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1.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 15(1): e37978, jan.- mar.2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1103895

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo elaborar uma proposta para o reuso de água em um restaurante universitário no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, além de propor medidas para redução do seu consumo. Metodologia: Foi aplicado um formulário para quantificação do consumo de água nas etapas de pré-preparo de hortifrutigranjeiros e na higienização de pratos e talheres, em um período de 9 e 13 dias, respectivamente. Em seguida, foi estimado o volume, em litros, de água potável utilizado diariamente em cada etapa. Resultados: Na etapa de pré-preparo de hortifrutigranjeiros, calculouse que são utilizados 2.400 litros por dia; e na etapa de higienização de pratos e talheres, estimou-se o uso de 478 litros por dia. Desta forma, pôde-se calcular o volume total de 2.878 litros por dia que ficarão armazenados para o reuso com fins não potáveis, como por exemplo, a higienização do piso dos refeitórios do restaurante, o que representa 31,97% da quantidade necessária para limpeza de todo o restaurante universitário. Além disso, realizou-se a quantificação dos pontos de água para possível instalação de arejadores nas torneiras, no intuito de reduzir o consumo. Em seguida, elaborou-se o projeto do reservatório de água para reuso. Conclusão: Por fim, atestou-se a importância da proposta apresentada, tendo em vista a significativa quantidade de água com possibilidade de reuso que é desperdiçada diariamente, contribuindo-se assim com a preservação ambiental e diminuição dos custos do restaurante universitário. (AU)


Objective: The aim of the present study was to propose the reuse of water in a university restaurant in the state of Rio de Janeiro, as well as measures to reduce consumption. Methods: A form was applied to quantify water consumption during the pre-preparation of fresh produce and the sanitization of dishes and flatware, within a period of 9 and 13 days, respectively. Later, the volume of potable water used daily was estimated in liters. Results: The estimated volume of water used per day was 2.400 liters for pre-preparation of fresh produce and 478 liters of water per day for sanitization of dishes and flatware. Thus, a total volume of 2.878 liters of water per day for non-potable reuse was estimated, such as, for example, for the sanitization of the dining hall floor of the restaurant. In addition, the quantification of water points for possible installation of faucet aerators was made aiming to reduce consumption. Next, a project of the storage container for the reuse of water was developed. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the importance of the proposal is related to the significant quantity of daily wasted water that could be reused and thus, contribute to environmental preservation and decrease the water expenses of the university restaurant. (AU)


Subject(s)
Water , Water Recycling , Restaurants , Universities , Water Consumption (Environmental Health) , Gray Water , Water Reservoirs , Environmental Management , Quality Management
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 1-11, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1089295

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to characterize the limnological, microystin and phytoplankton community of five tropical eutrophic reservoirs located in the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region, used for domestic use at the time of extreme drought and reduction of water volume. The study was conducted in July and August 2015, and an integrated sample of the water column was collected at three points near the dam in each reservoir. Analysis of limnological parameters, identification and quantification of phytoplankton, with emphasis on cyanobacteria were performed, as well as detection of microcystin by means of immunoassay (ELISA). The reservoirs presented ~ 90% water volume reduction. High turbidity and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as high cyanobacterial densities, revealed an increase in the eutrophic state for hypereutrophy. The total biovolume of phytoplankton and cyanobacterial density is high, plus an average increase in relation to previous studies of 350% and 150%, respectively. The density of cyanobacteria and microcystin concentration presented values ​​above acceptable levels for drinking water according to Brazilian legislation. A phytoplankton community was represented by 17 functional groups, including potentially toxic cyanobacteria species such as Planktothrix agardhii (S1), Microcystis aeruginosa (M), Anabaena planktonica e Anabaena spp. (H1), Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Sn). Our results confirm that conditions of extreme drought and reduction of the volume of the reservoirs influence the composition, biovolume of phytoplankton and water quality, but not the increase of total microcystin in the analysed, although above 1μg-1 registered a significant decrease of water quality in used for human consumption.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a comunidade limnológica, microistalina e fitoplanctônica de cinco reservatórios eutróficos tropicais localizados no semi-árido nordestino brasileiro, utilizados para uso doméstico no período de seca extrema e redução do volume de água. O estudo foi realizado em julho e agosto de 2015, e uma amostra integrada da coluna de água foi coletada em três pontos próximos à barragem em cada reservatório. Análises de parâmetros limnológicos, identificação e quantificação do fitoplâncton, com ênfase em cianobactérias, foram realizadas, assim como a detecção de microcistina por meio de imunoensaio (ELISA). Os reservatórios apresentaram ~ 90% de redução do volume de água. A alta turbidez e as concentrações de nitrogênio e fósforo, bem como as altas densidades de cianobactérias, revelaram um aumento no estado eutrófico da hipereutrofia. O biovolume total de fitoplâncton e densidade de cianobactérias é alto, além de um aumento médio em relação a estudos anteriores de 350% e 150%, respectivamente. A densidade de cianobactérias e a concentração de microcistina apresentaram valores acima dos níveis aceitáveis ​​para água de consumo, de acordo com a legislação brasileira. Uma comunidade fitoplanctônica foi representada por 17 grupos funcionais, incluindo espécies de cianobactérias potencialmente tóxicas, como Planktothrix agardhii (S1), Microcystis aeruginosa (M), Anabaena planktonica e Anabaena spp. (H1), Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Sn). Nossos resultados confirmam que condições de seca extrema e redução do volume dos reservatórios influenciam a composição, o biovolume de fitoplâncton e a qualidade da água, mas não o aumento do total de microcistina no analisado, embora acima de 1μg-1 tenha registrado uma diminuição significativa da qualidade da água usado para consumo humano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phytoplankton , Microcystins , Water Supply , Brazil , Water , Droughts
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 23-29, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1089294

