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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 544-550, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153416

ABSTRACT

Abstract A feasibility analysis of tertiary treatment for Organic Liquid Agricultural Waste is presented using filamentous algae belonging to the genus Cladophora sp. as an alternative to chemical tertiary treatment. The main advantages of tertiary treatments that use biological systems are the low cost investment and the minimal dependence on environmental variables. In this work we demonstrate that filamentous algae reduces the nutrient load of nitrate (circa 75%) and phosphate (circa 86%) from the organic waste effluents coming from dairy farms after nine days of culture, with the added advantage being that after the treatment period, algae removal can be achieved by simple procedures. Currently, the organic wastewater is discarded into fields and local streams. However, the algae can acquire value as a by-product since it has various uses as compost, cellulose, and biogas. A disadvantage of this system is that clean water must be used to achieve enough water transparency to allow algae growth. Even so, the nutrient reduction system of the organic effluents proposed is friendly to the ecosystem, compared to tertiary treatments that use chemicals to precipitate and collect nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates.


Resumo Uma análise de viabilidade do tratamento terciário para Resíduos Agrícola Líquidos Orgânicos é apresentada usando algas filamentosas pertencentes ao gênero Cladophora sp. como alternativa ao tratamento químico terciário. Os tratamentos terciários que utilizam sistemas biológicos têm baixo custo de investimento e a dependência de variáveis ​​ambientais é mínima. Neste trabalho, é demonstrado que essas algas filamentosas reduzem a carga nutricional de nitrato (circa 75%) e fosfato (circa 86%) dos efluentes de resíduos orgânicos provenientes de fazendas de leite em nove dias de cultura e tem a vantagem de que as algas podem ser facilmente coletadas posteriormente. Atualmente, as águas residuais orgânicas são descartadas nos campos e córregos locais. Posteriormente, as algas podem ser consideradas como matéria prima, uma vez que possuem várias utilidades como composto, celulose e biogás. Uma desvantagem desse sistema é que água limpa deve ser usada para obter transparência de água suficiente para permitir o crescimento de algas. Mesmo assim, o sistema de redução de nutrientes dos efluentes orgânicos propostos e amigável ao ecossistema, comparado aos tratamentos terciários que utilizam produtos químicos para precipitar e coletar nutrientes como nitratos e fosfatos.


Subject(s)
Waste Disposal, Fluid , Ecosystem , Nutrients , Waste Water/analysis , Nitrates , Nitrogen
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 615-620, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132401

ABSTRACT

Abstract Synthetic dyes, particularly reactive and acid dyes, are commonly used in the textile industry because of their advantages as excellent color fastness and brightness. Also, surfactants are used for an increment of coloring success in the textile industry. One of the major problems concerning textile wastewater is the treatment of the effluents containing both dyes and surfactants. Biological treatment systems are recommended as useful, economic and eco-friendly methods for treatment of industrial wastewater. The purpose of this study was to investigate the binary removal of a textile dye and a surfactant by growing Aspergillus versicolor culture in molasses medium. The effect of dye and surfactant concentration on the removal of dye and surfactant was determined. This study resulted that 100% of the surfactant and dye molecules removed together with the formation of a dye-surfactant complex by fungus. It is concluded that binary removal systems are very efficient for industrial wastewater treatment.


Resumo Os corantes sintéticos, particularmente corantes reativos e ácidos, são comumente usados ​​na indústria têxtil devido às suas vantagens como excelente solidez da cor e brilho. Além disso, os surfactantes são usados ​​para incrementar o sucesso da coloração na indústria têxtil. Um dos principais problemas relativos às águas residuais têxteis são o tratamento dos efluentes contendo corantes e surfactantes. Os sistemas de tratamento biológico são recomendados como métodos úteis, econômicos e ecológicos para o tratamento de efluentes industriais. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a remoção binária de um corante têxtil e um surfactante, cultivando a cultura Aspergillus versicolor em meio de melaço. O efeito das concentrações de corante e surfactante nas remoções de corante e surfactante foi determinado. Este estudo resultou na remoção de 100% das moléculas de surfactante e corante juntamente com a formação de um complexo corante-surfactante por fungos. Conclui-se que os sistemas de remoção binária são muito eficientes no tratamento de efluentes industriais.


