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Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4517-4533, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008039


Anaerobic granular sludge (AnGS), a self-immobilized aggregate containing various functional microorganisms, is considered as a promising green process for wastewater treatment. AnGS has the advantages of high volume loading rate, simple process and low excess sludge generation, thus shows great technological and economical potentials. This review systematically summarizes the recent advances of the microbial community structure and function of anaerobic granular sludge, and discusses the factors affecting the formation and stability of anaerobic granular sludge from the perspective of microbiology. Moreover, future research directions of AnGS are prospected. This review is expected to facilitate the research and engineering application of AnGS.

Sewage/chemistry , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Anaerobiosis , Microbiota , Water Purification , Bioreactors/microbiology
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1026-1039, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970420


The wide use of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in research, medicine, industry, and other fields has raised concerns about their biosafety. It is therefore unavoidable to be discharged into the sewage treatment system. Due to the unique physical and chemical properties of ZnO NPs and CuO NPs, it may be toxic to the members of the microbial community and their growth and metabolism, which in turn affects the stable operation of sewage nitrogen removal. This study summarizes the toxicity mechanism of two typical metal oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs and CuO NPs) to nitrogen removal microorganisms in sewage treatment systems. Furthermore, the factors affecting the cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) are summarized. This review aims to provide a theoretical basis and support for the future mitigating and emergent treatment of the adverse effects of nanoparticles on sewage treatment systems.

Wastewater/toxicity , Sewage/chemistry , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nitrogen/metabolism , Water Purification
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-7, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411397


Objetivo: avaliar a eficiência de filtros de tratamento de água, usando carvão ativado de diferentes fontes de resíduo de biomassa. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo experimental, descritivo, de caráter quantitativo, realizado no Centro Universitário Católica de Quixadá, Ceará-Brasil, durante o período de janeiro a junho de 2018. Foram preparados filtros de carvão ativados e, posteriomente, sua eficiência no tratamento de água foi avaliada. Resíduos de descarte de madeira, a entrecasca do coco verde, a casca do fruto do caju e do colmo de bambu foram usados como fonte de matéria-prima. O filtro de tratamento de água foi montado, usando o método coluna de cromatografia, adicionando areia e algodão como outros meios filtrantes. Parâmentros físico-químicos foram utilizados na avaliação da eficiência dos filtros construídos. Resultados: a análise de componente principal selecionou dois componentes da qualidade de água, explicando 80,081% da variância total. O coeficiente de correlação cofenética de r=0.9572 indica que o dendograma estimado foi bom, considerando os parâmetros de qualidade da água. Entre os filtros, o bambu apresentou-se como melhor resposta entre filtros testados, sendo responsável pela redução de diversos fatores como cor, turbidez, dureza total e sódio. Conclusão: os fitros de carvão ativado derivado do descarte de madeira e da entrecasca do fruto do caju obtiveram pouca influência na melhoria da qualidade da água, em relação à amostra controle.

Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of water treatment filters using activated carbon from different sources of biomass residue. Methods: this is a descriptive experimental study of a quantitative nature carried out at the Centro Universitário Católica de Quixadá, Ceará-Brazil, during the period from January to June 2018. Activated carbon filters were prepared, and subsequently, their efficiency in water treatment was evaluated. Wood waste, green coconut husk, cashew nut shell, and bamboo stem were used as a source of raw material. The water treatment filter was assembled using the column chromatography method by adding sand and cotton as other filter media. Physicochemical parameters were used to evaluate the efficiency of the built filters. Results: principal component analysis selected two water quality components, explaining 80.081% of the total variance. The cophenetic correlation coefficient of r=0.9572 indicates that the estimated dendrogram was good, considering the water quality parameters. Among the filters, bamboo showed the best response among the filters tested, being responsible for the reduction of several factors such as color, turbidity, total hardness, and sodium. Conclusion: activated carbon filters derived from discarded wood and cashew nut shells had little influence on improving water quality compared to the control sample.

Water , Charcoal , Water Purification , Reference Standards , Therapeutics , Waste Products , Water Quality , Filters , Principal Component Analysis
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(6): 1394-1400, dic. 2022. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1428314


El agua es esencial para la supervivencia de todos los organismos vivos. Por lo tanto, la reutilización de aguas residuales domésticas para fines de agua no potable es una probable solución para las áreas más necesitadas en agua en todo el mundo. La descarga de aguas residuales domésticas e industriales en los recursos hídricos superficiales y subterráneos es extremadamente dañina para el medio ambiente. La tecnología de biofiltración es una plataforma de tratamiento versátil que se aplica para el tratamiento de agua potable. Se logra cuando los desinfectantes no pueden pasar por un filtro, los microbios crecen y se desarrollan en medios granulares y finalmente conlleva a la aparición de biopelículas activas. El objetivo del siguiente artículo es ofrecer al distrito de Huancayo, Perú una alternativa para reciclar las aguas residuales en esta localidad. Los resultados de este trabajo permitieron el diseño de biofiltro para el tratamiento de agua servidas de la ciudad de Huancayo, en Perú para ser utilizado en el cementerio ecológico de dicha ciudad. El caudal a ser manejado durante el tratamiento de aguas servidas fue de 0,35L/s; esto permitió un bioflitro con las siguientes características: 13,78m de largo y 6,89m de largo con una profundidad de 0,8m adecuados para el tratamiento de estas aguas servidas. Los cálculos de degradación de materia orgánica según los parámetros de DBO y DQO permitieron una remoción de la carga orgánica de 78mg/m2 al día. Estos resultados fueron excelentes para poder mantener la calidad de vida del ecosistema(AU)

