1), ácidos fenólicos (123.19 mg L-1) and flavanois (35.55 mg L-1), quando comparados com vinhos da mesma variedade de outros municípios e os demais vinhos tintos avalaidos. Vinhos Sauvignon Blanc de Boa Esperança apresentaram altos tores de ácidos fenólicos e flavonoids totais, quando comparados com vinhos da mesma variedade produzidos em Cordislândia. Vinhos Chardonay apresentaram maiores teores de fenólicos totaisquando comparados com outros vinhos brancos avaliados. Vinhos Rosé produzidos no Sul de Minas Gerais apresentaram teores de ácidos fenólicos de 36.33 mg L-1 e toeres de flavonois totais de 29.7 mg L-1. Maior atividade antioxidante pelo método do DPPH (% de sequestro de radicais livres) foi observada em vinhos Syrah produzidos em Três Corações (75.37%), não se diferenciando de vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon de Cordislândia (72,50%), teores que podem ser correlacionados com o maiores tores de de fenólicos em vinhos, na forma de compostos fenólicos (3009 mg L-1).Não foram observadas diferenças nos teores de atividade antioxidante em vinhos brancos. Os resultados indicam que os vinhos de Minas Gerais paresental características nutricionais e benéficas indicadas no consume, quando comparados com vinhos produzidos em tradicionais e diferentes regiões do Brasil e outros países.


Subject(s)
Wine , Vitis , Phytochemicals
8.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(4): 1220-1226, july/aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048867

ABSTRACT

The State ofRio Grande do Sul is a major producer of grapes in Brazil, highlighting the Serra Gaúcha as the main producing region. In the pursuit of good quality in grapes it is essential the control of pests, especially insects. This study highlights the incidence of wasps, which cause serious damage at harvest time. This study aimed to characterize the community of social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) through faunal analysis and to examine the relationship of these insects with injuries to the grape berries in vineyards of Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul State. Therefore, active search were made in January and February 2014, followed by analysis of frequency, constancy, abundance, dominance and diversity. Ten species of wasps were able to use grape berries as food. The two dominant species were Polybia ignobilis and P. minarum, however, Synoeca cyanea has greater ability to break the intact berries. Other three species, Polistes cavapytiformis, P. versicolor and Brachygastra lecheguana, were also able to break the skin of grapes, but of damaged berries.


O Rio Grande do Sul é o maior produtor de uvas no Brasil, destacando-se a Serra Gaúcha como principal região produtora. Na busca de qualidade das uvas é fundamental o controle de pragas, especialmente insetos. Este trabalho identifica a incidência de vespas que acarretam graves danos na época de colheita. A pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo caracterizar a assembleia de vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) através de análise faunística e a relação destas com injúrias as bagas, em parreirais do município de Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul. Para tanto, foram realizadas coletas ativas nos meses de janeiro efevereiro de 2014, realizando-se análise de frequência, constância, abundância, dominância e diversidade da comunidade. Foram identificadas 10 espécies de vespas capazes de utilizar as bagas de uva como alimento. As espécies predominantes foram Polybia ignobilis e P. minarum, todavia, Synoeca cyanea apresenta maior capacidade de rompimento de bagas íntegras. P. cavapytiformis, P. versicolor e Brachygastra lecheguanatambém foram capazes de abrir a casca dos frutos em bagas anteriormente danificadas.


Subject(s)
Wasps , Pest Control , Vitis
9.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 238-246, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002226

ABSTRACT

Grapes and its derivatives (wines and juices) are rich in polyphenols that have high antioxidant and vasodilator capacity. These biological activities may vary in the juices marketed and produced in different regions of Brazil. Objectives: To determine the antioxidant and vasorelaxant effects of grape juice samples produced in different regions of Brazil. Methods: The content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were evaluated by the methods of Folin-Ciocalteau, DPPH, ABTS and a new electroanalytical approach (differential pulse voltammetry - DPV). Vasodilator effects were analyzed in isolated aorta from rats in an organ bath. Results: The samples from RJ and SP presented respectively the higher and lower phenolic content and also antioxidant capacity by the methods used (ABTS and DPPH). The results of the electrochemical index corroborate to the other tests, with the best results to RJ (21.69 ± 3.15 µA/V) and worse to the SP sample (11.30 ± 0.52 µA/V). In the vascular reactivity studies, the relaxation induced by each sample presented more distinct differences, following the order: RJ (87.9 ± 4.8%) > RS1 (71.6 ± 8.6%) > GO (56.2 ± 7.2%) > SP (39.9 ± 7.8%) > PR (39.4 ± 9.5%) > RS2 (19.5 ± 6.2%). Inhibition of endothelial NO practically abolished (p < 0.001) the relaxation for all samples, except one. Conclusion: The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity vary greatly among samples. The results obtained for the order of antioxidant activity were: RJ > RS1 > GO > RS2 > PR > SP. The juices were able to induce vascular relaxation at quite varied levels, and the RJ sample the most effective. The L-NAME practically blocked all samples except one (RS2)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Vasodilation , Vasodilator Agents/analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , Vitis , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells , Electrochemical Techniques , Polyphenols , Fruit and Vegetable Juices/analysis , Hypertension , Neoplasms/prevention & control
10.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 38: 10-18, Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051447