Subject(s)
Water Pollutants, Chemical , Waste Water , Surface-Active Agents , Textile Industry , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Color , Coloring Agents , Industrial Waste
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2824-2837, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878532

ABSTRACT

In order to explore the microbial communities and functions of activated sludge in an Anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A²/O) process under the start-up of Actinic reaction enzyme system (ARES) system and to understand the impact of the ARES system in domestic sewage treatment process, the activated sludge microbial community structure in the A²/O process system before and after ARES system start-up was analyzed by Illumina-HiSeq 2000 high-throughput sequencing platform. By combining with the main parameters related to the effect of sewage treatment, we analyzed the environmental functions of the microbial communities. The microbial community structure of activated sludge was significantly different before and after the ARES system start-up. There were 9 main bacterial phyla in the system (average relative abundance ≥1%), accounting for 96%-98% of the total bacteria sequenced. After the ARES system was started, the relative abundance of Betaproteobacteria and Chlorobi increased by 3.45%-3.85% and 0.45%-2.61%, respectively. In the anaerobic unit, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes increased by 12.97%, while the Actinobacteria and Firmicutes decreased by 9.60% and 1.45%, respectively. At the genus level of bacteria, the relative abundance of Denitratisoma increased by 0.80%-3.27%, while the Haliangium and Arcobacter decreased by 3.36%-4.52% and 1.48%-3.45%, respectively. The relative abundance of bacteria was significantly different before and after the ARES system start-up. There were 7 abundant fungi phyla (average relative abundance ≥1%) in the system. After the ARES system was started, the relative abundance of Rozellomycota decreased by 42.71%-46.77%. In the anaerobic unit, the relative abundance of Ascomycota decreased by 13.39%, while the relative abundance of Glomeromycota increased by 13.86%. At the genus level of fungi. The relative abundance of Entomophthoraceae sp. and Glomcromycota sp. increased by 31.35%-36.50% and 6.27%-13.84%, respectively, while the Rozellomycota sp. and Xylochrysis lucida decreased by 42.71%-46.77% and 3.67%-5.54%, respectively. Our results showed that the application of ARES system caused the response of the microbial community to environmental changes, especially for the fungi communities, in the meanwhile, improved the effluent quality, especially the removal rate of total nitrogen.


Subject(s)
Anaerobiosis , Ascomycota , Bioreactors , Microbiota , Nitrogen , Sewage , Waste Disposal, Fluid
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180130, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132195

ABSTRACT

Abstract Color removal from textile effluents was evaluated using a laboratory-combined process based on an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by a shallow polishing pond (SPP). The anaerobic reactor was fed with a real textile effluent, diluted 10-times in a 350 mg/L solution of pre-treated residual yeast extract from a brewery industry as nutrient source. The parameters color, COD, N-NH3 and toxicity were monitored throughout 45 days of operation. According to the results, decolorization and COD removal were highest in the anaerobic step, whereas the effluent was polished in the SPP unit. The overall efficiency of the complete UASB-SPP system for COD and color were 88 and 62%, respectively. Moreover, the N-NH3 generated by the residual yeast extract ammonification was below 5 mg/L for the final effluent. Finally, no toxicity was detected after the treatment steps, as shown by the Vibrio fischeri microscale assay.


Subject(s)
Animals , Textiles/toxicity , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods , Water Purification/methods , Yeasts , Toxicity Tests , Bioreactors , Aliivibrio fischeri , Anaerobiosis
5.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 560-563, Out.-Dec. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056609

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Human-induced climate change has been an increasing concern in recent years. Nephrology, especially in the dialysis setting, has significant negative environmental impact worldwide, as it uses large amounts of water and energy and generates thousands of tons of waste. While our activities make us responsible agents, there are also several opportunities to change the game, both individually and as a society. This call-to-action intends to raise awareness about environmentally sustainable practices in dialysis and encourages this important discussion in Brazil.


RESUMO A mudança climática induzida pela atividade humana tem sido foco de preocupações crescentes nos últimos anos. A nefrologia, particularmente a diálise, produz significativos impactos ambientais em todo o mundo em virtude da grande utilização de água e energia e da geração de milhares de toneladas de resíduos. Embora nossas atividades nos tornem agentes responsáveis, há várias oportunidades para mudar esse cenário, tanto individualmente como em sociedade. O presente artigo pretende ampliar a conscientização sobre práticas ambientalmente sustentáveis em diálise e estimular essa importante discussão no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Program Evaluation/methods , Renal Dialysis/methods , Peritoneal Dialysis/methods , Awareness/physiology , Climate Change/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Waste Disposal, Fluid/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/ethics , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Environment
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 423-431, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001462

ABSTRACT

Abstract The usage of aquatic plants represents an alternative in the treatment of residues originating from swine. In these systems, one of the N removal methods is the ammonium (NH4 +) uptake and volatilization of ammonia (NH3). In this way, the objective of this work was to evaluate the volatilization rates of NH3 in waste treatment systems swine fluids (SSF) with aquatic macrophytes, as well as the concentration of NH 4+ present in the swine fluids. The experiment was carried out at Campus II/UNOESTE. The treatment systems were composed of 16 boxes of PVC and characterized as: T1 = Control sample 50% of SSF/50% of water; T2 = 50% SSF/50% water + Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms; T3 = 50% SSF/50% water + Pistia stratiotes L.; T4 = 50% SSF/50% water + Salvinia auriculata Aubl. The design was randomized blocks, with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The hydrogen potential (pH) and the NH4 + content of the effluent were analyzed weekly, and the volatilization of NH 3 by means of collectors installed in each treatment unit. The presence of aquatic macrophytes promoted the reduction of NH4+ concentration and of the pH values ​​of swine fluids, and this resulted in the reduction of NH3 volatilization rates to the environment, with emphasis on the system with Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, which presented the lowest rate of volatilization.


