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1.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(4): 745-755, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355747

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Enteric viruses have been associated with the production of a variety of diseases transmitted by the fecal-oral route and carried through contaminated food and water. Given their structure and composition, they are highly resistant to environmental conditions and most of the chemical agents used in the purification processes. Therefore, the systematic monitoring of raw water is necessary to ensure its quality especially when it is used for producing drinking water for human consumption. Objective: We identified the presence of rotavirus and hepatitis A virus by means of the fluoro-immuno-magnetic separation technique (FIMS) in raw water taken from four purification plants and their water supplies in the department of Norte de Santander. Materials and methods: The viruses were captured and separated from the water samples using magnetic microparticles functionalized with monoclonal anti-Hepatitis A and anti-Rotavirus antibodies. Confocal microscopy was used to monitor the viral concentration process and transmission electron microscopy for the morphological visualization of the separated viruses. The reverse transcriptase-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to confirm the presence of pathogens. Results: The two enteric viruses were identified in the majority of the analyzed water samples including water supply sources. Conclusion: We determined that the FIMS technique together with RT-PCR is highly effective for the detection of viral pathogens in complex matrices such as raw water.


Resumen | Introducción. Los virus entéricos se asocian con una serie de enfermedades transmitidas por vía fecal-oral en alimentos o agua contaminada. Dada su estructura y composición, son muy resistentes a las condiciones ambientales y a la mayoría de los agentes químicos empleados en los procesos de potabilización, por lo cual es necesario un monitoreo sistemático del agua cruda para asegurar su calidad, máxime cuando se emplea como materia prima en la producción de agua potable para consumo humano. Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de rotavirus y del virus de la hepatitis A mediante la técnica de separación fluoro-inmuno-magnética en agua cruda procedente de cuatro plantas de potabilización y sus fuentes hídricas en el departamento de Norte de Santander. Materiales y métodos. Los virus fueron capturados y separados a partir de las muestras de agua, empleando micropartículas magnéticas funcionalizadas con anticuerpos monoclonales anti-hepatitis A y anti-rotavirus. Se empleó microscopía confocal para hacer el seguimiento del proceso de concentración viral y, microscopía electrónica de transmisión, para la visualización morfológica de los virus separados. La reacción en cadena de la polimerasa acoplada a transcriptasa inversa (RT-PCR) se utilizó para confirmar la presencia de los patógenos. Resultados. Los dos virus entéricos se detectaron en la mayoría de las muestras de agua analizadas, incluidas las de sus fuentes hídricas. Conclusión. La técnica de separación fluoro-inmuno-magnética acoplada a RT-PCR fue altamente efectiva en la detección de patógenos virales en matrices complejas como el agua cruda.


Subject(s)
Rotavirus Infections , Raw Water , Magnetic Segregation , Water Purification , Hepatitis A , Antibodies
2.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 204 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362253

ABSTRACT

O Programa Córrego Limpo é parte de um conjunto de políticas públicas que buscam despoluir os principais rios da cidade de São Paulo através da recuperação de seus afluentes. O programa atua no controle de cargas pontuais, e adota parceria com as lideranças locais das bacias. O objetivo deste estudo é identificar os principais conflitos socioambientais na manutenção da limpeza do córrego Tenente Rocha. O curso d'água em questão está localizado na Zona Norte de São Paulo e tem sido beneficiado pelas ações do Programa Córrego Limpo desde o ano de 2007. Desenvolveu-se uma pesquisa exploratória de caráter quali e quantitativo, focando o envolvimento social na gestão da qualidade de cursos d'água urbanos, mediante aplicação de entrevistas estruturadas aos moradores do entorno do córrego. A análise da qualidade das águas, através do parâmetro Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigênio, apontou uma redução nos índices de carga orgânica após as ações iniciais de intervenção na bacia do córrego, mantendo-se em valores abaixo de 30 mg/L na média. Em contraponto, fatores associados à reincidência de cargas pontuais e difusas tem causado alterações significativas na qualidade das águas. Na opinião de 95% dos residentes, o curso d'água em questão encontra-se poluído, o que causa o afastamento dos moradores da linha d'água. Concluiu-se que a comunicação e o compartilhamento das informações entre os residentes e as instituições gestoras exercem papel relevante, porém não são os únicos fatores que limitam os resultados no processo de despoluição do córrego Tenente Rocha.


The Clean Stream Program is part of a set of public policies that seek to clean up the main rivers in the city of São Paulo through the recovery of their tributaries. The program acts in the control of punctual loads, and adopts a partnership with local leaders of the basins. The aim of this study is to identify the main social-environmental conflicts in maintaining the cleanliness of the Tenente Rocha stream. The refered stream water is located in the north of São Paulo, and has been benefited from the actions of the Clean Stream Program since 2007. An exploratory qualitative and quantitative research was developed, focusing on social involvement in the quality management of urban watercourses, through the application of a structured choice to the inhabitants of the surroundings of the stream. The analysis of water quality, through the Biochemical Oxygen Demand parameter, showed a reduction in the organic load indices after the initial intervention actions in the stream basin, remaining at values below 30 mg/L on average. In contrast, factors associated with the recurrence of punctual and diffuse loads have caused significant changes in water quality. In the opinion of 95% of residents, the watercourse in question is polluted, which causes the residents to stay away from the waterline. It was concluded that communication and information sharing between residents and management institutions play a relevant role, but they are not the only factors that limit the results of the depollution process of the Tenente Rocha stream.


