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2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200193, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249203

ABSTRACT

Abstract wastewater treatment (WT) is of major importance on modern cities, removing wastewater pollutants resultant from anthropogenic activities. The unique abilities of microbes to degrade organic matter, remove nutrients and transform toxic compounds into harmless products make them essential players in waste treatment. The microbial diversity determines the metabolic pathways that may occur in WT and quality of treated wastewater. Therefore, understanding WT microbial community structure, distribution, and metabolic functioning is essential for development and optimization of efficient microbial engineering systems. Since cultivation methods can only detect a small fraction of the microbial diversity, the use of culture-independent molecular methods has circumvented this issue, allowing unprecedented access to genes and genomes used for microbial composition and function evaluation. Traditional approaches like RAPD, DGGE, ARDRA, RISA, SSCP, T-RFLP, and FISH and modern approaches like microarray, qPCR, and metagenomics are essential techniques for identifying and depicting the total microbial community structure and their interaction with environmental and biotic factors. Thus, this review describes traditional and state of the art molecular techniques which provide insights into phylogenetic and functional activities of microbial assemblages in a WT system.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Water Microbiology , Microbiota , Dermatoglyphics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
3.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 457-465, dez 5, 2020. ilus, fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357952

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a análise microbiológica das águas em escolas é de suma importância, visto que crianças em idade escolar são extremamente vulneráveis podendo desenvolver doenças por causa das condições do seu sistema gastrointestinal. Objetivo: avaliar os parâmetros microbiológicos da água de bebedouros destinados ao consumo humano de escolas de Alagoa Grande ­ PB. Metodologia: foram realizadas avaliações microbiológicas das águas disponíveis nos bebedouros, analisando a potabilidade, bem como as torneiras destes, fazendo levantamento da quantidade de fungos e bactérias encontrados. Os testes foram realizados nos laboratórios do Centro Universitário Maurício de Nassau ­ Campina Grande. Resultados: 24% das amostras estudadas apresentaram positividade para o grupo coliforme e termotolerante, portanto, não estão em estado potável para o consumo, e que a manutenção da limpeza dos bebedouros que armazenam a água está deficiente, revelando elevado número de microrganismos e presença de contaminação de todos. Conclusão: as higienizações dos aparelhos, bem como o monitoramento da água consumida nas escolas, são essenciais no controle de doenças que obviamente prejudicam o rendimento escolar dos alunos. As escolas em parcerias com instituições de saúde devem se mobilizar no sentido de capacitar e educar os funcionários que realizam a limpeza dos bebedouros, os alunos e a comunidade que os utilizam, visando a colaboração de todos para melhorar a qualidade da água consumida.


Introduction: the microbiological testing of water available in schools is of paramount importance, as school-age children are extremely vulnerable to developing diseases because of their gastrointestinal system conditions, which underscore the importance of water quality in schools and proper maintenance of the same. The water for consumption is that which is called potable water. The water that do not fit into the standards of potability can lead to pathologies to humans through their consumption. The main pathologies carried by the waters are typhoid fever, cholera, salmonellosis, shigellosis, poliomyelitis, hepatitis A, verminoses, amebiasis and giardiasis. The present study aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of water from drinking fountains intended for human consumption in schools in Alagoa Grande-PB. Metodology: the microbiological analyzes were carried out of the water available in the drinking fountain, analyzing the potability, as well as the taps of these, surveying the amount of fungi and bacteria found. The tests were executed in the laboratories of the Mauricio de Nassau Faculty ­ Campina Grande and it was found that. Resulting: 24% of the samples studied presented positivity to the coliform and thermotolerant group, therefore, were not in the potable state for consumption, and that the cleaning of the water fountains is deficient, revealing presence of a high numbers of microorganisms. The fact that the coliform group and thermotolerants were not detected in the other water samples analyzed does not mean that the water is totally safe, since high numbers of fungal and bacterial colonies were found in the nozzles of the drinking fountains. Conclusion: the results showed that the hygiene of the devices, as well as the monitoring of the water consumed in schools, are essential in the control of diseases that obviously impair the students' school performance. The schools in partnerships with health institutions should mobilize to train and educate water cleaners, students, and the community that use them, in order to collaborate with each other to improve the quality of water consumed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schools , Bacteria , Water Microbiology , Drinking Water , Coliforms , Fungi , Evaluation Studies as Topic
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 661-668, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132397

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aquatic ecosystems of urban rivers are contaminated through waste disposal, which poses a public health problem. The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality of water used for recreation and public supply of six rivers in the city of Cascavel - Paraná, including Cascavel, Quati, Bezerra, Antas, Clarito and Amambay. Samples were collected every 4 months in 2017, and their physicochemical and microbiological parameters, as well as resistance profiles of strains of Escherichia coli to antimicrobials distributed by pharmacies of the primary healthcare network, were evaluated. Parameters such as water temperature, turbidity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms showed significant differences. The allowed limit for thermotolerant coliforms, which was set by National Environment Council, Resolution 357/2005, was exceeded in all of the six analyzed rivers. It was determined that 48.1% of E. coli strains showed resistance to nine antimicrobial tested. The highest levels of resistance were found for ampicillin (27.7%), tetracycline (27.7%) and amoxicillin (24.0%). The results of this study contribute to the understanding of the hazards associated with the contamination of springs in urban centers with wastewater containing resistant bacteria. Therefore, recovery work is necessary in these areas because of the importance of these water sources for the entire western region of Paraná state.