Water is essential for the survival of all living organisms. Therefore, the reuse of domestic wastewater for non-potable water purposes is a likely solution for the areas most in need of water throughout the world. The discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater into surface and groundwater resources is extremely harmful to the environment. Biofiltration technology is a versatile treatment platform that is applied for the treatment of drinking water. It is achieved when disinfectants cannot pass through a filter, microbes grow and thrive in granular media, and ultimately leads to the appearance of active biofilms. The objective of the following article is to offer the district of Huancayo, Peru an alternative to recycle wastewater in this town. The results of this work allowed the design of a biofilter for the treatment of wastewater from the city of Huancayo, in Peru to be used in the ecological cemetery of said city. The flow to be managed during the sewage treatment was 0.35 L/s; this allowed a biofliter with the following characteristics: 13.78 m long and 6.89 m long with a depth of 0.8 m suitable for the treatment of these sewage. The organic matter degradation calculations according to the BOD and COD parameters allowed a removal of the organic load of 78 mg/m2 per day. These results were excellent to be able to maintain the quality of life of the ecosystem(AU)

Humans , Biological Filters , Water Purification/methods , Peru
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e201158, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420464


Abstract Quality of groundwater is threatened due to pollution by industrial, domestic and agricultural waste. A large number of populations are residing in rural areas which are unable to afford high cost water purifiers due to their low income as well as limited awareness. However, limited availability of fresh water has become a critical issue in developing countries. Around 1.2 billion population is deprived of affordable and safe water for their domestic need. Additionally, chemical coagulants which are nowadays being used for water purification pose severe and numerous health hazards to human. Thus utilization of easily accessible natural coagulant for water purification might offer a sustainable, practical and cost effective solution to the current alarming situation in developing countries. Several experimental findings have shown strong efficiency of Moringa oleifera plant extracts obtained from different solvents in the improvement of water quality parameters including physicochemical (such as pH, hardness, turbidity, metallic impurities, total dissolved solid) and biological (E.coli count) parameter. We have also highlighted the limitations and advantages of chemical coagulation in water purification. Altogether, this review summarizes one such miracle tree which has shown significant potential as a natural coagulant and its associated underlying mechanism in water purification process.

Plants/anatomy & histology , Coagulants (Water Treatment) , Water Purification/instrumentation , Moringa oleifera/adverse effects , Drinking Water/analysis , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Costs and Cost Analysis/classification , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Fresh Water/analysis
Ribeirão Preto; s.n; 2022. 110 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1524717


A busca por fontes alternativas de recursos hídricos é indispensável tornando a captação de água superficial uma opção viável para complementar o abastecimento público, porém, suas características exigem tratamento adequado para o consumo. O contato do cloro com a matéria orgânica (MO) presente em águas pode resultar na formação de diversas substâncias carcinogênicas, como os trialometanos (THM). A ausência de estudos sobre a característica predominante da matéria orgânica precursora no rio Pardo deixa uma preocupação quanto à tecnologia a ser empregada no tratamento da água, que deverá ser de ciclo completo com uma etapa complementar de pré-oxidação com cloro seguida de adsorção em carvão ativado pulverizado para garantir a remoção de microcontaminantes. O estudo foi conduzido no rio Pardo, inserido na Unidade de Gerenciamento de Recursos Hídricos (UGRHI-4), Ribeirão Preto, estado de São Paulo. A quantificação dos SOH foi realizada no cromatógrafo a gás modelo CG 2010 Marca Shimadzu com detector de captura de elétrons e a aquisição de dados foi obtida por um microcomputador com software para cromatografia CG Real Times Analysis. De modo geral, os parâmetros analisados para o rio Pardo demonstraram que o manancial se encontra dentro dos parâmetros da CONAMA n° 357 (2005) e CONAMA n° 430 (2011) considerados ideais para um rio de classe 2. Os parâmetros analisados neste trabalho podem contribuir com conhecimento para dar subsídio para seleção da tecnologia de tratamento de água do rio Pardo, sendo ela de ciclo completo devido a sua alternância na turbidez ao longo do ano. Dentre os SOH investigados pelo trabalho, foram encontrados apenas cinco (5), sendo esses o Clorofórmio, Dicloroacetonitrila, Bromodiclorometano, Cloro Hidrato e Tricloropropanona. O Clorofórmio e Cloro Hidrato tiveram suas maiores concentrações de 76 µg·L-1 e 68 µg·L-1, respectivamente. De forma geral, os compostos quantificados se encontram abaixo dos preconizado pela Portaria GM/MS nº 888 de 2021. Ao comparar os diferentes pH é possível observar uma tendência de aumento na formação de Trialometanos conforme o aumento no valor de pH. Entretanto, devido a faixa de pH empregada ter sido restrita entre 6,0 e 9,0 a análise estatística não nos permite afirmar que há uma associação direta entre o pH e a formação de SOH

