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1.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20210108, 2022. graf, ilus, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286059

ABSTRACT

In ecological parks, the proximity to tourist activities facilitates the exploration of garbage by coatis, with possible serious consequences for the animals health . We described the contents of wild coatis feces from three ecological parks. After analyzing 62 samples, fragments of plants and animals were identified in all feces. In the feces of two parks, seeds were present between 36.4% and 48.6% of the samples. Arthropod fragments were identified in 100% of the samples from two parks, but only 87.3% in a third park. Scales, bones or bird feathers were present in some samples. Undigested material of industrial origin was detected in 34.3% to 54.5% of the samples, such as fragments of paper, string, plastic, aluminum, latex and glass. Results are in line with other studies on the diet of wild coatis, but the intake of foreign bodies, potentially harmful to health, is described for the first time. Clinical problems resulting from ingesting waste can be dental fractures, mucosal erosions, intestinal perforation, peritonitis, impaction, diarrhea, weight loss, intoxication and infections. Coatis in the three parks are at risk of health, and actions are needed to avoid clinical and potentially fatal problems. Four actions are recommended to avoid ingesting foreign bodies: increasing the environmental education of visitors; improving the storage of waste generated in parks; periodically monitor the health of coatis, in order to make interventions when possible; make a permanent program to study the ecology of species in the three parks.


Em parques ecológicos, a proximidade com atividades turísticas facilita a exploração do lixo por quatis (Nasua nasua), com possíveis consequências graves para saúde dos animais. Descrevemos o conteúdo de fezes de quatis selvagens de três parques ecológicos. Após análise de 62 amostras, fragmentos de plantas e animais foram identificados em todas as fezes. Nas fezes de dois parques, as sementes estiveram presentes entre 36,4% e 48,6% das amostras. Foram identificados fragmentos de artrópodes em 100% das amostras de dois parques, mas apenas 87,3% em um terceiro parque. Escamas, ossos ou penas de pássaros estavam presentes em algumas amostras. Detectou-se material não digerido de origem industrial em 34,3% a 54,5% das amostras, como fragmentos de papel, barbante, plástico, alumínio, látex e vidro. Os resultados estão de acordo com outros estudos sobre a dieta de quatis selvagens, mas a ingestão de corpos estranhos, potencialmente prejudicial à saúde, é descrito pela primeira vez. Os problemas clínicos decorrentes da ingestão de lixo podem ser fraturas dentais, erosões de mucosas, perfuração intestinal, peritonite, impactação, diarreia, emagrecimento, intoxicação e infecções. Os quatis nos três parques estão com a saúde em risco, sendo necessárias ações para evitar problemas clínicos e potencialmente fatais. Quatro ações são recomendadas para evitar a ingestão de corpos estranhos: aumentar a educação ambiental dos visitantes; melhorar o armazenamento dos resíduos gerados nos parques; monitorar periodicamente a saúde dos quatis, de forma a fazer intervenções quando possível; fazer um programa permanente de estudo da ecologia das espécies nos três parques.


Subject(s)
Animals , Waste Products/analysis , Procyonidae , Diet/veterinary , Eating , Feces , Foreign Bodies/veterinary , Brazil , Feeding Behavior , Parks, Recreational , Animals, Wild
2.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(4): e20210357, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339676

ABSTRACT

Crop residues decomposition are controlled by chemical tissue components. This study evaluated changes on plant tissue components, separated by the Van Soest partitioning method, during cover crop decomposition. The Van Soest soluble fraction was the first to be released from the crop residues, followed by cellulose and hemicellulose. Lignin was the crop residue component that suffered the least degradation, and for certain crop residue types, lignin degradation was not detected. The degradation of the main components of crop residues (soluble fraction, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) is determined by the chemical and structural composition of each fraction.


A decomposição de resíduos culturais é controlada pela composição química do tecido vegetal. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as alterações que ocorrem nos componentes do tecido vegetal, separados pelo fracionamento de Van Soest, durante a decomposição de plantas de cobertura. A fração solúvel foi a primeira a ser liberada dos resíduos culturais, seguida pela celulose e hemicelulose. A lignina foi o componente dos resíduos culturais de menor degradação, sendo que em alguns resíduos culturais não foi possível detectar a degradação deste componente. A degradação dos principais componentes dos resíduos culturais (fração solúvel, celulose, hemicelulose e lignina) é determinada pela composição química e estrutural de cada uma destas frações.


Subject(s)
Waste Products/analysis , Wood/chemistry , Cellulose/chemistry , Lignin/chemistry
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 684-692, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278367

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the effects of yellow grease supplementation on the intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance in sheep. Twenty Santa Inês lambs with a mean age of 95 ± 10 d and body weight of 19.29 ± 3.17kg were evaluated in a completely randomized design. The diets were supplemented with oil at concentrations of 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 gkg-1 of dry matter (DM) of the concentrate. The diets were based on roughage and concentrate (50:50). The experimental period lasted 19 d and included 14 adaptation days and five collection days for the total supplied diet, orts, feces, and urine. Supplementation with yellow grease had no significant effect on the intake of DM, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), or non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC). However, the ether extract (EE) intake increased linearly with supplementation of yellow grease. Moreover, no effect was observed for DM, CP, NDF, and NFC digestibility and nitrogen balance. EE digestibility increased linearly with the yellow grease dietary supplementation. Thus, sheep dietary supplementation with yellow grease may be used at a level of up to 80 gkg-1 of DM of concentrate without impairing nutrient intake and digestibility.(AU)