Resumo Os ecossistemas aquáticos dos rios urbanos são contaminados pela disposição de resíduos, o que representa um problema de saúde pública. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar a qualidade das águas utilizadas para recreação e abastecimento público de seis rios da cidade de Cascavel - Paraná, sendo eles: Cascavel, Quati, Bezerra, Antas, Clarito e Amambay. Amostras foram coletadas a cada 4 meses em 2017, e seus parâmetros físico-químicos e microbiológicos, bem como os perfis de resistência das cepas de Escherichia coli aos antimicrobianos distribuídos pelas farmácias da rede básica de saúde, foram avaliados. Parâmetros como temperatura da água, turbidez, nitrogênio total, fósforo total, coliformes totais e coliformes termotolerantes apresentaram diferenças significativas. O limite permitido para coliformes termotolerantes, estabelecido pelo Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente, Resolução 357/2005, foi excedido em todos os seis rios analisados. Foi determinado que 48,1% das cepas de E. coli apresentaram resistência aos nove antimicrobianos testados. Os maiores níveis de resistência foram encontrados para ampicilina (27,7%), tetraciclina (27,7%) e amoxicilina (24,0%). Os resultados deste estudo contribuem para a compreensão dos riscos associados à contaminação de nascentes em centros urbanos com efluentes contendo bactérias resistentes. Portanto, o trabalho de recuperação é necessário nessas áreas, devido à importância dessas fontes de água para toda a região oeste do estado do Paraná.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Escherichia coli , Bacteria , Water Microbiology , Rivers , Anti-Bacterial Agents
5.
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(2): 163-174, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134821

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: In hemodialysis, patients are exposed to a large volume of water, which may lead to fatal risks if not meeting quality standards. This study aimed to validate an alternative method for monitoring microbiological quality of treated water and assess its applicability in dialysis and dialysate analysis, to allow corrective actions in real-time. Methods: Validation and applicability were analyzed by conventional and alternative methods. For validation, E. coli standard endotoxin was diluted with apyrogenic water in five concentrations. For the applicability analysis, treated water for dialysis was collected from different points in the treatment system (reverse osmosis, drainage canalization at the storage tank bottom, reuse, and loop), and dialysate was collected from four machines located in different rooms in the hemodialysis sector. Results: The validation results were in accordance with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia acceptance criteria, except for the last two concentrations analyzed. In addition, the ruggedness criterion performed under the US Pharmacopoeia was in agreement with the results. Discussion: A limiting factor in the applicability analysis was the absence of the endotoxin maximum permitted level in dialysate by the Brazilian legislation. When comparing the analysis time, the alternative method was more time-consuming than the conventional one. This suggests that the alternative method is effective in the case of few analyses, that is, real-time analyses, favoring corrective actions promptly. On the other hand, it does not support the implementation of the alternative method in a laboratory routine due to the high demand for analyses.


RESUMO Introdução: Na hemodiálise, os pacientes são expostos a um grande volume de água, o que pode levar a riscos fatais se não cumprir com padrões de qualidade. Este estudo teve como objetivo validar um método alternativo para monitorar a qualidade microbiológica da água tratada e avaliar sua aplicabilidade em análises de diálise e dialisato, para permitir ações corretivas em tempo real. Métodos: A validação e aplicabilidade foram analisadas por métodos convencionais e alternativos. Para validação, a endotoxina padrão de E. coli foi diluída com água apirogênica em cinco concentrações. Para a análise de aplicabilidade, a água tratada para diálise foi coletada em diferentes pontos do sistema de tratamento (osmose reversa, canalização de drenagem no fundo do tanque de armazenamento, reutilização e circuito) e o dialisato foi coletado em quatro máquinas localizadas em diferentes salas do setor de hemodiálise. Resultados: Os resultados da validação obedeceram aos critérios de aceitação da Farmacopeia Brasileira, com exceção das duas últimas concentrações analisadas. Além disso, o critério de robustez realizado sob a Farmacopeia dos EUA estava de acordo com os resultados. Discussão: Um fator limitante na análise de aplicabilidade foi a ausência do nível máximo permitido de endotoxina no dialisato pela legislação brasileira. Ao comparar o tempo de análise, o método alternativo consumiu mais tempo que o convencional. Isso sugere que o método alternativo é eficaz no caso de poucas análises, ou seja, análises em tempo real, favorecendo ações corretivas imediatamente. Por outro lado, não suporta a implementação do método alternativo em uma rotina de laboratório devido à alta demanda por análises.


Subject(s)
Humans , Water Quality/standards , Water/adverse effects , Dialysis Solutions/analysis , Renal Dialysis/standards , Pharmacopoeias as Topic , Water Microbiology/standards , Brazil/epidemiology , Water/chemistry , Dialysis Solutions/chemistry , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Water Purification/methods , Endotoxins/analysis , Escherichia coli/growth & development
6.
Rev. enferm. UFPI ; 9: e10228, mar.-dez. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1369954

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a qualidade microbiológica da água de cinco escolas públicas da cidade de Marabá-PA e correlacionar com possíveis fatores de desigualdades sociais em saúde no entorno dessas escolas. Metodologia: as análises microbiológicas foram realizadas em cinco escolas públicas no interior do Pará, usando a técnica do número mais provável, associado a registro das características do entorno das escolas. O teste T Student foi utilizado para verificar as diferenças entre os resultados microbiológicos da água entre as escolas em que houve contaminação e também para testar as diferenças entre a vulnerabilidade socioambiental urbana no entorno das escolas e a contaminação da água. Resultados: observaram-se diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre as escolas E3 e E5 no teste para coliformes totais (p=0,043) e termotolerantes (p=0,008). A partir das condições de vulnerabilidade socioambiental urbana no entorno a escolas, encontrou-se diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre as escolas apenas em relação às condições de saneamento (p=0,05). Considerações Finais: as condições microbiológicas da água utilizada em duas escolas são insatisfatórias, o que indica risco à saúde para alunos, professores e funcionários das escolas.


