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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249008, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355893

ABSTRACT

Abstract Horismenus camobiensis sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), is described based on morphological, molecular and ecological data; this new species of chalcid wasp acts as hyperparasitoid of Opsiphanis invirae (Hübner, 1818) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in its parasitoid Cotesia invirae Salgado-Neto and Whitfield, 2019 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Diagnoses with morphological and molecular characters and illustrations are provided.


Resumo Horismenus camobiensis sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) é descrita com base em dados morfológicos, moleculares e ecológicos; esta nova espécie Chalcididae atua como hiperparasitoide de Opsiphanis invirae (Hübner, 1818) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) em pupas de seu parasitoide Cotesia invirae Salgado-Neto and Whitfield, 2019 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Caracteres diagnósticos morfológicos e moleculares e ilustrações de H. camobiensis são fornecidos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Wasps , Butterflies , Hymenoptera , Pupa
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245273, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339412

ABSTRACT

Abstract The possible interference of resistant pest's populations to insecticides in natural enemies in the action thas not been clarified yet. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) performance on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs with resistance frequency to the Metaflumizone over six generations of product exposure. Egg cards (2.0 x 7.0 cm) containing eggs from two populations of S. frugiperda, (resistant to Metaflumizone and the other susceptible), were exposed to T. pretiosum females for 24 hours in free-choice and no-choice testing in three generations (G1, G4, and G6). A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replications, each consisting of an egg card (experimental unit) containing 20 eggs. The parameters evaluated were: parasitism (%), emergence (%), sex ratio, number of emerged parasitoids per egg and males/females longevity. ANOVA and Tukey test (P≤ 0.05) were applied on the results. Results showed a reduction in parasitism [41.0% (G1) and 28.4% (G4)], egg emergence (17.5%) and parasitoids/egg [16.2 (G4) and 17.2 (G6)] in eggs originating from the population with resistance frequency. Females emerging from G6 populations eggs without exposure to Metaflumizone had greater longevity (3.5 days more) than the resistant population. The sex ratio and male longevity were not affected. The results indicate a reduction in T. pretiosum activity if S. frugiperda populations have some frequency of resistance to Metaflumizone.


Resumo A possível interferência de populações de pragas resistentes na ação de inimigos naturais ainda não foi esclarecida. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) com frequência de resistência à Metaflumizona ao longo de seis gerações de exposição ao produto. Cartelas (2,0 x 7,0 cm) com ovos de duas populações de S. frugiperda, (resistente à Metaflumizona e outra suscetível), foram expostas às fêmeas de T. pretiosum por 24 horas em condições de livre escolha e sem chance de escolha por três gerações (G1, G4 e G6). O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 25 repetições, sendo cada repetição composta por uma cartela (unidade experimental) contendo 20 ovos. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: parasitismo (%), emergência (%), razão sexual, número de parasitoides emergidos por ovo e longevidade de machos e fêmeas. ANOVA e teste de Tukey (P≤ 0,05) foram aplicados aos dados coletados. Os resultados mostraram redução do parasitismo [41,0% (G1) e 28,4% (G4)], emergência de ovos (17,5%) e parasitoides/ovo [16,2 (G4) e 17,2 (G6)] em ovos oriundos da população com frequência de resistência. As fêmeas emergidas de ovos da população G6 sem exposição à Metaflumizona, tiveram maior longevidade (3,5 dias a mais) do que a população exposta ao inseticida. A razão sexual e a longevidade de machos não foram afetadas. Os resultados indicam uma redução na atividade de T. pretiosum se as populações de S. frugiperda apresentarem alguma frequência de resistência à Metaflumizona.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Wasps , Hymenoptera , Moths , Semicarbazones , Sex Ratio , Spodoptera
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247433, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339336

ABSTRACT

Abstract The life cycle of stink bug, Glyphepomis dubia and the development of two egg parasitoids (Telenomus podisi and Trissolcus basalis) were studied at the Federal University of Maranhão, at 26 ± 2oC, relative humidity (RH) of 60 ± 10% and 12h photophase. Individuals used in the study were collected from seven rice fields located around the municipality of Arari, Maranhão, Brazil, and maintained in greenhouse and laboratory for the life cycle studies. From egg to adult, G. dubia took 35.2 days to complete the life cycle. The oviposition period was 37 days, with egg masses of about 12 eggs each and viability of 93.1%. Longevity was 53 and 65 days for females and males, respectively. The egg parasitoids Te. podisi and Tr. basalis parasitized and developed in G. dubia eggs; however, the biological characteristics of Tr. basalis were affected. Emergence of the parasitoids was higher for Te. podisi (83.5%) compared to the records for Tr. basalis (50.4%). Therefore, G. dubia may potentially achieve a pest status and Te. podisi is a promising biological control agent for G. dubia management in Brazil due to its higher longevity and better reproductive parameters.