The search for alternative sources of water resources is indispensable, making the capture of surface water a viable option to complement the public supply, however, its characteristics require adequate treatment for consumption. The contact of chlorine with organic matter (OM) present in water can result in the formation of several carcinogenic substances, such as trihalomethanes (THM). The absence of studies on the predominant characteristic of the precursor organic matter in the Pardo River leaves a concern about the technology to be used in the water treatment, which should be a complete cycle with a complementary step of pre-oxidation with chlorine followed by adsorption on charcoal activated powder to ensure the removal of microcontaminants. The study was conducted on the Pardo River, located at the Water Resources Management Unit (UGRHI-4), Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo. The quantification of SOH was performed in a gas chromatograph model CG 2010 Shimadzu brand with electron capture detector and the data acquisition was obtained by a microcomputer with software for chromatography CG Real Times Analysis. In general, the parameters analyzed for the Pardo River showed that the source is within the parameters of CONAMA No. 357 (2005) and CONAMA No. 430 (2011) considered ideal for a class 2 river. The parameters analyzed in this work can contribute with knowledge to subsidize the selection of water treatment technology for the Pardo River, which is a complete cycle due to its alternation in turbidity throughout the year. Among the SOH investigated by the work, only five (5) were found, these being Chloroform, Dichloroacetonitrile, Bromodichloromethane, Chlorohydrate and Trichloropropanone. Chloroform and Chlorine Hydrate had their highest concentrations of 76 µg·L-1 and 68 µg·L-1, respectively. In general, the quantified compounds are below those recommended by Ordinance GM/MS nº 888 of 2021. When comparing the different pHs, it is possible to observe a tendency towards an increase in the formation of Trihalomethanes as the pH value increases. However, because the pH range used was restricted to between 6.0 and 9.0, the statistical analysis does not allow us to state that there is a direct association between pH and the formation of SOH

Water Resources , Trihalomethanes , Chlorine , Water Purification
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191051, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394051


Abstract The present work reports the implementation of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) methodology to analyze the water purification system of a pharmaceutical site, in order to assure the system quality and prevent failures. As a matter of fact, the use of HACCP for development and implementation of Quality Risk Management (QRM) is not usual in pharmaceutical plants and it is applied here to improve the performance of the water purification system of a polymerization pilot plant used to manufacture pharmaceutical grade polymer microparticles. Critical Control Points (CCP) were determined with the aid of a decision tree and questions were made to characterize whether identified hazards constitute actual CCPs and should be monitored. When deviations were detected, corrective actions were performed and action plans were used for following-up and implementation of corrective actions. Finally, microbiological and physicochemical parameters were analyzed and the obtained results were regarded as appropriate. Therefore, it is shown that HACCP constitutes an effective tool for identification of hazards, establishment of corrective actions and monitoring of the critical control points that impact the process and the quality of the final pharmaceutical product most significantly.

Risk Management/classification , Water Purification/instrumentation , Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points/methods , Environmental Monitoring/instrumentation , Total Quality Management/methods , Drug Industry/classification , Methodology as a Subject , Research Report
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(3): 360-368, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1395352


La Ingeniería Sanitaria surge como una rama de la ingeniería que involucra tanto materias propias de la ingeniería tales como: matemáticas, física, química hidráulica o mecánica, como aquellas relacionada con la medicina y la higiene, tales como la microbiología y conservación. Tiene como función principal crear y fomentar condiciones de salubridad en las poblaciones siendo vigilante de las aguas, el aire y la tierra, evitando que la contaminación alcance a los seres humanos. En Perú, la ingeniería sanitaria se creó como un apéndice de la ingeniería civil, pero pronto tomó el lugar merecido, declarándose una carrera de ingeniería independiente. Actualmente, la Ingeniería sanitaria es la encargada de llevar agua potabilizada a la población, y tratar las aguas servidas. Por otra parte, con la llegada del SARS-CoV-2, el mundo fue sacudido, y una situación de pandemia emergió, lo que hizo que los diferentes países tomasen las acciones necesarias, tal como sucedió con el Perú. Allí, la Ingeniería Sanitaria, accionó sus funciones, buscando la potabilización del agua de consumo. En estos tiempos de pandemia, también determinaron el resguardo de la población, lo que fomentó la educación remota. En el caso de la Ingeniería Sanitaria, los laboratorios presenciales y convencionales fueron sustituidos por laboratorios virtuales y remotos, lo cual permitió que la educación continuase sin contratiempos(AU)

Sanitary Engineering emerges as a branch of engineering that involves both engineering subjects such as: mathematics, physics, hydraulic or mechanical chemistry, as well as those related to medicine and hygiene, such as microbiology and conservation. Its main function is to create and promote healthy conditions in the populations, being vigilant of the waters, the air and the land, preventing contamination from reaching human beings. In Peru, sanitary engineering was created as an appendix to civil engineering, but it soon took its deserved place, declaring itself an independent engineering career. Currently, Sanitary Engineering is in charge of bringing drinking water to the population, and treating wastewater. On the other hand, with the arrival of SARS-CoV-2, the world was shaken, and a pandemic situation emerged, which made the different countries take the necessary actions, as happened with Peru. Over there, the Sanitary Engineering, activated its functions, seeking the potabilization of drinking water. In these times of pandemic, they also determined the protection of the population, which promoted remote education. In the case of Sanitary Engineering, face-to-face and conventional laboratories were replaced by virtual and remote laboratories, which allowed education to continue without setbacks(AU)

Sanitary Engineering , Education, Distance , COVID-19 , Sanitation , Water Purification , Environmental Pollution , Pandemics , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 130 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392244