ABSTRACT

Abstract Most of the wild and native legume seeds has a hard and impermeable testa, which causes physical dormancy and prevents them from germinating even when environmental conditions are favorable. The study evaluated the effect of scarification treatments on germination and enzymatic activity of Crotalaria longirostrata (Cl) and Lupinus exaltatus (Le) seeds. After scarification treatments, germination percentage (GP) and rate (GR) were assessed during 30 days after seeding (DAS); and water absorption (WA) and specific enzymatic activity (SEA) during early germination (0, 6, 18, 36, 72, 120 h) in a growing chamber at 25 °C and photoperiod of 12 h. Scarification with 98% H2SO4 15 min increased GP and GR in both species. At 30 DAS, GP and GR of Le seeds were 34% and 0.97 seeds day-1, respectively. In Cl seeds, GP was 64% and GR 0.90 seeds day-1. Scarification with H2O at 80 °C 1 min also promoted germination in Cl (52%). At 120 h after seeding, Le and Cl seeds showed already a high GP with acid scarification (31% and 48%, respectively). In seeds of both species, scarification treatments affected WA and SEA during early germination. During this period, scarification treatments that increased GP also showed a higher α-D-galactosidase activity. The maximum enzyme activity was observed 72 h after hot water scarification in Cl (82.6 U/mg total protein), followed by acid scarification (54.5 U/mg total protein). In Le, the activity peak was 36 h after acid scarification (9.5 U/mg total protein). No relationship was observed between β-glucosidase activity and GP in both species. In conclusion, during early germination of both species, the increase in GP is accompanied by a rise in α-D-galactosidase activity between 36 and 72 h after seeding; and in Cl seeds, an alternative scarification treatment to increase GP may be the use of hot water.


Resumo A maioria das sementes de leguminosas nativas e selvagens têm um tegumento rígido e impermeável, ​​o que causa dormência física e impede a germinação, mesmo se as condições ambientais forem favoráveis. O estudo avaliou o efeito de tratamentos de escarificação sobre a germinação e a atividade enzimática de sementes de Crotalaria longirostrata (Cl) e Lupinus exaltatus (Le). Após os tratamentos de escarificação, a percentagem (PG) e a velocidade de germinação (VG) foram avaliadas durante 30 dias após a semeadura (DAS); absorção de água (AA) e atividade enzimática específica (AEE) na fase inicial da germinação (0, 6, 18, 36, 72 e 120 h) em uma câmara de crescimento a 25 °C e fotoperíodo de 12 h. A escarificação com 98% de H2SO4, durante 15 min aumentou PG e VG nas duas espécies. Aos 30 DDS, PG e VG de sementes de Le foram de 34% e 0,97 sementes dia -1, respectivamente. Em sementes de Cl, PG foi de 64% e VG 0,90 sementes dias-1. A escarificação com H2O a 80 °C 1 min também promoveu a germinação em Cl (52%). A 120 h após a semeadura, as sementes de Cl e Le já tinha atingido uma alta PG com escarificação ácida (31% e 48%, respectivamente). Nas sementes das duas espécies, os tratamentos de escarificação afetaram a AEE e a AA nafase inicial da germinação. Durante este período, os tratamentos de escarificação que aumentaram PG, também mostraram a atividade mais elevada de α-D-galactosidase. A atividade enzimática máxima foi observada 72 h após o tratamento com água quente em Cl (82,6 U/mg de proteína total), seguido por escarificação ácida (54,5 U/mg de proteína total). Em Le, o pico de atividade foi de 36 h após a aplicação do tratamento ácido (9,5 U/mg de proteína total). Em contraste, não foi observado nenhuma relação entre a actividade β-glicosidase e PG. Em conclusão, durante a germinação precoce das duas espécies, o aumento da GP é acompanhado por um aumento da atividade da α-D-galactosidase entre 36 e 72 h após a semeadura; e em sementes de Cl, um tratamento de escarificação alternativo para aumentar GP pode ser o uso de água quente.