Objetivou-se, com o estudo, avaliar os efeitos do óleo residual de fritura, em dietas para ovinos, sob o consumo, a digestibilidade e o balanço de nitrogênio. Foram utilizados 20 cordeiros Santa Inês, com idade de 95 ± 10 dias e peso corporal de 19,29 ± 3,17kg, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. As dietas continham óleo de fritura nas concentrações de 0; 20; 40; 60 e 80gkg-1 da matéria seca (MS) do concentrado. As dietas tinham relação volumoso:concentrado de 50:50. O período experimental foi de 19 dias, incluindo 14 dias em adaptação e cinco dias de coleta do fornecido, das sobras, das fezes e da urina. A suplementação com óleo de fritura não alterou o consumo de MS, proteína bruta (PB), matéria orgânica (MO), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) e carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF). Entretanto, o consumo de extrato etéreo (EE) aumentou com a inclusão do óleo. Não foi observado efeito na digestibilidade da MS, da PB, da FDN, dos CNF e no balanço de nitrogênio. A digestibilidade do EE aumentou com a inclusão do óleo. Assim, a inclusão de óleo de fritura em dietas para ovinos pode ser utilizada em até 80gkg-1 da MS do concentrado, sem limitar ingestão e digestibilidade dos nutrientes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Oils , Sheep/metabolism , Animal Feed/analysis , Waste Products/analysis , Dietary Supplements/analysis
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 43: 1-7, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087465

ABSTRACT

Background: Biotechnological processes are part of modern industry as well as stricter environmental requirements. The need to reduce production costs and pollution demands for alternatives that involve the integral use of agro-industrial waste to produce bioactive compounds. The citrus industry generates large amounts of wastes due to the destruction of the fruits by microorganisms and insects together with the large amounts of orange waste generated during the production of juice and for sale fresh. The aim of this study was used orange wastes rich in polyphenolic compounds can be used as source carbon of Aspergillus fumigatus MUM 1603 to generate high added value compounds, for example, ellagic acid and other molecules of polyphenolic origin through submerged fermentation system. Results: The orange peel waste had a high concentration of polyphenols, 28% being condensed, 27% ellagitannins, 25% flavonoids and 20% gallotannins. The major polyphenolic compounds were catechin, EA and quercetin. The conditions, using an experimental design of central compounds, that allow the production of the maximum concentration of EA (18.68 mg/g) were found to be: temperature 30°C, inoculum 2 × 107 (spores/g) and orange peel polyphenols 6.2 (g/L). Conclusion: The submerged fermentation process is an effective methodology for the biotransformation of molecules present in orange waste to obtain high value-added as ellagic acid that can be used as powerful antioxidants, antibacterial and other applications.


Subject(s)
Waste Management , Citrus sinensis/chemistry , Ellagic Acid , Aspergillus fumigatus , Waste Products/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Biotechnology/methods , Hydrolyzable Tannins/analysis , Fermentation , Polyphenols/analysis , Phytochemicals
5.
Acta amaz ; 49(2): 81-90, abr. - jun. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119138

ABSTRACT

Allometric models defining the relationship between stem diameter and total tree height in the Amazon basin are important because they refine the estimates of tree carbon stocks and flow in the region. This study tests different allometric models to estimate the total tree height from the stem diameter in an ecotone zone between ombrophilous and seasonal forests in the Brazilian state of Roraima, in northern Amazonia. Stem diameter and total height were measured directly in 65 recently fallen trees (live or dead). Linear and nonlinear regressions were tested to represent the D:H relation in this specific ecotone zone. Criteria for model selection were the standard error of the estimate (Syx) and the adjusted coefficient of determination (R²adj), complemented by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Analysis of residuals of the most parsimonious nonlinear models showed a tendency to overestimate the total tree height for trees in the 20-40 cm diameter range. Application of our best fitted model (Michaelis-Menten) indicated that previously published general equations for the tropics that use diameter as the independent variable can either overestimate tree height in the study area by 10-29% (Weibull models) or underestimate it by 8% (climate-based models). We concluded that our site-specific model can be used in the ecotone forests studied in Roraima because it realistically reflects the local biometric relationships between stem diameter and total tree height. Studies need to be expanded in peripheral areas of northern Amazonia in order to reduce uncertainties in biomass and carbon estimates that use the tree height as a variable in general models. (AU)


Subject(s)
Trees/anatomy & histology , Waste Products/analysis , Amazonian Ecosystem
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 742-748, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974296

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We examined microbial communities from enriched fine and retorted shale particles using sequencing of V4 variable region of 16S rRNA. High number of microbial genera was found in both enriched shale by-products that were dominate by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, showing differences due to microbial colonization after the pyrolysis process.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Waste Products/analysis , Geologic Sediments/microbiology , Microbiota , Phylogeny , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Geologic Sediments/chemistry , Biodiversity
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 178-184, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974320

ABSTRACT

Abstract Glycerol from spent oil was processed by transesterification for biodiesel production. Although glycerol contains many types of impurities, it can be used as a C-source for lactic acid production by fungi, such as Rhizopus microsporus. In this study, we found that wild type R. microsporus (LTH23) produced more lactic acid than the mutant strains on cabbage glycerol media (CG media). More lactic acid was produced on CG media than on cabbage extract media (C media) by about two-fold in batch fermentation conditions. In addition, we found that lactic acid production in a fed-batch process was also slightly higher than in a batch process. To study the combined effects of pH, urea, and glycerol waste concentration on lactic acid production, a response surface methodology was used. The optimum pH, urea, and glycerol waste concentrations were pH 6.5, 3.75 g/L, and 17 g/L, respectively. The maximum lactic acid production predicted by this equation model was 4.03 g/L.