Resumo O ciclo de vida do percevejo, Glyphepomis dubia e a biologia de dois parasitoides de ovos (Telenomus podisi e Trissolcus basalis) foram estudados na Universidade Federal do Maranhão, a 26 ± 2oC, umidade relativa (UR) de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 12h. Sete indivíduos de G. dubia foram coletados em lavoura de arroz localizada no município de Arari, Maranhão, Brasil e mantidos em casa de vegetação e laboratório para estudos de ciclo de vida. Do ovo ao adulto, G. dubia levou 35.2 dias para completar o ciclo de vida. O período de oviposição foi de 37 dias com massas de ovos com cerca de 12 ovos/massa e viabilidade de 93.1%. A longevidade foi de 53 e 65 dias, respectivamente, para fêmeas e machos. Os parasitoides de ovos, Te. podisi e Tr. basalis parasitaram e se desenvolveram em ovos de G. dubia, no entanto as características biológicas de Tr. basalis foi afetada. A emergência dos parasitoides foi maior para Te. podisi (83.5%) em comparação com o registrado para Tr. basalis (50.4%). Portanto, G. dubia poderá apresentar potencial para atingir o status de praga e Te. podisi é um promissor agente de controle biológico para ser utilizado no manejo de G. dubia no Brasil, pois apresentou maior longevidade e os melhores parâmetros reprodutivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Oryza , Wasps , Heteroptera , Hemiptera , Hymenoptera , Oviposition , Ovum , Biology
4.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210047, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1375811

ABSTRACT

Accidents with venomous animals are a public health issue worldwide. Among the species involved in these accidents are scorpions, spiders, bees, wasps, and other members of the phylum Arthropoda. The knowledge of the function of proteins present in these venoms is important to guide diagnosis, therapeutics, besides being a source of a large variety of biotechnological active molecules. Although our understanding about the characteristics and function of arthropod venoms has been evolving in the last decades, a major aspect crucial for the function of these proteins remains poorly studied, the posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Comprehension of such modifications can contribute to better understanding the basis of envenomation, leading to improvements in the specificities of potential therapeutic toxins. Therefore, in this review, we bring to light protein/toxin PTMs in arthropod venoms by accessing the information present in the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database, including experimental and putative inferences. Then, we concentrate our discussion on the current knowledge on protein phosphorylation and glycosylation, highlighting the potential functionality of these modifications in arthropod venom. We also briefly describe general approaches to study "PTM-functional-venomics", herein referred to the integration of PTM-venomics with a functional investigation of PTM impact on venom biology. Furthermore, we discuss the bottlenecks in toxinology studies covering PTM investigation. In conclusion, through the mining of PTMs in arthropod venoms, we observed a large gap in this field that limits our understanding on the biology of these venoms, affecting the diagnosis and therapeutics development. Hence, we encourage community efforts to draw attention to a better understanding of PTM in arthropod venom toxins.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthropod Venoms/toxicity , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Phosphorylation , Scorpions , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Spiders , Wasps , Bees , Glycosylation
6.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200171, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279405