Subject(s)
Crotalaria , Lupinus , Fabaceae , Seeds , Water , Germination
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 115-121, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1089286

ABSTRACT

Abstract According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), roughly one-third of the total food produced is lost globally. The major cause of this wastage is the perishability of fruits and vegetables. Therefore, researchers have endeavored to develop an effective preservation technique. Our study explored the potential application of spider silk as an odourless and edible preservative coating for fruits. The spider silk was collected from spiders reared in the laboratory, following by degumming and dissolution to formulate the silk solution. For this study, apricots were selected as the model fruit. The apricots were dip coated with the formulated silk solution and allowed to dry. In order to enhance the beta sheet content of the silk coating, the fruits were exposed to water annealing for varying intervals of time under vacuum condition. The effect of silk coating and water annealing time period on preservation of fruits was then evaluated morphologically and gravimetrically. The results showed that the fruits, which were used as control, exhibited a greater degree of water loss and suffered from fungal attack. In contrast, the silk coated fruits showed less water loss and were protected from fungal attack. Therefore, the study provides compelling evidence regarding the application of spider silk as a preservative coating.


Resumo Segundo a Organização para Alimentação e Agricultura (FAO), cerca de um terço do total de alimentos produzidos é perdido globalmente. A principal causa deste desperdício é a perecibilidade das frutas e legumes. Portanto, os pesquisadores têm se esforçado para desenvolver uma técnica de preservação eficaz. Nosso estudo explorou a potencial aplicação de seda de aranha como um revestimento conservante inodoro e comestível para frutas. A seda da aranha foi coletada de aranhas criadas em laboratório, seguindo-se a degomagem e dissolução para formular a solução de seda. Para este estudo, os damascos foram selecionados como fruto modelo. Os damascos foram revestidos por imersão com a solução de seda formulada e deixados secar. A fim de aumentar o teor de folhas beta do revestimento de seda, os frutos foram expostos a recozimento de água durante vários intervalos de tempo sob condições de vácuo. O efeito do tempo de recobrimento de seda e recozimento de água na preservação de frutos foi então avaliado morfologicamente e gravimetricamente. Os resultados mostraram que os frutos, utilizados como controle, apresentaram maior grau de perda de água e sofreram ataque fúngico. Em contraste, os frutos revestidos de seda mostraram menos perda de água e foram protegidos contra ataques fúngicos. Portanto, o estudo fornece evidências convincentes sobre a aplicação de seda de aranha como um revestimento conservante.


Subject(s)
Spiders , Prunus armeniaca , Vegetables , Water , Silk , Fruit
5.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-762177

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Alterations in the intestinal microbiota in early life affects the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) in humans. This study aimed to further investigate the effects of gut dysbiosis in early life in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of AD. METHODS: The AD mouse model was developed by serial OVA sensitization and mice were treated with an antibiotic cocktail in their drinking water for 2 weeks before primary sensitization. Probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, 1 × 10⁹ CFU) or 100 µL of fresh fecal supernatant were orally administered daily from 1 week before the first sensitization until the end of the study. RESULTS: The AD mice which received antibiotics had significantly aggravated phenotypes, including clinical score, transepidermal water loss, and histopathology, compared to those treated with healthy feces or probiotics. Total systemic immunoglobulin E production and skin interleukin (IL) 4 levels were significantly increased in the antibiotic-treated mice compared to the other groups. Antibiotic treatment also increased the levels of IL17 and group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) in the gut and significantly suppressed the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and decreased the number FOXP3⁺ cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the status of the gut microbiota in early life in the mouse may play a crucial role in AD development through intestinal SCFA production through regulate the numbers of CD4⁺IL17⁺/CD4⁺FOXP3⁺ regulatory T cells and ILC3s.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Cytokines , Dermatitis, Atopic , Drinking Water , Dysbiosis , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Feces , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Interleukins , Intestines , Lymphocytes , Mice , Microbiota , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Phenotype , Probiotics , Skin , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Water
6.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-786599