Resumo A utilização de plantas aquáticas representa uma alternativa no tratamento de resíduos oriundos da suinocultura. Nestes sistemas, uma das formas de remoção de nitrogênio (N) é a absorção de amônio (NH4+) pelas plantas, entretanto, também ocorre a volatilização de amônia (NH3). Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as taxas de volatilização de NH3 em sistemas de tratamentos de dejetos líquidos de suínos (DLS) com macrófitas aquáticas, bem como a concentração de NH4+ presente nos dejetos. O experimento foi realizado em área de ambiente aberto no Campus II/UNOESTE. Os sistemas de tratamento foram constituídos de 16 caixas de PVC e caracterizados como: T1 = Testemunha 50% de DLS/50% de água; T2 = 50% de DLS/50% de água + Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms; T3 = 50% de DLS/50% de água + Pistia stratiotes L.; T4 = 50% de DLS/50% de água + Salvinia auriculata Aubl. O delineamento adotado foi em blocos casualizados, com 4 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Foram analisados o potencial hidrogeniônico (pH) e o teor de NH4 + do efluente semanalmente, e a volatilização de NH3 por meio de coletores instalados em cada unidade de tratamento. A presença das macrófitas aquáticas proporcionou a redução da concentração de NH4+ e dos valores de pH dos dejetos líquidos de suínos, e isto resultou na redução das taxas de volatilização de NH 3 ao meio ambiente, com destaque ao sistema com Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, que apresentou a menor taxa de volatilização.


Subject(s)
Animals , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Araceae/metabolism , Eichhornia/metabolism , Ammonia , Manure/analysis , Swine , Volatilization , Biodegradation, Environmental , Random Allocation , Water Consumption (Environmental Health) , Industrial Waste/analysis , Animal Husbandry
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 38-44, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889215

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Discharge of coke-oven wastewater to the environment may cause severe contamination to it and also threaten the flora and fauna, including human beings. Hence before dumping it is necessary to treat this dangerous effluent in order to minimize the damage to the environment. Conventional technologies have inherent drawbacks however, biological treatment is an advantageous alternative method. In the present study, bacteria were isolated from the soil collected from the sites contaminated by coke-oven effluent rich in phenol and cyanide. Nucleotides sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed the identity of the selected phenol and cyanide degrading isolates NAUN-16 and NAUN-1B as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas stutzeri, respectively. These two isolates tolerated phenol up to 1800 mg L-1 and cyanide up to 340 mg L-1 concentrations. The isolates were immobilized on activated charcoal, saw dust and fly ash. The effluent was passed through the column packed with immobilized cells with a flow rate of 5 mL min-1. The isolates showed degradation of phenol up to 80.5% and cyanide up to 80.6% and also had the ability to reduce biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and lower the pH of effluent from alkaline to near neutral. The study suggests the utilization of such potential bacterial strains in treating industrial effluent containing phenol and cyanide, before being thrown in any ecosystem.


Subject(s)
Cyanides/metabolism , Phenol/metabolism , Pseudomonas putida/metabolism , Pseudomonas stutzeri/metabolism , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods , Waste Water/microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cells, Immobilized/classification , Cells, Immobilized/metabolism , Coke/analysis , Cyanides/analysis , Industrial Waste/analysis , Phenol/analysis , Phylogeny , Pseudomonas putida/classification , Pseudomonas putida/genetics , Pseudomonas putida/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas stutzeri/classification , Pseudomonas stutzeri/genetics , Pseudomonas stutzeri/isolation & purification , Waste Water/analysis
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Currently, it is recognized that water polluted with toxic heavy metal ions may cause serious effects on human health. Therefore, the development of new materials for effective removal of heavy metal ions from water is still a widely important area. Melanin is being considered as a potential material for removal of heavy metal from water.@*METHODS@#In this study, we synthesized two melanin-embedded beads from two different melanin powder sources and named IMB (Isolated Melanin Bead originated from squid ink sac) and CMB (Commercial Melanin Bead originated from sesame seeds). These beads were of globular shape and 2-3 mm in diameter. We investigated and compared the sorption abilities of these two bead materials toward hexavalent-chromium (Cr) in water. The isotherm sorption curves were established using Langmuir and Freundlich models in the optimized conditions of pH, sorption time, solid/liquid ratio, and initial concentration of Cr. The FITR analysis was also carried out to show the differences in surface properties of these two beads.@*RESULTS@#The optimized conditions for isotherm sorption of Cr on IMB/CMB were set at pH values of 2/2, sorption times of 90/300 min, and solid-liquid ratios of 10/20 mg/mL. The maximum sorption capacities calculated based on the Langmuir model were 19.60 and 6.24 for IMB and CMB, respectively. However, the adsorption kinetic of Cr on the beads fitted the Freundlich model with R values of 0.992 for IMB and 0.989 for CMB. The deduced Freundlich constant, 1/n, in the range of 0.2-0.8 indicated that these beads are good adsorption materials. In addition, structure analysis data revealed great differences in physical and chemical properties between IMB and CMB. Interestingly, FTIR analysis results showed strong signals of -OH (3295.35 cm) and -C=O (1608.63 cm) groups harboring on the IMB but not CMB. Moreover, loading of Cr on the IMB caused a shift of broad peaks from 3295.35 cm and 1608.63 cm to 3354.21 cm and 1597.06 cm, respectively, due to -OH and -C=O stretching.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Taken together, our study suggests that IMB has great potential as a bead material for the elimination of Cr from aqueous solutions and may be highly useful for water treatment applications.