Objective: to analyze the microbiological quality of water in five public schools in the city of Marabá-PA and to correlate with possible factors of social inequalities in health around these schools. Methodology: the analysis of the microbiological water quality was carried out in five schools in the interior of Pará, using the most likely number technique, associated with recording the characteristics of the schools' surroundings. We used Student T test to verify the differences between the microbiological results of water between the schools where there was contamination and to test the differences between the urban socio-environmental vulnerability around the schools and the water contamination. Results: statistically significant differences were observed between schools E3 and E5 in the test for total coliforms (p=0.043) and thermotolerants (p=0.008). We found statistically significant differences were found between schools only in relation to sanitation conditions (p=0.05). Final Considerations: the microbiological conditions of the water used in two schools are unsatisfactory, which indicates a health risk for students, teachers and school team.


Subject(s)
School Health Services , Water Microbiology , Biological Contamination , Coliforms
7.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e1082018, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1130111

ABSTRACT

The product quality is a competitive advantage that plays a differential role among companies. In the food industry, which is based on the Quality Management System, such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), which cover the hygiene procedure, aiming at food safety. In view of the above, the aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of a selected dairy from the São Luís Island - MA. An application of the checklist was performed, swab collection from the hands of the manipulators and equipment and the collection of water and yogurt for microbiological analysis. After this step, a training was performed for food handlers and finally, new collections and microbiological analysis were performed. All the microbiological analysis performed were satisfactory, except for the water sample, one before and again for training. It can be verified that the hygienic-sanitary condition of the dairy was good. However, after a lecture and new microbiological analyzes, improvements were observed in the results.(AU)


A qualidade dos produtos é uma vantagem competitiva que desempenha um papel diferencial entre empresas. Na indústria alimentar, faz-se necessária a adoção do Sistema de Gestão de Qualidade, como as Boas Práticas de Fabricação (BPF), que abrangem os procedimentos essenciais de higiene, visando à segurança alimentar. Diante do exposto, objetivou-se avaliar as condições higiênico-sanitárias de um laticínio selecionado da ilha de São Luís, Maranhão. Foi realizado um checklist, coleta por swabs das mãos dos manipuladores e de equipamentos e coleta de água e iogurte para análises microbiológicas. Após essa etapa, foi executado um treinamento para os manipuladores de alimentos e, por fim, novas coletas e análises microbiológicas foram realizadas. Todas as análises microbiológicas realizadas mostraram-se satisfatórias, com exceção da amostra de água, uma antes e outra após o treinamento. Pode-se constatar que a condição higiênico-sanitária do laticínio era boa. Contudo, após uma palestra e a realização de novas análises microbiológicas, foram observadas melhorias nos resultados.(AU)


Subject(s)
Yogurt , Industrial Sanitation , Dairying , Food Safety , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Water Microbiology , Yogurt/microbiology , Hygiene , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Good Manufacturing Practices , Food , Food Handling , Hand/microbiology
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190759, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132246

ABSTRACT

Abstract Animal products are sources of microbiological contamination when the process has hygienic-sanitary control fails. Therefore, this work aims the evaluation of the pathogenic microorganisms presented in samples from the Brazil southern region of yogurt (N = 101), stretched curd cheese (N = 31), fresh sausage (N = 22) and processing water (N = 63). Analyses of coliforms at 45 °C, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli were performed. Analysis indicated processing water is an important contamination source to be monitored, because the majority of samples presented results above the regulation limits. Thermal treatment and fermentation such as stretched curd cheese and yogurt appeared to be more stable against contamination during processing. In this study, for coliforms at 45 °C, only one cheese sample and 12% of total yogurt samples exceeded the Brazilian legislation limit. None of sausage samples presented any contamination. On the other hand, values found in both processing water and dairy products indicated failures in application and monitoring of good manufactured practices.


Subject(s)
Animals , Water Microbiology , Yogurt/microbiology , Cheese/microbiology , Food Microbiology , Meat Products/microbiology , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Brazil , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Coliforms
9.
Rev. salud pública ; 21(6): e183539, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099278

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos Analizar la relación que existe entre la contaminación de agua por ooquistes de Cryptosporidium spp. y los efectos en la salud de las poblaciones humanas y animales en Colombia. Métodos Es un ensayo de tipo analítico que se centró en la aplicación documentada y analizada, de la metodología de las "Fuerzas Motrices" y el modelo OMS de Determinantes Sociales de la Salud tomando como ejemplo la Criptosporidiosis. Resultados Las "fuerzas motrices" involucradas en la relación entre contaminación de agua por Cryptosporidium spp. y la salud de humanos y animales fueron el aumento en la demanda de productos pecuarios y la producción pecuaria de baja calidad; la "presión" consistió en la mala implementación de prácticas de producción, la invasión de zonas protegidas y de reservas ecológicas, y la disminución de fronteras entre lo rural y lo urbano; el "estado" se basó en la contaminación del suelo y las fuentes de agua, y en la deficiencia en el manejo de las excretas; la "exposición" radicó en la entrada de ooquistes vía fecal-oral, por la contaminación del suelo y el agua, y el "efecto" consistió en una diarrea autolimitante, una deshidratación severa, el síndrome de mala absorción y la muerte. Conclusiones Los ecosistemas pueden mantener poblaciones saludables, pero cuando son mal administrados o rápidamente alterados debido a la presión humana, también pueden estar asociados con la aparición de enfermedades, como la Criptosporidiosis.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objectives To analyze the relationship between water contaminated with Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and its effects on the health of human and animal populations in Colombia. Materials and Methods Analytical essay focused on the documented and analytical application of the Driving Forces Methodology and the WHO model of Social Determinants of Health using cryptosporidiosis as an example. Results The driving forces involved in the relationship between water contaminated with Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and human and animal health were increased demand for livestock products and low-quality livestock production. Regarding pressure, it was related to the poor implementation of production practices, the invasion of protected areas and ecological reserves, and the reduction of rural-urban borders. On the other hand, status was associated with contamination of soil and water sources, as well as the deficient management of excreta. Finally, exposure was determined by the entry of oocysts via the fecal-oral route through contaminated soil and water, and effect consisted of self-limiting diarrhea, severe dehydration, malabsorption syndrome, and death. Conclusions Ecosystems can maintain healthy populations, but when they are mismanaged or rapidly altered by human pressure, they can also be associated with the emergence of diseases such as Cryptosporidiosis.(AU)