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study evaluated color stability of Dentca 3D-printed denture teeth, in comparison to color stabilities of four conventional types of denture teeth, upon being immersed in various colorants.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four types of conventional prefabricated denture teeth (Surpass, GC, Artic 6, Heraeus Kulzer, Premium 6, Heraeus Kulzer, Preference, Candulor), 3D-printed denture teeth (Dentca); and Z250 (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) were prepared for testing. The samples were immersed in erythrosine 3%, coffee, cola, and distilled water (DW) at 37℃. Color change (ΔE) was measured by spectrophotometer before immersion and at 7, 14, and 21 days after immersion. One-way analysis of variance was performed along with Tukey's honestly significant difference multiple comparisons test (P<.05).RESULTS: No great difference was observed between the color change of Dentca denture teeth and that of conventional denture teeth in most cases (P>.05). The color change of Dentca denture teeth immersed in erythrosine 3% was greater than that of Surpass (ΔE = 0.67 ± 0.25) after 1 week; Artic 6 (ΔE = 1.44 ± 0.38) and Premium 6 (ΔE = 1.69 ± 0.35) after 2 weeks; and Surpass (ΔE = 1.79 ± 0.49), Artic 6 (ΔE = 2.07 ± 0.21), Premium 6 (ΔE = 2.03 ± 0.75), and Preference (ΔE = 2.01 ± 0.75) after 3 weeks (P<.05).CONCLUSION: A color change was observed in Dentca denture teeth when immersed in some colorants; however, the maximum value of ΔE for Dentca denture teeth was within the clinically acceptable range.


Subject(s)
Coffee , Cola , Dentures , Erythrosine , Immersion , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Tooth , Water
7.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 151-154, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811082

ABSTRACT

Aquagenic wrinkling of the palms (AWP) is a rare condition, which is characterized by appearance of whitish papules and plaques and an excessive wrinkling and swelling of the palmar skin after exposure to water. Herein, we report two cases of AWP. A 17-year-old woman presented prickling focal various sized whitish papules, plaques with wrinkles on both palms after water contact for 6 months ago. Histologic findings were consistent with AWP. A 26-year-old woman presented asymptomatic multiple various sized whitish papules, plaques with wrinkles on both palms after water contact for 1 year ago. Both patients underwent a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conduct receptor test but were negative and improved without any treatment.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Cystic Fibrosis , Female , Humans , Skin , Water
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(10): e201901007, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1054673

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To conduct a scope review of the experimental model described by Walker and Mason, by identifying and analyzing the details of the method. Methods: The authors searched Pubmed-Medline, Cochrane-Bireme and PEDro databases for articles published between January 2016 and December 2018, using the following search queries: burns, burn injuries, models animal, and animal experimentation. All articles whose authors used Walker and Mason's model - with or without changes to the method in Wistar rats - were included in this study. Results: The search identified 45 mentions of Walker and Mason's model; however, after reading each summary, 20 were excluded (of which 5 due to duplicity). The inconsistencies observed after the scope review were: water temperature, length of time of exposure of the experimental model's skin to water, extent of the burnt area, and the description of the thickness/depth of the injury. Conclusions: Reproducibility of a scientific method is the basis to prove the veracity of the observed results. Thus, it is necessary to have a greater number of publications that adopt a reproducible scientific method, for this review found inconsistencies in the description of Walker and Mason's model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Burns/etiology , Disease Models, Animal , Hot Temperature , Skin/injuries , Time Factors , Water , Reproducibility of Results
9.
Poblac. salud mesoam ; 16(2): 1-27, Jan.-Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1091662

ABSTRACT

Abstract Analyzes Costa Rica's recent efforts to achieve a sustainable environmental sanitation. Mainly, it is based on a reference that integrates the notion of environmental sanitation practices at multiple levels: both at the macro level (environmental and social policies) and at the micro level (community actions and individual daily practices), using the theoretical perspective of the social resilience. To carry out the study, a mixed methodology was used, the qualitative data were obtained from in-depth interviews with national authorities, local, community leaders, and head of households. The quantitative data were obtained from the application of a survey to three different communities with rural, urban, and semi-urban characteristics. At the national level, the main result is a paradigm shift in the conception of health, where the joint production of healthy environments should be paramount, within the framework of the right to live in a healthy and sustainable environment. At the community level, local efforts to protect their natural resources for tourism or productive purposes are highlighted; at the individual level, a mixture of reactive and proactive daily practices have been identified.


Resumen Se analizan recientes esfuerzos en Costa Rica por alcanzar un saneamiento ambiental sostenible. Principalmente, se parte de un referente que integra la noción de prácticas de saneamiento ambiental en múltiples niveles: tanto a nivel macro (políticas ambientales y sociales) como a nivel micro (acciones comunitarias y prácticas cotidianas individuales), utilizando la perspectiva teórica de la resiliencia social. Para la realización del estudio se empleó una metodología mixta, los datos cualitativos se obtuvieron de entrevistas en profundidad a autoridades nacionales, locales, líderes comunales, y jefaturas de hogar. Los datos cuantitativos se obtuvieron de la aplicación de una encuesta a tres comunidades distintas con características rurales, urbanas, y semi-urbanas. A nivel nacional, como principal resultado, se resalta un cambio de paradigma en cuanto a la concepción de salud, donde lo primordial debe ser la producción conjunta de ambientes saludables, en el marco del derecho a vivir en un ambiente sostenible. A nivel comunal, se resaltan los esfuerzos locales por proteger sus recursos naturales con fines turísticos o productivos; y, a nivel individual, se resalta una mixtura entre prácticas cotidianas reactivas y proactivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Water , Sanitation , Costa Rica , Environmental Policy , Sustainable Development
10.
Rev. luna azul ; 48: [23]-[47], Enero 01, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1119438