ABSTRACT

Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is a process in winemaking responsible for the conversion of L-malic acid to L-lactic acid and CO2, which reduces the total acidity, improves the biological stability, and modifies the aroma profile of wine. MLF takes place during or after alcoholic fermentation and is carried out by one or more species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are either present in grapes and cellars or inoculated with malolactic starters during the winemaking process. Although the main bacterium among LAB used in commercial starter cultures for MLF has traditionally been Oenococcus oeni, in the last decade, Lactobacillus plantarum has also been reported as a malolactic starter, and many works have shown that this species can survive and even grow under harsh conditions of wine (i.e., high ethanol content and low pH values). Furthermore, it has been proved that some strains of L. plantarum are able to conduct MLF just as efficiently as O. oeni. In addition, L. plantarum exhibits a more diverse enzymatic profile than O. oeni, which could play an important role in the modification of the wine aroma profile. This enzymatic diversity allows obtaining several starter cultures composed of different L. plantarum biotypes, which could result in distinctive wines. In this context, this review focuses on showing the relevance of L. plantarum as a MLF starter culture in winemaking.


Subject(s)
Wine/microbiology , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolism , Fermentation , Malates/metabolism , Vitis/microbiology , Odorants
11.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e1282018, 2019. graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1009462

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to compare the use of fruits of great economic and social importance for the northeast of Brazil by Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae) for oviposition, larval development, size and longevity of adults. Fruits of mango (Mangifera indica L.), quiabento (Pereskia bahiensis Gürke), forage palm [Opuntia fícus indica (L.) Mill] and grape (Vitis vinifera L.) were used, as well as flies from a hybrid laboratory population. Initially, four treatments (fruits) and six replications were used; the fruits were offered to 10 C. capitata couples, with later (96 hours) egg count. The second was conducted with six treatments and 10 replicates, offering two types of fruits simultaneously, combined two to two, to 10 C. capitata couples. The last bioassay comprised four treatments and six replicates, where 20 g of fruit were offered to 20 first-instar C. capitata larvae. After six days, the larvae were placed in plastic pots containing vermiculite until pupation, quantifying larval and pupal periods, viability and pupal mass, besides longevity and adult size. The data were submitted to ANOVA using the R Core Team software. Ceratitis capitata oviposits and completes its biological cycle in the four hosts studied, exhibiting no preference for oviposition and low biological performance in quiabento fruits. It yielded smaller adults and lower grape survival. Cactaceae palm and quiabento allow the survival of C. capitata in the laboratory, and this knowledge has been reported for the first time, proving that they can act as alternative hosts in the field.(AU)


