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An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 155-161, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886639


ABSTRACT Several studies have shown that a high consumption of vegetables and fruits is consistently associated with a low risk of oxidative stress-induced diseases, which includes some degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer and Parkinson. Therefore, the objective of this study is to verify the effects of conventional and organic grape juice in the modulation of the neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and astrocytic markers protein (S100B) in hippocampus and frontal cortex of Wistar rats. In this study, 24 male Wistar rats were divided into three groups. To the first one, it was given organic purple grape juice; to the second, conventional grape juice, while the last one received only saline. After 30 days, all rats were sacrificed and hippocampus and frontal cortex were dissected. The animals that received organic and conventional grape juice showed, in frontal cortex, an elevated BNDF levels in relation to saline group. However, S100B levels did not change. These results showed that grape juices are able to modulate important marker in brain tissue, and could be an important factor to prevent brain diseases.

Animals , Male , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/analysis , Vitis/chemistry , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/analysis , Fruit and Vegetable Juices , Frontal Lobe/chemistry , Hippocampus/chemistry , Reference Values , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/drug effects , Food, Organic , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/drug effects , Frontal Lobe/drug effects , Hippocampus/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(3): 175-180, 2017. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-859826


Introduction: Grape is one of the most important fruit crops across the world and can be consumed in different ways. There has been a growing interest in the role of antioxidants such as resveratrol, which can be found in grape skin, in oral and dental tissues. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of different presentations of resveratrol on cell proliferation and epithelial thickness of the oral mucosa of Wistar rats. Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: water/control, red wine, grape juice, 12% alcoholic solution/ethanol and aqueous solution of resveratrol. Samples of palatal and tongue mucosa were collected for a histomorphometric analysis using hematoxylin-eosin staining and the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) technique for quantification of cell proliferation. Results: As to epithelial thickness, both the tongue and the palate showed a statistically significant difference between the control group and the other groups, with greater decrease in the resveratrol and the wine groups. In the suprabasal layer of both the tongue and the palate epithelium, red wine reduced the rate of cell proliferation, while ethanol increased it. In the basal layer of the tongue epithelium, there was a statistically significant difference between the control, the grape juice and the resveratrol groups and the ethanol group, with increased cell proliferation in the ethanol group. Conclusions: Wine does not interfere in the physiological renewal of the basal layer of the buccal epithelium and exerts a protective action by reducing the cell proliferation rate of the suprabasal layer (AU)

Animals , Rats , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Epithelium/anatomy & histology , Mouth Mucosa/cytology , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Ethanol/chemistry , Fruit and Vegetable Juices/analysis , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Vitis/chemistry , Wine/analysis
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 86-94, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741617


Trypanosoma cruzi strains from distinct geographic areas show differences in drug resistance and association between parasites genetic and treatment response has been observed. Considering that benznidazole (BZ) can reduce the parasite burden and tissues damage, even in not cured animals and individuals, the goal is to assess the drug response to BZ of T. cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, before treatment. Mice infected and treated with BZ in both phases of infection were compared with the untreated and evaluated by fresh blood examination, haemoculture, polymerase chain reaction, conventional (ELISA) and non-conventional (FC-ALTA) serologies. In mice treated in the acute phase, a significant decrease in parasitaemia was observed for all strains. Positive parasitological and/or serological tests in animals treated during the acute and chronic (95.1-100%) phases showed that most of the strains were BZ resistant. However, beneficial effect was demonstrated because significant reduction (p < 0.05%) and/or suppression of parasitaemia was observed in mice infected with all strains (acute phase), associated to reduction/elimination of inflammation and fibrosis for two/eight strains. BZ offered some benefit, even in not cured animals, what suggest that BZ use may be recommended at least for recent chronic infection of the studied region.

Humans , Drug Discovery , Industrial Waste/analysis , Nootropic Agents/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Shoots/chemistry , Stilbenes/isolation & purification , Vitis/chemistry , Agriculture/economics , Amyloid beta-Peptides/antagonists & inhibitors , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Benzofurans/analysis , Benzofurans/chemistry , Benzofurans/economics , Benzofurans/isolation & purification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , France , Industrial Waste/economics , Molecular Structure , Neuroprotective Agents/chemistry , Neuroprotective Agents/economics , Neuroprotective Agents/isolation & purification , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Nootropic Agents/chemistry , Nootropic Agents/economics , Nootropic Agents/pharmacology , Protein Aggregation, Pathological , Peptide Fragments/antagonists & inhibitors , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/economics , Plant Extracts/economics , Protein Aggregates/drug effects , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Stereoisomerism , Stilbenes/analysis , Stilbenes/chemistry , Stilbenes/economics , Stilbenes/pharmacology
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-8, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-734615