Subject(s)
Rhizopus/metabolism , Brassica/chemistry , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Glycerol/metabolism , Waste Products/analysis , Brassica/metabolism , Brassica/microbiology , Biotransformation , Cooking , Culture Media/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Biofuels/analysis , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 151-159, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974324

ABSTRACT

Abstract To reduce the cost of obtaining bacterial cellulose, acidic by-products of the alcohol and dairy industries were used without any pretreatment or addition of other nitrogen sources. Studies have shown that the greatest accumulation of bacterial cellulose (6.19 g/L) occurs on wheat thin stillage for 3 days of cultivation under dynamic conditions, which is almost 3 times higher than on standard Hestrin and Schramm medium (2.14 g/L). The use of whey as a nutrient medium makes it possible to obtain 5.45 g/L bacterial cellulose under similar conditions of cultivation. It is established that the pH of the medium during the growth of Gluconacetobacter sucrofermentans B-11267 depends on the feedstock used and its initial value. By culturing the bacterium on thin stillage and whey, there is a decrease in the acidity of the waste. It is shown that the infrared spectra of bacterial cellulose obtained in a variety of environments have a similar character, but we found differences in the micromorphology and crystallinity of the resulting biopolymer.


Subject(s)
Waste Products/analysis , Industrial Microbiology/methods , Cellulose/biosynthesis , Gluconacetobacter/metabolism , Waste Products/economics , Triticum/metabolism , Triticum/microbiology , Industrial Microbiology/economics , Food Industry , Culture Media/economics , Culture Media/metabolism , Gluconacetobacter/growth & development , Ethanol/metabolism
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 629-636, Oct.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889175

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are efficient, renewable and environment friendly polymeric esters. These polymers are synthesized by a variety of microbes under stress conditions. This study was carried out to check the suitability of waste frying oil in comparison to other oils for economical bioplastic production. Six bacterial strains were isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus (KF270349), Klebsiella pneumoniae (KF270350), Bacillus subtilis (KF270351), Brevibacterium halotolerance (KF270352), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (KF270353), and Stenotrophomonas rhizoposid (KF270354) by ribotyping. All strains were PHA producers so were selected for PHA synthesis using four different carbon sources, i.e., waste frying oil, canola oil, diesel and glucose. Extraction of PHA was carried out using sodium hypochlorite method and maximum amount was detected after 72 h in all cases. P. aeruginosa led to maximum PHA production after 72 h at 37 °C and 100 rpm using waste frying oil that was 53.2% PHA in comparison with glucose 37.8% and cooking oil 34.4%. B. cereus produced 40% PHA using glucose as carbon source which was high when compared against other strains. A significantly lesser amount of PHA was recorded with diesel as a carbon source for all strains. Sharp Infrared peaks around 1740-1750 cm-1 were present in Fourier Transform Infrared spectra that correspond to exact position for PHA. The use of waste oils and production of poly-3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate (3HB-co-3HV) by strains used in this study is a good aspect to consider for future prospects as this type of polymer has better properties as compared to PHBs.


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism , Bacillus cereus/metabolism , Polyhydroxyalkanoates/biosynthesis , Hydrocarbons/metabolism , Waste Products/analysis , Plant Oils/metabolism , Plant Oils/chemistry , Gasoline/analysis , Biotransformation
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 410-418, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889127

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chaetoglobosin A is an antibacterial compound produced by Chaetomium globosum, with potential application as a biopesticide and cancer treatment drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing cornstalks to produce chaetoglobosin A by C. globosum W7 in solid-batch fermentation and to determine an optimal method for purification of the products. The output of chaetoglobosin A from the cornstalks was 0.34 mg/g, and its content in the crude extract was 4.80%. Purification conditions were optimized to increase the content of chaetoglobosin A in the crude extract, including the extract solvent, temperature, and pH value. The optimum process conditions were found to be acetone as the extractant, under room temperature, and at a pH value of 13. Under these conditions, a production process of the antifungal chaetoglobosin A was established, and the content reached 19.17%. Through further verification, cornstalks could replace crops for the production of chaetoglobosin A using this new production process. Moreover, the purified products showed great inhibition against Rhizoctonia solani, with chaetoglobosin A confirmed as the main effective constituent (IC50 = 3.88 µg/mL). Collectively, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using cornstalks to synthesize chaetoglobosin A and that the production process established in this study was effective.


Subject(s)
Industrial Microbiology/methods , Callosities/microbiology , Chaetomium/metabolism , Indole Alkaloids/metabolism , Antifungal Agents/metabolism , Waste Products/analysis , Industrial Microbiology/instrumentation , Callosities/metabolism , Molecular Structure , Plant Stems/metabolism , Plant Stems/microbiology , Indole Alkaloids/isolation & purification , Indole Alkaloids/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/chemistry
11.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 70(3): 618-625, May-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-843665