Como resultado do crescimento desordenado dos centros urbanos no país, surgiram regiões nas cidades com déficits de infraestruturas básicas, incluindo as sanitárias, desencadeando consequências ambientais como a poluição dos córregos, e socias com a formação dos aglomerados subnormais, com perda da qualidade de vida e prejuízos à saúde. Visando solucionar em parte os problemas de poluição dos corpos hídricos no município de São Paulo, a Sabesp em conjunto com parceiros institucionais lançou o Programa Córrego Limpo, com ações focadas em instalação de infraestruturas físicas e ações educacionais, de modo a envolver a sociedade com a problemática, conscientizando-a quanto ao seu papel. Neste contexto, a pesquisa visa avaliar a efetividade da educação ambiental na eficácia das ações de saneamento em aglomerados subnormais, utilizando os resultados obtidos com o Programa Córrego Limpo para uma amostra de três córregos (Charles de Gaulle, Novo Mundo/Biquinha e Adão Ferraris). Mediante análise dos dados, conclui-se que o nível de envolvimento social nos córregos Charles de Gaulle e Novo Mundo/Biquinha foram mais elevados, culminando em melhores condições de qualidade das águas dos corpos hídricos ao longo dos anos de monitoramento realizados, cujos fatores identificados como influenciadores no engajamento da população foram a presença de fortes lideranças locais, elaboração de projeto de educação ambiental, atuação junto à ONGs locais, realização de eventos com chamamento público e atividades informativas e de comunicação. Assim, constata-se que o envolvimento da população é fator determinante para o sucesso de projetos de despoluição de córregos. Complementarmente, comparando as ações do Programa Córrego Limpo com as do Projeto Novo Rio Pinheiros, em implantação, tem-se como perspectiva e expectativa que os resultados de despoluição desejados neste segundo tendam a ser alcançados, já que possui em suas diretrizes exigências em comum com os fatores positivos identificados no primeiro programa, e melhoria quanto aos menos eficientes. Logo, o caminho a ser seguido para que as ações de saneamento atuem como barreiras sanitárias em regiões de vulnerabilidade social requer estruturação e planejamento de atividades de educação ambiental abrangentes, além de intensa informação e comunicação junto à sociedade.

As a result of the disorderly growth of urban centers in the country, some city regions emerged with deficit in basic infrastructure, including sanitation. It triggered serious environmental consequences such as water pollution, and also social issues with the formation of subnormal agglomerates, which resulted in reduced quality of life and damage to health. Aiming to partially solve the problems of water bodies pollution in the city of São Paulo, Sabesp, together with institutional partners, launched the Clean Stream Program, with actions focused on the installation of physical infrastructure and education actions. The idea is to engage the society with the problematic scenario, making them aware of their role in it. In this context, the research aims to evaluate the effectiveness of environmental education in the efficiency of sanitation actions in subnormal agglomerates, using the results obtained from the Clean Stream Program for a sample of three streams (Charles de Gaulle, Novo Mundo/Biquinha and Adão Ferraris). Through data analysis, it is concluded that the level of social engagement in the Charles de Gaulle and Novo Mundo/Biquinha streams were higher, culminating in better water quality conditions in water bodies over the monitored years. In this case, the main factors that influenced the population engagement were the presence of strong local leaders, the elaboration of an environmental education project, working with local NGOs, holding public call events, and performing information/communication activities. This way, it appears that the involvement of the population is a determining factor for the success of stream clean-up projects. In addition, comparing the actions of the Clean Stream Program with those of the New Pinheiros River Project (which is currently being implemented), the perspective and expectation is that the desired depollution results of the latter tend to be achieved, since it has guidelines requirements in common with the positive factors identified in the first program, while also improving the less efficient ones. Therefore, in order to form real sanitary barriers in regions of social vulnerability through sanitation actions, it requires the structuring and planning of comprehensive environmental education activities, in addition to intense information and society communication.

Sanitation , Water Purification , Environmental Health Education , Community Participation , Rivers
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(3): 526-545, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1397154


El acceso al agua potable por red pública es un problema de la población rural en el departamento de Huánuco, por ende, se suele realizar el consumo de este recurso sin previo tratamiento, produciéndose así enfermedades estomacales. El uso de agentes naturales como el Aloe vera (L.) (Sábila) viene a ser una alternativa como floculante para el tratamiento convencional del agua, por tal motivo, en esta investigación se visualizaron experimentalmente las características y reacciones del gel de A. vera como floculante en la remoción de la turbidez. La turbidez del agua se simuló con el caolín, y se determinó la concentración óptima de alúmina y sábila (1%) a valores diferentes de pH y turbidez iniciales, con los datos resultantes se optimizó las dosis mediante el modelo matemático de superficie de respuesta, para después realizar su respectiva validación mediante métodos gráficos e índices matemáticos; los resultados reflejaron que la turbidez inicial, pH inicial y la dosis del coagulante influyen significativamente en la remoción de la turbidez de agua, de forma individual, concluyendo según el modelo de superficie de respuesta que el volumen óptimo de sábila al 1% alcanza su mayor eficiencia a 0,1 mL y 0,4 mL por cada 500 mL, dosis que varía de acuerdo a su pH y turbidez inicial, este modelo matemático se ajusta para aguas superficiales de la ciudad de Tingo María(AU)

