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1.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(12): 1481-1485, dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991360

ABSTRACT

We report a 45-year-old male with AIDS who had a Cryptococcus neoformans central nervous system infection. He was treated with amphotericin B deoxycholate subsequently changed to voriconazole due to systemic toxicity of the former. Plasma levels of voriconazole were insufficient with a standard dose (0.7 μg/mL), therefore, the dose was increased thereafter to reach appropriate levels (4.5 μg/mL). Anti-retroviral therapy was started five weeks after voriconazole initiation with non-interacting drugs and he was discharged after a favorable evolution. He was re-admitted three months later due to seizures; a brain magnetic resonance showed new sub-cortical nodules. After excluding alternative causes and demonstrating fungal eradication, an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) event was suspected and treated with a short course of steroids. His evolution was satisfactory.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/drug therapy , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Deoxycholic Acid/adverse effects , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/chemically induced , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/diagnostic imaging , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnostic imaging , Deoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Drug Combinations , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
2.
Medwave ; 18(8): e7387, 2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-969322

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La queratitis infecciosa de origen fúngico afecta principalmente a personas de países tropicales y subtropicales, y constituye una importante causa de ceguera prevenible. Los antifúngicos tópicos, en particular la natamicina y el voriconazol, se consideran efectivos, pero no está claro cuál de ellos constituye la mejor alternativa de tratamiento. MÉTODOS: Realizamos una búsqueda en Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante el cribado de múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, analizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Identificamos tres revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron tres estudios primarios, todos correspondientes a ensayos aleatorizados. Concluimos que natamicina probablemente se asocia a mejor agudeza visual tras la infección, y que previene la perforación corneal y/o la necesidad de realizar queratoplastia terapéutica en comparación a voriconazol en queratitis fúngica.


INTRODUCTION: Infectious keratitis of fungal origin mainly affects people in tropical and subtropical countries, and is an important cause of preventable blindness. Topical antifungals, particularly natamycin and voriconazole, are considered effective, but it is not clear which one is the best treatment alternative. METHODS: We searched in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified three systematic reviews including three studies overall,all of which were randomized trials. We concluded natamycin probably is associated with better visual acuity after infection, and it prevents corneal perforation and/or need to perform therapeutic keratoplasty compared to voriconazole in fungal keratitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Natamycin/administration & dosage , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Keratitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Databases, Factual , Keratitis/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(1): 22-28, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899773

ABSTRACT

Resumen La presente revisión resume la evidencia sobre la monitorización terapéutica de tres antimicrobianos basada en datos regionales: vancomicina, amikacina y voriconazol en la población pediátrica. Estos datos coinciden con la literatura internacional en relación al requerimiento de dosis mayores que 40 mg/kg/día de vancomicina, la posibilidad de usar monodosis diarias de amikacina y el requerimiento de dosis mayores de voriconazol en relación a las iniciales recomendadas de 8 mg/kg/día. Contar con datos locales sobre el comportamiento farmacocinético/farmacodinámico de diversos antimicrobianos en la pediatría es de gran valor para adecuar la dosificación de los mismos en nuestra población. Se deberían incrementar los estudios de monitorización terapéutica en el uso de antimicrobianos en pediatría que permitan generar pautas de tratamiento adecuadas para este grupo etario.


This review summarizes recommendations of therapeutic monitoring of three antimicrobials based in regional data: vancomycin, amikacin and voriconazole in pediatric population. Regional evidence agrees with international literature regarding the requirement of higher daily doses than 40 mg/kg/day of vancomycin, as well as with the possibility of use one daily doses of amikacin and to recommend higher doses of voriconazole compared to the initially recommended doses of 8 mg/kg/day. Local data on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic behavior of various antimicrobials in pediatrics are of great value for dosing adjustment in our pediatric population. More studies in therapeutic monitoring in the use of antimicrobials in pediatrics should be performed in order to allow the generation of adequate treatment guidelines for this age group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amikacin/administration & dosage , Amikacin/pharmacokinetics , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/pharmacokinetics , Drug Monitoring/trends , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Voriconazole/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Latin America
4.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 37(4): 142-145, dic. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095740