O objetivo do estudo foi comparar a utilização de frutos de importância econômica e social para o nordeste do Brasil por Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae) para oviposição, desenvolvimento larval, tamanho e longevidade de adultos. Foram utilizados frutos de manga (Mangifera indica L.), quiabento (Pereskia bahiensis Gürke), palma-forrageira [Opuntia fícus indica (L.) Mill] e uva (Vitis vinifera L.) e moscas procedentes de uma população híbrida de laboratório. Inicialmente, utilizaram-se quatro tratamentos (frutos) e seis repetições, com o oferecimento dos frutos a 10 casais de C. capitata, com posterior (96 horas) contagem de ovos. O segundo teste foi conduzido com seis tratamentos e 10 repetições, oferecendo-se dois tipos de frutos simultaneamente, combinados dois a dois, a 10 casais de C. capitata. O último bioensaio compreendeu quatro tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo oferecidos 20 g de fruto a 20 larvas de primeiro instar de C. capitata. Após seis dias, as larvas foram colocadas em potes plásticos contendo vermiculita até a empupação, quantificando-se: períodos larval e pupal, viabilidade e massa pupal e longevidade e tamanho do adulto. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA) pelo Programa R Core Team. Ceratitis capitata oviposita e completa seu ciclo biológico nos quatro hospedeiros estudados, exibindo não preferência para oviposição e baixa performance biológica em frutos de quiabento. Este proporcionou adultos menores e a uva permitiu a menor sobrevivência. As cactáceas palma e quiabento permitem a sobrevivência de C. capitata em laboratório, sendo esse conhecimento relatado pela primeira vez, comprovando que essas espécies podem atuar como hospedeiros alternativos no campo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Oviposition , Ceratitis capitata , Larva/growth & development , Vitis , Mangifera , Fruit , Insecta
12.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e0882017, 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-998435

ABSTRACT

Petri disease is complex, attacks young vine plants and it is difficult to be controlled. The fungus Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Phc) has been identified as the main causative agent of this disease. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalent colonization of the Petri disease fungi in different portions of vine plants; to assess the susceptibility of grapevine rootstocks to the fungus P. chlamydospora; to assess the effect of solarization and biofumigation, followed by hot-water treatment (HWT), on the disinfection of cuttings of the rootstock IAC 766 infected with P. chlamydospora, and assess the effect of solarization and biofumigation, followed by HWT, on the rooting of cuttings of the rootstock IAC 766. For the prevalent colonization test, the fungus species detected and identified in 'Niagara Rosada' grafted on two rootstocks different were Phc and Phialemoniopsis ocularis. This is the first report of P. ocularis in a young vineyard in Brazil. Both fungi, in particular Phc, colonized only the plant's basal part, drawing attention to the rootstock as target for control measures. Measurement of the dark streaks in the vascular system revealed that Golia was the least susceptible rootstock, and IAC 572 was the most susceptible to Phc. Moreover, biofumigation or temperature of 37°C applied for 7 and 14 days, both followed by HWT, suppressed Phc in cuttings of the rootstock IAC 766 without hampering their rooting. Meanwhile, new studies are needed to validate the efficiency of these disinfection techniques.(AU)


A doença de Petri é complexa, ataca plantas jovens de videira e é difícil de ser controlada. O fungo Phaeomoniella chlamydospora é o principal agente causal dessa doença. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: avaliar o local prevalente dos fungos da doença de Petri, em diferentes partes de plantas de videira; avaliar a suscetibilidade de porta-enxertos de videira para o fungo P. ­chlamydospora; avaliar o efeito da solarização e da biofumigação seguido de tratamento com água quente sobre a desinfecção de estacas do porta-enxerto IAC 766 infectadas com o fungo P. ­chlamydospora; avaliar o efeito da solarização e da biofumigação seguido de tratamento com água quente sobre o enraizamento de estacas do porta-enxerto IAC 766. Para o teste de colonização, as espécies de fungos detectadas e identificadas em Niagara Rosada enxertada em dois porta-enxertos diferentes foram P. ­chlamydospora e Phialemoniopsis ocularis. Este é o primeiro relato de P. ocularis em parrerais jovens de videira no Brasil. Ambos os fungos, em particular P. chlamydospora, colonizaram somente a parte basal das plantas, destacando-se os porta-enxertos como foco para medidas de controle. Medidas das estrias escuras no sistema vascular revelaram que Golia foi o porta-enxerto menos suscetível, e o IAC 572 foi o mais suscetíveis para P. chlamydospora. Além disso, a biofumigação ou a temperatura de 37ºC aplicadas por 7 e 14 dias seguidas de tratamento com água quente eliminaram P. ­chlamydospora em estacas do porta-enxerto IAC 766 sem afetar o enraizamento. No entanto, novos estudos são necessários ainda para validar a eficiência dessas técnicas de desinfecção.(AU)


Subject(s)
Vitis , Mycoses , Disinfection/methods , Prevalence
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740076