Subject(s)
Adsorption , Chromium , Chemistry , Kinetics , Melanins , Chemistry , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Methods , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Chemistry , Water Pollution, Chemical , Water Purification , Methods
9.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2383-2398, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886775

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We assessed elemental composition of the liver in mice subjected to one-time or chronic consumption of the juice of vegetables cultivated in a vegetable garden built over deposits of coal waste. Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce), Beta vulgaris L. (beet), Brassica oleracea L. var. italica (broccoli) and Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale) were collected from the coal-mining area and from a certified organic farm (control). Elemental composition was analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. Concentrations of Mg, S, and Ca of mice subjected to one-time consumption of broccoli and concentrations of these same elements plus Si of mice receiving kale were higher in the coal-mining area. Concentrations of P, K, and Cu were increase after chronic consumption of lettuce from the coal-mining area, whereas the levels of Si, P, K, Fe, and Zn were higher in the group consuming kale from the coal-mining area. Our data suggests that people consuming vegetables grown over coal wastes may ingest significant amounts of chemical elements that pose a risk to health, since these plants contain both essential and toxic metals in a wide range of concentrations, which can do more harm than good.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sewage/chemistry , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Vegetables/chemistry , Food Contamination/analysis , Coal Mining , Liver/drug effects , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Vegetables/toxicity , Waste Disposal, Fluid
10.
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2017; 23 (2): 110-117
in Arabic | IMEMR | ID: emr-185434

ABSTRACT

Large quantities of hazardous medical waste are deposited into hospitals wastewaters and these substances could negatively impact public health if not handled properly. The authorities in the Syrian Arab Republic have realized the seriousness of the problem and have issued a number of laws, guidelines and standard specifications relating to this issue since 2004. This study offers a detailed review of these documents and compares them with related World Health Organization publications. A questionnaire was designed based on the national guide for safe management of healthcare waste in order to investigate the reality of liquid medical waste management in a sample of hospitals in Damascus. The questionnaire was subsequently distributed and collected during April and May 2015. The study found that there are a number of negative points in these guidelines as well as several weaknesses in their implementation. The study calls for intensifying efforts to strengthen guidelines; monitoring the possible health problems that could arise due to weak implementation;and proposes a number of suggestions to improve the management of medical liquid waste in hospitals


Subject(s)
Humans , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Waste Management , Public Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Delivery of Health Care
11.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 50(6): 922-928, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-842692

ABSTRACT

Abstract OBJECTIVE To verify the disposal of pharmaceutical waste performed in pediatric units. METHOD A descriptive and observational study conducted in a university hospital. The convenience sample consisted of pharmaceuticals discarded during the study period. Handling and disposal during preparation and administration were observed. Data collection took place at pre-established times and was performed using a pre-validated instrument. RESULTS 356 drugs disposals were identified (35.1% in the clinic, 31.8% in the intensive care unit, 23.8% in the surgical unit and 9.3% in the infectious diseases unit). The most discarded pharmacological classes were: 22.7% antimicrobials, 14.8% electrolytes, 14.6% analgesics/pain killers, 9.5% diuretics and 6.7% antiulcer agents. The most used means for disposal were: sharps’ disposable box with a yellow bag (30.8%), sink drain (28.9%), sharps’ box with orange bag (14.3%), and infectious waste/bin with a white bag (10.1%). No disposal was identified after drug administration. CONCLUSION A discussion of measures that can contribute to reducing (healthcare) waste volume with the intention of engaging reflective team performance and proper disposal is necessary.