BACKGROUND: The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most widely cultivated and economically important horticultural crop in the world. As a one of the origin area, Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of the cultivated form V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars and also the wild form V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris ecotypes. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, no information has been reported so far on the biochemical (organic acids, sugars, phenolic acids, vitamin C) and antioxidant diversity of local historical table V. vinifera cultivars grown in Igdir province. In this work, we studied these traits in nine local table grape cultivars viz. 'Beyaz Kismis' (synonym name of Sultanina or Thompson seedless), 'Askeri', 'El Hakki', 'Kirmizi Kismis', 'Inek Emcegi', 'Hacabas', 'Kerim Gandi', 'Yazen Dayi', and 'Miskali' spread in the Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey. RESULTS: Variability of all studied parameters is strongly influenced by cultivars (P < 0.01). Among the cultivars investigated, 'Miskali' showed the highest citric acid content (0.959 g/l) while 'Kirmizi Kismis' produced predominant contents in tartaric acid (12.71 g/l). The highest glucose (16.47 g/100 g) and fructose (15.55 g/100 g) contents were provided with 'Beyaz Kismis'. 'Kirmizi Kismis' cultivar had also the highest quercetin (0.55 mg/l), o-coumaric acid (1.90 mg/l), and caffeic acid (2.73 mg/l) content. The highest ferulic acid (0.94 mg/l), and syringic acid (2.00 mg/l) contents were observed with 'Beyaz Kismis' cultivar. The highest antioxidant capacity was obtained as 9.09 μmol TE g-1 from 'Inek Emcegi' in TEAC (Trolox equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) assay. 'Hacabas' cultivar had the highest vitamin C content of 35.74 mg/100 g. CONCLUSIONS: Present results illustrated that the historical table grape cultivars grown in Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey contained diverse and valuable sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, Vitamin C values and demonstrated important antioxidant capacity for human health benefits. Further preservation and use of this gene pool will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region.

Citric Acid/analysis , Dietary Carbohydrates/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Vitis/chemistry , Acids/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Caffeic Acids/analysis , Coumaric Acids/analysis , Crops, Agricultural/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/classification , Gallic Acid/analysis , Gallic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Hydroxybenzoates/analysis , Turkey , Tartrates/analysis , Vitis/classification
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-9, 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950817


BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a growing worldwide health problem. We evaluated the effects of wine grape powder (WGP), rich in antioxidants and fiber, in a rat model of metabolic syndrome induced by a high fructose diet. We tested whether WGP supplementation may prevent glucose intolerance and decrease oxidative stress in rats fed with a high fructose diet. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180 g were divided into four groups according to their feeding protocols. Rats were fed with control diet (C), control plus 20 % WGP (C + WGP), 50 % high fructose (HF) or 50 % fructose plus 20 % WGP (HF + WGP) for 16 weeks. Blood glucose, insulin and triglycerides, weight, and arterial blood pressure were measured. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index was calculated using insulin and glucose values. A glucose tolerance test was performed 2 days before the end of the experiment. As an index of oxidative stress, thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level was measured in plasma and kidney, and superoxide dismutase was measured in the kidney. RESULTS: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in plasma and renal tissue were significantly higher when compared to the control group. In addition, the area under the curve of the glucose tolerance test was higher in HF fed animals. Furthermore, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin levels, and the HOMA index, were also increased. WGP supplementation prevented these alterations in rats fed with the HF diet. We did not find any significant difference in body weight or systolic blood pressure in any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that WGP supplementation prevented hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and reduced oxidative stress in rats fed with HF diet. We propose that WGP may be used as a supplement in human food as well.

Animals , Male , Rats , Wine , Glucose Intolerance/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Vitis/chemistry , Metabolic Syndrome/prevention & control , Hyperglycemia/prevention & control , Phytotherapy/methods , Powders/therapeutic use , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Thiobarbiturates/analysis , Triglycerides/analysis , Blood Glucose/analysis , Insulin Resistance , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Metabolic Syndrome/chemically induced , Disease Models, Animal , Arterial Pressure , Fructose/administration & dosage , Glucose Tolerance Test , Insulin/blood , Kidney/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Lima; s.n; 2015. 37 p. tab.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-879813


Introducción: Se cree que la uva Borgoña (Vitis vinifera Pinot Noir) presenta beneficios para la salud debido a la presencia de polifenoles concentrados en la cáscara. Estos fitoquímicos podrían tener un impacto importante en el tratamiento de la hiperlipemia. Objetivos: El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar si la cáscara pulverizada de uva presenta efecto hipolipidémico en ratas con hiperlipemia inducida. Diseño: Estudio analítico, experimental y transversal. Material biologico: Ratas de cepa Holtzmann, Vitis vinifera variedad Pinot Noir Intervenciones: Las ratas se distribuyeron en 4 grupos de 6 individuos: Un control negativo (sin la enfermedad), un control positivo (8 mg/g de glutamato monosódico) y dos grupos experimentales (8 mg/g de glutamato monosódico más cáscara pulverizada de uva a las dosis de 50 mg/kg peso and 200 mg/kg peso). Luego de 30 días de tratamiento se procedió a medir la concentración de colesterol total, triglicéridos, HDL y LDL. Resultados: Se encontró disminución significativa de colesterol total y de LDL (p<0,05), pero no se observó diferencia significativa en la concentración de triglicéridos y HDL (p>0,05). Conclusiones: El pulverizado de cáscara de uva presenta efecto hipolipidémico bajo condiciones experimentales.

Animals , Rats , Vitis/chemistry , Phytochemicals , Hyperlipidemias , Hypolipidemic Agents , Models, Animal
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Oct; 51(5): 372-377
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154266


The phytochemicals present in the grapes are responsible for nutraceutical and health benfits due to their antioxidant properties. These phytochemicals, however, vary greatly among different cultivars. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potential and protective role of four different Indian grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars extracts, namely Flame seedless (Black grapes), Kishmish chorni (Black with reddish brown), Red globe (Red) and Thompson seedless mutant (Sonaka, Green) against the Fenton-like reagent (200 mmole H2O2, 2 mmole ascorbate, 25 mmole FeSO4)-induced liver damage. Non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were highest in the grape seed, followed by skin and pulp. Among edible parts of different cultivars, skin of Flame seedless (Black) cultivar showed highest antioxidant potential, while the Thompson seedless the least potential. These antioxidants were found to be significantly (P<0.01) correlated with the levels of total phenol, flavonoids and ascorbic acid. Fenton-like reagent treatment significantly (P<0.001) decreased GSH content by 39.1% and activities of catalase (CAT) by 43.2% and glutathione reductase (GR) by 60%, while increasing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitric oxide levels by 2.13-fold and 0.64-fold, respectively and GST activity by 0.81-fold. Pre-treatment with grape seed extracts showed the best hepatoprotective action against Fenton-like reagent-induced damage, followed by the extracts of skin and pulp of any cultivar. Thus, our study showed the significant amounts of antioxidants were in grape seed, followed by its skin and pulp, which varied among the cultivars and was associated with the protective action of grape extracts against Fenton-like reagent-induced liver damage ex-vivo.