Access to drinking water through the public network is a problem for the rural population in the department of Huánuco, therefore, this resource is usually consumed without prior treatment, thus producing stomach illnesses. The use of natural agents such as Aloe vera (L.) becomes an alternative as a flocculant for conventional water treatment, for this reason, in this investigation the characteristics and reactions of the A. vera gel were visualized experimentally as a flocculant in the removal of turbidity. The turbidity of the water was simulated with kaolin, and the optimum concentration of alumina and aloe vera (1%) was determined at different values of initial pH and turbidity. With the resulting data, the doses were optimized using the mathematical model of the response surface. to later carry out their respective validation through graphic methods and mathematical indices; The results showed that the initial turbidity, initial pH and the dose of the coagulant significantly influence the removal of the turbidity of the water, individually, concluding according to the response surface model that the optimal volume of aloe at 1% reaches its highest level. efficiency at 0.1 mL and 0.4 mL per 500 mL, a dose that varies according to its pH and initial turbidity, this mathematical model is adjusted for surface waters of the city of Tingo María(AU)

Water Supply , Aloe , Aluminum Oxide , Kaolin , Stomach Diseases , Water Purification
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(4): 745-755, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355747


Abstract | Introduction: Enteric viruses have been associated with the production of a variety of diseases transmitted by the fecal-oral route and carried through contaminated food and water. Given their structure and composition, they are highly resistant to environmental conditions and most of the chemical agents used in the purification processes. Therefore, the systematic monitoring of raw water is necessary to ensure its quality especially when it is used for producing drinking water for human consumption. Objective: We identified the presence of rotavirus and hepatitis A virus by means of the fluoro-immuno-magnetic separation technique (FIMS) in raw water taken from four purification plants and their water supplies in the department of Norte de Santander. Materials and methods: The viruses were captured and separated from the water samples using magnetic microparticles functionalized with monoclonal anti-Hepatitis A and anti-Rotavirus antibodies. Confocal microscopy was used to monitor the viral concentration process and transmission electron microscopy for the morphological visualization of the separated viruses. The reverse transcriptase-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to confirm the presence of pathogens. Results: The two enteric viruses were identified in the majority of the analyzed water samples including water supply sources. Conclusion: We determined that the FIMS technique together with RT-PCR is highly effective for the detection of viral pathogens in complex matrices such as raw water.

Resumen | Introducción. Los virus entéricos se asocian con una serie de enfermedades transmitidas por vía fecal-oral en alimentos o agua contaminada. Dada su estructura y composición, son muy resistentes a las condiciones ambientales y a la mayoría de los agentes químicos empleados en los procesos de potabilización, por lo cual es necesario un monitoreo sistemático del agua cruda para asegurar su calidad, máxime cuando se emplea como materia prima en la producción de agua potable para consumo humano. Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de rotavirus y del virus de la hepatitis A mediante la técnica de separación fluoro-inmuno-magnética en agua cruda procedente de cuatro plantas de potabilización y sus fuentes hídricas en el departamento de Norte de Santander. Materiales y métodos. Los virus fueron capturados y separados a partir de las muestras de agua, empleando micropartículas magnéticas funcionalizadas con anticuerpos monoclonales anti-hepatitis A y anti-rotavirus. Se empleó microscopía confocal para hacer el seguimiento del proceso de concentración viral y, microscopía electrónica de transmisión, para la visualización morfológica de los virus separados. La reacción en cadena de la polimerasa acoplada a transcriptasa inversa (RT-PCR) se utilizó para confirmar la presencia de los patógenos. Resultados. Los dos virus entéricos se detectaron en la mayoría de las muestras de agua analizadas, incluidas las de sus fuentes hídricas. Conclusión. La técnica de separación fluoro-inmuno-magnética acoplada a RT-PCR fue altamente efectiva en la detección de patógenos virales en matrices complejas como el agua cruda.

Rotavirus Infections , Raw Water , Magnetic Segregation , Water Purification , Hepatitis A , Antibodies
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1-14, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878538


Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bioelectrochemical device, that enables simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy generation. However, a few issues such as low output power, high ohmic internal resistance, and long start-up time greatly limit MFCs' applications. MFC anode is the carrier of microbial attachment, and plays a key role in the generation and transmission of electrons. High-quality bioelectrodes have developed into an effective way to improve MFC performance. Conjugated polymers have advantages of low cost, high conductivity, chemical stability and good biocompatibility. The use of conjugated polymers to modify bioelectrodes can achieve a large specific surface area and shorten the charge transfer path, thereby achieving efficient biological electrochemical performance. In addition, bacteria can be coated with nano-scale conjugated polymer and effectively transfer the electrons generated by cells to electrodes. This article reviews the recently reported applications of conjugated polymers in microbial fuel cells, focusing on the MFC anode materials modified by conjugated polymers. This review also systematically analyzes the advantages and limitations of conjugated polymers, and how these composite hybrid bioelectrodes solve practical issues such as low energy output, high inner resistance, and long starting time.

Bacteria , Bioelectric Energy Sources , Electricity , Electrodes , Polymers , Water Purification
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 156 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369063