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the insulin therapy waste disposal produced in the households of people with diabetes mellitus (DM). Method: Cross-sectional study with 105 Primary Care patients. Socio-demographic and clinical variables and insulin therapy practice were analyzed through the absolute and relative frequencies, Fisher's exact test and prevalence ratio (PR). Results: The association between types of insulin (60.0%), administered with a disposable syringe attached to a needle (80.9%), and a high percentage of reuse and disposal in normal household waste (57.1%) stood out. The professionals who most frequently provided guidance to people with diabetes were the nurses. Patients who had received instructions about disposal were 21 times more likely to dispose of waste properly than those who had not (PR 21.5; P < 0.0001). Age, gender, skin color, education, marital status, occupational status and type of DM did not interfere in the disposal (P > 0.05). Conclusion: People with diabetes served in Primary Health Care require guidance and material resources to carry out the appropriate disposal of insulin therapy waste.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar la eliminación de los residuos de la terapia con insulina en las viviendas de personas con diabetes mellitus (DM). Método: Estudio transversal, del cual participaron 105 pacientes asistidos en atención primaria. Se analizaron las variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y la administración de la terapia con insulina a través de las frecuencias absoluta y relativa, la prueba exacta de Fisher y la razón de prevalencias (RP). Resultados: Se destacaron la asociación entre insulinas (60,0%) aplicadas con jeringuillas desechables pegadas a la aguja (80,9%), su elevado porcentaje de reutilización y su eliminación en la basura doméstica común (57,1%). Los enfermeros fueron los profesionales que más orientaron a los pacientes con diabetes. Los pacientes orientados presentaron más de 21 posibilidades de eliminar correctamente los residuos que los que no recibieron orientación (RP 21,5; p<0,0001). La edad, sexo, etnia, nivel de instrucción, estado civil, situación laboral y tipo de DM no influyeron en los resultados para la eliminación de estos residuos (p>0,05). Conclusión: Las personas con diabetes asistidas en atención primaria carecen de recomendaciones y recursos materiales que les informen la correcta eliminación de los residuos de la terapia con insulina.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar o descarte de resíduos da insulinoterapia produzidos no domicílio de pessoas com diabetes mellitus (DM). Método: Estudo transversal com amostra de 105 pacientes da Atenção Primária. Variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e prática de insulinoterapia foram analisadas por meio das frequências absoluta e relativa, teste exato de Fisher e razão de prevalência (RP). Resultados: Destacou-se associação entre insulinas (60,0%), administradas com seringa descartável acoplada à agulha (80,9%), alto percentual de reutilização e descarte no lixo doméstico comum (57,1%). Os profissionais que mais orientaram os diabéticos foram os enfermeiros. Pacientes orientados sobre descarte tiveram 21 vezes mais chances de descartarem resíduos adequadamente que os não orientados (RP 21,5; P < 0,0001). Idade, sexo, cor da pele, escolaridade, estado civil, situação ocupacional e tipo de DM não interferiram no descarte (P > 0,05). Conclusão: Diabéticos atendidos na Atenção Primária necessitam de orientações e recursos materiais para realizarem descarte adequado dos resíduos da insulinoterapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Waste Products/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Insulin/therapeutic use , Primary Health Care/methods , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Waste Products/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Insulin/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
12.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 132 p ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-859191

ABSTRACT

A bactéria Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT-4434 foi empregada para investigar o efeito da composição do meio de cultivo na produção biotecnológica de biossurfactante e, adicionalmente bacteriocina. Utilizou-se resíduos agroindustriais, tais como soro de leite e vinhaça de uva, para formular meios de cultivos mais econômicos e naturais, suplementados sacarose e extrato de levedura. Um planejamento fatorial fracionado 24, com adição de três ensaios nos pontos centrais foi empregado para avaliar a influência destas variáveis. A produção de biossurfactante foi influenciada positivamente pela concentração soro de leite, onde 15 % deste demonstrou melhor resultado reduzindo a tensão superficial em cerca de 18,1 mN/m, alcançando produção máxima de biossurfactante equivalente em surfactina de 11,02 mg/L. Em relação à síntese de bacteriocina, a fonte de carbono adicional (sacarose) interferiu de forma antagonista, ou seja, quanto menor a concentração de sacarose, maior a síntese de bacteriocina (com aumento da zona de inibição em 14,2% contra Staphylococcus aureus CECT-239). Observou-se que o ensaio conduzido em biorreator, sob microaeração com 5% de oxigênio dissolvido, promoveu maior produção de biossurfactante (11,6 mg/L) quando comparados aos estudos conduzidos com maior concentração de oxigênio entre 30 a 100%, com produção em média de 2,3 mg/mL. Destaca-se que nenhum estudo da influência do oxigênio dissolvido, principalmente em microaerofilia, para a produção de biossurfactante por bactérias láticas já havia sido realizado. Ademais, o biossurfactante produzido se mostrou altamente estável frente a valores extremos de pH e temperatura, além de demonstrar notável propriedade antimicrobiana e antiadesiva, inibindo Listeria monocytogenes NADC 2045 e Salmonella entérica CECT-724 em mais de 90%.


Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT-4434 was used to investigate the effect of the composition of the culture media on the biotechnological production of biosurfactant and bacteriocin additionally. Agroindustrial residues, such as whey and grape vinasse, were used to formulate more economical and natural culture media, supplemented with sucrose and yeast extract. A fractional factorial design 24, with addition of three runs at the central points was used to evaluate the influence of these variables. The biosurfactant production was positively influenced by the concentration of whey, where 15% showed a better result reducing the surface tension by 18.1 mN/m, reaching a maximum production of biosurfactant equivalent in surfactin of 11.02 mg/L. In relation to bacteriocin synthesis, the sucrose interfered in an antagonistic way, that is, the lower the sucrose concentration, the greater the bacteriocin synthesis (with an increase in the zone of inhibition in 14.2% against Staphylococcus aureus CECT-239). It was observed that the bioreactor conducted under microaeration with 5% dissolved oxygen promoted a higher biosurfactant production (11.6 mg/L) when compared to studies conducted with a higher concentration of oxygen between 30 and 100%, with production on average 2.3 mg/mL. It is noteworthy that no study of the influence of dissolved oxygen, mainly in microaerophilic, for the biosurfactant production by lactic acid bacteria had already been carried out. In addition, the biosurfactant produced proved to be highly stable against extreme values of pH and temperature, and demonstrated remarkable antimicrobial and antiadhesive properties, inhibiting Listeria monocytogenes NADC 2045 and Salmonella entérica CECT-724 in more than 90%.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology , Lactococcus lactis/metabolism , Waste Products/analysis , Bacteriocins/pharmacology , Oxygenation/classification , Salmonella enterica
13.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(4): 691-700, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-744846