OBJETIVOS Analisar a relação entre contaminação da água por Oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e os efeitos sobre a saúde das populações humanas e animais na Colômbia. MÉTODOS Trata-se de um estudo de tipo analítico que se concentrou na aplicação documentada e analisada da metodologia "Forças de Condução" e do modelo da OMS de Determinantes Sociais da Saúde, tomando a criptosporidiose como exemplo. RESULTADOS As "forças motrizes" envolvidas na relação entre contaminação da água por Cryptosporidium spp. e saúde humana e animal foram o aumento da demanda por produtos animais e a produção animal de baixa qualidade; a "pressão" consistia na má implementação das práticas de produção, na invasão de áreas protegidas e reservas ecológicas e na redução das fronteiras entre as áreas rurais e urbanas; o "estado" se baseava na contaminação do solo e nas fontes de água e na deficiência no manejo dos excrementos; a "exposição" foi devido à entrada de oocistos pela via fecal-oral, devido à contaminação do solo e da água, e o "efeito" consistiu em diarréia autolimitada, desidratação grave, síndrome de má absorção e morte. CONCLUSÕES Os ecossistemas podem manter populações saudáveis, mas quando são mal gerenciados ou rapidamente alterados devido à pressão humana, também podem ser associados ao aparecimento de doenças, como a criptosporidiose.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Water Microbiology , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health , Socioeconomic Factors , Colombia
10.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(6): 512-516, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094521

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment. They are able to grow in water and many of them may be opportunistic pathogens. OBJECTIVE: The aims were to identify fungi in registered wells (RWs) and nonregistered wells (NRWs) that tap into groundwater; and to correlate the results from physicochemical assays on this water (free residual chlorine and pH) with the presence of fungi. DATA AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional quantitative study on groundwater wells in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 52 samples of 500 ml of water were collected from RWs and 107 from NRWs. These were sent to a microbiology laboratory to identify any fungi that were present. In addition, free residual chlorine and pH were measured immediately after sample collection. Several statistical analysis tests were used. RESULTS: Fungal contamination was present in 78.8% of the samples from RWs and 81.3% from NRWs. Filamentous fungi were more prevalent than yeast in both types of wells. There was no significant difference in presence of fungi according to whether chloride and pH were within recommended levels in RWs; or according to whether pH was within recommended levels in NRWs. Furthermore, there was no statistical difference in the levels of fungal contamination between RWs and NRWs. CONCLUSION: Both RWs and NRWs are potential reservoirs for many types of fungi. Many of these may become opportunistic pathogens if they infect immunosuppressed individuals. Furthermore, this study confirms that fungi are able to grow even when chlorine and pH parameters are within the standards recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Water Microbiology , Drinking Water/microbiology , Water Wells , Fungi/isolation & purification , Penicillium/isolation & purification , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Drinking Water/chemistry , Groundwater/microbiology , Brazil , Candida/isolation & purification , Chlorine/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies
11.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(3): 357-362, set. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012436

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The contamination of the dental units' waterlines is a reality, which can develop individual and collective disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and resistance profile of bacteria on the internal surfaces of waterlines in a dental clinic from a Dentistry school of a Brazilian university. The design was an exploratory, descriptive study with quantitative and qualitative approach. Samples (n=4) were collected for analysis at different points: the portion closest to the water reservoir of the chair, and the portion closest to the triple syringe. After collection the samples were cultured in BHI medium in an oven for 24-48 h at 37 °C. For the quantitative analysis 1 ml of each sample was used for serial dilution up to the dilution value seven. The colonies were counted after pour plate and the results expressed in UFC/cm2. The qualitative analysis was initiated with the cultivation of Agar Blood, EMB-Levine and Cetrimide Agar for 24 h, and the identification of bacteria was performed by microscopic analyses. The resistance profile was verified by classical antibiogram. The internal surfaces of unit waterlines units exhibited a mean of 2.44 x 109 CFU / cm2. Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified. The resistance profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa indicated sensitivity to all tested antibiotics. A large number of microorganisms was quantified from biofilm accumulated in the dental units' waterlines. However, they were not resistant to classic antibiogram. Better management and application of decontamination protocols for waterlines need to be applied since opportunistic infections may be associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.


RESUMEN: La contaminación de líneas de agua en las unidades dentarias es una realidad, generando enfermedades individuales y colectivas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la prevalencia y resistencia de las bacterias en las zonas internas de las líneas de agua de la Facultad de Odontología de una universidad brasileña. El diseño del estudio fue exploratorio, descriptivo con enfoques cuantitativos y cualitativos. Las muestras para análisis (n=4) fueron selecionadas de distintos lugares: el punto más cercano al sistema de agua del sillón odontológico y el punto más cercano a la jeringa tríplice. Las muestras obtenidas fueron cultivadas en un médio BHI por 24-48 h, en un horno a 37 ºC. Para el análisis cuantitativo, se utilizó 1 ml de cada muestra para dilución hasta el valor siete. Las colonias fueran contadas y los resultados fueron expresados en UFC/cm2. El análisis cualitativo fue iniciado con el cultivo de Agar Sangre, EBM-Levine y Agar Cetrimide por 24 h y la identificación de la bacteria fue realizada por análisis microscópicos. El perfil de resistencia fue verificado por el antibiograma clásico. Las zonas internas de las unidades de líneas de agua mostraron un promédio de 2,44 x 109 UFC/cm2. Bacillus subtilis y Pseudomonas aeruginosa fueron encontrados. El perfil de resistencia de Pseudomonas aeruginosa indicó sensibilidad a todos los antibióticos testados. Un gran número de microorganismos fue cuantificado desde la biopelícula acumulada en las líneas de agua de unidades dentales. Sin embargo, no resistieron al antibiograma clásico. Se requiere una mejor gestión y aplicación de protocolos de decontaminación en las líneas de agua debido a que las infecciones oportunistas puedan estar asociadas a Pseudomonas aeruginosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Water/adverse effects , Biofilms , Infection Control, Dental/methods , Water Microbiology , Brazil , Colony Count, Microbial , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Dental Equipment/microbiology , Mycobacterium/growth & development
12.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(3): 259-267, set. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041835