Os sistemas de tratamento de esgotos sanitários no Brasil possuem, em geral, algumas deficiências em termos de remoção de contaminantes, principalmente nutrientes e compostos orgânicos sintéticos introduzidos no meio ambiente pelo ser humano. Um dos tipos de contaminantes emergentes mais comuns em esgotos sanitários são os fármacos, que as tecnologias de tratamento biológico não são projetadas para a remoção de tais compostos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar a eficiência da remoção de fármacos e cafeína em estações de tratamento de esgoto existentes (lagoas de estabilização e lodos ativados), em diferentes pontos do processo, além da inclusão de sistemas pilotos de membranas de ultrafiltração, nanofiltração e osmose reversa, como etapa de polimento. Neste sentido, o uso de membranas teve o objetivo de elevar a eficiência de remoção de diferentes compostos. Usando a técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência acoplada à espectrometria de massas (LC-MS/MS) foi possível estabelecer uma metodologia de análise de fármacos com limites de quantificação baixos de até 0,1 ppb. Dentre os fármacos de interesse, o clonazepam e a sinvastatina não foram identificados em nenhum ponto de amostragem. O paracetamol, cafeína e ibuprofeno foram encontrados no esgoto afluente, sendo completamente removidos pelo tratamento biológico, tanto nas lagoas, como no sistema de lodos ativados. Já a carbamazepina, fármaco reconhecidamente recalcitrante, não foi removida em nenhuma ETE, sendo o sistema de membranas com osmose reversa uma etapa importante para sua remoção. O atenolol apresentou comportamento diferente, com remoção elevada no sistema de lagoas e baixa remoção no sistemas de lodos ativados. Neste sentido, a membrana de nanofiltração demonstrou ser uma importante barreira para evitar contaminação de corpos d'água por esse fármaco. Por fim, a análise econômica indicou que a nanofiltração possui um custo operacional menor que a osmose reversa, contudo com menores níveis de remoção de fármacos e outros contaminantes.

The sanitary sewage treatment systems in Brazil have, in general, some deficiencies in terms of removal of contaminants, mainly nutrients and synthetic organic compounds introduced into the environment by humans. One of the most common types of emerging contaminants in sewage are pharmaceuticals, which biological treatment technologies are not designed to remove such compounds. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of pharmaceuticals and caffeine removal in existing sewage treatment plants (stabilization ponds and activated sludge), at different points in the process, in addition to the inclusion of membrane pilot systems of ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis, as a polishing step. In this sense, the use of membranes aimed to increase the removal efficiency of different compounds. Using the technique of high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) it was possible to establish a methodology for pharmaceuticals analysis with low quantification limit of up to 0.1 ppb. Among the drugs of interest, clonazepam and simvastatin were not identified at any sampling point. Paracetamol, caffeine and ibuprofen were found in the raw sewage, being completely removed by biological treatment, both in stabilization ponds and activated sludge system. Carbamazepine, a known recalcitrant pharmaceuticals, was not removed in any WWTP, and the reverse osmosis membrane system was an important step for its removal. Atenolol had a different behavior, with high removal in the stabilization pond system and low removal in activated sludge system. In this sense, the nanofiltration membrane proved to be an important barrier to prevent contamination of water bodies by this compound. Finally, the economic analysis indicated that nanofiltration has a lower operational cost than reverse osmosis, however with lower levels of pharmaceuticals and other compounds removal.

Stabilization Ponds , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Activated Sludges , Water Purification , Membranes
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 109 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362004


A tecnologia de nanobolhas é capaz de transformar uma simples gota em milhões de pequenas bolhas, com isso, aumentando a superfície de contato e resultando na destruição de contaminantes por meio de uma rápida reação química. O sistema de nanobolhas, quando aplicado, tem grande poder de penetração, agindo rapidamente sobre a contaminação de solos ou da água graças ao seu minúsculo tamanho e à sua enorme superfície de contato. O objetivo geral do presente trabalho foi o de estudar e analisar a redução do odor após a aplicação da tecnologia das nanobolhas em um canal do rio Pinheiros. Dentre os objetivos específicos, destacaram-se a análise da eficiência do sistema de NB na remoção de odor e os benefícios secundários da aplicação dessa tecnologia e seu potencial tecnológico. A iniciativa de estudar o processo de nanobolhas é atribuída, principalmente, a importantes peculiaridades nas suas propriedades físicas, químicas e físico-químicas, bem como ao potencial tecnológico de utilização nas mais distintas áreas, entre as quais se incluem a flotação avançada de poluentes aquosos e aplicações na medicina, na limpeza de superfícies, na indústria da mineração, em sistemas de geração de energia, na agricultura, na aceleração do metabolismo em espécies animais e vegetais, entre outras práticas. Os métodos de geração, caracterização e aplicações das nanobolhas se constituem em áreas de pesquisas emergentes e em acelerado crescimento, especialmente nas últimas duas décadas. Os resultados obtidos com esta linha de pesquisa contribuirão para estudos que busquem uma tecnologia adicional às já estudadas e testadas para a limpeza do rio Pinheiros, pois a utilização dessa tecnologia, nos testes realizados no canal do rio Pinheiros, mostrou resultados bastante promissores, apresentando facilidades operacionais e controle dos parâmetros que influenciam na geração de gases odoríferos com baixo custo, quando comparado com o das tecnologias convencionais utilizando apenas energia, e não produtos químicos e sem geração de lodo. Mediante a aplicação da tecnologia de nanobolhas em águas poluídas, foi analisado o potencial dessas bolhas para reduzir odores, assim como a viabilização de uma diferente rota de tratamento de águas superficiais poluídas para sistemas com altas vazões, velocidades e altas concentrações de sólidos.