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Water Quality , Water Purification , Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
3.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 156 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369063

ABSTRACT

Os sistemas de tratamento de esgotos sanitários no Brasil possuem, em geral, algumas deficiências em termos de remoção de contaminantes, principalmente nutrientes e compostos orgânicos sintéticos introduzidos no meio ambiente pelo ser humano. Um dos tipos de contaminantes emergentes mais comuns em esgotos sanitários são os fármacos, que as tecnologias de tratamento biológico não são projetadas para a remoção de tais compostos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar a eficiência da remoção de fármacos e cafeína em estações de tratamento de esgoto existentes (lagoas de estabilização e lodos ativados), em diferentes pontos do processo, além da inclusão de sistemas pilotos de membranas de ultrafiltração, nanofiltração e osmose reversa, como etapa de polimento. Neste sentido, o uso de membranas teve o objetivo de elevar a eficiência de remoção de diferentes compostos. Usando a técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência acoplada à espectrometria de massas (LC-MS/MS) foi possível estabelecer uma metodologia de análise de fármacos com limites de quantificação baixos de até 0,1 ppb. Dentre os fármacos de interesse, o clonazepam e a sinvastatina não foram identificados em nenhum ponto de amostragem. O paracetamol, cafeína e ibuprofeno foram encontrados no esgoto afluente, sendo completamente removidos pelo tratamento biológico, tanto nas lagoas, como no sistema de lodos ativados. Já a carbamazepina, fármaco reconhecidamente recalcitrante, não foi removida em nenhuma ETE, sendo o sistema de membranas com osmose reversa uma etapa importante para sua remoção. O atenolol apresentou comportamento diferente, com remoção elevada no sistema de lagoas e baixa remoção no sistemas de lodos ativados. Neste sentido, a membrana de nanofiltração demonstrou ser uma importante barreira para evitar contaminação de corpos d'água por esse fármaco. Por fim, a análise econômica indicou que a nanofiltração possui um custo operacional menor que a osmose reversa, contudo com menores níveis de remoção de fármacos e outros contaminantes.


The sanitary sewage treatment systems in Brazil have, in general, some deficiencies in terms of removal of contaminants, mainly nutrients and synthetic organic compounds introduced into the environment by humans. One of the most common types of emerging contaminants in sewage are pharmaceuticals, which biological treatment technologies are not designed to remove such compounds. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of pharmaceuticals and caffeine removal in existing sewage treatment plants (stabilization ponds and activated sludge), at different points in the process, in addition to the inclusion of membrane pilot systems of ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis, as a polishing step. In this sense, the use of membranes aimed to increase the removal efficiency of different compounds. Using the technique of high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) it was possible to establish a methodology for pharmaceuticals analysis with low quantification limit of up to 0.1 ppb. Among the drugs of interest, clonazepam and simvastatin were not identified at any sampling point. Paracetamol, caffeine and ibuprofen were found in the raw sewage, being completely removed by biological treatment, both in stabilization ponds and activated sludge system. Carbamazepine, a known recalcitrant pharmaceuticals, was not removed in any WWTP, and the reverse osmosis membrane system was an important step for its removal. Atenolol had a different behavior, with high removal in the stabilization pond system and low removal in activated sludge system. In this sense, the nanofiltration membrane proved to be an important barrier to prevent contamination of water bodies by this compound. Finally, the economic analysis indicated that nanofiltration has a lower operational cost than reverse osmosis, however with lower levels of pharmaceuticals and other compounds removal.


Subject(s)
Stabilization Ponds , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Activated Sludges , Water Purification , Membranes
4.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 109 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362004

ABSTRACT

A tecnologia de nanobolhas é capaz de transformar uma simples gota em milhões de pequenas bolhas, com isso, aumentando a superfície de contato e resultando na destruição de contaminantes por meio de uma rápida reação química. O sistema de nanobolhas, quando aplicado, tem grande poder de penetração, agindo rapidamente sobre a contaminação de solos ou da água graças ao seu minúsculo tamanho e à sua enorme superfície de contato. O objetivo geral do presente trabalho foi o de estudar e analisar a redução do odor após a aplicação da tecnologia das nanobolhas em um canal do rio Pinheiros. Dentre os objetivos específicos, destacaram-se a análise da eficiência do sistema de NB na remoção de odor e os benefícios secundários da aplicação dessa tecnologia e seu potencial tecnológico. A iniciativa de estudar o processo de nanobolhas é atribuída, principalmente, a importantes peculiaridades nas suas propriedades físicas, químicas e físico-químicas, bem como ao potencial tecnológico de utilização nas mais distintas áreas, entre as quais se incluem a flotação avançada de poluentes aquosos e aplicações na medicina, na limpeza de superfícies, na indústria da mineração, em sistemas de geração de energia, na agricultura, na aceleração do metabolismo em espécies animais e vegetais, entre outras práticas. Os métodos de geração, caracterização e aplicações das nanobolhas se constituem em áreas de pesquisas emergentes e em acelerado crescimento, especialmente nas últimas duas décadas. Os resultados obtidos com esta linha de pesquisa contribuirão para estudos que busquem uma tecnologia adicional às já estudadas e testadas para a limpeza do rio Pinheiros, pois a utilização dessa tecnologia, nos testes realizados no canal do rio Pinheiros, mostrou resultados bastante promissores, apresentando facilidades operacionais e controle dos parâmetros que influenciam na geração de gases odoríferos com baixo custo, quando comparado com o das tecnologias convencionais utilizando apenas energia, e não produtos químicos e sem geração de lodo. Mediante a aplicação da tecnologia de nanobolhas em águas poluídas, foi analisado o potencial dessas bolhas para reduzir odores, assim como a viabilização de uma diferente rota de tratamento de águas superficiais poluídas para sistemas com altas vazões, velocidades e altas concentrações de sólidos.