ABSTRACT

Resveratrol (3,4′,5,-trihydroxystilbene), a phytoalexin present in grapes, exerts a variety of actions to reduce superoxides, prevents diabetes mellitus, and inhibits inflammation. Resveratrol acts as a chemo-preventive agent and induces apoptotic cell death in various cancer cells. However, the role of resveratrol in odontoblastic cell differentiation is unclear. In this study, the effect of resveratrol on regulating odontoblast differentiation was examined in MDPC-23 mouse odontoblastic cells derived from mouse dental papilla cells. Resveratrol significantly accelerated mineralization as compared with the control culture in differentiation of MDPC-23 cells. Resveratrol significantly increased expression of ALP mRNA as compared with the control in differentiation of MDPC-23 cells. Resveratrol significantly accelerated expression of ColImRNA as compared with the control in differentiation of MDPC-23 cells. Resveratrol significantly increased expressions of DSPP and DMP-1 mRNAs as compared with the control in differentiation of MDPC-23 cells. Treatment of resveratrol did not significantly affect cell proliferation in MDPC-23 cells. Results suggest resveratrol facilitates odontoblast differentiation and mineralization in differentiation of MDPC-23 cells, and may have potential properties for development and clinical application of dentin regeneration materials.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Death , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Dental Papilla , Dentin , Diabetes Mellitus , Inflammation , Mice , Miners , Odontoblasts , Regeneration , RNA, Messenger , Superoxides , Vitis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to have a beneficial effect on regulating inf lammation. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of GSPE remains unclear. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of GSPE on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling pathway in the regulation of murine autoimmune arthritis. METHODS: Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced in dilute brown non-agouti (DBA)/1J mice. The mice were treated with GSPE (0 or 100 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. The severity of arthritis was assessed clinically, biochemically, and histologically. Immunostaining for TLR4 was performed. The expressions of TLR4 and downstream signaling molecules were analyzed by Western blot. The effect of GSPE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TLR4 activation was also evaluated using RAW264.7 cells and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and from those with osteoarthritis. RESULTS: GSPE attenuated the clinical severity of arthritis and decreased histological damage. GSPE treatment reduced the number of TLR4-stained cells in the synovium of mice with CIA. GSPE also downregulated the expression of TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and phosphorylated IκBα synovial protein in CIA mice. Concurrently, GSPE inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) subunits (p65 and p50). LPS-induced TLR4 activation was suppressed by GSPE in human FLS as well as in murine macrophages in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that GSPE ameliorated CIA by regulating the TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthritis , Arthritis, Experimental , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Blotting, Western , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Macrophages , Mice , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Osteoarthritis , Synovial Membrane , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Vitis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741522

ABSTRACT

Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) infection results in significant respiratory illness in dogs. Isolating and culturing CAV-2 allows for investigations into its pathogenesis and the development of vaccines and diagnostic assays. In this study, we successfully isolated a virus from a naturally infected dog in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. The virus was propagated in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Vero cells and showed a specific cytopathic morphology that appeared similar to a bunch of grapes. The virus was first confirmed as CAV-2 based on these cytopathic effects, an immunofluorescence assay, hemagglutination assay, and electron microscopy. The viral titer of the isolate designated APQA1601 reached 10(6.5) 50% tissue culture infections dose per mL in MDCK cells and exhibited no hemagglutination units with erythrocytes from guinea pig. The virus was also confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing. The APQA1601 strain had the highest similarity (~99.9%) with the Toronto A26/61 strain, which was isolated in Canada in 1976 when the nucleotide sequences of the full genome of the APQA1601 strain were compared with those of other CAV strains. Isolating CAV-2 will help elucidate the biological properties of CAV-2 circulating in Korean dogs.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Canine , Animals , Base Sequence , Canada , Dogs , Erythrocytes , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Genome , Guinea Pigs , Hemagglutination , Kidney , Korea , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Microscopy, Electron , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vaccines , Vero Cells , Vitis
16.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 27: 80-83, May. 2017. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010415

ABSTRACT

Background: A protocol for the micropropagation of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar 'Monastrell' was developed. Initial plant material was obtained from the sanitary selection of grapevine plants performed by real-time RT-PCR to confirm the absence of Grapevine fanleaf virus, Arabis mosaic virus, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3, and Grapevine fleck virus. Results: The effects of the salt composition (comparing Lloyd and McCown woody plant medium and Murashige and Skoog medium 1/2 macronutrients) and the growth regulator benzylaminopurine (BAP), at 0 and 8.9 µM, on plant propagation were evaluated using nodes as explants. The most efficient procedure consisted of bud induction in the medium with Lloyd and McCown woody plant salts and 8.9 µM BAP for 30 d along with elongation in cytokinin-free medium for 60 d, which gave 22 nodes/explant (174 plants/initial plant). A second cycle of propagation in a medium without BAP for another 60 d could give approximately 10,000 nodes, which can be obtained after an additional 2 months of culture. All plants acclimatized after the second cycle of multiplication were successfully transferred to soil. Conclusion: We developed an optimal protocol for V. vinifera cv. 'Monastrell' micropropagation, the first described for this cultivar.