Animals , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Fruit/chemistry , Goats , Hydrogen Peroxide , Iron , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plant Structures/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , Vitis/chemistry
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-6, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950743


BACKGROUND: Plant secondary metabolites are possess several biological activities such as anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-aging, etc. Cell suspension culture is one of the most effective systems to produce secondary metabolites. It is possible to increase the phenolic compounds and tocopherols by using cell suspensions. Studies on tocopherols production by cell suspension cultures are seldom and generally focused on seed oil plants. Although fresh grape, grape seed, pomace and grape seed oil had tocopherols, with our best knowledge, there is no research on tocopherol accumulation in the grape cell suspension cultures. In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cadmium chloride treatments on secondary metabolite production in cell suspension cultures of grapevine. Cell suspensions initiated from callus belonging to petiole tissue was used as a plant material. Cadmium chloride was applied to cell suspension cultures in different concentration (1.0 mM and 1.5 mM) to enhance secondary metabolite (total phenolics, total flavanols, total flavonols, trans-resveratrol, and α-, ß-, γ- δ-tocopherols) production. Cells were harvested at two days intervals until the 6th day of cultures. Amounts of total phenolics, total flavanols and total flavonols; trans-resveratrol and tocopherols (α-, ß-, γ- and δ-tocopherols) and dry cell weights were determined in the harvested cells. RESULTS: Phenolic contents were significantly affected by the sampling time and cadmium concentrations. The highest values of total phenolic (168.82 mg/100 g), total flavanol (15.94 mg/100 g), total flavonol (14.73 mg/100 g) and trans-resveratrol (490.76 µg/100 g) were found in cells treated with 1.0 mM CdCl2 and harvested at day 2. Contents of tocopherols in the cells cultured in the presence of 1.0 mM CdCl2 gradually increased during the culture period and the highest values of α, ß and γ tocopherols (145.61, 25.52 and 18.56 µg/100 g) were detected in the cell cultures collected at day 6. CONCLUSIONS: As a conclusion, secondary metabolite contents were increased by cadmium chloride application and sampling time, while dry cell weights was reduced by cadmium chloride treatments.

Cadmium Chloride/pharmacology , Vitis/drug effects , Primary Cell Culture/methods , Secondary Metabolism/drug effects , Phenols/analysis , Stilbenes/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Vitis/growth & development , Vitis/metabolism , Vitis/chemistry , Tocopherols/analysis , Flavonols/analysis , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Plant Somatic Embryogenesis Techniques/methods , Resveratrol
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-7, 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950733


BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to examine the role of UV-C irradiation on the production of secondary metabolites (total phenolic, total flavanols, total flavonols, catechin, ferulic acid and trans-resveratrol in phenolic compounds and α-, ß-, γ- δ-tocopherols) in callus cultures. Studies on the effects of UV-C treatment on callus culture are seldom and generally focused on UV-B. However UV-C radiation play an important role in accumule secondary metabolites. RESULTS: In this study, callus cultures from Öküzgözü grape cultivar were initiated from leaf petiole explants. Calli formed after 6 weeks on the medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.5 mg L-1 indole acetic acid (IAA) on B5 media. Callus tissues were exposed to UV-C irradiation at 10, 20 and 30 cm distances from the UV source for 5 and 10 minutes and samples were collected at hours 0, 24 and 48. CONCLUSIONS: The greatest total phenolic content (155.14 mg 100 g-1) was detected in calli exposed to UV-C for 5 min from 30 cm distance and sampled after 24 h. 24 h and 48 h incubation times, 30 cm and 5 min were the most appropriate combination of UV-C application in total flavanol content. Maximum total flavonol content (7.12 mg 100 g-1) was obtained on 0 h, 5 min and 20 cm combination. The highest (+)- catechin accumulation (8.89 mg g-1) was found in calli with 10 min UV-C application from 30 cm distance and sampled after 48 h. Ferulic acid content increased 6 fold in Öküzgözü callus cultures (31.37 µg g-1) compared to the control group. The greatest trans-resveratrol content (8.43 µg g-1) was detected in calli exposed to UV-C for 5 min from 30 cm distance and sampled after 24 h. The highest α-tocopherol concentration was found in calli exposed to UV-C for 10 min from 30 cm distance and sampled after 24 h. As a conclusion, it was showed that UV-C radiation had remarkable promoting effects on the accumulation of secondary metabolites in the calli of Öküzgözü grape cultivar.