ABSTRACT

Background Solitary wasp venoms may be a rich source of neuroactive substances, since their venoms are used for paralyzing preys. We have been exploring bioactive constituents of solitary wasp venoms and, in this study, the component profile of the venom from a solitary scoliid wasp, Scolia decorata ventralis, was investigated through a comprehensive analysis using LC-MS. Two peptides were synthesized, and their neuroprotective properties were evaluated. Methods A reverse-phase HPLC connected to ESI-MS was used for LC-MS analyses. Online mass fingerprinting was performed from TIC, and data-dependent tandem mass spectrometry gave the MS/MS spectra. The sequences of two major peptide components were determined by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis, confirmed by solid phase synthesis. Using the synthetic peptides, biological activities were assessed. Cell integrity tests and neuroprotection analyzes using H2O2 as an oxidative stress inducer were performed for both peptides. Results Online mass fingerprinting revealed that the venom contains 123 components, and the MS/MS analysis resulted in 33 full sequences of peptide components. The two main peptides, α-scoliidine (DYVTVKGFSPLR) and β-scoliidine (DYVTVKGFSPLRKA), present homology with the bradykinin C-terminal. Despite this, both peptides did not behave as substrates or inhibitors of ACE, indicating that they do not interact with this metallopeptidase. In further studies, β-scoliidine, but not α -scoliidine, showed protective effects against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells through integrity and metabolism cell assays. Interestingly, β-scoliidine has the extension of the KA dipeptide at the C-terminal in comparison with α-scoliidine. Conclusion Comprehensive LC-MS and MS/MS analyses from the Scolia decorata ventralis venom displayed the component profile of this venom. β-scoliidine showed an effective cytoprotective effect, probably due to the observed increase in the number of cells. This is the first report of solitary wasp venom peptides showing neuroprotective activity.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Peptides/classification , Wasp Venoms , Wasps/metabolism , Neuroprotection , Oxidative Stress , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 727-734, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142541

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fitness in parasitoids is generally influenced by host quality. We evaluated the development parameters of Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitoid on Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae, reared in artificial diets with different protein sources. Larvae of A. fraterculus were reared in the diets based on 1) raw wheat germ (control); 2) whole rice flour; 3) corn flour; and, 4) whole wheat flour + soybean meal. The larvae were used for the development of D. areolatus, to evaluate the number of offspring/female, emergence rate, sex ratio, egg-adult period, adult weight posterior tibia length and longevity. Larvae of A. fraterculus reared in the diets based on wheat germ and corn flour obtained a greater number of offspring, with shorter duration of egg-adult period for males and females. In diets with rice flour and corn flour, A. fraterculus larvae generated adults of D. areolatus with greater weight, longer tibia length and higher sex ratio, whereas larvae reared in wheat flour + soybean meal diet had a lower sex ratio. The diets based on rice flour and corn are the most appropriate for multiplication of the parasitoid.


Resumo O custo adaptativo de parasitoides é geralmente influenciado pela qualidade do hospedeiro. Nós avaliamos parâmetros de desenvolvimento do parasitoide Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) em larvas de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) criadas em dieta artificial com diferentes fontes proteicas. Larvas de A. fraterculus foram criadas em dietas a base de: 1) germe de trigo cru (testemunha); 2) farinha de arroz integral; 3) farinha de milho; e, 4) farinha de trigo integral + farelo de soja. As larvas foram usadas para o desenvolvimento de D. areolatus para avaliar o número de descendentes/fêmea, taxa de emergência, razão sexual, duração do período ovo-adulto, peso de adultos, comprimento da tíbia posterior e longevidade. Larvas de A. fraterculus criadas nas dietas a base de germe de trigo e farinha de milho, permitiram obter um maior número de descendentes do parasitoide, com menor duração do período de desenvolvimento ovo-adulto, para ambos os sexos. Nas dietas com farinha de arroz e farinha de milho, larvas de A. fraterculus geraram adultos de D. areolatus com maior peso e tamanho de tíbia de machos e fêmeas e uma maior quantidade de fêmeas. A dieta contendo farinha de trigo + farelo de soja afetou a geração de descendentes, causando uma menor razão sexual. As dietas a base de farinha de arroz e milho são as mais adequadas para a multiplicação do parasitoide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Wasps , Tephritidae , Hymenoptera , Triticum , Diet/veterinary , Flour , Larva
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 669-672, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132405

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lymeon Förster, 1869 is a very large genus of the Cryptinae (Ichneumonidae) with predominantly Neotropical distribution where females attack small cocoons of various groups of insects and spider eggs-sac. In the present study, we report the first record the interaction between the parasitoid wasp Lymeon sp. (Ichneumonidae), with eggs-sac of spider Araneus vincibilis (Araneidae) in Northeastern Brazil. We observed that although the female of A. vincibilis cares for the eggs that were attacked by Lymeon sp, the wasp larva consumed about 80% of spider eggs, indicating that both maternal care and the physical barrier offered by the eggs-sac may not provide absolute defense against predators.