ABSTRACT

La infección diseminada por Fusarium se ha convertido en un problema creciente en las personas con neoplasias hematológicas malignas, principalmente en pacientes con leucemias agudas; se describen cada vez más casos en aquellos sometidos a un trasplante de médula ósea. No existe un tratamiento óptimo establecido para la fusariosis diseminada. La mortalidad global comunicada de esta infección oscila entre el 50 y el 80%. Se presenta a continuación el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino de 29 años, con diagnóstico de leucemia mieloide aguda, que presenta como complicación una fusariosis diseminada, y logra sobrellevar un trasplante alogénico de médula ósea en el Hospital Italiano de San Justo (Argentina) de forma exitosa. (AU)


Disseminated fusariosis has become an increasing problem in people with hematopoietic neoplasms, mainly in patients affected by acute leukemias, and even more in those who undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation. There is not an optimal treatment for disseminated fusariosis. The global mortality described in the literature is between 50% and 80%. We introduce a case of a 29 year old patient with diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia complicated with disseminated fusariosis, who copes with an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with a successful outcome in the "Hospital Italiano de San Justo" (Argentina). (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/surgery , Bone Marrow Transplantation/trends , Fusariosis/therapy , Azacitidine/adverse effects , Tobacco Use Disorder , Transplantation, Homologous , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Mitoxantrone/administration & dosage , Mitoxantrone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Cytarabine/administration & dosage , Cytarabine/therapeutic use , Positron-Emission Tomography , Drug Therapy , Fever , Fusariosis/microbiology , Fusariosis/mortality , Fusariosis/epidemiology , Fusariosis/diagnostic imaging , Myalgia , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Filgrastim/therapeutic use , Marijuana Use , Cocaine Smoking , Terbinafine/therapeutic use , Melphalan/administration & dosage , Melphalan/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(1): 14-18, feb. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844439

ABSTRACT

Background: Drug interactions (DI) in patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are common and clinically significant, highlighting: anticonvulsants, voriconazole (VCZ) and cyclosporine (CsA), which require monitoring. Objective: To describe the interactions between CsA-VCZ in children undergoing HSCT. Methods: Retrospective, descriptive study in immunocompromised children hospitalized since January 2013 to December 2014 at Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Hospital Dr. Luis Calvo Mackenna, who received CsA and VCZ. Results: The median age was 5 years (3-6) and the median weight was 20 kg (17-30). Sixtythree baseline drug levels were analyzed, of those, 27 were CsA drug levels obtained previous to using VCZ and 36 were CsA drug levels collected concomitantly with VCZ. In the group CsA previous to VCZ, the CsA dose was 4.6 ± 2.6 (mg/ kg/ day) and the CsA average level was 188.8 ± 84.1 (μg/ml). In the group of CsA concomitantly with VCZ, the dose of CsA was 5.5 ± 3.0 (mg/ kg/day) (p = 0.07) and CsA average level was significantly higher: 232.5 ± 106.7 (μg/ml) (p = 0.04). Conclusion: This study shows an increased level of CsA when it is used together with VCZ. Therapeutic drug monitoring could improve the management of the DI and optimize the co-administration of CsA and VCZ.


Introducción: Las interacciones medicamentosas (IM) en el trasplante de progenitores hematopoyéticos (TPH) son comunes y clínicamente significativas, especialmente en: anticonvulsivantes, voriconazol (VCZ) y ciclosporina (CsA). Objetivo: Describir las interacciones de CsA-VCZ en pacientes con TPH. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, en pacientes receptores de TPH entre enero de 2013 y diciembre de 2014 en la Unidad de Trasplante de Médula Ósea del Hospital Dr. Luis Calvo Mackenna, que recibieran CsA y VCZ. Resultados: Edad media: 5 años (3-6), peso promedio: 20 kg (17-30). Se analizaron 63 concentraciones plasmáticas de CsA, 27 eran concentraciones de CsA previas al uso de VCZ y 36 concentraciones plasmáticas de CsA concomitantes con VCZ. En el grupo de CsA previo a VCZ, la dosis de CsA fue 4,6 ± 2,6 (mg/kg/día) y la concentración media de CsA 188,8 ± 84,1 (μg/ml). En el grupo de CsA en forma concomitante con VCZ, la dosis de CsA fue de 5,5 ± 3,0 (mg/kg/día) (p 0,07) y la concentración media de CsA fue: 232,5 ± 106,7 (μg/ml) (p = 0,04). Conclusión: Se demostró un aumento de las concentraciones plasmáticas de CsA en IM con VCZ. La monitorización terapéutica podría mejorar el manejo de la IM y optimizar la coadministración de CsA y VCZ.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Child , Drug Monitoring , Cyclosporine/administration & dosage , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Retrospective Studies , Immunocompromised Host , Cyclosporine/blood , Drug Interactions , Voriconazole/blood , Immunosuppressive Agents/blood , Antifungal Agents/blood
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(2): 127-134, abr. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-784862