Ultraviolet Rays , Plant Leaves/radiation effects , Crops, Agricultural/radiation effects , Vitis/radiation effects , Plant Somatic Embryogenesis Techniques/methods , Secondary Metabolism/radiation effects , Phenols/analysis , Stilbenes/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Catechin/analysis , Chromatography , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/physiology , Coumaric Acids/analysis , Vitis/metabolism , Vitis/chemistry , Tocopherols/analysis , Flavonols/analysis , Secondary Metabolism/physiology , Resveratrol
Braz. oral res ; 26(5): 457-463, Sept.-Oct. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649373


The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the erosive potential of different types (concentrated and powdered) and commercial brands of industrialised grape juices. The pH of all five fruit drinks was measured at two time points: immediately after preparation and 24 hours later. Sixty specimens of bovine enamel were randomly allocated and immersed in different types of grape juice (n = 10) for 10 minutes four times a day for fifteen days. The enamel alteration was analysed using surface Knoop microhardness (KHN) and surface roughness (Ra) tests at baseline and on the 5th, 10th and 15th days of the experiment. Two way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc and Pearson's correlation tests were used for statistical analysis (α = 5%). The grape juices presented pH values ranging from 2.9 to 3.5. All of the tested juices promoted significant enamel mineral loss (p < 0.05) on the first evaluation (5th day of immersion) and produced a significant increase in the mean roughness from the 10th day on when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). By the 15th day, all of the beverages had produced surface roughnesses that were significantly higher than that of the control group. The results suggest that all grape juices, regardless of their commercial presentation, present erosive potential.

Animals , Cattle , Beverages , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Tooth Erosion/etiology , Vitis/chemistry , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Random Allocation , Surface Properties , Time Factors
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 83(4): 1403-1411, Dec. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-607433


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of organic and conventional grapevine (Vitis labrusca L.) leaf extracts in reducing hydrogen peroxide-induced stress in the liver, heart and kidney of Wistar rats by measuring lipids and proteins damages (carbonyl assay), as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. The preincubation with 5 mg/mL of organic and conventional grapevine (Vitis labrusca L.) leaf extracts prevented both lipids and proteins oxidative damages in all tissues analyzed. The organic leaf extract was able to restore superoxide dismutase (kidney and liver) and catalase (heart) activities, which were modified by the treatment with H2O2. The conventional extract was able to restore only the catalase activity in liver and heart tissues. The beneficial effects of the V labrusca leaf extract shown in this study could probably be important for formulating dietary supplements, as well as for developing new ingredients with improved antioxidant properties from other plant sources.

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos benéficos de extratos de folhas de videira (Vitis labrusca L.) orgânicas e convencionais em reduzir o dano gerado pelo peróxido de hidrogênio no fígado, coração e rim de ratos Wistar, pela medida de danos a lipídios e a proteínas (Ensaio Carbonyl), como também a modulação sob a atividade das enzimas antioxi-dantes superoxido dismutase e catalase. A pré-incubação com 5 mg/mL de extratos de folhas de videira (Vitis labrusca L.) orgânicas e convencionais previnem ambos danos oxidativos a lipídios e proteínas em todos os tecidos analisados. O extrato de folha orgânica foi capaz de restabelecer a atividade das enzimas superóxido dismutase (rim e fígado) e catalase (coração), as quais foram modificadas pelo tratamento com peróxido de hidrogênio. O extrato convencional foi capaz de restabelecer apenas a enzima catalase no fígado e no coração. Os efeitos do extrato da folha V. labrusca mostrados neste estudo, provavelmente, poderiam ser importantes para a formulação de suplementos dietéticos, bem como para o desenvolvimento de novos ingredientes com propriedades antioxidantes provenientes de outras plantas.

Animals , Male , Rats , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Vitis/chemistry , Catalase/analysis , Catalase/drug effects , Heart/drug effects , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/enzymology , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Lipids/analysis , Liver/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Proteins/analysis , Proteins/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase
Acta cir. bras ; 26(4): 253-260, July-Aug. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-594343


PURPOSE: To verify the effect of consumption of grape extract isolated or combined with α-tocopherol supplementation on atherosclerosis model with Apo E -/- mice. METHODS: After six weeks of atherogenic diet, Apo E -/- mice were divided into the following groups: Control, Grape, Tocopherol and Grape plus Tocopherol. The treatment progressed for 11 weeks when animals were submitted to euthanasia. RESULTS: All the treatments presented hypocholesterolemic effect with reduction of serum and liver cholesterol levels. This effect was parallel to an increase in the fecal excretion of cholesterol. There was also a higher fecal excretion of saturated fatty acids in groups receiving grape extract or α-tocopherol. All the groups treated presented a tendency to show higher levels of vitamin E. The fatty acid profile showed a tendency for monounsaturated fatty acid preservation after grape extract and α-tocopherol consumption. Morphological analysis revealed a lower degree of evolution of the atherosclerotic plaque of the animals that were fed α-tocopherol combined with grape extract, even when no difference was found in the size of the largest lesion. CONCLUSION: A synergistic effect between the polyphenols and α-tocopherol was observed, resulting in diminished evolution of atherosclerosis and a greater beneficial effect on atherosclerosis than the isolated consumption of antioxidants.

OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito do consumo de extrato de uva isolada ou combinada com a suplementação de α-tocoferol em modelo de aterosclerose, utilizando camundongos Apo E -/-. MÉTODOS: Os camundongos Apo E -/- foram tratados com dieta aterogênica por seis semanas e foram divididos em quatro grupos: Controle, Uva, Tocoferol e Uva e Tocoferol. Após 11 semanas de tratamento os animais foram submetidos à eutanasia. RESULTADOS: Todos os tratamentos apresentaram efeito hipocolesterolêmico, com redução de colesterol plasmático e hepático. Este efeito foi acompanhado de um aumento na excreção fecal de colesterol. Houve também uma maior excreção fecal de ácidos graxos saturados nos grupos que receberam extrato de uva ou de α-tocoferol. Todos os grupos apresentaram uma tendência a apresentar níveis mais elevados de vitamina E. O perfil de ácidos graxos mostrou uma tendência para a preservação de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados, após consumo de extrato de uva e α-tocoferol. A análise morfológica revelou um menor grau de evolução da placa aterosclerótica dos animais que foram alimentados com α-tocoferol combinado com extrato de uva, mesmo quando não houve diferença no tamanho da lesão. CONCLUSÃO: Foi observado um efeito sinergístico entre os polifenóis e α-tocoferol, resultando na redução na evolução da aterosclerose e um maior de efeito benéfico na aterosclerose do que o consumo isolado de antioxidantes sobre a aterosclerose do que o consumo isolado de antioxidantes.

Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Vitis/chemistry , alpha-Tocopherol/therapeutic use , Apolipoproteins E/metabolism , Cholesterol/analysis , Diet, Atherogenic , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Synergism , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Triglycerides/analysis , Vitamin E/analysis
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 10(2): 167-172, mar. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-686997


Sedentary styles of life, along with inadequate nutritional habits, increase the risk to develop degenerative chronic diseases. Searching for possible alternatives of prevention for those risks, it has been investigated about the quality and nutraceutic properties of several agricultural commodities. The phenols are substances with important functions in vegetal organisms; and moreover they have antioxidants properties in the cellular metabolism of humans and animals. In order to quantify the content of three phenolic acids and a stilbene, it was performed analyses, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV/Vis), on metanolic leave extracts of 97 wild grapevines (Vitis spp.) of Puebla, Mexico. Those plants were found growing in their natural environments from 207 to 2175 m. The gallic acid was the most common of the metabolites since it appeared in 96 of the 97 samples, rutin was the second most common substance and it was identified in 80 samples, the caffeic acid appeared in 29 and finally resveratrol only in 14. The leaves of wild grapevines contain diverse antioxidants substances that might have several benefits in the human health; in addition the suitable conservation, maintenance and correct advantage of this plant genus provide environmental services and the balance of ecosystems.

Estilos de vida sedentarios, conjugados con inadecuados hábitos alimenticios, incrementan el riesgo de contraer enfermedades crónicas degenerativas. En la búsqueda de posibles alternativas de prevención, se ha investigado en la calidad y aspectos nutracéuticos de productos agrícolas. Los fenoles son sustancias con importantes funciones en organismos vegetales que, además, poseen propiedades antioxidantes en el metabolismo celular de humanos y animales. Con objeto de cuantificar el contenido de tres ácidos fenólicos y un estilbeno, fueron realizados análisis por cromatografía de líquidos de alta resolución (HPLC-UV/Vis) en extractos metanólicos de hojas provenientes de 97 accesiones de vides silvestres (Vitis spp.) de Puebla, México que crecían en su ambiente natural desde 207 hasta 2175 msnm. El ácido gálico fue el más común de los metabolitos ya que se presentó en 96 de las 97 muestras, el rutín fue la segunda sustancia en común y se identificó en 80 muestras; el ácido caféico se presentó en 29 y finalmente el resveratrol en 14. Las hojas de vides silvestres poseen diversas sustancias antioxidantes que podrían tener múltiples beneficios en la salud humana; además la adecuada conservación, mantenimiento y aprovechamiento de este género provee servicios ambientales y el equilibrio de ecosistemas.

Phenols/isolation & purification , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Vitis/chemistry , Gallic Acid/isolation & purification , Caffeic Acids/isolation & purification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Stilbenes/isolation & purification , Mexico , Rutin/isolation & purification
Clinics ; 66(9): 1537-1541, 2011.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604289


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic grape juice intake on biochemical variables and microcirculatory parameters in triathlon athletes. INTRODUCTION: The physiological stress that is imposed by a strenuous sport, such as a triathlon, together with an insufficient amount of antioxidants in the diet may cause oxidative imbalance and endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: Ten adult male triathletes participated in this study. A venous blood sample was drawn before (baseline) and after 20 days of organic grape juice intake (300 ml/day). Serum insulin, plasma glucose and uric acid levels, the total content of polyphenols, and the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were determined. The functional microcirculatory parameters (the functional capillary density, red blood cell velocity at baseline and peak levels, and time required to reach the peak red blood cell velocity during postocclusive reactive hyperemia after a one-min arterial occlusion) were evaluated using nailfold videocapillaroscopy. RESULTS: Compared with baseline levels, the peak levels of serum insulin ( p = 0.02), plasma uric acid ( p = 0.04), the functional capillary density ( p = 0.003), and the red blood cell velocity (p < 0.001) increased, whereas the plasma glucose level (p,0.001), erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity ( p = 0.04), and time required to reach red blood cell velocity during postocclusive reactive hyperemia ( p = 0.04) decreased after organic grape juice intake. CONCLUSION: Our data showed that organic grape juice intake improved glucose homeostasis, antioxidant capacity, and microvascular function, which may be due to its high concentration of polyphenols. These results indicate that organic grape juice has a positive effect in endurance athletes.