Nanobubbles (NB) technology can transform a single drop into millions of small bubbles, increasing the contact surface and resulting in the destruction of contaminants through a fast-chemical reaction. Due to nanobubbles tiny size, the nanobubble system has a great penetrating power and its huge contact surface acts quickly on soil or water contamination. The general objective of the present work will be to study and to analyze the smell reduction after the application of nanobubble technology in a channel of the Pinheiro River. Among the specific objectives, we would like to highlight the NB system efficiency analysis related to smell removal, as well as the secondary benefits of applying this technology and its technological potential. The initiative to study the nanobubble process is mainly attributed to important peculiarities in its physical, chemical and physicochemical properties, as well as related to the technological potential of its use in different areas, including aqueous pollutants advanced flotation, applications in medicine, surface cleaning, in the mining industry, in energy generation systems, in agriculture, in the acceleration of metabolism in animal and plant species, among others. The methods of generation, characterization, and application of nanobubbles have emerged and is growing rapidly in the research areas, mainly in the last two decades. The results obtained with this study will contribute with researchers that seek additional technologies, among those already been studied, to be tested for cleaning the Pinheiros River. The use of this technology has already been tested in the Pinheiros River Channel, showing very promising results, presenting operational facilities and control of parameters that influence the generation of odoriferous gases with low cost when compared to conventional technologies based only on energy, without the use of chemicals and without generating sludge. Through the application of nanobubble technology in polluted water, the potential of these bubbles to reduce smell will be analyzed to enable a different route of polluted surface water treatment for systems with high flow rates and high concentrations of solids.

Surface Waters , Water Purification , Odorants/prevention & control , Environment and Public Health
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 204 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362253


O Programa Córrego Limpo é parte de um conjunto de políticas públicas que buscam despoluir os principais rios da cidade de São Paulo através da recuperação de seus afluentes. O programa atua no controle de cargas pontuais, e adota parceria com as lideranças locais das bacias. O objetivo deste estudo é identificar os principais conflitos socioambientais na manutenção da limpeza do córrego Tenente Rocha. O curso d'água em questão está localizado na Zona Norte de São Paulo e tem sido beneficiado pelas ações do Programa Córrego Limpo desde o ano de 2007. Desenvolveu-se uma pesquisa exploratória de caráter quali e quantitativo, focando o envolvimento social na gestão da qualidade de cursos d'água urbanos, mediante aplicação de entrevistas estruturadas aos moradores do entorno do córrego. A análise da qualidade das águas, através do parâmetro Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigênio, apontou uma redução nos índices de carga orgânica após as ações iniciais de intervenção na bacia do córrego, mantendo-se em valores abaixo de 30 mg/L na média. Em contraponto, fatores associados à reincidência de cargas pontuais e difusas tem causado alterações significativas na qualidade das águas. Na opinião de 95% dos residentes, o curso d'água em questão encontra-se poluído, o que causa o afastamento dos moradores da linha d'água. Concluiu-se que a comunicação e o compartilhamento das informações entre os residentes e as instituições gestoras exercem papel relevante, porém não são os únicos fatores que limitam os resultados no processo de despoluição do córrego Tenente Rocha.

The Clean Stream Program is part of a set of public policies that seek to clean up the main rivers in the city of São Paulo through the recovery of their tributaries. The program acts in the control of punctual loads, and adopts a partnership with local leaders of the basins. The aim of this study is to identify the main social-environmental conflicts in maintaining the cleanliness of the Tenente Rocha stream. The refered stream water is located in the north of São Paulo, and has been benefited from the actions of the Clean Stream Program since 2007. An exploratory qualitative and quantitative research was developed, focusing on social involvement in the quality management of urban watercourses, through the application of a structured choice to the inhabitants of the surroundings of the stream. The analysis of water quality, through the Biochemical Oxygen Demand parameter, showed a reduction in the organic load indices after the initial intervention actions in the stream basin, remaining at values below 30 mg/L on average. In contrast, factors associated with the recurrence of punctual and diffuse loads have caused significant changes in water quality. In the opinion of 95% of residents, the watercourse in question is polluted, which causes the residents to stay away from the waterline. It was concluded that communication and information sharing between residents and management institutions play a relevant role, but they are not the only factors that limit the results of the depollution process of the Tenente Rocha stream.

Public Policy , Water Quality , Water Purification , Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(2): 163-174, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134821


ABSTRACT Introduction: In hemodialysis, patients are exposed to a large volume of water, which may lead to fatal risks if not meeting quality standards. This study aimed to validate an alternative method for monitoring microbiological quality of treated water and assess its applicability in dialysis and dialysate analysis, to allow corrective actions in real-time. Methods: Validation and applicability were analyzed by conventional and alternative methods. For validation, E. coli standard endotoxin was diluted with apyrogenic water in five concentrations. For the applicability analysis, treated water for dialysis was collected from different points in the treatment system (reverse osmosis, drainage canalization at the storage tank bottom, reuse, and loop), and dialysate was collected from four machines located in different rooms in the hemodialysis sector. Results: The validation results were in accordance with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia acceptance criteria, except for the last two concentrations analyzed. In addition, the ruggedness criterion performed under the US Pharmacopoeia was in agreement with the results. Discussion: A limiting factor in the applicability analysis was the absence of the endotoxin maximum permitted level in dialysate by the Brazilian legislation. When comparing the analysis time, the alternative method was more time-consuming than the conventional one. This suggests that the alternative method is effective in the case of few analyses, that is, real-time analyses, favoring corrective actions promptly. On the other hand, it does not support the implementation of the alternative method in a laboratory routine due to the high demand for analyses.