Resumo Lymeon Förster, 1869 é um grande gênero de Cryptinae (Ichneumonidae) com distribuição predominantemente neotropical, onde fêmeas atacam pequenos casulos de vários grupos de insetos e ovissacos de aranha. No presente estudo, relatamos o primeiro registro da interação entre a vespa parasitoide Lymeon sp. (Ichneumonidae), com o ovissaco da aranha Araneus vincibilis (Araneidae) no Nordeste do Brasil. Observamos que, embora a fêmea de A. vincibilis cuide dos ovos que foram atacados por Lymeon sp, a larva da vespa consumiu cerca de 80% dos ovos da aranha, indicando que tanto o cuidado maternal quanto a barreira física oferecida pelo ovissaco não podem fornecer defesa absoluta contra predadores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Spiders , Wasps , Brazil , Larva
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 240-244, Apr.-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132381

ABSTRACT

Abstract Platydoryctes Barbalho and Penteado-Dias 2000 is a small genus of Neotropical parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) with four described species to date. Two new species of the genus are described from Brazil, and a key to species is presented in this paper.


Resumo Platydoryctes Barbalho and Penteado-Dias 2000 é um pequeno gênero Neotropical de vespas parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae), com quatro espécies descritas até o presente. Duas novas espécies do gênero são descritas para o Brasil e uma chave para espécies é apresentada neste trabalho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Wasps , Hymenoptera , Brazil
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 377-385, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132377

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study the diversity of Pimplinae at three different altitude zones in the Reserva Biológica da Serra do Japi Jundiaí, SP, Brazil was investigated with a total of 18 genera and 91 morphospecies collected by Malaise traps. Highest abundance and richness of Pimplinae were found in low and high altitudes, respectively. In the intermediate altitude occurred greater diversity and equitability, with greater similarity to high altitude. The genera Pimpla and Neotheronia were the most abundant; Pimpla caerulea Brullé, 1846 was the most frequent species. A new species of the genus Acrotaphus and two new species of the genus Polysphincta were found. Descriptions of the new species and identification keys are presented.


Resumo Neste estudo a diversidade de Pimplinae em três diferentes altitudes na Reserva Biológica da Serra do Japi, Jundiaí, SP, Brasil foi investigada com um total de 18 gêneros e 91 morfoespécies capturadas por armadilhas Malaise. Nas altitudes baixa e alta ocorreram maior abundância e riqueza em gêneros, respectivamente. Na altitude intermediária ocorreu maior diversidade e equitabilidade, com maior similaridade na altitude alta. Os gêneros Pimpla e Neotheronia foram os mais abundantes. Pimpla caerulea Brullé, 1846 foi a espécie mais frequente. Uma nova espécie do gênero Acrotaphus e duas novas espécies do gênero Polysphincta foram encontradas. As descrições das novas espécies e as chaves de identificação são apresentadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Wasps , Hymenoptera , Brazil , Altitude
12.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 37(1): 6-11, ene.-mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098365

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los himenópteros es una de las clasificaciones de los insectos, constituida por principalmente tres tipos, la abeja, la avispa y la hormiga de fuego, que provocan picaduras con veneno, generando desde efectos locales hasta sistémicos, con repercusiones leves o mortales sino reciben una atención médica oportuna. Las reacciones sistémicas son dependientes de la respuesta inmunológica, así como de la cantidad de las picaduras. Se presentaran dos casos de fallecimiento a causa de accidente por himenópteros tipo abejas, diagnosticados por la historia médicolegal, hallazgos de autopsia relacionado al efecto sistémico del veneno de las abejas y circunstancias relacionadas a la muerte.


Abstract Hymenoptera is one of the classifications of insects, consisting mainly of three types, the bee, the wasp and the fire ant, which cause pitting with venom generating from local to systemic effects, with slight or fatal repercussions but receive timely medical attention. Systemic reactions are dependent on the immune response, as well as the number of bites. There will be two cases of death due to an accident by hymenopterans type bees, diagnosed by medical-legal history, autopsy findings related to the systemic effect of bee venom and circumstances related to death will be presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Wasp Venoms , Wasps , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Costa Rica , Hymenoptera
14.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 7(2)nov. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178634

ABSTRACT

La motivación de la presente revisión bibliográfica, surgió a raíz del hallazgo de una vivienda deshabitada infestada por colmenas de avispas en la comunidad de Huayhuasi del Municipio de Mecapaca, cuando se estaban cumpliendo actividades para la práctica de Epidemiología Molecular de la enfermedad de Chagas. La vivienda tenía el antecedente de presencia de vinchucas, principales vectores de la enfermedad de Chagas. En la revisón sobre el tema vinchucas vs. avispas se encontró que las microavispas particularmente del género Telenomus son conocidas como parásitos endófagos de huevos de algunos Triatominae. Con el presente trabajo de revisión bibliográfica se tiene la intención de obtener conocimiento de interés biológico sobre las microavispas como parásitos de los huevos de algunos Triatominae que transmiten la enfermedad de Chagas y su aplicación en el posible control biológico y más aún cuando estos enemigos naturales seguramente contribuyan a la regulación de la población en la naturaleza, donde parasitoides y hospedadores han co-evolucionado para llegar a un estado de equilibrio.