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del presente estudio fue hallar un modelo para estimar la incidencia de enfermedades tipo influenza (ETI), a partir de los términos de búsqueda relacionados recolectados por el Google Trends (GT). Los datos de vigilancia de ETI para los años 2012 y 2013 se obtuvieron del Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia de la Salud de Argentina. Las búsquedas de Internet se obtuvieron de la base de datos del GT, usando 6 términos: gripe, fiebre, tos, dolor de garganta, paracetamol e ibuprofeno. Se desarrolló un modelo de regresión de Poisson a partir de datos del año 2012, y se validó con datos del 2013 y resultados de la herramienta Google Flu Trends (GFT). La incidencia de ETI del sistema de vigilancia presentó fuertes correlaciones con las estimaciones de ETI del GT (r = 0,927) y del GFT (r = 0,943). Sin embargo, el GFT sobreestimó el pico de incidencia por casi el doble, mientras que el modelo basado en el GT subestimó el pico de incidencia por un factor de 0,7. Estos resultados demuestran la utilidad del GT como un complemento para la vigilancia de la influenza.


The aim of this study was to find a model to estimate the incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) from the Google Trends (GT) related to influenza. ILI surveillance data from 2012 through 2013 were obtained from the National Health Surveillance System, Argentina. Internet search data were downloaded from the GT search engine database using 6 influenza-related queries: flu, fever, cough, sore throat, paracetamol, and ibuprofen. A Poisson regression model was developed to compare surveillance data and internet search trends for the year 2012. The model's results were validated using surveillance data for the year 2013 and results of the Google Flu Trends (GFT) tool. ILI incidence from the surveillance system showed strong correlations with ILI estimates from the GT model (r = 0.927) and from the GFT tool (r = 0.943). However, the GFT tool overestimates (by nearly twofold) the highest ILI incidence, while the GT model underestimates the highest incidence by a factor of 0.7. These results demonstrate the utility of GT to complement influenza surveillance.


O objetivo deste estudo foi encontrar um modelo para estimar a incidência da síndrome gripal com base nos termos de busca relacionados recolhidos pelo Google Trends (GT). Os dados de monitoramento de síndrome gripal entre 2012 e 2013 foram obtidos no Sistema Nacional de Vigilância de Saúde da Argentina. As pesquisas na Internet foram feitas baseando-se no banco de dados do GT usando 6 termos: gripe, febre, tosse, dor de garganta, paracetamol e ibuprofeno. Um modelo de regressão de Poisson foi desenvolvido valendo-se de dados de 2012. O modelo foi ajustado e validado com dados de 2013 e comparado com os resultados da ferramenta Google Flu Trends (GFT). A incidência de síndrome gripal mostrou uma forte correlação com estimativas do GT (r = 0,927) e GFT (r = 0,943). No entanto, o GFT superestimou o pico de incidência por quase o dobro, e o modelo baseado no GT subestimou o pico de incidência por um fator de 0,7. Esses resultados demonstram a utilidade do GT como um suplemento para a vigilância da influenza.


Subject(s)
Cities , Environmental Monitoring/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Siloxanes/analysis , Waste Products/analysis , Atmosphere/chemistry , Biofuels/analysis , Carbon/analysis , Fresh Water/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Siloxanes/chemistry , Soil/chemistry
14.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(2,supl.1): 398-405, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719470

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the production and chemical composition of the essential oil of Brazilian pepper fruits grown in single and double rows using different doses of semi decomposed poultry litter in two evaluation times. The experiment was carried out at the Federal University of Grande Dourados, in the city of Dourados, state o- Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from October 2009 to November 2010. Brazilian pepper plants were grown in single and double rows in soil with incorporated poultry litter at the doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 5 factorial experiment in a randomized block design with four replications. Fruits were harvested 180 and 390 days after transplant (DAT). There was a significant interaction for fresh weight of fruits and weight of 50 fruits, being the values higher at 180 DAT in the double rows with increasing poultry litter doses. Fruits harvested 390 DAT showed higher diameter compared with those harvested 180 DAT. The number of fruits per bunch was significantly influenced by the doses of poultry litter, presenting a linear increase with increasing doses. The essential oil of the Brazilian pepper fruits obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry exhibited predominance of monoterpenes, highlighting α-pinene (20.14%) as the major constituent. The chemical composition of the essential oil was not influenced by the number of plant rows in the plot or by the doses of poultry litter in any evaluation time. Therefore, the cultivation of Brazilian pepper plants is recommended in double rows, with 13.59 t ha-1 of incorporated poultry litter in the soi, and with harvest of 180 DAT for higher fruit production.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a produção e composição química do óleo essencial de frutos de pimenta-rosa cultivados em fileira simples e dupla com diferentes doses de cama-de-frango semidecomposta em duas épocas de avaliação. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, em Dourados/MS, de outubro de 2009 a novembro de 2010. Plantas de pimenta-rosa foram cultivadas em fileira simples e dupla, em solo com cama-de-frango incorporada nas doses de 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 t ha-1. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em fatorial 2 x 5, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os frutos foram colhidos aos 180 e 390 dias após o transplante (DAT). Houve interação significativa para peso fresco de frutos e peso de 50 frutos, sendo os valores maiores aos 180 DAT nas plantas cultivadas em fileira dupla, relacionado com o aumento das doses de cama-de-frango. Os frutos colhidos aos 390 DAT apresentaram maior diâmetro comparado com aqueles coletados aos 180 DAT. O número de frutos por cacho foi influenciado significativamente pelas doses de cama-de-frango, tendo aumento linear em função do aumento das doses. O óleo essencial dos frutos de pimenta-rosa obtido por hidrodestilação e analisado por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas exibiu predominância de monoterpenos, apresentando como principal constituinte o α-pineno (20,14%). A composição química do óleo essencial não foi influenciada pelo número de fileiras de plantas na parcela, nem pelas doses de cama-de-frango, em nenhuma das épocas de avaliação. Portanto, para maior produção de frutos recomenda-se o cultivo de plantas de pimenta-rosa em fileira dupla e 13.59 t ha-1 de cama-de-frango incorporada ao solo com colheita aos 180 DAT.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Genus Pimenta/metabolism , Anacardiaceae/metabolism , Fertilizers/statistics & numerical data , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Waste Products/analysis
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 64(6): 1747-1754, Dec. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-660248