Nanobubbles (NB) technology can transform a single drop into millions of small bubbles, increasing the contact surface and resulting in the destruction of contaminants through a fast-chemical reaction. Due to nanobubbles tiny size, the nanobubble system has a great penetrating power and its huge contact surface acts quickly on soil or water contamination. The general objective of the present work will be to study and to analyze the smell reduction after the application of nanobubble technology in a channel of the Pinheiro River. Among the specific objectives, we would like to highlight the NB system efficiency analysis related to smell removal, as well as the secondary benefits of applying this technology and its technological potential. The initiative to study the nanobubble process is mainly attributed to important peculiarities in its physical, chemical and physicochemical properties, as well as related to the technological potential of its use in different areas, including aqueous pollutants advanced flotation, applications in medicine, surface cleaning, in the mining industry, in energy generation systems, in agriculture, in the acceleration of metabolism in animal and plant species, among others. The methods of generation, characterization, and application of nanobubbles have emerged and is growing rapidly in the research areas, mainly in the last two decades. The results obtained with this study will contribute with researchers that seek additional technologies, among those already been studied, to be tested for cleaning the Pinheiros River. The use of this technology has already been tested in the Pinheiros River Channel, showing very promising results, presenting operational facilities and control of parameters that influence the generation of odoriferous gases with low cost when compared to conventional technologies based only on energy, without the use of chemicals and without generating sludge. Through the application of nanobubble technology in polluted water, the potential of these bubbles to reduce smell will be analyzed to enable a different route of polluted surface water treatment for systems with high flow rates and high concentrations of solids.


Subject(s)
Surface Waters , Water Purification , Odorants/prevention & control , Environment and Public Health
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878538

ABSTRACT

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bioelectrochemical device, that enables simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy generation. However, a few issues such as low output power, high ohmic internal resistance, and long start-up time greatly limit MFCs' applications. MFC anode is the carrier of microbial attachment, and plays a key role in the generation and transmission of electrons. High-quality bioelectrodes have developed into an effective way to improve MFC performance. Conjugated polymers have advantages of low cost, high conductivity, chemical stability and good biocompatibility. The use of conjugated polymers to modify bioelectrodes can achieve a large specific surface area and shorten the charge transfer path, thereby achieving efficient biological electrochemical performance. In addition, bacteria can be coated with nano-scale conjugated polymer and effectively transfer the electrons generated by cells to electrodes. This article reviews the recently reported applications of conjugated polymers in microbial fuel cells, focusing on the MFC anode materials modified by conjugated polymers. This review also systematically analyzes the advantages and limitations of conjugated polymers, and how these composite hybrid bioelectrodes solve practical issues such as low energy output, high inner resistance, and long starting time.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Bioelectric Energy Sources , Electricity , Electrodes , Polymers , Water Purification
7.
Guatemala; MSPAS, UNICEF y Suecia Sverige; 2020. 44 p. graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1151494

ABSTRACT

…dirigido a trabajadores de salud, trabajadores de otras organizaciones comunitarias, voluntarios, líderes y lideresas comunitarios a nivel nacional, con el fin de facilitarles algunas herramientas para su trabajo por la prevención de la propagación del Coronavirus (COVID-19). Por ello, se dan recomendaciones y sugerencias para poder acercarse a las comunidades y ayudarlas. Entre las recomendaciones y/o estrategias, está la de buscar a líderes o personas de confianza de cada comunidad. Aborda el tema de los mitos y rumores sobre las enfermedades, especialmente el COVID-19 Identificar los mitos o rumores de la comunidad a la que se acercan. Especialmente promueve la interacción con la comunidad, instándola a participar activamente. Enfatiza especialmente la utilidad de las radios comunitarias como canales de comunicación segura y efectiva. Propone como medio alterno y en sectores donde se sabe que hay una buena cantidad de celulares, mensajes de texto con información relevante; habla además de las ventajas de la radio como medio de información. En palabras sencillas y con comics, explica qué es el virus del COVID-19


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Communication , Community Participation/psychology , Culturally Competent Care/organization & administration , Health Behavior , Water Purification/methods , Emotions/classification , Pandemics/prevention & control , Guatemala , House Calls/trends
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180384, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132205

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study assessed the performance of two pilot units, a conventional activated sludge (CAS) and an Integrated Fixed-Film Activated Sludge (IAS), in the treatment of leachate from sanitary landfill combined with domestic sewage, with the aim of removing organic substances. In order to assess the possible impacts on treatment, three experimental phases were designed using influent leachate contributions of 5%, 10%, and 20% of the total BOD load. Overall, the results showed that no significant changes in the behavior of biological processes. The IAS unit presented average BOD removal efficiencies of above 88%, 87% and 80% for the three leachate load contributions of 5%, 10% and 20% studied. The CAS unit presented lower average efficiency with a 5% leachate contribution (64%), but displayed a similar performance to the IAS unit in the other phases (82% and 80%); similar quantitative aspects were observed for both treatment processes with regards to biomass composition analysis. The kinetic coefficients related to heterotrophic metabolism did not indicate negative effects on treatment efficiency as a result of the increase in leachate addition, with values of 2.8; 2.8 and 2.7 d-1 obtained respectively for each phase with the CAS unit, and 2.0; 1.5 and 1.6 d-1 with the IAS unit, representing similar values to those found in the literature (1.5 a 5.0 d-1). The results reinforced the conclusion that the leachate load introduced did not cause inhibition or significant alterations to heterotrophic metabolism, and, therefore, to the removal of organic matter.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism , Percolating Liquid , Activated Sludges , Water Purification/methods , Biomass , Pilot Projects , Bioreactors , Heterotrophic Bacteria , Organic Matter
9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180130, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132195