Resumen OBJETIVO Verificar el descarte de los resíduos de fármacos realizado en unidades pediátricas. MÉTODO Estudio descriptivo y observacional, realizado en un hospital universitario. La muestra de conveniencia estuvo constituida de los fármacos descartados durante el período de estudio. Se observaron la manipulación y el descarte durante la preparación y la administración. La recolección de datos ocurrió en horarios prestablecidos y fue llevada a cabo mediante instrumento pre validado. RESULTADOS Se identificaron 356 descartes de fármacos (el 35,1% en la clínica, el 31,8% en la unidad de cuidados intensivos, el 23,8% en la quirúrgica y el 9,3% en la infectología). Las clases farmacológicas más descartadas fueron: el 22,7% de antimicrobianos, el 14,8% de electrolitos, el 14,6% de analgésicos, el 9,5% de diuréticos y el 6,7% de antiulcerosos. Medios más utilizados: caja desechable para punzocortante con bolsa amarilla (30,8%), rebosadero del lavabo (28,9%), caja de punzocortante con bolsa naranja (14,3%) y basurero infectante con bolsa blanca (10,1%). No se identificó descarte tras la administración de los medicamentos. CONCLUSIÓN Se hace necesaria la discusión de medidas que contribuyan a la reducción del volumen de resíduos a fin de involucrar la actuación reflexiva del equipo y el descarte adecuado.


Resumo OBJETIVO Verificar o descarte dos resíduos de medicamentos realizado em unidades pediátricas. MÉTODO Estudo descritivo e observacional, realizado em um hospital universitário. A amostra de conveniência foi constituída pelos medicamentos descartados durante o período de estudo. Observaram-se a manipulação e o descarte durante o preparo e a administração. A coleta dos dados ocorreu em horários preestabelecidos e realizada por meio de instrumento pré-validado. RESULTADOS Identificaram-se 356 descartes de medicamentos (35,1% na clínica, 31,8% na unidade de cuidados intensivos, 23,8% na cirúrgica e 9,3% na infectologia). As classes farmacológicas mais descartadas foram: 22,7% antimicrobianos, 14,8% eletrólitos, 14,6% analgésicos, 9,5% diuréticos e 6,7% antiulcerosos. Vias mais utilizadas: caixa descartável para perfurocortante com saco amarelo (30,8%), ralo da pia (28,9%), caixa de perfurocortante com saco laranja (14,3%) e lixeira infectante com saco branco (10,1%). Não foi identificado descarte após a administração dos fármacos. CONCLUSÃO Faz-se necessária a discussão de medidas que contribuam para a redução do volume de resíduos, com o intuito de engajar a atuação reflexiva da equipe e o descarte adequado.


Subject(s)
Pediatrics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Waste Disposal, Fluid/standards , Hospital Units , Hospitals, University
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4,supl.2): 37-42, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769600

ABSTRACT

The present study analyzed the efficiency of the photo-electro-oxidation process as a method for degradation and inactivation of adenovirus in water. The experimental design employed a solution prepared from sterile water containing 5.107 genomic copies/L (gc/L) of a standard strain of human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5) divided into two equal parts, one to serve as control and one treated by photo-electro-oxidation (PEO) for 3 hours and with a 5A current. Samples collected throughout the exposure process were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for viral genome identification and quantitation. Prior to gene extraction, a parallel DNAse treatment step was carried out to assess the integrity of viral particles. Integrated cell culture (ICC) analyses assessed the viability of infection in a cell culture. The tested process proved effective for viral degradation, with a 7 log10 reduction in viral load after 60 minutes of treatment. The DNAse-treated samples exhibited complete reduction of viral load after a 75 minute exposure to the process, and ICC analyses showed completely non-viable viral particles at 30 minutes of treatment.


Resumo O presente estudo analisou a eficiência do processo de fotoeletrooxidação como metodologia para a degradação e inativação de adenovírus em água. A concepção experimental emprega uma solução preparada a partir de água estéril contendo 5,107 cópias genômicas/L (gc/L) de uma amostra padrão de adenovírus humano tipo 5 (HAdV-5), dividida em duas partes iguais, uma para servir como controle e outra tratada por fotoeletrooxidação (PEO) durante 3 horas e com uma corrente de 5A. As amostras recolhidas durante o processo de exposição foram analisadas por PCR quantitativo em tempo real (qPCR) para identificação e quantificação do genoma viral. Antes da extração de ácidos nucleicos, um passo de tratamento com DNAse paralelo foi realizado para avaliar a integridade das partículas virais. Um ensaio de qPCR integrado à cultura de células (ICC-qPCR) permitiu analisar a viabilidade de infecção em uma cultura de células. O processo mostrou-se eficaz testada para a degradação viral, com uma redução de 7 log10 da carga viral após 60 minutos de tratamento. As amostras tratadas com DNAse exibiram redução completa da carga viral após uma exposição de 75 minutos ao processo, e a análise de ICC-qPCR mostrou partículas virais completamente não-viáveis ​​em 30 minutos de tratamento.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human/isolation & purification , Virus Inactivation , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods , Water Purification/methods , Electrochemical Techniques , Oxidation-Reduction , Photolysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(2,supl): 17-24, May 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755018

ABSTRACT

The Sinos river Basin is an industrial region with many tanneries and electroplating plants in southern Brazil. The wastewater generated by electroplating contains high loads of salts and metals that have to be treated before discharge. After conventional treatment, this study applied an advanced oxidative process to degrade organic additives in the electroplating bright nickel baths effluent. Synthetic rinsing water was submitted to physical-chemical coagulation for nickel removal. The sample was submitted to ecotoxicity tests, and the effluent was treated by photoelectrooxidation (PEO). The effects of current density and treatment time were evaluated. The concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) was 38% lower. The toxicity tests of the effluent treated using PEO revealed that the organic additives were partially degraded and the concentration that is toxic for test organisms was reduced.