ABSTRACT

Las micobacterias no tuberculosas (MNT) no solo se estudian por su importancia como patógenos oportunistas, sino también por sus aplicaciones en biotecnología y biorremediación. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la presencia de micobacterias en los distintos hábitats acuáticos de la ciudad de General Pico (provincia de La Pampa), así como su diversidad. Los porcentajes de muestras positivas a micobacterias fueron los siguientes: 37,5% en el sistema de distribución de agua de red, 32,6% en el acuífero que abastece dicho sistema, 36,8% en el agua proveniente de las precipitaciones, 53,1% en los humedales del área de influencia, 80% en los natatorios cubiertos y 33,3% en las fuentes decorativas ubicadas en plazas públicas. De los 90 aislamientos de MNT obtenidos el 8,9% no logró ser identificado a nivel de especie con los métodos utilizados, que incluyeron pruebas fenotípicas y métodos moleculares. Las especies más frecuentemente aisladas fueron Mycobacterium fortuitum y Mycobacterium gordonae. Algunas especies identificadas han sido reportadas en casos de micobacteriosis en nuestro país, entre ellas M. fortuitum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare, M. vaccae, M. lentiflavum y M. nonchromogenicum. No se aislaron MNT en muestras de agua de red con concentraciones de cloro activo residual mayores de 0,8mg/l, mientras que en los natatorios la presencia de hasta 1,5mg/l de cloro activo residual no fue una limitante para la proliferación de estos microorganismos. Se puede considerar que la incidencia de micobacterias en los ambientes acuáticos de General Pico es cercana al 35%, y que la presencia de estos microorganismos y su diversidad se ve afectada por el contacto con el hombre y sus actividades, como así también por la existencia de vida animal.


Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are studied not only for their importance as emerging opportunistic pathogens but also for their applications in biotechnology and bioremediation. Our aim was to determine the occurrence and diversity of mycobacteria in different aquatic habitats of General Pico city, Province of La Pampa. The percentage of samples with positive cultures for mycobacteria were the following: 37.5% recovered from the water supply distribution system; 32.6% from the aquifer that supplies water to the distribution system; 36.8% from rain water; 53.1% from the two wetlands in the area of influence; 80% from indoor swimming pools; and 33.3% from water fountains in downtown public squares. Of the 90 NTM isolates, 8.9% could not be identified at the species level with any of the used methods, phenotypic tests and molecular methods. Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium gordonae were the most frequently isolated species. Some of the identified species such as, M. fortuitum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare, M. vaccae, M. lentiflavum and M. nonchromogenicum, have been reported in cases of mycobacteriosis in Argentina. Mycobacteria with values higher than 0.8mg/ml of residual active chlorine were not recovered from the drinking water supply network, whereas in the swimming pools the presence of up to 1.5 mg/l was not a constraint. Based on our results, the presence of mycobacteria in aquatic environments is close to 35% and their occurrence and diversity is affected both by contact with man and his activities as well as by the existence of animal life.


Subject(s)
Water Microbiology , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/isolation & purification , Argentina , Rain/microbiology , Species Specificity , Swimming Pools , Water Supply , Groundwater/microbiology , Sanitary Engineering , Urban Health , Cities , Biofilms , Biodiversity , Wetlands , Halogenation , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/classification
13.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 71(2): e353, mayo.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093556

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Aedes aegypti (L) (Diptera: Culicidae), es una especie cosmopolita y vector de arbovirosis. Las variaciones de la temperatura y salinidad del agua influyen en la eclosión y supervivencia de fases larvales. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de diferentes temperaturas y salinidades en la eclosión de huevos y la supervivencia de larvas, pupas y adultos bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Métodos: Se colectaron larvas de Ae. aegypti, de reservorios artificiales en la zona periurbana de Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México, y se mantuvieron hasta la fase adulta. Los huevos obtenidos se sometieron a ocho temperaturas (15, 17, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32 y 35 °C). Se colocaron 15 huevos por quintuplicado y se evaluó la eclosión durante 96 h. Se colocaron 100 huevos con agua ajustada a 0.3, 2, 5, 10, 15,18 y 22 ups y se evaluó la eclosión hasta las 96 h. Adicionalmente se utilizaron larvas del estadio IV, por quintuplicado, sometiéndose a las mismas salinidades y se evaluó la supervivencia hasta las 48 h. El efecto de la salinidad en la ovoposición de las hembras se llevó a cabo introduciendo recipientes con las mismas concentraciones salinas, dentro en las jaulas entomológicas. Resultados: Se registró el 100 por ciento de eclosión a las 24 y 48 h; la temperatura de 35° C no registró eclosión. Las salinidades de 22 y 18 ups, provocaron mortalidad del 100 por ciento a las 24 h. En la salinidad de 15 ups, sobrevivió el 50 por ciento. Las concentraciones de 2, 5 y 10 ups demostraron 100 por ciento de supervivencia hasta la fase de adulto. La supervivencia de larvas del estadio IV en los tratamientos 2, 5 y 10 fue del 100 por ciento y en 15,18 y 22 ups disminuyó a 50, 80 y 100 por ciento, respectivamente (p˂ 0,05). Las diferentes concentraciones salinas no afectaron significativamente la ovoposición. La eclosión solo se presentó en las concentraciones de 0,3; 2; 5 y 10 ups. Los huevos ovopositados en concentraciones de 15, 18 y 22 ups no eclosionaron hasta que fueron transferidos a agua dulce con porcentajes de eclosión de entre el 80 y 90 por ciento. Conclusiones: Los embriones de Ae. aegypti poseen una amplia plasticidad para soportar cambios drásticos de temperatura y salinidad. El control efectivo de sus poblaciones debe incluir la revisión de charcas o reservorios que contengan aguas salobres hasta 18 ups(AU)