ABSTRACT

Estudou-se a suplementação de dietas de cordeiros confinados com resíduo de biodiesel, utilizando-se 25 ovinos, SRD, machos, castrados, com média de peso de 20kg. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições por tratamento e esquema de parcelas subdivididas para os dados de biometria. O experimento teve a duração de 70 dias. As dietas eram compostas de 34% de volumoso e 61% de concentrado, à base de milho, soja, minerais e 5% de óleo de dendê ou resíduo de biodiesel, em percentagens crescentes - zero, 25, 50, 75 e 100%. Os animais foram abatidos ao final do experimento para avaliação da carcaça. Foram observados efeitos significativos (P<0,05) de percentagem de inclusão do resíduo, para as variáveis de desempenho e biometria demonstrados nos efeitos lineares crescentes das equações de regressão, assim como para peso da carcaça quente (PCQ) -, com médias de 14; 15,92; 16,14; 16,42 e 18,02% - e peso da carcaça fria (PCF) -, com médias de 13,12; 14,78; 15,06; 15,70 e 17,25% -, para dietas com, respectivamente, 0, 25, 50, 100% de resíduo de biodiesel de dendê. A utilização de resíduo de biodiesel de dendê na alimentação de cordeiros em crescimento é alternativa para aumentar a densidade energética de suas dietas.


Diet supplementation with biodiesel residues of confined lambs, utilizing 25 sheep, without definite breed pattern (WDB), male, castrated, with average weight of 20kg was studied. The experimental design was random blocks, with 5 repetitions per treatment and a split plot scheme toward biometrics data. The experiment lasted 70 days. The diets were composed of 34% of roughage and 61% of concentrate, based on corn, soy, mineral and 5% of oil palm kernel or biodiesel residues, in increasing percentages - zero, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. The animals were slaughtered at the end of the experiment for carcass evaluation. Significant effects (P<0.05) of percentage inclusion of residues were observed for the performance and biometrics variables demonstrated in the crescent linear effect of the regression equations, as well as for the hot carcass weight (HCW) - with an average of 14; 15.92; 16.14; 16.42 and 18.02%; and the cold carcass weight (CCW) - with an average of 13.12; 14.78; 15.06; 15.70 and 17.25% for diets, respectively, containing 0, 25, 50, 75, 100% of palm kernel biodiesel residues. The palm kernel biodiesel residue utilization in feeding growing lambs is an alternative to increase the energetic density in their diets.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/growth & development , Animal Feed/analysis , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Diet/veterinary , Ruminants , Waste Products/analysis , Waste Products/adverse effects
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 42(4): 1516-1525, Oct.-Dec. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614618

ABSTRACT

Proteolytic and/or lipolytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from visceral wastes of different fresh water fishes. LAB count was found to be highest in case of visceral wastes of Mrigal (5.88 log cfu/g) and lowest in that of tilapia (4.22 log cfu/g). Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of the selected LAB isolates were carried out. Two isolates FJ1 (E. faecalis NCIM5367) and LP3 (P. acidilactici NCIM5368) showed both proteolytic and lipolytic properties. All the six native isolates selected for characterization showed antagonistic properties against several human pathogens. All the native isolates were sensitive to antibiotics cephalothin and clindamycin; and, resistant to cotrimoxazole and vancomycin. Considering individually, P. acidilactici FM37, P. acidilactici MW2 and E. faecalis FD3 were sensitive to erythromycin. The two strains FJ1 (E. faecalis NCIM 5367) and LP3 (P. acidilactici NCIM 5368) that had both proteolytic and lipolytic properties have the potential for application in fermentative recovery of lipids and proteins from fish processing wastes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lactic Acid/analysis , Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci/isolation & purification , Cichlids , Fermentation , Waste Products/analysis , Food Samples , Methods , Methods
17.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 13(3): 253-257, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-601029

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar a interferência de possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de Mentha x villosa Huds. sobre a emergência de Lactuca sativa L. As atividades foram conduzidas em laboratório, no Instituto de Ciências Agrárias (ICA) da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, em Montes Claros/MG. Foram propostos três tratamentos, sendo esses: solo A, coletado em área cultivada com hortelã no horto medicinal do ICA/UFMG; solo B, coletado em áreas adjacentes e, testemunha (papel germiteste).O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC), com sete repetições. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem e índice de velocidade de emergência. Observou-se que a emergência de plântulas de Lactuca sativa foi significativamente afetada pelo solo A (6,95 por cento) se comparada com o solo B (21,71 por cento), representando assim, uma inibição da emergência, ou seja, efeito alelopático da hortelã sobre a emergência de alface. Já o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE) não diferiu significativamente entre os solos testados.