ABSTRACT

El presente artículo presenta de manera detallada los resultados de la investigación sobre una propuesta de lineamientos de política pública para el municipio de Filandia-Quindío. El trabajo tuvo como objetivo general proponer lineamientos de política pública para la gestión del agua en el municipio de Filandia, para lo cual se estableció como pregunta de investigación ¿fueron las acciones de la administración pública municipal, departamental y de la autoridad ambiental para la gestión del agua en el municipio de Filandia durante el periodo 2008-2015 beneficiosas para el interés general de la población y de los ecosistemas estratégicos en el ciclo del agua? La metodología que se usó fue tipo cualitativa, se buscó y analizó información primaria y secundaria, mediante técnicas documentales y grupo focal. Los resultados obtenidos son la caracterización y diagnóstico de políticas públicas tendientes a la gestión del agua y la elaboración de cuatro lineamientos de política pública para la gestión del agua en el municipio de Filandia. Como conclusiones se tiene que hubo acciones, pero fueron poco efectivas evidenciado por las problemáticas existentes; no hay armonización de políticas en el orden nacional, departamental y municipal; insuficientes predios para la conservación; potencial hídrico manifestado en el abastecimiento de agua a varias poblaciones vecinas y la necesidad de los lineamientos como insumo para la gestión del agua.


This paper presents in detail the results of the research on a proposal of public policy for the Municipality of Filandia, Quindio. The objective of the research was to propose public policy guidelines for water management in the Municipality of Filandia, for which a research question was established as follows: Were the actions of the municipal, and the departmental administration and of the environmental authority beneficial for the general interest of the population and of the strategic ecosystems in the water cycle for the management of water in the Municipality of Filandia during the period 2008-2015? The methodology used was qualitative and primary and secondary information using documentary techniques and focus group was sought and analyzed. The results obtained are the characterization and diagnosis of public policies aimed at the management of water and the elaboration of four public policy guidelines for water management in the Municipality of Filandia. It can be concluded that there were actions, but they were ineffective which is evidenced by the existing problems: there is no harmonization of policies at the national, departmental and municipal order; there are insufficient properties for conservation; water potential manifested in the supply of water to various neighboring populations; and the need for guidelines as an input for the management of water.


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Water , Environmental Policy
11.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 23: e-1263, jan.2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1047867

ABSTRACT

As infecções do trato urinário relacionadas ao cateterismo urinário de demora estão entre as mais frequentes em hospitais. Existem várias recomendações para a prevenção de infecções, porém ainda se questiona a necessidade de utilizar antissépticos para a limpeza periuretral. Objetivo: este estudo objetivou analisar as evidências, na literatura, acerca do tema. Método: foi realizada revisão sistemática utilizando-se as bases de dados Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Medline, Embase, Web of Science e Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature. Foram incluídos ensaios clínicos que avaliaram as taxas de infecção do trato urinário/bacteriúria e que utilizaram soluções antissépticas e água na limpeza periuretral. Resultados: de 211 estudos, três foram considerados metodologicamente adequados de acordo com a Escala de Jadad. Todos os estudos mostraram que não há diferenças significativas nas taxas de ITU/ bacteriúria quando comparado o uso de água com antisséptico (clorexidina ou povidona-iodo). Conclusão: concluiu-se que o uso de água na limpeza periuretral parece não aumentar o risco de adquirir infecção/bacteriúria.(AU)


Urinary tract infections related to indwelling urinary catheterization are among the most frequent in hospitals. There are many recommendations for the prevention of infections, but the need to use antiseptics for periurethral cleaning is still questioned. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the evidence on the theme in the literature. Method: A systematic review was performed using the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature. Clinical trials were included which assessed the infection rates of the urinary tract/bacteriuria and which used antiseptic solutions and water in the periurethral cleaning. Results: Of 211 studies, three were considered as methodologically adequate according to the Jadad Scale. All of the studies showed that there is no significant difference in the rates of UTI/bacteriuria when compared to the use of water with antiseptic (chlorhexidine or povidone-iodine). Conclusion: It was concluded that the use of water in the periurethral cleaning seems not to augment the risk of acquiring infections/bacteriuria.(AU)