ABSTRACT

Abstract Color removal from textile effluents was evaluated using a laboratory-combined process based on an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by a shallow polishing pond (SPP). The anaerobic reactor was fed with a real textile effluent, diluted 10-times in a 350 mg/L solution of pre-treated residual yeast extract from a brewery industry as nutrient source. The parameters color, COD, N-NH3 and toxicity were monitored throughout 45 days of operation. According to the results, decolorization and COD removal were highest in the anaerobic step, whereas the effluent was polished in the SPP unit. The overall efficiency of the complete UASB-SPP system for COD and color were 88 and 62%, respectively. Moreover, the N-NH3 generated by the residual yeast extract ammonification was below 5 mg/L for the final effluent. Finally, no toxicity was detected after the treatment steps, as shown by the Vibrio fischeri microscale assay.


Subject(s)
Animals , Textiles/toxicity , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods , Water Purification/methods , Yeasts , Toxicity Tests , Bioreactors , Aliivibrio fischeri , Anaerobiosis
10.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 211 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146506

ABSTRACT

Com um intenso consumo, e graças ao surgimento de novas técnicas analíticas, a presença de fármacos e cafeína tem sido detectada em meios aquáticos por todo o mundo, mesmo que em baixas concentrações. No entanto, os impactos que podem ocasionar à saúde e ao ambiente ainda não são bem compreendidos. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença dos fármacos atenolol, carbamazepina, clonazepam, fluoxetina, haloperidol, ibuprofeno, paracetamol, sinvastatina e venlafaxina e da cafeína em água bruta e tratada por uma estação de tratamento convencional, caracterizar as águas de acordo com as características físico-químicas e microbiológicas e verificar as conformidades com os padrões legais, e avaliar os impactos dos compostos detectados nas amostras para o ambiente aquático. As análises foram realizadas por cromatografia líquida acoplada à espectrometria de massas sequencial. As coletas das amostras foram realizadas nos períodos chuvoso e seco. As características físico-químicas analisadas foram cor aparente, turbidez, condutividade e pH. Para a caracterização microbiológica foram quantificados os coliformes totais e Escherichia coli. O impacto dos contaminantes foi avaliado com base em teste de toxicidade aguda, pela coleta de dados na literatura cientifica acerca dos efeitos subletais para organismos aquáticos e pela avaliação de risco, realizada de acordo com o cálculo do quociente de risco. O método analítico mostrou-se adequado em suas figuras de mérito para a análise dos contaminantes. A carbamazepina, a fluoxetina, a venlafaxina e a cafeína, presentes na água bruta foram removidas pelo tratamento da água. As características físico-químicas e microbiológicas da água bruta e da tratada enquadraram-se nos valores estabelecidos pela Resolução Conama nº 357 e pela Portaria de Consolidação nº 5, respectivamente. Os compostos identificados neste estudo podem ocasionar danos a organismos não-alvos e risco ao ambiente aquático.


With an intense consumption, and thanks to the emergence of new analytical techniques, the presence of pharmaceuticals and caffeine has been detected in aquatic environments all over the world, even in low concentrations. However, the impacts they can have on health and the environment are still not well understood. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the presence of the pharmaceuticals atenolol, carbamazepine, clonazepam, fluoxetine, haloperidol, ibuprofen, paracetamol, simvastatin and venlafaxine and caffeine in raw water and treated by a conventional treatment plant, to characterize the waters according to the physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics and check the compliance with legal standards, and evaluate the impacts of the compounds detected in the samples for the aquatic environment. The analyses were performed by liquid chromatography coupled with sequential mass spectrometry. Sample collections were carried out in the rainy and dry periods. The physical-chemical characteristics analyzed were apparent color, turbidity, conductivity and pH. For microbiological characterization, total coliforms and Escherichia coli were quantified. The impact of contaminants was assessed based on an acute toxicity test, by collecting data in the scientific literature on sublethal effects for aquatic organisms and by assessing risk, carried out according to the calculation of the risk quotient. The analytical method proved to be adequate in its figures of merit for the analysis of contaminants. Carbamazepine, fluoxetine, venlafaxine and caffeine, present in raw water, were removed by water treatment. The physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics of raw and treated water were in line with the values established by Conama Resolution nº 357 and Consolidation Ordinance nº 5, respectively. The compounds identified in this study can cause damage to non-target organisms and risk to the aquatic environment.


Subject(s)
Water Supply , Caffeine , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Water , Aquatic Environment , Escherichia coli , Environmental Health , Water Purification
11.
Saúde Soc ; 29(1): e180824, 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059002

ABSTRACT

Resumo A escassez de água em metrópoles brasileiras tem se agravado em função das características de seu próprio desenvolvimento. A expansão urbana desordenada e próxima a mananciais, junto com a falta de infraestrutura para estes novos núcleos habitacionais, tem favorecido a degradação dos mananciais utilizados para abastecimento público. Em razão disto, a população fica mais suscetível às doenças de veiculação hídrica. Independentemente dos tipos de contaminantes presentes na água, busca-se aprimorar as tecnologias tradicionalmente empregadas nos processos de tratamento hídrico a fim de garantir uma água segura para o abastecimento da população, sem considerar as inovações tecnológicas neste setor. Assim, o presente estudo busca evidenciar a necessidade de melhorar as ações de tratamento de água e esgotos realizadas atualmente no país, em função dos riscos associados à saúde pública. Busca-se também analisar o reúso potável direto e como esta prática pode ser uma solução para promover uma água de qualidade e suprir a demanda de grandes centros urbanos em situação de escassez hídrica.