Introduction: Aedes aegypti (L) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a cosmopolitan species and a vector of arboviruses. Variations in the temperature and salinity of the water affect eclosion and survival during the larval stages. Objective: Evaluate the effect of different temperatures and salinities on the eclosion of eggs and the survival of larvae, pupae and adults in laboratory conditions. Methods: Ae. aegypti larvae were collected from artificial reservoirs in a peri-urban area of Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico, and maintained until the adult stage. The eggs obtained were subjected to eight temperatures (15, 17, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32 and 35 °C). Fifteen eggs were placed in quintuplicate and eclosion was evaluated for 96 h. One hundred eggs were placed with water adjusted to 0.3, 2, 5, 10, 15, 18 and 22 psu and eclosion was evaluated until 96 h. Additionally, stage IV larvae were used in quintuplicate, subjecting them to the same salinities and evaluating survival until 48 h. The effect of salinity on oviposition by females was determined by introducing containers with the same salinity into the entomological cages. Results: 100 percent eclosion was recorded at 24 and 48 h, whereas no eclosion occurred at a temperature of 35 °C. Salinities of 22 and 18 psu caused 100 percent mortality at 24 h, whereas 50 percent survived at a salinity of 15 psu. At concentrations of 2, 5 and 10 psu 100 percent of the larvae survived until the adult stage. Survival of stage IV larvae in treatments 2, 5 and 10 was 100%, whereas in 15, 18 and 22 psu it fell to 50, 80 and 100 percent, respectively (p˂ 0.05). The different salinities did not affect oviposition significantly. Eclosion only occurred at concentrations of 0.3, 2, 5 and 10 psu. Oviposited eggs at concentrations of 15, 18 and 22 psu did not eclose until they were transferred to fresh water, where eclosion percentages ranged between 80 percent and 90 percent. Conclusions: Ae. aegypti embryos have great plasticity to endure drastic changes in temperature and salinity. Effective control of their populations should include inspection of ponds and reservoirs containing brackish water of up to 18 psu(AU)


Subject(s)
Temperature , Water Microbiology , Aedes/growth & development , Larva/microbiology , Salinity , Mosquito Vectors/immunology , Survivorship
14.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.1): 135-149, mayo 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011462

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The use of antibiotics in humans, animal husbandry and veterinary activities induces selective pressure leading to the colonization and infection by resistant strains. Objective: We evaluated water samples collected from rivers of the Guanabara Bay, which have suffered minor and major environmental degradation, and clinical samples of hospital origin to detect evidence of the presence of resistance genes to aminoglycosides, beta-lactam antibiotics and fluoroquinolones in strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae and Escherichia coli. Materials and methods: For isolation of the water strains we employed culture media containing 32 μg/ml cephalotin and 8 μg/ml gentamicin. The strains from clinical materials were selected using culture media containing 8 μg/ml gentamicin. The strains were identified and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), plasmid DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect genes encoding enzymes modifying aminoglycosides (EMA), extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmid mechanisms of quinolone resistance (PMQR). Results: The AST of the isolates recovered from water samples showed multidrug-resistance profiles similar to those found in isolates recovered from clinical materials. All isolates from water samples and 90% of the isolates from clinical samples showed at least one plasmid band. In the PCR assays, 7.4% of the isolates recovered from water samples and 20% of those from clinical materials showed amplification products for the three antimicrobial classes. Conclusion: We believe that the detection of microorganisms presenting genetic elements in environments such as water is necessary for the prevention and control of their dissemination with potential to infect humans and other animals in eventual contact with these environments.


Resumen Introducción. El uso de antibióticos en seres humanos, en la industria pecuaria y en las actividades veterinarias induce una presión selectiva que resulta en la colonización e infección con cepas resistentes. Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de genes de resistencia a aminoglucósidos, betalactámicos y fluoroquinolonas en cepas de Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae y Escherichia coli, obtenidas de muestras de agua de los ríos que desembocan en la bahía de Guanabara y de muestras clínicas de hospitales de Río de Janeiro. Materiales y métodos. En la selección de las cepas resistentes obtenidas de las muestras de agua de los ríos, se emplearon medios de cultivo que contenían 32 μg/ml de cefalotina y 8 μg/ ml de gentamicina. En el caso de las muestras de especímenes clínicos, se usaron medios de cultivo que contenían 8 μg/ml de gentamicina. Las cepas se identificaron y se sometieron a pruebas de sensibilidad antimicrobiana, extracción de ADN plasmídico y pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) para detectar los genes que codifican aquellas enzimas que modifican los aminoglucósidos, las betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) y los mecanismos de resistencia a las quinolonas mediados por plásmidos. Resultados. Se encontraron perfiles de resistencia a los antimicrobianos similares en los dos grupos. En todas las bacterias obtenidas de las muestras de agua y en 90 % de las muestras clínicas, se evidenciaron bandas de plásmidos asociados con la transferencia de genes de resistencia. En las pruebas de PCR, se obtuvieron productos de amplificación de los genes de resistencia para las tres clases de antimicrobianos analizados, en el 7,4 % de las bacterias recuperadas de las muestras de agua y en el 20 % de aquellas recuperadas de las muestras clínicas. Conclusión. La detección de microorganismos con elementos genéticos que confieren resistencia a los antibióticos en ambientes como el agua, es una estrategia necesaria para prevenir y controlar la diseminación de estos agentes patógenos con potencial para infectar a humanos y a otros animales en dichos ambientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Water Microbiology , Bays/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Rivers/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Genes, Bacterial , Plasmids/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/physiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Water Pollution , Hospitals, Urban , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Colony Count, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Medical Waste
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(2): 126-138, abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003663