.

A Bacia do Rio dos Sinos é uma região do Sul do Brasil que sedia um importante pólo da indústria coureiro-calçadista incluindo, desde o beneficiamento das peles, em curtumes, à fabricação dos acessórios, em indústrias metalúrgicas e de galvanoplastia. O efluente gerado por processos galvânicos contém carga elevada de sais e metais que devem ser tratados antes do descarte. Neste artigo foi avaliada a aplicação de um processo oxidativo avançado após o tratamento convencional do efluente, visando degradar os aditivos orgânicos presentes nos efluentes dos banhos de eletrodeposição de níquel brilhante. Um efluente sintético foi tratado pelo processo físico-químico de coagulação para a remoção do níquel. A amostra foi, então, submetida a testes de ecotoxicidade e, em seguida, o efluente foi tratado pelo processo de fotoeletrooxidação (FEO). A influência da densidade de corrente e o tempo de tratamento foram avaliados. Foi verificada uma redução de carbono orgânico total superior a 38%. Os ensaios de ecotoxicidade para o efluente tratado por fotoeletroxidação indicaram que a FEO degradou parcialmente os aditivos orgânicos e reduziu a concentração que provoca efeitos tóxicos para os organismos teste.

.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chlorophyta/drug effects , Cyprinidae/metabolism , Daphnia/drug effects , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods , Waste Water/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Electrolysis , Electroplating , Nickel/chemistry , Oxidation-Reduction , Photolysis
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(2,supl): 57-62, May 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755020

ABSTRACT

In the present study, leachate toxicity of a municipal solid waste landfill located in the Sinos River Valley region (southern Brazil) was evaluated using plant bioassays. Leachate toxicity was assessed by analysis of seed germination and root elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rocket plant (Eruca sativa Mill.) and root elongation of onions (Allium cepa L.). Bioassays were performed by exposing the seeds of L. sativa and E. sativa and the roots of A. cepa to raw leachate, treated leachate (biological treatment) and negative control (tap water). The levels of metals detected in both samples of leachate were low, and raw leachate showed high values for ammoniacal nitrogen and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. There is a reduction in the values of several physicochemical parameters, which demonstrates the efficiency of the treatment. Both L. sativa and A. cepashowed a phytotoxic response to landfill leachate, showing reduced root elongation. However, the responses of these two plant species were different. Root elongation was significantly lower in A. cepa exposed to treated leachate, when compared to negative control, but did not show any difference when compared to raw leachate. In L. sativa, seeds exposed to the raw leachate showed significant reduction in root elongation, when compared to treated leachate and negative control. Seed germination showed no difference across the treatments. The results of the study show that plant species respond differently and that municipal solid waste landfill leachate show phytotoxicity, even after biological treatment.

.

No presente trabalho, a toxicidade do lixiviado (chorume) de um aterro sanitário municipal, localizado na região do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, foi avaliada utilizando bioensaios em plantas. A toxicidade do chorume foi analisada pelo teste de germinação e crescimento radicular de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) e rúcula (Eruca sativa Mill.) e pelo teste de crescimento radicular em cebola (Allium cepa L.). Os bioensaios foram realizados com a exposição de sementes de L. sativa e E. sativa e raízes de A. cepa a amostras de chorume bruto, tratado por processo biológico e controle negativo (água de abastecimento público). Os níveis de metais detectados nas amostras de chorume foram baixos, e o chorume bruto apresentou valores elevados de nitrogênio amoniacal e nitrogênio Kjeldahl total. Ocorreu redução nos valores de vários parâmetros físico-químicos, demonstrando a eficiência do tratamento biológico. Os resultados indicam fitotoxicidade do chorume em L. sativa e A. cepa, evidenciada pela redução do crescimento radicular. Entretanto, as respostas destas duas espécies diferiram. O crescimento radicular foi significativamente inferior em A. cepa exposta ao chorume tratado quando comparado ao controle negativo, mas não apresentou diferença quando comparado ao chorume bruto. Em L. sativa, a exposição das sementes ao chorume bruto causou redução no crescimento radicular quando comparado com o chorume tratado e controle negativo. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os tratamentos para o parâmetro germinação de sementes. Os resultados deste trabalho indicam que as espécies de plantas estudadas são diferentes em suas respostas e que o chorume apresenta toxicidade, mesmo após o tratamento biológico.