This study aimed to assess the interference of possible allelopathic effects of Mentha x villosa Huds. on the germination of Lactuca sativa L. The activities were carried out in laboratory, at the Institute of Agricultural Sciences (ICA) of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The following three treatments were proposed: soil A, collected in area cultivated with mint at the garden of ICA; soil B, collected in adjacent areas; and control (germitest paper). Experimental design was completely randomized (CR), with seven replicates. The evaluated variables were: germination percentage and speed index. The emergence of Lactuca sativa seedlings was significantly affected by soil A (6.95 percent) when compared to soil B (21.71 percent), indicating thus emergence inhibition, i.e. an allelopathic effect of mint on lettuce emergence. On the other hand, the germination speed index (GSI) did not differ significantly between the tested soils.


Subject(s)
Lettuce/growth & development , Lettuce/embryology , Biochemistry , Mentha/adverse effects , Waste Products/analysis , Waste Products/adverse effects , Seeds/growth & development , Soil/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Soil Characteristics/analysis , Seedlings
18.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-558334

ABSTRACT

"Acerola" (Malpighia punicifolia, Linn) is one of the fruits which deserve emphasis in the light of the pleasant taste of its juice, one of the main natural vitamin C sources. The success of its industrialization is related to the amount of pulp that the fruit produces, however, the remains (the seeds) are considered agro-industrial residues and are not utilized. This study examined the chemical composition of the seeds for defining their nutritional value and possible use. After the seeds had been dried and processed into a flour, the analytical determinations were performed and revealed that this product had a high yield, 100g presenting a low water (9.4%) and high calorie contents (332kcal) due to 3.2 ± 0.02g lipids, 16.94 ± 0.81g protein and 57.24 ± 2.44g carbohydrates. In addition, it presents a high content of crude fiber (26.54%), ash (0.44%), ascorbic acid (66mg.g-1) and minerals such as iron (37.23mg.100g-1), calcium (41.76mg.100g-1), potassium (41.39mg.100g-1), magnesium (22.24mg.100g-1), zinc (0.09mg.100g-1), manganese (0.74mg.100g-1) phosphorus (0.08mg.100g-1) and copper (0.15?g.100g-1). Its lipid fraction has the following fatty acids: oleic (31.9%), linoleic (29.2%), palmitic (21.8%), stearic (13.9%) and linolenic (1.3%). The flour of this seed presents a great potential for use in the diet, since the inexistence of toxic and allergenic compounds is proven, thus favoring the rational application of this agroindustry residue.


La acerola es una fruta que se destaca por el agradable sabor de su jugo, una de las principales fuentes naturales de vitamina C. El éxito de la industrialización de la acerolas e relaciona con la cantidad de pulpa que los frutos producen, pero las semillas no se utilizan y son consideradas residuos de la agroindustria. Este estudio analizó la composición química de la semilla de acerola para definir el valor nutricional y las posibilidades de utilización.Las semillas secas fueron transformadas en harina y esta sometida a determinaciones analíticas que mostraron un producto de elevado rendimiento: 100g contienen bajo contenido de humedad (9,4%) y elevado contenido calórico (332kcal) oriundo de 3,2 ± 0,02 g de lípidos, 16,94 ± 0,81g de proteínas y 57,24 ± 2,44g de hidratos de carbono. Además de presentar un alto contenido de fibra brutao cruda (26,54%), cenizas (0,44%), ácido ascórbico (66mg) y minerales como hierro (37,23mg.100g-1), calcio (41,76mg.100g-1), potasio (41,39mg.100g-1), magnesio (22,24mg.100g-1), zinc (0,09mg.100g-1), manganeso (0,74mg.100g-1) , fósforo (0,08mg.100g-1) e cobre (0,15?g.100g-1). Sufracción lipídica tiene los ácidos grasos: oleico(31,9%), linoleico (29,2%), palmítico (21,8%), esteárico (13.9%) y linolénico (1,3%). La harina de esta semilla tiene un gran potencial para fines alimenticios desde que se descarte la presencia de compuestos tóxicos o alergénicos, posibilitando la aplicación racional de los residuos de la industria de la acerola.


A acerola é uma das frutas que merecem destaque em função do sabor agradável de seu suco, uma das principais fontes naturais de vitamina C. O sucesso da industrialização da acerola está relacionado à quantidade de polpa que a fruta produz, porém, o restante, as sementes, não são aproveitadas, consideradas resíduos agroindustriais. Este trabalho analisou a composição química das sementes da acerola para definição do valor nutricional e possível aproveitamento. Após as sementes serem desidratadas e transformadas em farinha, as determinações analíticas foram realizadas e revelaram que este produto demonstrou elevador endimento, e que 100g contêm baixo teor de umidade (9,4%) e alto teor calórico (332kcal) oriundo de 3,2 ± 0,02g de lipídios, 16,94 ± 0,81g de proteína e 57,24 ± 2,44g de carboidratos. Além de apresentar alto conteúdo de fibra bruta (26,54%), cinzas (0,44%), ácido ascórbico (66mg) e minerais como ferro (37,23mg.100g-1), cálcio (41,76mg.100g-1), potássio (41,39mg.100g-1), magnésio (22,24mg.100g- 1) , zinco (0,09mg.100g-1), manganês (0,74mg.100g-1), fósforo (0,08mg.100g-1) e cobre (0,15?g.100g-1). Na fração lipídica estão presentes os ácidos graxos: oleico (31,9%), linoleico (29,2%), palmítico (21,8%), esteárico (13,9%) e linolênico(1,3%). A farinha desta semente evidencia grande potencial para fins alimentícios desde que seja comprovada a inexistência de compostos tóxicos e alergênicos, favorecendo a aplicação racional do resíduo da agroindústria da acerola.