Adult , Humans , Male , Athletes , Beverages , Food, Organic , Hyperemia/metabolism , Skin/blood supply , Stress, Physiological/physiology , Vitis/chemistry , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Erythrocytes/enzymology , Homeostasis/physiology , Insulin/blood , Microcirculation/physiology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Polyphenols/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Uric Acid/blood
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2011. 143 p. tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-613886


Estudos epidemiológicos e experimentais têm sugerido que fatores de risco cardiovasculares podem ser parcialmente atribuídos às influências do ambiente em que vive o indivíduo, e que a nutrição materna influencia na programação de alterações metabólicas e cardiovasculares no indivíduo adulto e que caracterizam a síndrome metabólica (SM). Em contrapartida, estudos prévios de nosso laboratório demonstram que o extrato da casca de uva Vitis labrusca (GSE) possui efeito vasodilatador, antihipertensivo e antioxidante. Desta forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do tratamento oral com GSE (200mg/kg/dia), sobre as alterações cardiovasculares e metabólicas e extresse oxidativo observados na prole adulta (fêmea e machos) com 3 e 6 meses, cujas mães foram submetidas a uma dieta rica em gordura (hiperlipídica) durante a lactação. Quatro grupos de ratas foram alimentados com dietas experimentais: controle (7% de gordura); controle + GSE (7% de gordura + GSE), hiperlipídica (24% de gordura); hiperlipídica + GSE (24% de gordura + GSE) durante a lactação. Após o desmame, todos os filhotes passaram a ser alimentados com uma dieta controle e foram sacrificados aos 3 ou 6 meses de idade. A pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) foi medida por pletismografia de cauda e o efeito vasodilatador da acetilcolina (ACh) foi avaliado em leito arterial mesentérico (LAM) perfundido. Foram avaliados o peso corporal, adiposidade (intra-abdominal e gonadal), níveis plasmáticos de colesterol total, triglicerídeos, glicose e insulina, e a resistência à insulina (RI) foi calculada pelo índice de HOMA IR. As expressões do IRS-1, Akt e GLUT-4 foram determinadas em músculo soleus. O dano oxidativo, níveis de nitritos e a atividade das enzimas antioxidantes: superóxido dismutase, catalise e glutationa peroxidase foram dosados no plasma e homogenato de LAM. A PAS e tecido adiposo foram aumentados nas proles adultas de ambos os sexos e idades do grupo hiperlipídico e revertidos...

Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that cardiovascular risk factors can be partly attributed to the influences of the environment in which the individual lives, and that maternal nutrition influences the programming of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in adults characterizing the metabolic syndrome. On the other hand, previus studies from our laboratory show that the skin extract of grape Vitis labrusca (GSE) has antihypertensive, antioxidant and vasodilator effects. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral treatment with GSE (200mg/kg/day) on the cardiovascular and metabolic disorders and oxidative stress observed in adult offspring (female and male) at 3 or 6 months whose mothers were fed a high fat diet (HF) during lactation. Four groups of rats were fed experimental diets: control (7% fat), control + GSE (7% fat + GSE), diet (24% fat), HF + GSE (24% fat + GSE) during lactation. After weaning, all pups have become fed a control diet and were sacrificed at 3 or 6 months of age. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by plethysmography and the vasodilator effect of acethylcholine (ACh) was studied in perfused mesenteric arterial bed (MAB). We determined the body weight, adiposity, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA IR. The expression of IRS-1, Akt and GLUT-4 were determined in soleus muscle. Oxidative damage, nitrite levels and antioxidant enzyme activity: superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in plasma and homogenate of mesentery bed. The SBP and adipose tissue were increased in adult offspring of both sex and ages of the HF group and reversed by treatment with GSE. The vasodilator response to ACh was not different between groups of both sex, but was reduced by aging. In offspring females and males of the HF group were also observed increased levels of triglycerides, glucose and insulin resistance...

Rats , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Hypertension/prevention & control , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/prevention & control , Vitis/chemistry , Nutritional Status/physiology , Models, Animal
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-613282


Leucoselect is a commercial dry product obtained from grape seeds and enriched in procyanidins, which display antioxidant activity in virtue to their ability to scavenge oxygen free radicals and to chelate transition metal ions. The hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase and Cu2+/ascorbate systems are capable of generating reactive oxygen species; the latter system can also promote non-specific binding of copper ions to proteins. Therefore, we assessed the ability of Leucoselect to inhibit oxidative phenomena elicited by both oxidative systems on rat liver microsomes: lipid peroxidation, oxidation of protein thiols, and inhibition of the cytochrome P450 system. The antioxidant activity of Leucoselect was a reflection of its ability to scavenge oxygen free radicals, chelate copper ions, and protect microsomal membranes through direct interaction. These mechanisms were displayed in a dependent manner with the type of biomolecule studied and also with the oxidative system employed, which is an interesting phenomenon to consider when evaluating the antioxidant activity of herbal products.

Leucoselect es un producto comercial seco obtenido de semillas de uva y enriquecido en procianidinas, las cuales presentan actividad antioxidante debido a su capacidad para atrapar radicales libres y quelar metales de transición. Los sistemas hipoxantina/xantina oxidasa y Cu2+/ascorbato generan especies reactivas del oxígeno; este último sistema también promueve la unión inespecífica de iones cobre a proteínas. Por lo tanto, evaluamos la capacidad de Leucoselect para inhibir los fenómenos oxidativos producidos por ambos sistemas oxidantes en microsomas hepáticos de rata: lipoperoxidación, oxidación de tioles proteicos e inhibición de la actividad del sistema citocromo P450. La actividad antioxidante de Leucoselect fue un reflejo de su capacidad de atrapar radicales libres del oxígeno, quelar iones cobre y proteger membranas microsómicas por interacción directa. Dichos mecanismos se manifestaron en forma dependiente del tipo de biomolécula estudiada y del sistema oxidante empleado, fenómeno interesante de considerar al evaluar la actividad antioxidante de preparados herbales.