Las infecciones del tracto urinario relacionadas con el cateterismo urinario permanente se encuentran entre las infecciones hospitalarias más comunes. Existen recomendaciones para la prevención de infecciones, pero aún se cuestiona la necesidad de usar antisépticos para la limpieza periuretral. Objetivo: analizar la evidencia en la literatura sobre el tema. Método: se realizó una revisión sistemática utilizando las bases de datos de la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, Medline, Embase, Web of Science y Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature. Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos que evaluaron las tasas de infección urinaria / bacteriuria y el uso de soluciones antisépticas y agua para la limpieza periuretral. Resultados: de 211 estudios, tres se consideraron metodológicamente adecuados según la escala de Jadad. Todos los estudios mostraron que no hay diferencias significativas en las tasas de infección urinaria / bacteriuria en comparación con el uso de agua antiséptica (clorhexidina o povidona yodada). Conclusión: el uso de agua para la limpieza periuretral no parece aumentar el riesgo de contraer infección / bacteriuria.(AU)


Subject(s)
Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Catheterization , Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary , Povidone-Iodine , Water , Chlorhexidine
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 53-62, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-984007

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, photosynthetic pigments, proline and carbohydrate contents in Pitcairnia encholirioides under ex vitro conditions of water deficit were evaluated. Results show that plants under progressive water stress, previously in vitro cultured in media supplemented with 30 g L-1 sucrose and GA3, accumulated more proline and increased peroxidase (POD) activity and the contents of photosynthetic pigments and carbohydrates. For plants previously in vitro cultured with 15 g L-1 sucrose and NAA, no differences were found for proline content and there were reductions in activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and poliphenoloxidase (PPO), and in contents of carbohydrates, with progress of ex vitro water deficit. After rehydration, plants showed physiological recovery, with enzymatic activities and contents of metabolites similar to those found in the controls not submitted to dehydration, regardless of the previous in vitro culture conditions. These results show that micropropagated P. encholirioides has high tolerance to dehydration once in ex vitro conditions, which can ensure the survival of plants from tissue culture when transferred to its natural environment, emphasizing the importance of such biotechnology for the propagation of endangered species.


Resumo Neste estudo, foram avaliadas as atividades de enzimas antioxidantes, pigmentos fotossintéticos, conteúdo de prolina e carboidratos em Pitcairnia encholirioides sob déficit hídrico em condições ex vitro. Os resultados mostraram que as plantas sob estresse hídrico progressivo, previamente cultivadas in vitro em meio de cultura suplementado com 30 g L-1 de sacarose e GA3 acumularam mais prolina e aumentaram a atividade da peroxidase (POD) e os teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos e carboidratos. Para plantas previamente cultivadas in vitro com 15 g L-1 de sacarose e ANA, não foram encontradas diferenças nos conteúdos de prolina e houve reduções nas atividades da peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) e polifenoloxidase (PPO), e no conteúdo de carboidratos, com o progresso do déficit hídrico ex vitro. Após a reidratação, as plantas apresentaram recuperação fisiológica, com atividades enzimáticas e conteúdo de metabólitos semelhantes aos encontrados nos controles não sujeitos à desidratação, independentemente das condições de cultivo in vitro. Estes resultados mostram que P. encholirioides micropropagada tem alta tolerância à desidratação uma vez em condições ex vitro, o que pode garantir a sobrevivência de plantas provenientes da cultura de tecidos quando transferidas para seu ambiente natural, enfatizando a importância desta biotecnologia para a propagação de espécies ameaçadas.


Subject(s)
Photosynthesis/physiology , Proline/metabolism , Water/metabolism , Bromeliaceae/physiology , Droughts , Antioxidants/metabolism , Pigments, Biological , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Bromeliaceae/enzymology , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Longevity
13.
Educ. fis. deporte ; 38(1): https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/educacionfisicaydeporte/article/view/338495, Enero 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1104420

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: determinar el efecto de la inmersión en agua fría sobre los marcadores de daño muscular inducidos por el ejercicio excéntrico. Metodología: estudio cuasi-experimental, con 15 hombres nadadores, 10 en el grupo de tratamiento y 5 en el grupo control. Luego del protocolo excéntrico, con 2 series de 10 repeticiones en extensión de rodilla, el grupo de tratamiento tuvo 15 minutos de inmersión en agua fría, a 15 °C ± 1 °C, y el grupo control tuvo 15 minutos de inmersión en agua termoneutra, a 32 °C ± 1 °C. Las variables (CK, LDH, salto vertical, potencia y percepción del dolor) se registraron a las 24, 48 y 72 horas posteriores a la intervención. Resultados: la inmersión en agua fría no tiene efectos estadísticamente significativos en la reducción de los marcadores de daño muscular.