Subject(s)
Chemical Properties , Malpighiaceae , Nutritive Value , Seeds , Flour , Waste Products/analysis
19.
Rev. bras. toxicol ; 23(1/2): 22-27, 2010.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-619283

ABSTRACT

Os estudos de monitoramento são uma estratégia para avaliar a qualidade dos alimentos e a adequação dos mesmos aos níveis de resíduos estabelecidos pela legislação, isto é, Limite Máximo de Resíduos (LMR). O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a presença de resíduos de pesticidas em amostras de feijão, ovo e arroz, assim como,avaliar a ingestão diária aceitável dos produtos detectados nestes alimentos utilizando para o cálculo do parâmetro de ingestão diária (IDA), os dados de consumo do IBGE, 2004 e do GEMS/FOOD, 2003. Neste estudo foram avaliadas 311 amostras de feijão (seco), 150 amostras de ovo e 73 amostras de arroz (polido), comercializadas na cidade de São Paulo. Para a análise de multirresíduos foi empregado o método oficial DFG S19 e em torno de 140 ingredientes ativos foram estudados. Pesticidas não permitidos para as culturas como o alacloro, a ametrina e a dimetenamida P foram detectados em respectivamente em 0,65 por cento das amostras de feijão, em 0,7 por cento das amostras de ovo e em 1,3 por cento das amostras de arroz. Resíduos de procimidona estiveram acima do LMR e foram encontrados em 0,6 por cento das amostras de feijão. A ingestão diária crônica da procimidona e da dimetenamida P foi calculada, muito embora neste estudo não foi considerado nenhum fator de processamento dos alimentos o que poderia modificar ou reduzir os níveis destes compostos.


Monitoring studies are a strategy to evaluate the quality of foodstuffs and the compliance with Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). The present work had as an objective to determine the pesticide residues presence in samples of bean, egg and rice, as well as estimate the dietary intake of the compounds detected in the analysis using the ADI parameter and the food consumption data from IBGE, 2004 and GEMS/FOOD, 2003. The study evaluated 311 bean (dry) samples, 150 egg samples and 73 rice (polished) samples, commercialized in Sao Paulo City. A multiresidue method DFG S19 was employed and almost 140 active ingredients were studied. Pesticide residues not allowed for the commodities such as alachlor, amethryn and P dimetenamide were detected, respectively, in 0.65 per cent of bean samples, 0.7 per cent of egg samples and 1.3 per cent of rice samples. The procymidone residues were above the MRL and were found in 0.6 per cent of the bean samples. Chronic dietary intake of procymidone and P dimetenamide was evaluated, however in this study it was not considered any processing of food which could modify and even reduce the levels of these compounds.


Subject(s)
Food Quality , Pesticides , Waste Products/analysis
20.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 17(3): 412-417, jul.-set. 2009. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-539002

ABSTRACT

A administração parenteral é realizada através de seringas, soluções e agulhas estéreis. As vias parenterais mais utilizadas são as subcutânea, intradérmica, intramuscular e intravenosa. O objetivo deste estudo é identificar o volume residual em seringas e agulhas utilizadas para administrar medicação pelas vias subcutânea, intradérmica e intramuscular. Trata-se de uma pesquisa clínica quantitativa e descritiva, realizada em 2008, no laboratório multiprofissional de um Centro Universitário do interior paulista. Foram utilizadas no estudo seringas de 1ml, 3ml e 5 ml e agulhas de 13x4,5; 20x5,5; 25x7; 25x8; 30x7 e 30x8. Durante a análise dos dados, foi possível verificar que há volume residual em seringas e agulhas, sendo o volume maior constatado de 0,07 ml, encontrado nas seringas de 5 ml, com as agulhas de 25x8 e 30x8; e de 3 ml, com a agulha 30x8. O menor volume constatado foi na seringa de 1 ml, com a agulha de 13x4,5.


Parenteral administration is performed with syringes, solutions, and sterile needles. The most commonly used parenteral routes are the subcutaneous, intradermal, intramuscular, and intravenous. This study aimed at identifying the residual volume used in syringes and needles to administer medication through the subcutaneous, intradermal, and intramuscular routes. A clinical, descriptive and quantitative research was carried out at a multiprofessional lab of a University Center in the inlands of the State of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, in 2008. Syringes of 1ml, 3ml, and 5 ml and needles of 13x4.5; 20x5.5; 25x7; 25x8; 30x7 and 30x8 were used in the study. Data analysis showed the existence of residual volume in syringes and needles. The largest volume found was 0.07 ml, in syringes of 5 ml, with needles of 25x8 and 30x8; and in 3 ml syringes with the 30x8 needle. The smallest volume was found in the 1 ml syringe, with the 13x4.5 needle.


La administración parenteral es realizada a través de jeringas, soluciones y agujas estériles. Las vías parenterales más utilizadas son las subcutánea, intradérmica, intramuscular e intravenosa. La finalidad de este estudio es identificar el volumen residual en jeringas y agujas utilizadas para administrar medicación por las vías subcutánea, intradérmica e intramuscular. Se trata de una investigación clínica, descriptiva y cuantitativa, realizada 2008, en el laboratorio multiprofesional de un Centro Universitario en el interior del estado de São Paulo, Brasil. En el estudio fueron utilizadas jeringas de 1ml, 3ml e 5 ml y agujas de 13x4,5; 20x5,5; 25x7; 25x8; 30x7 y 30x8. Durante el análisis de los datos, fue posible verificar que hay volumen residual en jeringas y agujas, siendo el mayor volumen constatado de 0,07 ml, encontrado en las jeringas de 5 ml, con las agujas de 25x8 e 30x8; y de 3 ml, con la aguja 30x8. El menor volumen constatado fue en la jeringa de 1 ml, con la aguja de 13x4,5.


Subject(s)
Humans , Needles , Medication Errors/nursing , Infusions, Parenteral/nursing , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Waste Products/analysis , Syringes , Brazil , Nursing Research
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