Abstract Water scarcity in Brazilian metropolises has been aggravated by the characteristics of their very development. The disordered urban expansion near fountainheads and the lack of infrastructure for new housing units has contributed to the degradation of water sources used for public supply. This causes the population to be more susceptible to waterborne diseases. Regardless of the various types of contaminants present in the water, the improvement of traditional technologies used in the water treatment process and wastewater treatment is sought after to promote safe water supply to the population, without considering technological innovations on the sector. This study aims to demonstrate the ineffectiveness of treatment processes currently used in Brazil and the risks to public health. We also analyze the direct potable reuse and how this practice can be a solution to promote water quality and meet the demand of large urban centers in situations of water scarcity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Urbanization , Water Supply , Biodegradation, Environmental , Water Purification , Wastewater Use , Public Health , Inventions
12.
Porto Alegre; s.n; 2020. 92 p. mapas, ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-RS | ID: biblio-1147142

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho tem como objetivo estimar o volume de esgoto gerado no RS em Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigênio (DBO kg/dia), e o volume de esgoto (DBO kg/dia) que chega até as estações de tratamento de esgoto ETEs; diagnosticar a eficiência das estações de tratamento de esgotoem relação ao percentual de remoção de (DBO kg/dia); correlacionando com a presença de cianobactérias próximas aos pontos de captação de água superficial para consumo humano; analisar se há inativação ou remoção de protozoários no lançamento do efluente ao retornar ao manancial. Como resultado obteve-se o volume total de matéria orgânica lançada nos corpos hídricos por dia estimado no Rio Grande do Sul é 511.769,00 DBO kg/dia no RS. As Estações de Tratamento de Esgoto captam 390.285,45 DBO kg/dia apresentaram resultados de remoção de 145.500,50 DBO kg/dia e de 22.963,21 DBO kg/dia residual; O volume ocioso das ETEs fica em torno de 5.049,89 L/s. O processo de eliminar ou inativar grande quantidade de protozoários presentes no afluente se dá através de etapas terciárias avançadas nas ETEs. Não encontramos no RS no ano 2019 ETEs com esses tipos avançados de tratamento. Sugere-se então que haja um melhor aproveitamento destas estações de tratamento no que se refere à quantidade e qualidade de volume de esgoto tratado e que sejam ampliados estudos para viabilidade de projetos de execução de novas ETEs para os demais municípios que despejam seus esgotos in natura nos mananciais impactando-os.


This work aims to estimate the volume of sewage generated in RS in Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD kg/day), and the volume of sewage (BOD kg/day) that reaches the sewage treatment stations (STS)s; diagnose the efficiency of sewage treatment station in relation to the percentage of removal (BOD kg/day); correlating with the presence of cyanobacteria close to the surface water intake points for human consumption; analyze if there is inactivation or removal of protozoa in the discharge of the effluent when returning to the source. As a result, the total volume of organic matter released into water bodies per day estimated in Rio Grande do Sul is 511,769.00 BOD kg/day in RS. The Sewage Treatment Plants capture 390,285.45 BOD kg/day showed removal results of 145,500.50 BOD kg/day and 22,963.21 BOD kg/day residual; The idle volume of ETEs is around 5,049.89 L/s. The process of eliminating or inactivating a large amount of protozoa present in the tributary takes place through advanced tertiary stages in the STSs. We did not find in RS in the year 2019 STSs with these advanced types of treatment. It is therefore suggested that there is a better use of these treatment plants with regard to the quantity and quality of the volume of treated sewage and that studies for the feasibility of projects for the execution of new STSs be expanded to the other municipalities that dump their raw sewage in water sources impacting them.


Subject(s)
Water Pollutants/analysis , Water Purification/prevention & control , Cyanobacteria/pathogenicity , Environmental Hazards , Health Risk , Correlation of Data , Wastewater Treatment Plants , Investigative Techniques , Basic Sanitation , Environment , Environmental Exposure/prevention & control , Organic Matter/analysis , Health Promotion/methods , Microbiology
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1150-1161, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826863

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to establish a novel technology using microalgae for NO₃⁻ removal from high concentration wastewater and conversion to algal proteins. The effects of cultivation modes and illumination modes on the biomass yield, NO₃⁻ assimilation rate and algal protein yield were first investigated in shaking flasks for mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and subsequently the scale-up verification in 5-L photo fermenter was successfully conducted. Fed-batch cultivation without medium recycling was the best cultivation mode in shaking flask system, in which the highest biomass yield (35.95 g/L), the average NO₃⁻ assimilation rate (2.06 g/(L·d)) and algal protein content (up to 42.44% of dry weight) were achieved. By using a staged increase of light intensity as illumination modes, the specific growth rate of cells could be significantly promoted to the highest (0.65 d⁻¹). After a 128-hour continuous cultivation in a 5-L photo fermenter, the highest biomass yield and the average NO₃⁻ assimilation rate were reached to 66.22 g/L and 4.38 g/(L·d) respectively, with the highest algal protein content at 47.13% of dry weight. Our study could provide a photo fermentation technology of microalgae for highly efficient treatment of waste industrial nitric acid and/or high concentration nitrate wastewater. This microalgae-based bioconversion process could coproduce protein-rich microalgal biomass, which facilitates the resource utilization of these type wastewater by trash-to-treasure conversion.