Objective: To determine the effect of immersion in cold water on markers of muscle damage induced by eccentric exercise. Methodology: Quasi-experimental study, with 15 male swimmers, 10 in the treatment group and 5 in the control group. After the eccentric protocol, with 2 series of 10 repetitions in knee extension, the treatment group had 15 minutes of immersion in cold water, at 15 °C ± 1 °C, and the control group had 15 minutes of immersion in thermoneutral water, at 32 °C ± 1 °C. The variables (CK, LDH, vertical jump, power and pain perception) were recorded at 24, 48 and 72 hours after the intervention. Results: Immersion in cold water has no statistically significant effects in reducing markers of muscle damage.


Objetivo: Determinar o efeito da imersão em água fria sobre os marcadores de dano muscular induzido por exercício excêntrico. Metodologia: Estudo quase experimental, 15 homens nadadores, 10 no grupo de tratamento e 5 no grupo de controle. Após o protocolo excêntrico (2 séries de 10 repetições na extensão do joelho), o grupo de tratamento teve 15 minutos de imersão em água fria a 15 ° C ± 1 ° C e o grupo controle teve 15 minutos de imersão em água termo-neutra a 32 ° C ± 1 ° C. As variáveis (CK, LDH, salto vertical, potência e percepção da dor) foram registradas nas 24, 48 e 72 horas após a intervenção. Resultados: A imersão em água fria não tem efeitos estatisticamente significativos na redução dos marcadores de dano muscular.


Subject(s)
Swimming , Water , Exercise , Wounds and Injuries
14.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 486-497, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782311

ABSTRACT

The leaf extract of Platycarya strobilacea (PSL) has long been recognized as possessing various health-promoting activities. However, information on its possible protective effects against ischemic stroke is currently lacking. Here, using a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia (fCI), we studied the protective potential of an oral supplement of PSL. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: SO, a group subjected to a sham-operation; VEH, pretreated with distilled water and subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R); PSL-L and PSL-H, pretreated with low (20 mg/kg) and high (100 mg/kg) doses of PSL, respectively, and subjected to the MCAO/R procedure. PSL was administered via an oral route daily for 8 days prior to surgery. We then measured the infarct volumes and sensorimotor deficits and studied the underlying antioxidant mechanisms by quantifying apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, oxidative damages, and antioxidant enzymes in the ischemic cortex. The results showed a marked attenuation in infarct volume and sensorimotor deficits in both the PSL-L and PSL-H groups when compared with VEH. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and the immunohistochemical detection of the cleaved caspase-3 revealed that PSL could reduce cellular apoptosis in the ischemic lesion in a dose-dependent manner. The dihydroethidium-fluorescence, 4-hydroxynonenal, and 8-hydroxyl-2′-deoxyguanosine immunoreactivities in the ischemic lesion were markedly attenuated in the PSL-L group compared with the VEH group, indicating that PSL could attenuate ROS generation and the associated oxidative damage in the ischemic cortex. Finally, western blot results indicated that PSL can upregulate levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an antioxidant enzyme, in the lesion area. Together, these results suggest that PSL can exert protective effects against fCI, and the mechanism may involve HO-1 upregulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Brain Ischemia , Brain , Caspase 3 , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Mice , Reactive Oxygen Species , Reperfusion , Stroke , Up-Regulation , Water
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-766407

ABSTRACT

Aspiration is the entry of materials, such as pharyngeal secretions, food, or stomach contents, into the respiratory system. Dysphagia is the most common risk factor of aspiration, but there are many other risk factors. A single factor or multiple factors may be present to induce the aspiration, and the risk factors of aspiration should be considered multidimensional. The bedside water test is suitable as a screening test for an evaluation of aspiration. Videofluoroscopic swallowing study and flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing are the diagnostic tests of aspiration and the tests are required if the screening test shows signs of aspiration or silent aspiration is strongly suspected. The diagnostic test should assess not only the presence of aspiration, but also the pathophysiologic risk factors of aspiration.


Subject(s)
Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Gastrointestinal Contents , Mass Screening , Respiratory Aspiration , Respiratory System , Risk Factors , Water
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-766406

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined how changes in the volume, texture, and taste of food affect the variation of tongue pressure during the swallowing of food in healthy adults. METHODS: Fifty-four healthy subjects participated in this study. The tongue pressure was measured using an Iowa Oral. Performance Instrument (IOPI) during swallowing of food in 54 healthy adults. The food bolus with modified volumes (3, 5, 10, and 15 ml), textures (water, puree, and cracker), and tastes (pure water, sour taste, sweet taste, and salty taste) were provided and the variation of the tongue pressure was traced during the swallowing of food. RESULTS: The tongue pressure changed significantly when the volume of food chunks increased. When the texture of food was modified, the tongue pressure was significantly different when swallowing a cracker than when swallowing water and puree. In addition, the tongue pressure was increased more by a sour taste liquid than pure water or sweet taste liquid. CONCLUSION: When swallowing food, the tongue pressure at the appropriate level is essential for safe swallowing. Because modification of the volume, texture, and taste of food can induce the variation of tongue pressure, it can be recommended as an effective therapeutic method that can move food in the mouth.