ABSTRACT

Background: Voriconazole (VCZ) serum drug levels (SDL) vary widely and are associated with increased mortality when they are below the therapeutic range for invasive aspergillosis (IA). Aim: To describe VCZ SDL in oncology pediatric patients in order to reach adequate concentrations for prophylaxis (≥ 0.5 mg/L) and treatment (≥ 1.0 y 2.0 mg/L) for IA and their relationship with toxicity. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analysis of VCZ SDL and toxicities recorded in oncology pediatric patients between February 2013 and November 2014. The daily dosage and SDLs were analyzed according to administration route: intravenous (IV) and oral (PO), type of therapy (prophylaxis and treatment) and patient age (< 12 y ≥ 12 years old). Results: 112 through levels from 26 patients were analyzed and the average age was 9.3 years-old. The SDL obtained from the IV route were 43.7%. There were more SDL ≥ 0.5 mg/L and ≥ 1.0 mg/L with the IV route than the PO route (p < 0.05). Patients younger than 12-years-old received a higher dosage than those ≥ 12 years old (median 18.6 and 9.2 mg/kg/d, respectively, p < 0.05). To reach SDL ≥ 0,5 mg/L with the PO route, a dosage of 200 mg every 12 hours showed the best results for all patients (80-100% SDL ≥ 0.5 mg/L). With an IV dosage between 14 and 20 mg/kg/day in patients > 12-years-old, 80% of the SDL were ≥ 1 mg/L and ≥ 2 mg/L. In patients younger than 12-year-old, dosages between 8-30 mg/ kg/day showed similar results (50-63% of SDL ≥ 1 mg/L and 36-40% of SDL ≥ 2 mg/L). Eight patients (30.8%) presented an adverse drug reaction and no relationship with the SDL was found. Conclusión: A VCZ standard dosage of 200 mg every 12 hours PO showed the best results for IA prophylaxis in all patients. Patients younger than 12-years-old would require higher dosages than the doses used in this study to attain adequate SDL for IA treatment. No relation with SDL and adverse reactions was found.


Introducción: Las concentraciones plasmáticas (CPs) de voriconazol (VCZ) son erráticas y en el caso de encontrarse bajo rango terapéutico para el tratamiento de aspergilosis invasora (AI) se asocian a un aumento de mortalidad. Objetivo: Analizar las CPs de VCZ obtenidas en pacientes pediátricos para alcanzar valores que se estiman efectivos para profilaxis (≥ 0,5 mg/L) y tratamiento (≥ 1,0 y 2,0 mg/L) de AI y su relación con toxicidades. Pacientes y Métodos: Análisis retrospectivo de CPs de VCZ y toxicidades asociadas obtenidas en pacientes oncológicos pediátricos desde febrero de 2013 hasta noviembre 2014. Se analizó la dosis diaria y CPs de acuerdo a la vía de administración: intravenosa (iv) u oral (vo), tipo de terapia (profilaxis y tratamiento) y edad (< 12 y ≥ 12 años). Resultados: Se analizaron 112 CPs valle de 26 pacientes, con una edad promedio de 9,3 años. El 43,7% de las CPs correspondió a administración iv. Se obtuvieron más CPs ≥ 0,5 mg/L y ≥ 1,0 mg/L con la vía iv en relación a vo (p < 0,05). Pacientes bajo 12 años de edad recibieron mayor dosis en comparación a los ≥ 12 años (medianas 18,6 y 9,2 mg/kg/día, respectivamente, p < 0,05). La dosis vo más efectiva para alcanzar CPs ≥ 0,5 mg/L fue de 200 mg cada 12 h en todos los pacientes (80-100% de CPs ≥ 0,5 mg/L). En pacientes ≥ 12 años con dosis iv entre 14 y 20 mg/kg/día, 80% de las CPs fueron ≥ 1 mg/L y ≥ 2 mg/L. En pacientes bajo 12 años de edad, dosis entre 8-30 mg/ kg/día generaron similares resultados (50-63% para CPs ≥ 1 mg/L y 36-40% para CPs ≥ 2 mg/L). Ocho pacientes (30,8%), tuvieron alguna reacción adversa al fármaco, no encontrándose relación con la CP alcanzada. Conclusión: Una dosis estándar vo de 200 mg c/12 h de VCZ mostró los mejores resultados para profilaxis de AI en todos los pacientes. Pacientes bajo 12 años de edad requerirían dosis mayores a las utilizadas en este estudio para obtener CPs efectivas para tratamiento de AI. No se encontró relación entre CPs tóxicas y reacciones adversas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Voriconazole/blood , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/blood , Neoplasms/immunology , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Reference Values , Administration, Oral , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Drug Monitoring , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Pharmacovigilance , Immunocompetence/drug effects , Injections, Intravenous , Neoplasms/microbiology
7.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 78(4): 252-254, July-Aug. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759251