Subject(s)
Vitis/growth & development , Purines/metabolism , Benzyl Compounds/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Vitis/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Acclimatization
17.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 155-161, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886639

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Several studies have shown that a high consumption of vegetables and fruits is consistently associated with a low risk of oxidative stress-induced diseases, which includes some degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer and Parkinson. Therefore, the objective of this study is to verify the effects of conventional and organic grape juice in the modulation of the neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and astrocytic markers protein (S100B) in hippocampus and frontal cortex of Wistar rats. In this study, 24 male Wistar rats were divided into three groups. To the first one, it was given organic purple grape juice; to the second, conventional grape juice, while the last one received only saline. After 30 days, all rats were sacrificed and hippocampus and frontal cortex were dissected. The animals that received organic and conventional grape juice showed, in frontal cortex, an elevated BNDF levels in relation to saline group. However, S100B levels did not change. These results showed that grape juices are able to modulate important marker in brain tissue, and could be an important factor to prevent brain diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/analysis , Vitis/chemistry , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/analysis , Fruit and Vegetable Juices , Frontal Lobe/chemistry , Hippocampus/chemistry , Reference Values , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/drug effects , Food, Organic , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/drug effects , Frontal Lobe/drug effects , Hippocampus/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology
18.
Rio de janeiro; s.n; 2017. 56 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1015763

ABSTRACT

As limitações dos irrigantes químicos utilizados em endodontia têm incentivado novas pesquisas acerca de substâncias alternativas para serem utilizadas no tratamento endodôntico. Estudos anteriores sugerem que o extrato de semente de uva (Vitis vinifera), tem atividade antimicrobiana assim como é eficaz no combate a cepas de Enterococcus faecalis. No entanto, os efeitos deste novo irrigante em biofilmes microbianos ainda não foram elucidados. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e quantificar o grau de desinfecção da dentina contaminada por biofilme de E. faecalis após irrigação com extrato de semente de uva Vitis vinífera 6,5% por meio de análise microscopia confocal a laser. A clorexidina (CHX) 2% e o hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl) 5,25% foram utilizados como irrigantes para comparação. Foram confeccionadas quarenta amostras de discos de dentina que foram contaminadas com E. faecalis e incubadas por um período de 21 dias para formação do biofilme. As amostras foram divididas em diferentes grupos de acordo com o irrigante testado após transcorrido o período de contaminação: grupo NaOCl, grupo CHX, grupo Vitis vinifera e grupo solução salina (controle). Após a irrigação, os discos de dentina foram corados com o corante fluorescente LIVE/DEAD BacLight e analisados por microscopia confocal à laser para determinar a proporção de células mortas no biofilme. A aquisição das imagens e quantificação do biofilme foi realizada utilizando-se o software LAS X. Uma distribuição normal dos dados foi confirmada pelo teste Shapiro- Wilk (p>0,05). Por esse motivo, a análise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se One-way análise de variância. Comparações Post hoc pair-wise foram realizadas utilizando-se o teste Tukey para múltiplas comparações (P<0.05). O grupo no qual o NaOCl foi utilizado como irrigante apresentou maior quantidade de células bacterianas mortas do que os dos outros irrigantes (P<0,05). Já o grupo da Vitis vinifera demonstrou maior morte bacteriana quando comparada a CHX e ao grupo controle (P<0,05). Não foram observadas diferenças entre a CHX e o grupo controle (P>0,05). A irrigação com o extrato de semente de uva, vitis vinífera, apresentou atividade antimicrobiana sobre o biofilme de E. faecalis sendo esta inferior a apresenta pelo NaOCl e superior a apresentada pela CHX.