Subject(s)
Adult , Deglutition , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Iowa , Methods , Mouth , Tongue , Water
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-765989

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical properties of different batches of Saururus chinensis using different roasting temperature that were dried at different using different roasting temperatures and their were determined the antioxidative activities of water and 70% ethanol extracts. METHODS: Extracts were examined for the total phenolic acid content, the and flavonoids contents and the antioxidant properties, including DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTs scavenging activity and, the reducing power. RESULTS: Moisture content was significantly higher in the LSC and the crude ash content was significantly higher in the HSC. The crude protein content was higher in the LSC (although not significantly), and the crude fat and carbohydrate contents were higher in the HSC (although not significantly). The total phenolic content was lower in the samples extracted with water, but there was no significant difference. However, the extracts extracted with 70% ethanol at a high drying temperature were significantly higher. The low temperature and high drying temperature batches of Saururus chinensis were significantly higher in the samples extracted with 70% ethanol than those extracted with 70% ethanol. The total phenolic acid content, the total flavonoid content and the electron donating ability were highest in the ethanol extract of Saururuschinensis treated at a high temperature. However, the ABTs radical activity was highest in the water extracted, high-temperature treated Saururuschinensis. The 70% ethanol extract of high temperature roasted Saururuschinensis had the highest antioxidative activities of all the Saururuschinensis batches. CONCLUSION: The total phenolic acid contents, total flavonoid contents, electron donating activity and reducing power activity were highest in all the 70% ethanol extraction batches of the high-temperature treated samples.


Subject(s)
Ethanol , Flavonoids , Phenol , Saururaceae , Water
19.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-765988

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of bioactive Yeonsan Ogye peptides (YOPs) intake on changes in the hepatic anti-oxidant indexes in male rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 3 groups and given a casein-based AIN-93G diet and distilled water ad libitum without any added YOPs (control), distilled water with 250 mg of YOPs (Y250), or 500 mg of YOPs (Y500) per kg of body weight for 4 weeks. YOP dose was decided as referred to in the referenced study where toxicity did not occur. The hepatic anti-oxidant indexes were determined using a commercial kit. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 23.0 and are expressed as mean ± standard error of mean. Differences among the groups were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc Duncan's multiple comparisons test. RESULTS: There were no differences in the body weights, weight gain, food intake, food efficiency ratio, or organ weight, including liver, kidney, spleen, thymus, and epididymal fat, among all of the groups. The hepatic nitric oxide (NO) level in the Y500 group was lower than that in the control and Y250 groups, and the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level was lower in the Y500 group than in the Y250 group. The differences in hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were not statistically significant between the groups. From these results we speculated that YOPs may have anti-oxidative abilities to regulate NO and MDA production without affecting SOD and CAT activities. CONCLUSION: YOPs are presumed to act as anti-oxidants in the animal or human body.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Catalase , Cats , Diet , Eating , Human Body , Humans , Kidney , Liver , Male , Malondialdehyde , Nitric Oxide , Organ Size , Peptides , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spleen , Superoxide Dismutase , Thymus Gland , Water , Weight Gain
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-765985

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Aster glehnii (AG) and Aster yomena (AY) are medicinal plants that belong to the family Compositea and grow widely in Korea. Plants in the genus Aster have been used to treat snakebite wounds or bruises in oriental medicine. This study compared the effects of anti-oxidants and anti-adipocyte differentiation according to the species (the aerial parts of AG and AY). METHODS: AG and AY were extracted using 70% ethanol (−E) and water (−W) at room temperature. The anti-oxidant activities were measured by total phenol contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), DPPH and ABTS+ assay. In addition, correlation analysis was performed for the anti-oxidant compounds and effect. The level of anti-adipocyte differentiation was assessed using an oil red O assay on pre-adipocytes. RESULTS: AG-W showed higher TPC (6.92 µg/mL) and AG-E presented higher TFC (8.22 µg/mL) than the other extracts. Furthermore, AG-E exhibited higher radical scavenging activity in the DPPH and ABTS+ assay (IC50: 104.88 and 30.06 µg/mL). In the cytotoxicity assay, AG and AY extracts at concentrations less than 100µg/mL were non toxic. AG-W reduced the lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells significantly after differentiation (70.49%) compared to the other extracts. CONCLUSION: These results show that the water extract of AG has anti-oxidant effects and reduces the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Therefore, AG has utility as a functional food material for its anti-oxidant activities and ability to prevent lipid accumulation.


Subject(s)
3T3-L1 Cells , Adipocytes , Antioxidants , Contusions , Ethanol , Functional Food , Humans , Korea , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Phenol , Plants, Medicinal , Snake Bites , Water , Wounds and Injuries
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