Animals , Rats , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microsomes, Liver , Proanthocyanidins/pharmacology , Vitis/chemistry , Copper/metabolism , /metabolism , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Acta amaz ; 40(1): 189-198, mar. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-546974


Los componentes volátiles presentes en la pulpa de la uva Caimarona se estudiaron mediante GC-MS. Éstos se extrajeron por tres técnicas: evaporación del aroma asistida con solvente (Solvent Assisted Flavour Evaporation SAFE), extracción continua líquido-líquido (LL) y destilación por arrastre con vapor-extracción simultanea con solvente orgánico (DES). En general los componentes volátiles predominantes en la pulpa fueron alcoholes alifáticos y terpénicos. Las notas olfativas del extracto SAFE fueron descritas como floral tenue y verde herbal similares a las exhibidas por la pulpa fresca. Este extracto presentó como componentes mayoritarios linalol 1,2-propanodiol y salicilato de metilo. En contraste, el extracto LL presentó notas que recuerdan la uva pasa y el vino moscatel y sus componentes mayoritarios fueron el ácido acético, el salicilato de metilo y el 2,6-dimetil-2(Z),7-octadien-1,6-diol. El extracto DES fue descrito con notas fresca, floral, cereal y amargo y está constituido por un reducido número de componentes mostrando el efecto negativo de la temperatura en la extracción; sus componentes mayoritarios fueron 1,2-propanodiol, linalol y salicilato de metilo. Adicionalmente, los componentes volátiles mayoritarios liberados por hidrólisis enzimática (Rohapect D5L) de los glicósidos de la pulpa fueron ácido acético, ácido benzoico y vainillina. Cabe destacar que aunque el linalol no se encontró entre las agliconas volátiles, se detectaron los dioles biogenéticamente relacionados: 3,7-dimetil-1,5-octadien-3,7-diol y los isómeros E y Z del 2,6-dimetil-2,7-octadien-1,6-diol.

Os componentes voláteis presentes na polpa da uva Caimarona foram estudados mediante GC-MS. Estes foram extraídos por três técnicas: evaporação de aroma assistida com solvente (Solvent Assisted Flavour Evaporation SAFE), extração continua líquido-líquido (LL) e destilação por arraste com vapor-extração simultânea com solvente orgânico (DES). Em geral os componentes voláteis predominantes na polpa foram álcoois alifáticos e terpénicos. As notas olfactivas do extracto SAFE foram descritas como floral tenue e verde herbal similares às exibidas pela polpa fresca. Este extrato apresentou como componentes majoritários o linalol 1,2-propanodiol e o salicilato de metilo. Em contraste, o extrato LL apresentou notas de uva passa e vinho moscatel e seus componentes majoritários foram o ácido acético, o salicilato de metilo e o 2,6-dimetil-2(Z),7-octadien-1,6-diol. O extrato DES foi descrito com notas de fresco, floral, cereal e amargo, e foi constituído de um número reduzido de componentes mostrando um efeito negativo da temperatura na extração dos aromas; os componentes majoritários nesta extração foram o 1,2-propanodiol, o linalol e o salicilato de metilo. Adicionalmente, os componentes voláteis majoritários liberados por hidrólises enzimática (Rohapect D5L) dos glicósidos da polpa foram o ácido acético, ácido benzóico e a vanilina. Se deve destacar que ainda que o linalol não esteja entre as agliconas voláteis, notou-se a presença de três dióis biogenéticamente relacionados: o 3,7-dimetil-1,5-octadien-3,7-diol e os isómeros E y Z do 2,6-dimetil-2,7-octadien-1,6-diol.

Urticaceae , Vitis/chemistry , Volatile Organic Compounds
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 41(4): 245-250, oct.-dic. 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-634640


The aim of this work was to evaluate the fate of ochratoxin A (OTA) content from must to wine during the red wine making process in a pilot scale vinification. The study was done using musts obtained from two red grape varieties (Bonarda and Tempranillo) artificially contaminated with two OTA levels. A duplicate set of tanks of 100 l each was established for each must (Bonarda and Tempranillo). The fermentations were initiated by inoculation of two Saccharomyces spp. strains having different fermentation performance. The must from the Tempranillo variety was spiked with 6 μg/l of OTA while that from the Bonarda variety with 0.3 μg/l of the toxin. Samples were collected at different stages of the process. Performance of the alcoholic and malolactic fermentations was monitored. Titratable and volatile acidity, pH, ethanol, sugar and SO2 concentrations were determined following standard methods proposed by the Office International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV). OTA analysis was done by HPLC. Detection and quantification limits were 0.01 and 0.1 ng/ml, respectively. The OTA levels during the vinification trials dropped to an average of about 86.5%. The type of Saccharomyces strains used showed no effect on toxin reduction.

El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la evolución del contenido de ocratoxina A (OTA) en mostos durante un proceso de vinificación a escala piloto. Se utilizaron mostos de dos variedades de uvas tintas (Bonarda y Tempranillo) contaminados artificialmente con dos niveles distintos de OTA. El ensayo fue llevado a cabo por duplicado en tanques de fermentación de 100 l cada uno. La fermentación se inició mediante la inoculación de dos cepas de Saccharomyces spp. con diferentes características fermentativas. El mosto de la variedad Tempranillo fue contaminado con 6 μg/l de OTA y el mosto de la variedad Bonarda con 0,3 μg/l de la toxina. Se colectaron muestras durante los diferentes estadios del proceso de vinificación. Se estableció el avance de dicho proceso sobre la base de la evolución de las fermentaciones alcohólica y maloláctica. Se determinó la acidez total y volátil, el pH y el contenido de etanol, de azúcar y de SO2 siguiendo los protocolos estándares propuestos por la Oficina Internacional de la Vid y el Vino (OIV). El contenido de OTA se evaluó por HPLC. Los límites de detección y cuantificación fueron 0,01 y 0,1 ng/ml, respectivamente. Los niveles de OTA disminuyeron alrededor del 86,5% al final del proceso de vinificación. El tipo de cepa de Saccharomyces spp. utilizada no tuvo efecto sobre la reducción de OTA.