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Subject(s)
Brassicaceae/drug effects , Lettuce/drug effects , Onions/drug effects , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Brazil , Waste Disposal Facilities , Waste Disposal, Fluid
15.
San Salvador; s.n; 2015. 68 p. Tab, Graf, Ilus.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1222527

ABSTRACT

El estudio de la bioseguridad en la gestión de los residuos líquidos del procesado radiográfico en odontología, generados en los Unidades Comunitarias de Salud Familiar (UCSF) de la zona metropolitana de San Salvador, es importante para las investigaciones institucionales en el campo de la odontología. Revisando la literatura existente, se evidencia que es necesaria la correcta manipulación de los elementos químicos peligrosos de desecho, específicamente en el área de odontología, que presenta como parte de su práctica la toma de radiografías mediante el uso de sistemas convencionales de radiología, generando de esta manera sustancias químicas con características tóxicas y corrosivas, volviéndolos un peligro para el medio ambiente y la salud humana. Con este estudio se estableció por observación, el manejo institucional que se le está dando a los líquidos reveladores radiográficos en cada uno de los consultorios odontológicos de las UCSF del área metropolitana de San Salvador, ya que a nivel de Ministerio de Salud es en esta área donde se concentra la mayor cantidad de UCSF que prestan el servicio de toma radiográfica dental a la población; además se establece el nivel de conocimiento que posee el personal odontológico y de salud medio ambiental acerca del protocolo de eliminación de los líquidos reveladores radiográficos y de las técnicas de tratamiento para los mismos con el fin de disminuir su potencial tóxico. La muestra estuvo conformada por UCSF del área metropolitana de San Salvador que poseen aparatología de rayos-x de tipo convencional (12 UCSF), y por profesionales de salud (33 odontólogos e inspectores de salud medio ambiental). En los establecimientos (UCSF) se verificó el protocolo, mediante el uso de guías de observación y con los profesionales se estableció el conocimiento que estos poseen sobre el mismo y sobre técnicas de tratamiento para los líquidos reveladores agotados, mediante el llenado de cuestionarios. Se evidenció que, en el 83.4% de las UCSF se realiza un mal manejo del protocolo de eliminación de los líquidos reveladores, en un 16.6% se realiza un manejo regular y en ningún establecimiento se está realizando un correcto protocolo de eliminación de los líquidos reveladores (segregación, etiquetado, acumulación, transporte interno, almacenamiento temporal, trasporte externo y disposición final). La práctica predominante para la disposición final de los líquidos reveladores fue verterlos en el sistema de alcantarillado público sin previo tratamiento con un 83.4% y solamente un 16.6% los entregaba a una empresa recolectora, pero mezclados con otros elementos de desecho. En cuanto al conocimiento se verificó que el 45.5% posee un nivel de conocimiento bajo sobre ambos temas evaluados, el 42.4% posee un nivel de conocimiento intermedio y solamente un 12.1% posee un nivel de conocimiento alto.


The study of biosafety in the management of liquid waste from the radiographic processed in dentistry, generated in the Community Units of Family health (UCSF) in the metropolitan area of San Salvador, it is important for the institutional researches in the field of dentistry. Reviewing the existing literature, there is evidence that it is necessary the correct handling of the dangerous chemical elements of waste, specifically in the area of dentistry, which presents as part of its practice the taking of radiographies through the use of conventional radiology systems, thus generating chemical substances with toxic and corrosive characteristics, making them a danger to the environment and human health. With this study, it was established by observation, the institutional management that is being given to the radiographic revealing liquids in each of the dental clinics of the UCSF in the metropolitan area of San Salvador, since at the level of Ministry of Healt, it is in this area where it is concentrated the greatest amount of UCSF that offer the service of taking dental radiographic to the population. Also, it is set the level of knowledge that the dental staff and environmental health have about the Protocol of elimination of radiographic revealing liquids and treatment techniques for the same in order to reduce its toxic potential. The sample was formed by UCSF in the metropolitan area of San Salvador, which possess x-ray appliances of conventional type (12 UCSF), and health professionals (33 dentists and environmental health inspectors). In establishments (UCSF) the protocol was verified by using observation guides and with professionals there was established the knowledge that these have on the same one and on treatment techniques for the revealing liquids exhausted, by means of filling out questionnaires. It was demonstrated that in 83.4 % of the UCSF, there is a mishandling of protocol of elimination the revealing liquids, in a 16.6 % a regular handling is performed and in any establishment is being performed a correct protocol of elimination of the revealing liquids (segregation, labeling, accumulation, internal transport, temporary storage, external transport and final disposal). The predominant practice for the final disposal of the revealing liquids was poured them in the public sewer system without prior treatment with an 83.4% and only a 16.6% gave them to a trash company, but mixed with other waste items. With regard to knowledge, it was verified that the 45.5 % has a low degree of knowledge on both evaluated subjects, the 42.4 % has an intermediate level of knowledge and only a 12.1 % possesses a high level of knowledge.