The motivation of the present bibliographic review, arose from the finding of an uninhabited house infested by wasp hives in the community of Huayhuasi of the Municipality of Mecapaca, when activities were being carried out for the practice of Molecular Epidemiology of Chagas disease. The house had a history of the presence of vinchucas, the main vectors of Chagas disease. In the review on the topic kissing vs. wasps it was found that microavispas particularly of the genus Telenomus are known as endophagic parasites of eggs of some Triatominae. With the present work of bibliographic revision intends to obtain knowledge of biological interest on the microavispas as parasites of the eggs of some Triatominae that transmit the Chagas disease and its application in the possible biological control and even more so when these natural enemies surely contribute to the regulation of the population in nature, where parasitoids and hosts have co-evolved to reach a state of equilibrium.


Subject(s)
Wasps , Chagas Disease , Pest Control, Biological
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 603-611, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001485

ABSTRACT

Abstract The sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the most important crops in Brazilian farming. Many insect are related to this crop, compromising the quantity and quality of the fruit, representing a production problem. Vegetable diversification is one of the main elements that can be managed for suppressing undesirable insect populations in organic production, once that supports the presence of natural enemies. The basil Ocimum basilicum L. and the marigold Tagetes erecta L. are attractive and nutritious plants for parasitoids, being important candidates for diversified crops. This study evaluated the parasitoids attracted by the association of basil and marigold to organic sweet pepper crop. The experiment comprised three treatments: a) sweet pepper monoculture; b) sweet pepper and basil intercropping; c) sweet pepper and marigold intercropping. Hymenopteran parasitoids were collected over 14 weeks. 268 individuals from 12 families and 41 taxa were collected. Sweet pepper monoculture, sweet pepper-basil intercropping, and sweet pepper-marigold intercropping hosted 40, 98, and 130 individuals and richness of 24, 24, and 23, respectively. Furthermore, the insects of greater abundance in the basil and marigold were different to those collected in the monoculture. The number of parasitoids increased in the associations of sweet pepper with basil and marigold, providing advantages in the use of vegetable diversification for the organic pepper crops management.


Resumo O pimentão (Capsicum annuum L.) é um dos vegetais mais importantes dentre os cultivados no Brasil. Muitos insetos pragas estão relacionados a esta cultura, comprometendo a quantidade e a qualidade do pimentão, tornando-se um grande problema para a produção. A diversificação vegetal é um dos principais componentes a serem manejados para suprimir as populações de pragas na produção orgânica, devido ao apoio a inimigos naturais das pragas. O manjericão ( Ocimum basilicum L.) e cravo amarelo (Tagetes erecta L.) são plantas atrativas e nutritivas para parasitoides, importantes candidatas em cultivos diversificados. Este trabalho avaliou os parasitoides atraídos pela associação de manjericão e cravo amarelo em cultivo de pimentão orgânico. O experimento foi composto por três tratamentos: a) monocultura de pimentão; B) pimentão consorciado com manjericão; C) pimentão consorciado com cravo amarelo. Foram coletadas amostras de parasitoides himenópteros durante 14 semanas. Os espécimes foram identificados até o menor nível de taxonomia possível. Foram coletados 268 indivíduos ao longo de 12 famílias e 41 táxons. Os tratamentos de monocultura, pimentão consorciado com manjericão e pimentão consorciado com cravo amarelo resultaram em 40, 98 e 130 indivíduos e riqueza de espécies de 24, 24 e 23, respectivamente. Além disso, os insetos de maior abundância coletados no manjericão e cravo amarelo, foram diferentes daqueles coletados na monocultura. Houve um aumento na abundância de parasitoides nas associações de pimentão com manjericão e cravo amarelo, proporcionando vantagens no uso da diversificação vegetal, podendo ser usada no manejo do pimentão orgânico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Wasps/physiology , Capsicum/growth & development , Ocimum basilicum/growth & development , Tagetes/growth & development , Biodiversity , Brazil , Host-Parasite Interactions
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 466-469, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001459

ABSTRACT

Abstract Epipompilus aztecus (Cresson, 1869) was registered in South America in 2010. The aim of this paper is to report the first record of E. aztecus in the Brazilian Pantanal. Two female individuals of E. aztecus were collected in the northern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal in Mato Grosso State during November 2015. This new record of E. aztecus represents a range extension for the species.