Subject(s)
Algal Proteins , Biomass , Chlorella , Nitrates , Metabolism , Nitrogen , Metabolism , Waste Water , Chemistry , Water Purification , Methods
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Improved water sources are not equally available in all geographical regions. Populations dependent on unsafe water sources are recommended to treat their water at point-of-use using adequate methods to reduce associated health problems. In Ethiopia, the spatial distribution of households using unimproved water sources have been incomplete or ignored in most of the studies. Moreover, evidence on the point-of-use water treatment practice of households dependent on such water sources is scarce. Therefore, the current study is intended to analyze the spatial distribution of unimproved water sources by wealth quintiles at country level and point-of-use treatment (POU) practices using nationally representative data.@*METHOD@#The data of 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) conducted on 16650 households from 643 clusters were used for the analysis. For spatial analysis, the raw and spatially smoothed coverage data was joined to the geographic coordinates based on EDHS cluster identification code. Global spatial autocorrelation was performed to analyze whether the pattern of unimproved water coverage is clustered, dispersed, or random across the study areas. Once a positive global autocorrelation was confirmed, a local spatial autocorrelation analysis was applied to detect local clusters. The POU water treatment is analyzed based on reported use of either boiling, chlorine (bleach), filtration, or solar disinfection (SODIS).@*RESULTS@#There were 5005 households using unimproved water sources for drinking purposes. Spatial variation of unimproved water coverage was observed with high coverage observed at Amhara, Afar, Southern Nations Nationalities and People and Somalia regions. Disparity in unimproved water coverage between wealth quintiles was also observed. The reported point-of-use water treatment practice among these households is only 6.24%. The odds of POU water treatment among household heads with higher education status is 2.5 times higher (95% CI = 1.43-4.36) compared to those who did not attend education.@*CONCLUSION@#An apparent clustering trend with high unimproved water coverage was observed between regions and among wealth quintiles hence indicates priority areas for future resource allocation and the need for regional and national policies to address the issue. Promoting households to treat water prior to drinking is essential to reduce health problems.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water/analysis , Ethiopia , Socioeconomic Factors , Spatial Analysis , Water Purification/methods , Water Supply/statistics & numerical data
15.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(4): 461-469, Jul.-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099322

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Monitorear el consumo de drogas a través de la medición de sus metabolitos en aguas residuales. Material y métodos: Se obtuvieron muestras de 31 plantas de tratamiento de agua residual y de 95 sitios con poblaciones específicas (38 escuelas, 42 unidades de tratamiento de adicciones y 15 centros de readaptación social). Usando cromatografía líquida de ultra-alta resolución, se midieron nueve metabolitos de seis drogas. Resultados: Ocho de nueve metabolitos de drogas fueron identificados en aguas residuales. Los metabolitos de marihuana (THC-COOH), cocaína (benzoilecgonina) y metanfetamina fueron identificados en escuelas, centros de readaptación social y de tratamiento de adicciones. En Nuevo Laredo, Culiacán y Torreón se encontraron los consumos per cápita más elevados de cocaína, marihuana, anfetamina y metanfetamina. Conclusiones: El monitoreo del uso de drogas a través de aguas residuales es factible en México y podría constituir un sistema de vigilancia para identificar cambios de su consumo en el tiempo.


Abstract: Objective: Monitor drug use through wastewater metabolite measurement. Materials and methods: Wastewater samples were obtained from 31 wastewater treatment plants and 95 sites with specific populations (38 schools, 42 units of addiction treatment and 15 penitentiaries). Using ultra high liquid chromatography, we measured nine metabolites from six drugs. Results: Eight out of nine drug metabolites were identified in the samples. Marijuana (THC-COOH), cocaine (benzoylecgonine) and methamphetamine were identified in schools, centers of addiction treatment and penitentiaries. Nuevo Laredo, Culiacan and Torreon had the highest consumption of cocaine, marijuana, amphetamine and methamphetamine. Conclusions: Monitoring drug use through wastewater is feasible in Mexico and could constitute a surveillance system to identify changes in the time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Illicit Drugs/analysis , Water Consumption (Environmental Health) , Substance Abuse Detection/methods , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Dronabinol/analysis , Dronabinol/analogs & derivatives , Cannabis/chemistry , Feasibility Studies , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cities/epidemiology , Cocaine/analysis , Cocaine/analogs & derivatives , Community Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Water Purification , Heroin/analysis , Methamphetamine/analysis , Mexico/epidemiology
16.
Saúde Soc ; 28(2): 310-325, abr.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014576

ABSTRACT

Resumo Apesar dos esforços de despoluição desde os anos 1990, não houve percepção, por parte da opinião pública, de que houve evolução do deteriorado quadro social da região da bacia da Baía de Guanabara (RJ). A importância dos indicadores sociais emerge em um momento em que se faz necessário prestar contas à população quanto aos investimentos e resultados obtidos, direcionar as ações às questões sociais e locais em situação de maior urgência e acompanhar os resultados para a identificação de ajustes nas ações para o alcance de melhores resultados. A atual agenda de discussão das questões sociais do entorno da baía configurou a base para a elaboração de um sistema de indicadores sociais. Três bacias hidrográficas em processo de despoluição também foram estudadas, com foco em suas abordagens quanto às questões sociais. Um modelo teórico de indicadores foi elaborado e testado em um recorte da bacia da Baía de Guanabara, por intermédio da utilização de dados públicos disponíveis. O modelo se mostrou ferramenta útil para uma abordagem holística da bacia ao informar sobre o melhor direcionamento de ações de despoluição para resultados mais efetivos em ambas as questões, sociais e ambientais.