Subject(s)
Containment of Biohazards , Waste Products , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Dentistry
16.
Rev. centroam. obstet. ginecol ; 19(2): 48-52, abr.-jun. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734142

ABSTRACT

La preeclampsia/eclampsia se caracteriza por presión arterial elevada durante el embarazo, presentándose en cerca del 8-10% de todos los embarazos. En la mujer embarazada normalmente hay un aumento del volumen plasmático, sin embargo en preeclampsia-eclampsia usualmente dicho volumen esta disminuido. Esta disminución del volumen plasmático ha llevado a la idea de que hay que administrar fluidos para mantener la estabilidad hemodinámica materna...


Subject(s)
Female , Eclampsia/diagnosis , Eclampsia/drug therapy , Flow Mechanics/adverse effects , Flow Mechanics/prevention & control , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism , Pre-Eclampsia/prevention & control , Waste Disposal, Fluid
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1801-1803, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-345542

ABSTRACT

Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (Anammox) is one of the important discoveries in the field of environmental microbiology, and it plays an indispensible role in the nitrogen removal from wastewaters and the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Through review research progress in anaerobic ammonia oxidation, an Anammox special issue is published so as to find problems, explore applications and outlook developments. The special issue consists of reviews and original papers, mainly involving in the following aspects: i) enrichment of Anaerobic ammonia oxidation bacteria (AnAOB); ii) community analysis of AnAOB; iii) preservation of granular AnAOB sludge; iv) effect of organic matter on Anammox; v) application of Anammox process, etc.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Chemistry , Bacteria, Anaerobic , Metabolism , Environmental Microbiology , Nitrogen , Chemistry , Nitrogen Cycle , Oxidation-Reduction , Sewage , Microbiology , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Waste Water , Chemistry
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1804-1816, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-345541

ABSTRACT

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX), as its essential advantages of high efficiency and low cost, is a promising novel biological nitrogen elimination process with attractive application prospects. Over the past two decades, many processes based on the ANAMMOX reaction have been continuously studied and applied to practical engineering, with the perspective of reaching 100 full-scale installations in operation worldwide by 2014. Our review summarizes various forms of ANAMMOX processes, including partial nitritation-ANAMMOX, completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite, oxygen limited autotrophic nitrification and denitrification, denitrifying ammonium oxidation, aerobic deammonification, simultaneous partial nitrification, ANAMMOX and denitrification, single-stage nitrogen removal using ANAMMOX and partial nitritation. We also compare the operating conditions for one-stage and two-stage processes and summarize the obstacles and countermeasures in engineering application of ANAMMOX systems, such as moving bed biofilm reactor, sequencing batch reactor and granular sludge reactor. Finally, we discuss the future research and application direction, which should focus on the optimization of operating conditions and applicability of the process to the actual wastewater, especially on automated control and the impact of special wastewater composition on process performance.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Chemistry , Bioreactors , Denitrification , Nitrification , Nitrites , Chemistry , Nitrogen , Chemistry , Oxygen , Chemistry , Sewage , Chemistry , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Methods , Waste Water , Chemistry
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1817-1827, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-345540

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen removal techniques based on Anammox process are developing rapidly these years. The distribution and diversity of Anammox have become important research directions. A variety of Anammox have been detected till now, of which only Kuenenia and Brocadia are often detected in wastewater treatment systems. In addition, in a single niche there is only one type of Anammox bacteria. However, the distribution mechanism and transformation of Anammox bacteria in different niches are still ambiguous. Therefore, the distribution of Anammox in various conditions was summarized and analyzed in this article. And the key factors influencing the distribution of Anammox were concluded, including substrate concentration and the specific growth rate, sludge properties and microbial niche, the joint action and influence of multiple factors. The engineering significance research on the distribution and influencing factors of Anammox bacteria in the sewage system and proposed research prospects were expounded.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Chemistry , Anaerobiosis , Bacteria , Nitrogen , Chemistry , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Sewage , Microbiology , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Waste Water
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1828-1834, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-345539

ABSTRACT

We studied the effects of the oxygen on partial nitrification in a membrane bioreactor (MBR), to find out critical dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations for the optimal partial nitrification by monitoring the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and oxygen supply rate (OSR). The nitrite accumulation occurred at a DO concentration of 1 mg/L, while the ratio of nitrite to ammonia in effluent was close to 1 at a DO concentration of 0.5 mg/L which was suitable to serve as the feed of an ANNAMOX system. When the mixed liquid suspended solids(MLSS) was 20 g/L in MBR, OUR and OSR were 19.86 mg O2/(L·s) and 0.369 mg O2/(L·s) respectively, indicating that the oxygen supply was the bottleneck of partial nitrification. "Low DO and high aeration rate" were suggested as a control strategy to further improve the efficiency of partial nitrification.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Chemistry , Bioreactors , Membranes, Artificial , Nitrification , Nitrites , Chemistry , Oxygen , Chemistry , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Methods
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