RESUMO Introdução: Na hemodiálise, os pacientes são expostos a um grande volume de água, o que pode levar a riscos fatais se não cumprir com padrões de qualidade. Este estudo teve como objetivo validar um método alternativo para monitorar a qualidade microbiológica da água tratada e avaliar sua aplicabilidade em análises de diálise e dialisato, para permitir ações corretivas em tempo real. Métodos: A validação e aplicabilidade foram analisadas por métodos convencionais e alternativos. Para validação, a endotoxina padrão de E. coli foi diluída com água apirogênica em cinco concentrações. Para a análise de aplicabilidade, a água tratada para diálise foi coletada em diferentes pontos do sistema de tratamento (osmose reversa, canalização de drenagem no fundo do tanque de armazenamento, reutilização e circuito) e o dialisato foi coletado em quatro máquinas localizadas em diferentes salas do setor de hemodiálise. Resultados: Os resultados da validação obedeceram aos critérios de aceitação da Farmacopeia Brasileira, com exceção das duas últimas concentrações analisadas. Além disso, o critério de robustez realizado sob a Farmacopeia dos EUA estava de acordo com os resultados. Discussão: Um fator limitante na análise de aplicabilidade foi a ausência do nível máximo permitido de endotoxina no dialisato pela legislação brasileira. Ao comparar o tempo de análise, o método alternativo consumiu mais tempo que o convencional. Isso sugere que o método alternativo é eficaz no caso de poucas análises, ou seja, análises em tempo real, favorecendo ações corretivas imediatamente. Por outro lado, não suporta a implementação do método alternativo em uma rotina de laboratório devido à alta demanda por análises.

Humans , Water Quality/standards , Water/adverse effects , Dialysis Solutions/analysis , Renal Dialysis/standards , Pharmacopoeias as Topic , Water Microbiology/standards , Brazil/epidemiology , Water/chemistry , Dialysis Solutions/chemistry , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Water Purification/methods , Endotoxins/analysis , Escherichia coli/growth & development
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 79: e1784, 31 mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1489616


A incerteza de medição representa o nível de confiança no resultado. Para a estimativa da incerteza de medição foi empregado o cálculo do desvio padrão da reprodutibilidade intralaboratorial de 48 ensaios de contagem de bactérias heterotróficas pela técnica da membrana filtrante com detecção por fluorescência pelo uso de substrato fluorogênico em amostras de água purificada contaminadas artificialmente entre 10 e 100 UFC/mL. O valor obtido, 1,3 x 10-3 (log10), indica que a técnica utilizada pode ser uma alternativa para a estimativa da incerteza de medição em ensaios microbiológicos quantitativos de contagem de bactérias heterotróficas em amostras de água purificada.

Measurement uncertainty represents the confidence level in the result. To estimate the expanded measurement uncertainty, the standard deviation of intra-laboratory reproducibility of 48 heterotrophic bacterial count assays by fluorescence detection by the use of fluorogenic substrate on artificially contaminated purified water samples between 10 and 100 CFU/mL was used. The value obtained, 1.3 x 10-3 (log10), indicates that the technique used can be an alternative to estimate measurement uncertainty in quantitative microbiological heterotrophic bacterial count assays in purified water samples using fluorogenic substrate.

Heterotrophic Bacteria/analysis , Bacterial Load/methods , Uncertainty , Water Purification , Fluorescence
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz (Online) ; 79: 1-5, 31 mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1342948


A incerteza de medição representa o nível de confiança no resultado. Para a estimativa da incerteza de medição foi empregado o cálculo do desvio padrão da reprodutibilidade intralaboratorial de 48 ensaios de contagem de bactérias heterotróficas pela técnica da membrana filtrante com detecção por fluorescência pelo uso de substrato fluorogênico em amostras de água purificada contaminadas artificialmente entre 10 e 100 UFC/mL. O valor obtido, 1,3 x 10-3 (log10), indica que a técnica utilizada pode ser uma alternativa para a estimativa da incerteza de medição em ensaios microbiológicos quantitativos de contagem de bactérias heterotróficas em amostras de água purificada. (AU)

Measurement uncertainty represents the confidence level in the result. To estimate the expanded measurement uncertainty, the standard deviation of intra-laboratory reproducibility of 48 heterotrophic bacterial count assays by fluorescence detection by the use of fluorogenic substrate on artificially contaminated purified water samples between 10 and 100 CFU/mL was used. The value obtained, 1.3 x 10-3 (log10), indicates that the technique used can be an alternative to estimate measurement uncertainty in quantitative microbiological heterotrophic bacterial count assays in purified water samples using fluorogenic substrate. (AU)

Colony Count, Microbial , Water Purification , Uncertainty , Heterotrophic Bacteria , Fluorescence
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56(e17835): 1-9, 2020.
Article in English | CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, LILACS, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1425768


Failure on the water treatment poses hemodialysis patients at risk of injury and death. Identifying if the patients are exposed to water quality related microbiological risks is an important objective to reduce the mortality for chronic renal patients and is the main issue of this study. We evaluated the microbiological water quality used by 205 dialysis services in São Paulo State, Brazil between 2010 to 2016. The study included heterotrophic bacteria count, total coliforms research, and bacterial endotoxin determination in 1366 dialysis water samples. The number of unsatisfactory clinics for at least one microbiological parameter decreased 16.0% between 2010 to 2015 but increased 57.2% in 2016. In 2010, the most frequent unsatisfactory parameter was related to heterotrophic bacteria count (54.8%) followed by endotoxin determination (45.2%). However, in 2013 an opposite situation was observed: endotoxin determination as the parameter of the higher incidence of nonconformities. Total coliform was verified at a lower frequency. We highlighted the importance of regular monitoring of dialysis water quality to prevent infections caused by dialytic procedures and to ensure that the water is a safe component of the treatment.

Water Samples , Environmental Monitoring , Renal Dialysis , Water Purification , Death , Heterotrophic Bacteria