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTPostoperative fungal endophthalmitis is a rare but devastating complication of cataract surgery. Vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B injection as well as administration of systemic antifungal agents have been suggested as optimal treatments for fungal endophthalmitis. However, this therapy may fail to eliminate fungal species resistant to current antifungal agents. The saprophytic fungus Trichosporon asahii is frequently observed as a cause of endogenous endophthalmitis in immunosuppressed patients. We report a case of postoperative endophthalmitis caused by T. asahii, resistant to amphotericin B. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T. asahii endophthalmitis successfully treated with intravitreal and systemic voriconazole, pars plana vitrectomy, and removal of the intraocular lens and entire lens capsule.


RESUMOEndoftalmite fúngica pós-operatória é uma complicação rara mas devastadora da cirurgia de catarata. A vitrectomia e injeção intravítrea de anfotericina B, bem como agentes fungicidas sistêmicos, têm sido sugeridos como tratamentos ideais para endoftalmite fúngica. No entanto, esta terapia pode falhar em erradicar as espécies de fungos resistentes aos agentes antifúngicos atuais. Uma dessas espécies de fungos é o fungo saprófita,Trichosporon asahii, que é frequentemente observada, como causa de endoftalmite endógena, em pacientes imunodeprimidos. Relatamos um caso de endoftalmite pós-operatória causada porT. asahii que é resistente a anfotericina B. Ao nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro relato de endoftalmite porT. asahii tratado com sucesso com voriconazol intravítreo e sistêmico, vitrectomia viapars plana, e remoção da lente intraocular e saco capsular.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Trichosporonosis/drug therapy , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Intravitreal Injections , Trichosporon/classification , Trichosporon/isolation & purification
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1453-1456, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39968

ABSTRACT

Invasive aspergillosis (IA), generally considered an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. IA commonly occurs in the respiratory tract with isolated reports of aspergillosis infection in the nasal sinuses, central nervous system, skin, liver, and urinary tract. Extra-pulmonary aspergillosis is usually observed in disseminated disease. To date, there are a few studies regarding primary and disseminated gastrointestinal (GI) aspergillosis in immunocompromised hosts. Only a few cases of primary GI aspergillosis in non-immunocompromised hosts have been reported; of these, almost all of them involved the upper GI tract. We describe a very rare case of IA involving the lower GI tract in the patient without classical risk factors that presented as multiple colon perforations and was successfully treated by surgery and antifungal treatment. We also review related literature and discuss the characteristics and risk factors of IA in the immunocompetent hosts without classical risk factors. This case that shows IA should be considered in critically ill patients, and that primary lower GI aspergillosis may also occur in the immunocompetent hosts without classical risk factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Colon/microbiology , Colonic Diseases/diagnosis , Combined Modality Therapy , Immunocompetence , Laparotomy , Treatment Outcome , Voriconazole/administration & dosage
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