ABSTRACT

Resumen El ambiente hospitalario es una fuente potencial de exposición a patógenos como bacterias, hongos y parásitos, que pueden provocar infecciones en pacientes con cáncer incluyendo receptores de trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos. Para aminorar este riesgo, se deben tener en cuenta los elementos de diseño, construcción y emplazamiento del área de atención de pacientes. Se entregan recomendaciones para proveer ambientes seguros, incluyendo características y uso de ambiente protegido, la definición de procesos críticos, equipos clínicos destinados a la atención de pacientes, sugerencias de ámbitos a supervisar y aspectos relativos a la calidad microbiológica del aire y agua.


The hospital environment is a potential source of exposure to pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and parasites that can cause infections in patients with cancer including transplanted hematopoietic precursors. To mitigate this risk, the design, construction and location elements of the patient care area must be taken into account. Recommendations are given to provide safe environments, including aspects related to characteristics and use of a protected environment, the definition of critical processes, clinical teams dedicated to the care of patients, suggestions of areas to be monitored, the microbiological quality of air and water.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/microbiology , Hospital Design and Construction/methods , Neoplasms/complications , Water Microbiology , Risk Factors , Infection Control/methods , Risk Assessment , Air Microbiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Immunocompetence , Neoplasms/therapy
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(3): 793-804, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-989622

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo es revisar la literatura científica sobre los problemas de salud derivados de la exposición laboral a Legionella spp. Revisión sistemática de la literatura científica recogida en las bases de datos MEDLINE (Pubmed), ISI-Web of Science (Institute for Scientific Information), Cochrane Library Plus, Literatura Latinoamericana de Información en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS) y SCOPUS, hasta febrero 2015. Los descriptores utilizados fueron: "Legionnaires' Disease" "Legionellosis" "Occupational Exposure" "Occupational Diseases". Se obtuvieron 222 referencias, que tras aplicar los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se seleccionaron 13 artículos a texto completo. De ellos 9 artículos describen la aparición de neumonía, 4 Fiebre de Pontiac, 1 legionelosis o presunta legionelosis y 3 muerte. El principal agente causal en los profesionales expuestos fue Legionella pneumophila serogrupo 1. La infección por legionela está ligada a las profesiones donde existe nebulización por agua, principalmente en los trabajadores sometidos a largas exposiciones o incluso a la re-exposición. Los brotes se producen de forma estacional, sobre todo en los meses más cálidos.


Abstract The scope of this paper is to review the available scientific literature about the effects on health of occupational exposure to Legionella spp. A systematic review of the scientific literature retrieved from the MEDLINE (via PubMed), ISI-Web of Science (Institute for Scientific Information), Cochrane Library, LILCAS and SCOPUS databases through February 2015 was conducted. The key words used were ««Legionnaires' Disease¼ «Legionellosis¼ «Occupational Exposure¼ «Occupational Diseases¼. Two hundred and twenty-two references were retrieved of which, after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 13 complete articles were selected. Of these, 9 describe pneumonia, 4 list Pontiac Fever, 1 reveals legionellosis and 3 result in death. The main causative agent of disease in workers exposed was Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Legionella spp infection is closely related to professions where there is nebulization with water, mainly among workers subjected to long exposure or even re-exposure. Outbreaks occurs seasonally, especially in the hottest months.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Legionellosis/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Water Microbiology , Legionella/isolation & purification , Legionnaires' Disease/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Legionella pneumophila/isolation & purification , Occupational Diseases/microbiology
17.
São Paulo; s.n; 2019. 40 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-987523

ABSTRACT

Introdução - A fluoretação da água de abastecimento público tem participação comprovada na redução dos índices de prevalência da cárie dentária, tendo sido considerada uma das dez grandes conquistas da saúde pública do século XX. Para garantir a eficácia preventiva da fluoretação, evitando a fluorose, é indispensável o controle operacional nas estações de tratamento de água, realizado por responsáveis pelo processo de fluoretação da água e o seu monitoramento, que em termos da Vigilância Sanitária, é conhecido como heterocontrole. Objetivos - Quantificar os teores de flúor na água de abastecimento público de Uberlândia-MG no período de nov/2015 a abr /2016 e comparar os valores encontrados com os dados do controle operacional (DMAE) e um laboratório de referência (UNICAMP) para construir um referencial teórico para a cidade. Material e Método - Foram coletadas 126 amostras nos meses avaliados, sendo 18 mensais, 9 para cada ETA (Estação de Tratamento de Água) e mais três pontos de coleta para a região abastecida de ambas as ETA. As amostras foram analisadas pela técnica eletrométrica, inicialmente na Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU) e depois foram encaminhadas para análise no laboratório de referência (UNICAMP). Através do teste Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) os dados foram comparados entre si e também com os dados de controle operacional. Resultados - Foram comparados os dados obtidos nas três análises para o fluoreto (UFU, UNICAMP e DMAE), no mesmo período e nas mesmas estações de tratamento de água. Observou-se diferença estatística entre os laboratórios (p<0.001), entre os momentos avaliados (p<0.001) e também interação entre laboratório e tempo (p<0.001). Somente para o mês de nov/2015 que os laboratórios não apresentaram médias diferentes. O valor médio de fluoreto na água é mais baixo quando avaliado pelo laboratório UFU, apenas no mês de abr/2016 a média ficou abaixo do limite mínimo. Apesar de termos encontrado diferenças entre os laboratórios, a média observada encontra-se de acordo com o recomendado. Conclusão - Os resultados deste estudo permitiram concluir que o flúor está presente na água de abastecimento do município de Uberlândia, apresentando variações mensais entre os pontos de coleta e em um mesmo ponto ao longo do período analisado, mas com teores dentro dos padrões recomendados pelo Centro Colaborador do Ministério da Saúde em Vigilância da Saúde Bucal (CECOL)/Ministério da Saúde quanto a concentração de fluoretos e a população tem sido assistida de forma segura.