Abstract Despite the efforts in the depollution since the 1990s, evolution of the damaged social scenario in the region of the watershed of the Guanabara Bay is not perceived by the public opinion. The importance of social indicators emerges in a moment in which rendering account to the population regarding investiments and results obtained, orienting actions for emergency social and local issues and monitoring results for identification of adjustments to the actions for the achievement of better results is necessary. The current agenda for debating social issues of the region of the bay represented the basis for the creation of a system of social indicators. Three watersheds in depollution process were also studied, focusing on their approaches regarding social issues. A theoretical model of indicators was developed and tested in a draft of the Guanabara Bay watershed, using the public data available. The model proved to be a useful tool for an holistic approach of the bay by providing information on the better orientation of depollution actions for more effective results in both social and environmental issues.


Subject(s)
Hydrographic Basins , Environmental Health , Water Purification , Social Indicators
17.
Saúde Soc ; 28(2): 297-309, abr.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014595

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este artículo pretende analizar la evolución de la mortalidad por enfermedades transmitidas por el agua durante el primer decenio del siglo XXI, por grupos de edades, comparando dos países del cono sur: Argentina y Brasil. Se estiman Años de Esperanza de Vida Perdidos (AEVP) por causa de muerte en base a la técnica descripta por Eduardo Arriaga. Para todas las estimaciones de defunción se utilizan promedios móviles para establecer dos períodos: 2000-2002 y 2009-2011. Se observa una tendencia general a la disminución de la mortalidad por enfermedades relacionadas con el agua, tanto en Argentina como en Brasil, con una velocidad de reducción promedio de los años de vida perdidos cercana al 1% anual. Esta reducción no es uniforme para todas las enfermedades relacionadas a este grupo de causas; de hecho existen causas que aumentan su mortalidad en el período estudiado, aunque en su mayoría se trata de brotes epidémicos. Por otro lado, el grupo de causas analizado impacta más en las edades más vulnerables: los menores de 1 año y los mayores de 50 años. Las intervenciones aisladas que se hacen sobre la higiene del agua, no logran por sí solas alcanzar los niveles de éxito deseado frente a este tipo de afecciones, que dependen de otros factores asociados a las condiciones de salud, la calidad de vida y la educación sanitaria.


Abstract This article aims at analyzing the evolution of mortality from waterborne diseases during the first decade of the 21st century, by age groups, comparing two countries of the southern cone: Argentina and Brazil. The method of years of potential life lost (YPLL) due to death, based on the technique described by Eduardo Arriaga, was used. For all death estimates, moving averages are used to establish two periods: 2000-2002 and 2009-2011. There is a general trend towards a reduction in mortality because of water-related diseases, both in Argentina and Brazil, with an average reduction rate of years of life lost close to 1% per year. This reduction is not uniform for all diseases related to this group of causes; in fact, there are causes that increase their mortality in the period studied, although most are epidemic outbreaks. On the other hand, the group of causes analyzed impacts more on the most vulnerable ages: those under 1 year old and those over 50 years old. The isolated interventions made on the hygiene of the water do not reach the levels of desired success by themselves considering this type of affections, that depend on other factors associated to the health conditions, the quality of life and the health education.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Water Quality Control , Health Education , Disease Outbreaks , Mortality , Water Purification , Waterborne Diseases
18.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(6): e00250118, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011688

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Dados de saneamento para 2008 indicavam que 74,4% dos municípios com mais de 50 mil habitantes recebiam água fluoretada, entretanto, critérios para a validação desta informação não foram adotados. O estudo objetivou verificar a acurácia da informação sobre a fluoretação da água, tomando-se por referência dados de vigilância da água em municípios com mais de 50 mil habitantes no ano de 2008 e no período de 2010-2015. Dados de diferentes fontes foram empregados comparando-se as informações relativas ao período. Amostras da água foram coletadas e a concentração de fluoreto foi obtida pelo método eletrométrico. O processo de verificação ocorreu pela confrontação dos dados obtidos por diferentes fontes. Seiscentos e um municípios (97,9%) tiveram os dados confrontados. A taxa de municípios que realizam vigilância com base no heterocontrole passou de 39,4% para 48,5%. Observou-se elevada taxa de falsos positivos ou negativos (15,1%) em relação aos dados de 2008. A cobertura municipal foi de 70,2%, 4,2 pontos abaixo da estimativa (74,4%) divulgada para 2008. Registros da prática da vigilância foram observados em 54,3% dos municípios fluoretados, cuja cobertura populacional alcança 50% ou mais da população que recebe água tratada. Houve sensível melhoria nos dados de vigilância em relação ao fluoreto, embora com porcentual importante de falsos positivos e negativos. Ainda são largas as diferenças inter-regionais relacionadas tanto à provisão da fluoretação da água quanto à implementação da vigilância nos municípios pesquisados, trazendo importantes desafios para a saúde pública.


Abstract: Sanitation data for 2008 indicated that 74.4% of Brazilian municipalities (counties) with more than 50,000 inhabitants were receiving fluoridated water, but no criteria were adopted to validate the information. The study aimed to verify the accuracy of information on water fluoridation, using as the reference water surveillance data from municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants in 2008 and during 2010-2015. Data from different sources were used, comparing the information pertaining to the period. Water samples were collected, and fluoride concentration was obtained by the electrometric method. Verification was performed by comparing the data obtained from different sources. Data were compared for 601 (97.9%) municipalities. The proportion of municipalities that performed surveillance based on external control increased from 39.4% to 48.5%. There was a high rate of false positives and false negatives (15.1%) in the data for 2008. Municipal coverage was 70.2%, or 4.2 percentage points below the published estimate (74.4%) for 2008. Surveillance records were observed in 54.3% of the fluoridated municipalities whose population coverage reached at least 50% of the population receiving treated water. There was an important improvement in fluoridation surveillance data, despite a high percentage of false positives and negatives. There are still wide interregional differences in the surveillance of water fluoridation in this sample of Brazilian municipalities, raising important public health challenges.