Resumo Epipompilus aztecus (Cresson, 1869) foi registrado para a América do Sul em 2010. O objetivo deste estudo é relatar o primeiro registro de E. aztecus para o Pantanal brasileiro. Duas fêmeas de E. aztecus foram coletadas na parte norte do Pantanal brasileiro no estado de Mato Grosso, em novembro de 2015. O novo registro de E. aztecus representa uma extensão da distribuição de ocorrência para esta espécie.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Wasps/anatomy & histology , Wasps/physiology , Animal Distribution , Brazil
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 377-382, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001454

ABSTRACT

Abstract Brazil is a leading palm oil producer, but the defoliating caterpillars Opsiphanes invirae Hübner Brassolis sophorae L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) can reduce the productivity of this crop. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development and reproduction of the parasitoid Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian & Margabandhu (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in pupae of these oil palm defoliators. Ten O. invirae or B. sophorae pupae with up to two days old were exposed each to 30 T. diatraeae females for 48 hours. Parasitism and emergence of the progeny of T. diatraeae were similar in pupae of both Lepidoptera defoliators. The life cycle of this parasitoid was shorter in O. invirae (21.50 ± 0.42 days) pupae than with those of B. sophorae (27.60 ± 1.80 days). The number of the progeny (669.00 ± 89.62) and dead immature (217.13 ± 58.18) of T. diatraeae were higher in B. sophorae pupae than in those of O. invirae with 447.83 ± 51.52 and 13.50 ± 5.23, respectively. The sex ratio and female and male longevity of T. diatraeae emerged from these hosts were similar. The reproductive traits, especially the number of individuals (offspring) of T. diatraeae were better with B. sophorae pupae than with those of O. invirae.


Resumo O Brasil é um dos principais produtores de óleo de palma, porém as lagartas desfolhadoras Opsiphanes invirae Hübner e Brassolis sophorae L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) podem comprometer a produtividade dessa cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e aspectos reprodutivos do parasitoide Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian & Margabandhu (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) em pupas desses desfolhadores da palma de óleo. Dez pupas de O. invirae ou de B. sophorae com até dois dias de idade, foram expostas, cada uma, ao parasitismo por 30 fêmeas de T. diatraeae , por 48 horas. O parasitismo e a emergência da progênie de T. diatraeae foram semelhantes em pupas de ambas as espécies de lepidópteros desfolhadores da palma de óleo. O ciclo de vida desse parasitoide foi mais curto em pupas de O. invirae (21,50 ± 0,42 dias) que com as de B. sophorae (27,60 ± 1,80 dias). O número de progênie (669,00 ± 89,62) e de imaturos mortos (217,13 ± 58,18) de T. diatraeae foram maiores em pupas de B. sophorae que naquelas de O. invirae com 447,83 ± 51,52 e 13,50 ± 5,23, respectivamente. A razão sexual e a longevidade de fêmeas e machos de T. diatraeae emergidos desses hospedeiros foram semelhantes. As características reprodutivas, especialmente, o número de indivíduos (progênie) de T. diatraeae foram melhores com pupas de B. sophorae que com as de O. invirae .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Wasps/physiology , Butterflies/parasitology , Herbivory , Host-Parasite Interactions , Reproduction , Wasps/growth & development , Brazil , Butterflies/growth & development , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Arecaceae/growth & development , Larva/growth & development , Larva/physiology , Larva/parasitology
18.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(4): 1220-1226, july/aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048867

ABSTRACT

The State ofRio Grande do Sul is a major producer of grapes in Brazil, highlighting the Serra Gaúcha as the main producing region. In the pursuit of good quality in grapes it is essential the control of pests, especially insects. This study highlights the incidence of wasps, which cause serious damage at harvest time. This study aimed to characterize the community of social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) through faunal analysis and to examine the relationship of these insects with injuries to the grape berries in vineyards of Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul State. Therefore, active search were made in January and February 2014, followed by analysis of frequency, constancy, abundance, dominance and diversity. Ten species of wasps were able to use grape berries as food. The two dominant species were Polybia ignobilis and P. minarum, however, Synoeca cyanea has greater ability to break the intact berries. Other three species, Polistes cavapytiformis, P. versicolor and Brachygastra lecheguana, were also able to break the skin of grapes, but of damaged berries.