Introduction - Fluoridation of public water supply has a proven role in reducing prevalence rates of dental caries, and has been considered one of the ten great public health achievements of the 20th century. To guarantee the preventive effectiveness of fluoridation, avoiding fluorosis, it is indispensable the operational control in the water treatment, carried out by those responsible for the process of water fluoridation and its monitoring, which in terms of Sanitary Surveillance, is known as heterocontrol. Objectives - To analyze the fluoride concentration in the public water supply of Uberlândia-MG from November 2015 to April 2016 and compare the values found with the operational control data (DMAE) and a reference laboratory (UNICAMP) to formulate a theoretical reference for the city. Material and Method - 126 samples were collected in the evaluated months, being 18 monthly, 9 for each ETA. The samples were analyzed by the electrometric technique, initially at the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU) and then sent to the reference laboratory (UNICAMP) for analysis. Through the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) test the data were compared to each other and to the operational control data. Results -. The data obtained in the three analyzes for fluoride (UFU, UNICAMP and DMAE) were compared in the same period and at the same water treatment stations. A statistical difference between the laboratories (p <0.001) was observed between the evaluated moments (p <0.001) and interaction (p <0.001). Only for the month of November / 2015 that the laboratories did not present different averages. The average value of fluoride in water is lower when evaluated by the UFU laboratory, only in the month of April / 2016 the average was below the minimum limit. Although differences were found between laboratories, the mean observed agreed with the recommended one. Conclusion - The results of this study allowed us to conclude that fluoride is present in the water supply in Uberlândia, showing monthly variations between collection points and at the same point throughout the analyzed period, but with levels within the standards recommended by CECOL / Ministry of Health regarding the concentration of fluorides and the population has been safely assisted.


Subject(s)
Water Supply , Fluoridation , Oral Health , Fluorine/analysis , Fresh Water , Water Microbiology , Public Health , Data Collection
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773376

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the molecular characteristics and intracellular growth ability of Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) strains from 1989 to 2016 in Sichuan Province, China.@*METHODS@#Seventy-nine isolates of L. pneumophila were collected from environmental and clinical sources, including cooling towers, hot springs, bath water, fountains, and patients, and identified with 16S rRNA gene analysis and serum agglutination assay. The isolates were then typed by Sequence-Based Typing (SBT), and Genotyping of forty-two LP1 strains were analyzed by means of multiple-locus VNTR analysis with 8 loci (MLVA-8). All strains were further analyzed for two virulence genes: Legionella vir homologue (lvh) and repeats in structural toxin (rtxA). The intracellular growth ability of 33 selected isolates was determined by examining their interaction with J774 cells.@*RESULTS@#All isolates were identified to L. pneumophila including 11 serogroups, among which the main serogroup were LP1, accounting for 54.43%. Thirty-three different sequence types (STs) from five main clonal groups and five singletons were identified, along with 8 different MLVA patterns. Both the lvh and rtxA loci were found in all 79 strains. Thirty isolates showed high intracellular growth ability in J774 cells.@*CONCLUSION@#L. pneumophila is a potential threat to public health, and effective control and prevention strategies are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins , Genetics , Bacterial Toxins , Genetics , China , Genotyping Techniques , Humans , Legionella pneumophila , Genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Genetics , Water Microbiology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Bacterial contamination of drinking water is a major public health problem in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Unimproved water sources are a major reservoir of Escherichia coli (E. coli) causing severe diarrhoea in humans. This study assessed E. coli counts in drinking water from different sources and their relationship with water source protection status and neighbourhood sanitation and hygiene practices in rural villages of Mohale Basin in Lesotho.@*METHODS@#Thirty drinking water sources were purposively sampled and their water analysed for E. coli counts. The types of water sources, their protection status and neighbourhood sanitation and hygiene practices in their proximity were also assessed. E. coli counts in water samples were compared to water source protection status, neighbourhood sanitation, hygiene practices, livestock faeces and latrine proximity to water sources.@*RESULTS@#E. coli counts were found in all water samples and ranged from less than 30 colony-forming units (cfu)/100 ml to 4800 cfu/100 ml in protected sources to 43,500,000 cfu/100 ml in unprotected sources. A significant association between E. coli counts in drinking water samples and lack of water source protection, high prevalence of open defecation (59%, n = 100), unhygienic practices, livestock faeces and latrine detections in proximity to water sources was found in the study (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Water sources in studied villages were contaminated with faeces and posed a health risk to consumers of that water. Community-led sanitation and hygiene education and better water source protection are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Microbiology , Escherichia coli , Feces , Microbiology , Health Behavior , Humans , Hygiene , Lesotho , Rural Health , Sanitation , Methods , Water Microbiology , Water Quality , Water Supply
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190053, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040631

ABSTRACT

A multi-resistant strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was isolated from a tropical estuary in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Genome sequencing was conducted to establish the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance in this organism. The genetic content of this strain revealed it to be a non-virulent lineage that nevertheless possesses several antibiotic resistance determinants.


Subject(s)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus/drug effects , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genetics , Water Microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Genomics
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