Resumen: Los datos de saneamiento en 2008 indicaban que un 74,4% de los municipios con más de 50 mil habitantes recibían agua fluorada, no obstante, no se adoptaron criterios para la validación de esta información. El estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar la exactitud de la información sobre la fluorización del agua, tomando como referencia datos de vigilancia del agua en municipios con más de 50 mil habitantes en el año 2008, y durante el período de 2010-2015. Se emplearon datos de diferentes fuentes comparando la información relativa a este período. Se recogieron muestras de agua y la concentración de fluoruro se obtuvo mediante un método electrométrico. El proceso de verificación se produjo por el contraste de datos obtenidos de diferentes fuentes. Se compararon los datos de 601 (97,9%) municipios. La tasa de municipios que realizan vigilancia en base al heterocontrol pasó de un 39,4% a un 48,5%. Se observó una elevada tasa de falsos positivos o negativos (15,1%), en relación con los datos de 2008. La cobertura municipal fue de un 70,2%, 4,2 puntos por debajo de la estimativa (74,4%) divulgada en 2008. Se observaron registros de la práctica de vigilancia en un 54,3% de los municipios fluorados, cuya cobertura poblacional alcanza a un 50% o más de la población que recibe agua tratada. Hubo una sensible mejoría en los datos de vigilancia respecto al fluoruro, a pesar de que había un porcentaje importante de falsos positivos y negativos. Todavía son grandes las diferencias interregionales relacionadas tanto respecto a la fluorización del agua, como a la implementación de vigilancia en los municipios investigados, implicando importantes desafíos para la salud pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fluoridation/statistics & numerical data , Water Purification/methods , Data Accuracy , Public Policy , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Residence Characteristics , Sanitation , Public Health , Data Collection
19.
Acta odontol. Colomb. (En linea) ; 9(2): 59-70, 2019. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1025606

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: remover componentes de amalgama de aguas contaminadas mediante fitorremediación. Métodos: se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo, en que fueron recolectados 12 litros de aguas de remoción de obturaciones de amalgama en 144 dientes artificiales en la preclínica de odontología. Se analizó agua sin fitorremediar (control), y se mantuvieron ocho litros para fitorremediación en el Laboratorio de Ciencias Básicas y un análisis semanal con dos especies de plantas acuáticas: Eichhornia crassipes y Pistia stratiotes. Mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica, se determinó la concentración de metales pesados en miligramos por litro. El análisis se llevó a cabo mediante estadística descriptiva, comparación con prueba t y ANOVA de una vía con el complemento de Excel XLSTAT. Resultados: tras el proceso, el porcentaje estimado de remoción de componentes de amalgama fue superior al 50%. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los tratamientos (α= 0.05; g l= 11; p= 0,4269). Conclusiones: se logró la remoción parcial de componentes de amalgama de aguas contaminadas a través del proceso de fitorremediación.


Objective: remove amalgam components from contaminated water by phytoremediation. Methods: a retrospective descriptive study was carried out, in which 12 liters of amalgam filling removal water were collected in 144 artificial teeth in the preclinical dentistry. Water was analyzed without phytoremediation (control), and eight liters were maintained for phytoremediation in the Laboratory of Basic Sciences and a weekly analysis with two species of aquatic plants: Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes. The concentration of heavy metals in milligrams per liter was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics, comparison with t-test and one-way ANOVA with the Excel XLSTAT add-in. Results: after the process, the estimated removal percentage of amalgam components was greater than 50%. There were no statistically significant differences between treatments (α = 0.05; g l = 11; p = 0.4269). Conclusions: the partial removal of amalgam components from contaminated water was achieved through the phytoremediation process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biodegradation, Environmental , Water Purification , Water Pollutants , Water , Dental Amalgam , Mercury
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758979

ABSTRACT

In 2016 and 2017, there were earthquakes greater than 5.0 in magnitude on the Korean Peninsula, which has previously been considered an earthquake-free zone. Patients with chronic kidney disease are particularly vulnerable to earthquakes, as the term “renal disaster” suggests. In the event of a major earthquake, patients on hemodialysis face the risk of losing maintenance dialysis due to infrastructure disruption. In this review, we share the experience of an earthquake in Pohang that posed a serious risk to patients on hemodialysis. We review the disaster response system in Japan and propose a disaster preparedness plan with respect to hemodialysis. Korean nephrologists and staff in dialysis facilities should be trained in emergency response to mitigate risk from natural disasters. Dialysis staff should be familiar with the action plan for natural disaster events that disrupt hemodialysis, such as outages and water treatment system failures caused by earthquakes. Patients on hemodialysis also need to be educated about disaster preparedness. In the event of a disaster situation that results in dialysis failure, patients need to know what to do. At the local and national government level, long-term preparations should be made to handle renal disaster and patient safety logistics. Moreover, Korean nephrologists should also be prepared to manage cardiovascular disease and diabetes in disaster situations. Further evaluation and management of social and national disaster preparedness of hemodialysis units to earthquakes in Korea are needed.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Dialysis , Disasters , Earthquakes , Emergencies , Federal Government , Humans , Japan , Korea , Organization and Administration , Patient Safety , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Water Purification
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