O Rio Grande do Sul é o maior produtor de uvas no Brasil, destacando-se a Serra Gaúcha como principal região produtora. Na busca de qualidade das uvas é fundamental o controle de pragas, especialmente insetos. Este trabalho identifica a incidência de vespas que acarretam graves danos na época de colheita. A pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo caracterizar a assembleia de vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) através de análise faunística e a relação destas com injúrias as bagas, em parreirais do município de Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul. Para tanto, foram realizadas coletas ativas nos meses de janeiro efevereiro de 2014, realizando-se análise de frequência, constância, abundância, dominância e diversidade da comunidade. Foram identificadas 10 espécies de vespas capazes de utilizar as bagas de uva como alimento. As espécies predominantes foram Polybia ignobilis e P. minarum, todavia, Synoeca cyanea apresenta maior capacidade de rompimento de bagas íntegras. P. cavapytiformis, P. versicolor e Brachygastra lecheguanatambém foram capazes de abrir a casca dos frutos em bagas anteriormente danificadas.


Subject(s)
Wasps , Pest Control , Vitis
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766794

ABSTRACT

Anaphylaxis usually develop immediately after wasp sting, but may develop even after few days later. Neurological complications after stings are uncommon, although several cases have been reported involving central and/or peripheral nervous system. Although wasp sting-induced encephalitis has been rarely reported, all reported cases showed mental change and severe neurological deterioration. Herein, we report an atypical case who showed biphasic anaphylaxis and delayed-onset cerebellar ataxia following a wasp sting, characterized by mild cerebellar ataxia and excellent response to corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Anaphylaxis , Bites and Stings , Cerebellar Ataxia , Encephalitis , Peripheral Nervous System , Wasps
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 421-428, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951563

ABSTRACT

Abstract Wolbachia (Hertig) endosymbionts are extensively studied in a wide range of organisms and are known to be transmitted through the egg cytoplasm to the offsping. Wolbachia may cause several types of reproductive modifications in arthropods. In Trichogramma species, parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia bacteria allow females wasps to produce daughters from unfertilized eggs and these bacteria are present in at least 9% of all Trichogramma species. Phylogenetic studies have led to the subdivision of the Wolbachia clade in five supergroups (A, B, C, D and E) and Wolbachia from Trichogramma belong to supergroup B. Here, using the wsp gene, four groups of Wolbachia that infect Trichogramma species were distinguished and the addition of a new group "Ato" was suggested due to the addition of Wolbachia from Trichogramma atopovirilia (Oatman and Platner). Specific primers were designed and tested for the "Ato" group. Seventy-five percent of all evaluated Wolbachia strains from Trichogramma fell within "Sib" group.


Resumo Endosimbiontes do gênero Wolbachia (Hertig) são extensivamente estudados em uma ampla gama de organismos e são conhecidos por serem transmitidos via citoplasma do ovo hospedeiro para seu descendente. Wolbachia pode causar vários tipos de alterações reprodutivas nos artrópodes. Nas espécies de Trichogramma, a reprodução partenogenética induzida por Wolbachia, possibilita as fêmeas dos parasitoides a produção de fêmeas a partir de ovos não fertilizados e estas bactérias estão presentes em pelo menos 9% de todas as espécies de Trichogramma. Estudos filogenéticos têm levado a subdivisão do clado Wolbachia em cinco supergrupos (A, B, C, D and E). Wolbachia em Trichogramma pertence ao supergrupo B. Com o gene wsp foi possível se distinguir quatro grupos de Wolbachia que infectam Trichogramma e adicionar um novo grupo (Ato) devido a inclusão de Wolbachia detectada em Trichogramma atopovirilia (Oatman and Platner, 1983). Primers específicos foram construídos e testados para o grupo "Ato". Setenta e cinco por cento de todas as linhagens de Wolbachia que infectam Trichogramma se enquadraram dentro do grupo "Sib".


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Wasps/microbiology , DNA Primers/genetics , Alphaproteobacteria/metabolism , Wolbachia/genetics , Genes, Bacterial/genetics , Phylogeny , Reproduction , Species Specificity , Symbiosis , Wasps/genetics
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