The limitations of chemical irrigants used in endodontics have encouraged further research on alternative substances to be used in endodontic treatment. Previous studies have suggested that grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera), an irrigant of natural origin, is effective against strains of Enterococcus faecalis. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the degree of disinfection of dentin contaminated by E. faecalis biofilm after irrigation with Vitis vinifera grape seed extract 6,5% and to compare it with chlorhexidine (CHX) 2% and Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 5,25% by confocal microscopy laser. Forty samples of dentin disks that will be contaminated with E. faecalis and incubated for a period of 21 days for biofilm formation were prepared. The samples were divided into different groups according to the irrigant tested after the period of contamination: NaOCl group, CHX group, Vitis vinifera group and control group . After irrigation, the dentin disks were stained with the fluorescent dye LIVE / DEAD BacLight and analyzed by laser confocal microscopy to determine the proportion of dead cells in the biofilm. The acquisition of the images and quantification of the biofilm was performed using the software LAS X. Normal distribution of the data was confirmed by Shapiro- Wilk test (p>0.05). Therefore, statistical analysis was performed using One-way analysis of variance. Post hoc pair-wise comparisons were performed using Tukey's test for multiple comparisons (P<0.05). NaOCl presented a higher amount of bacterial cells killed than the other irrigators (P <0.05). Irrigation with grape seed extract, Vitis vinifera, showed antimicrobial activity on the E. faecalis biofilm, being lower than that presented by NaOCl and higher than that presented by CHX.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Microscopy, Confocal , Dental Plaque , Grape Seed Extract/therapeutic use , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Vitis , Dentin , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences. 2017; 19 (2): 25-31
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-189294

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Diabetic mellitus is one of the main health problems of diabetic subjects skin wound. This study was done to evaluate the effect of topical ointment produced from aqueous extract of grape seed [Vitis Vinifera] plus Eucerin on wound healing in diabetic rats


Methods: In this experimental study, 48 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into control, first, second and third experimental groups. Animals in control group were received only buffer citrate, interaperitonally. Diabetes was induced by 55 mg/kg/bw of Streptozotocin in three experimental groups. Skin wound [2x3 cm[2]] was created in left side of the lumbar region in three experimental groups. Animals in experimental gourp 1 did not received any treatment. The wounds of animals in experimental group 2 were treated with topical ointment of Eucerin twice a day. The wounds of animals in experimental group 3 were treated with topical ointment of aqueous extract of grape seed plus Eucerin with a ratio of 3:1 for 21 days twice a day. Wound healing process was evaluated using macroscopic and histological method


Results: The mean area and percentage of wound after treatment was significantly reduced in experimental group 2 and 3 in compare to experimental group 1 [P<0.05]. The percentage of improvement wound healing was significantly increased in experimental groups 2 and 3 in compare to experimental group 1 [P<0.05]. Synthesis of collagen fibers was increased in experimental group 3 in compare to experimental group 2 and 1


Conclusion: Topical application of aqueous extract of grape seed with ointment of Eucerin accelerates skin wound healing in diabetic rats


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Grape Seed Extract/pharmacology , Vitis , Lipids , Ointments , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin
20.
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(3): 175-180, 2017. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-859826

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Grape is one of the most important fruit crops across the world and can be consumed in different ways. There has been a growing interest in the role of antioxidants such as resveratrol, which can be found in grape skin, in oral and dental tissues. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of different presentations of resveratrol on cell proliferation and epithelial thickness of the oral mucosa of Wistar rats. Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: water/control, red wine, grape juice, 12% alcoholic solution/ethanol and aqueous solution of resveratrol. Samples of palatal and tongue mucosa were collected for a histomorphometric analysis using hematoxylin-eosin staining and the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) technique for quantification of cell proliferation. Results: As to epithelial thickness, both the tongue and the palate showed a statistically significant difference between the control group and the other groups, with greater decrease in the resveratrol and the wine groups. In the suprabasal layer of both the tongue and the palate epithelium, red wine reduced the rate of cell proliferation, while ethanol increased it. In the basal layer of the tongue epithelium, there was a statistically significant difference between the control, the grape juice and the resveratrol groups and the ethanol group, with increased cell proliferation in the ethanol group. Conclusions: Wine does not interfere in the physiological renewal of the basal layer of the buccal epithelium and exerts a protective action by reducing the cell proliferation rate of the suprabasal layer (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Epithelium/anatomy & histology , Mouth Mucosa/cytology , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Ethanol/chemistry , Fruit and Vegetable Juices/analysis , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Vitis/chemistry , Wine/analysis
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