Food Contamination , Industrial Microbiology/methods , Ochratoxins/analysis , Wine/analysis , Argentina , Ethanol/analysis , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Industrial Microbiology/standards , Pilot Projects , Species Specificity , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classification , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Vitis/chemistry , Vitis/classification , Wine/standards
J. appl. oral sci ; 17(5): 388-391, Sept.-Oct. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-531384


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the color stability of a nanofill composite resin (Filtek Z350) in different immersion media. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve resin-based composite specimens were prepared using a silicon cylindrical mold measuring ≅1mm of thickness and ≅ 10mm of diameter. Specimens were light-cured for 40 s from both sides using a LED Radii at 1400 mW/cm² and were randomized into 4 groups (n= 3) according to immersion media: coffee, yerba mate, grape juice or water (control solution). A digital spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the color changes at baseline and at 1-week after immersion in each solution. Specimens were stored in the different staining media for 4 h/day during 1 week. The color differences (DE) were analyzed by paired t-test and one-way ANOVA with complementary Tukey test (p<0.05). RESULTS: After 1-week of immersion, a perceptive color change for the group stored in the grape juice compared to baseline (p=0.008) was observed. Coffee and yerba mate did not show any color changes visible for the human eyes or significantly different from the control group (p>0.05) CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study suggest that the tested nanofill resin-based composite was susceptible to staining by substances present in the grape juice.

Humans , Coloring Agents/chemistry , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Materials/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Beverages , Color , Curing Lights, Dental , Coffee/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Immersion , Ilex paraguariensis/chemistry , Materials Testing , Spectrophotometry , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Vitis/chemistry , Water/chemistry
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 59(2): 214-219, jun. 2009. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-588658


Se determinó la composición química del aceite virgen obtenido por presión mecánica de semillas de uva de las variedades Syrah, Tintorera y de una mezcla de las variedades Syrah-Tempranillo-Merlot. Métodos analíticos oficiales fueron empleados en la determinación de dos índices de calidad (acidez e índice de peróxidos), del perfil de ácidos grasos y para la cuantificación de los componentes minoritarios más importantes. Los valores de acidez e índice de peróxidos coincidieron con los señalados por el Codex Alimentarius para los aceites comestibles de buena calidad. El ácido linoleico fue el ácido graso más abundante en todas las muestras, representando alrededor del 65 por ciento, seguido por el ácido oleico con niveles cercanos al 25 por ciento. La concentración total de fitoesteroles se ubicó en el intervalo de 5179 hasta 5480 mg/kg siendo el ß-sitosterol el más importante constituyendo más del 66 por ciento del total. El colesterol fue detectado en los aceites vírgenes provenientes de las variedades Syrah y Tintorera, con concentraciones inferiores al máximo permitido para los aceites vegetales comestibles. El ester 1-butanil-3-metil acetato, fue el componente volátil encontrado en mayor proporción con concentraciones de 5,4; 6,8 y 11,0 mg/kg para las variedades Syrah, Tintorera y la mezcla de semillas respectivamente. Otros compuestos volátiles también presentes en los aceites fueron el Trans-2-hexenal (0,1 a 0,5 mg/kg), E-2-pentenal (3,1 a 4,2 mg/kg), hexanal (1,4 a 1,9 mg/kg) y heptanal (0,1 a 0,3 mg/kg). Esos compuestos pueden ser los responsables de los aromas afrutados que se detectaron en todas las muestras de aceites vírgenes estudiadas. Los isómeros α y γ tocotrienoles, representaron más del 80 por ciento de los tococromanoles presentes, mientras que los tocoferoles constituyeron menos del 10 por ciento. El color verde intenso observado en los aceites fue asociado a la presencia de clorofila y otros pigmentos vegetales.

The chemical composition of the virgin oils obtained by mechanical pressing of grape seed belonging of the varieties Syrah and Tintorera as well as a mixture of seeds of the varieties Syrah, Tempranillo and Merlot was determined. Official analytical methods were employed for the determination of two quality indexes (acidity and peroxide value), fatty acids profile and for the quantification of the most important minor constituents. The acidity and the peroxide values were in agreement with the values reported by the Codex Alimentarius for good quality edible oils. The linoleic acid was the fatty acid most abundant in all samples, representing around the 65 percent, followed by the monounsaturated oleic acid with concentrations close to 25 percent. The total phytosterol concentrations were between 5179 and 5480 mg/kg, where the ß-sytosterol represented more than the 66 percent in all grape seed oils. The cholesterol was detected in the oils from the varieties Syrah and Tintorera in concentrations below the maximum allowed for vegetable edible oils. The ester 1-buthyl-3-methylacetate was the most abundant in the volatile fraction with concentrations of 5.4; 6.8 and 11.0 mg/kg for Syrah, Tintorera and the seeds mixture respectively. Other volatile compounds also present were the Trans-2-hexenal (0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg), E-2-pentenal (3.1 to 4.2 mg/kg), hexanal (1.4 to 1.9 mg/kg) and heptanal (0.1 to 0.3 mg/kg). These compounds may be the responsible for the fruity flavor detected in all virgin oils studied. The α and γ isomers of the tocotrienols accounted for more than the 80 percent of the tocochromanols present in the oils, while the tocopherols represented only the 10 percent The deep green color observed in all oil samples was associated to the presence of chlorophylls and other vegetable pigments.

Plant Oils/chemistry , Food Chemistry , Food Composition , Vitis/chemistry