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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257314, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355908

ABSTRACT

Abstract Melon production in the Brazilian semi-arid region is subject to the use of marginal waters with high salinity. However, the use of regulators and bioactivators in seed treatment can mitigate the harmful effects of salts in irrigation water. In this context, the objective was to evaluate the effect of pre-germination treatments with plant regulators and bioactivator in melon seeds for the production of seedlings irrigated with biosaline water from fish farming effluent. For this, two trials with the Goldex and Grand Prix hybrids were carried out separately. A completely randomized design was used in a 4 × 3 factorial scheme (pre-germination treatments × water dilutions). In addition to the control, the seeds were treated with salicylic and gibberellic acids and thiamethoxam. The waters used for irrigation were local-supply water, fish farming effluent (biosaline water) and these diluted to 50%. Physiological and biochemical analyses were performed for fourteen days. Biosaline water (5.0 dS m-1) did not affect the emergence of Goldex melon seedlings, but compromised the establishment of the Grand Prix cultivar. Seed pre-treatments with salicylic and gibberellic acids attenuate the effects of water salinity and promote growth modulations, resulting in more vigorous melon seedlings.


Resumo A produção de meloeiro no semiárido brasileiro está sujeita a utilização de águas marginais com salinidade elevada. Entretanto, a utilização de reguladores e bioativadores no tratamento de sementes podem mitigar os efeitos nocivos dos sais na água de irrigação. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de tratamentos pré-germinativos com fitorreguladores e bioativador em sementes de melão para a produção de mudas irrigadas com água biossalina de efluente de piscicultura. Para isso, dois ensaios com os híbridos Goldex e Grand Prix foram realizados separadamente. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 × 3 (tratamentos pré-germinativos × diluições de água). Além do controle, as sementes foram tratadas com os ácidos salicílico e giberélico, e tiametoxam. As águas utilizadas para irrigação foram a de abastecimento local, efluente de piscicultura (água biossalina) e estas diluídas a 50%. Durante quatorze dias foram realizadas as análises fisiológicas e bioquímicas. A água biossalina (5,0 dS m-1) não afetou a emergência de plântulas de meloeiro Goldex, mas prejudicou o estabelecimento da cultivar Grand Prix. Os pré-tratamentos de sementes com os ácidos salicílico e giberélico atenuam os efeitos da salinidade da água e promovem modulações no crescimento, proporcionando mudas de meloeiro mais vigorosas.


Subject(s)
Germination , Cucurbitaceae , Seeds , Water , Seedlings
2.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 107 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437843

ABSTRACT

Atualmente a agricultura ocupa um papel de extrema importância na conjuntura global e nacional e está inserida em um contexto de enormes desafios devido ao aumento da população mundial e maior demanda por alimentos. Ao mesmo tempo, é o setor mais afetado pelos impactos negativos das mudanças climáticas, que têm espalhado suas consequências de maneira cada vez mais frequente e intensa. Um dos principais efeitos é a alteração do regime de chuvas ao redor do globo, ocasionando estiagens intensas e duradouras, capazes de reduzir a produtividade de safras e comprometer a produção alimentícia. As abordagens atualmente existentes no mercado para mitigar as consequências negativas da escassez hídrica demandam alto investimento de implementação e manutenção, ou possuem um perfil ecotoxicológico insatisfatório. Polímeros de origem natural modificados quimicamente foram avaliados em termos de desempenho e capacidade de prover às plantas uma maior disponibilidade de água através de retenção hídrica. Os resultados alcançados demonstraram que os polímeros modificados com grupos iônicos foram capazes de promover um melhor gerenciamento hídrico no microambiente ao redor de sementes e entregar ganhos de produtividade a lavouras de soja. O mecanismo de ação da tecnologia estudada foi elucidado através de ensaios de determinação de capacidade de campo, análise de elipsometria, microscopia de força atômica, ensaios de germinação de soja sob estresse hídrico e implementação de áreas de soja a céu aberto a partir da aplicação em tratamento de sementes e sulco de plantio. As interações intra e intermoleculares entre as partículas de solo, moléculas de polímero e de água se mostraram ponto chave para a mudança de patamar de desempenho de polímeros naturais modificados utilizados na agricultura, quando comparados com os grupos controle. A tecnologia aqui estudada é, portanto, recomendada para utilização na agricultura, com capacidade de potencializar o efeito de tecnologias dependentes de água, resultando em maior produtividade na colheita


Nowadays agriculture occupies an extremely important role both in the global and national scenarios. Its included in a very challenging context due to the forecast of increased world population and consequent higher demand for food. At the same time, it is the most affected economic sector by the climate change effects, which have been causing frequent and harsh impacts. One of the main effects is the change in the rainfall pattern worldwide, which causes severe and long-lasting droughts, responsible for causing crops to fail and therefore putting food production at risk. The current available mitigation measures to address hydric scarcity require a huge investment for implementation and maintenance or do not present a satisfactory and safe ecotoxicological profile. Chemically modified natural polymers have been evaluated in terms of performance and ability to provide the plants with higher water availability through hydric retention. The results obtained show that such ionic group modified polymers are able to promote better water management in a given microenvironment surrounding the seeds and ultimately delivery a higher yield to soy crops. The technology's mode of action has been elucidated through field capacity determination trials, ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, soy germination trials under hydric stress and, finally, implementation of soy areas under actual field conditions by applying the polymers via seed treatment and in-furrow methods. Both intra- and intermolecular interaction between soil particles, polymer and water molecules have been proven as key to understanding the agricultural performance improvement of the modified polymers when compared to the control. The technology is recommended for agricultural applications due to its ability to boost the effect of water-dependent technologies, promoting higher yields


Subject(s)
Polymers/analysis , Dehydration/complications , Agriculture/classification , Polysaccharides/adverse effects , Soil , Soybeans/growth & development , Water , Efficiency/classification , Food/classification
3.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e243813, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431124

ABSTRACT

Este estudo propõe analisar as relações e os processos de subjetivação de mulheres quebradeiras de coco babaçu decorrentes das intervenções de políticas desenvolvimentistas em seus territórios de vida e reverberações no Movimento Interestadual de Quebradeiras de Coco Babaçu (MIQCB). Sob a perspectiva ético-estético-política da Cartografia, acompanhamos as narrativas das histórias de vida de 24 mulheres, suas atividades cotidianas e eventos do MIQCB, também analisamos os documentos das políticas. Entendemos que, ao passo que tais políticas de desenvolvimento rural contribuem para a melhoria das condições de vida, em termos materiais e simbólicos, elas também produzem ressonâncias relacionadas ao modo de subjetivação do tipo "empresário de si", que agenciam seus modos de viver, de produzir e de se relacionar consigo e com os outros na lógica capitalista neoliberal. A resistência às capturas neoliberais também estão presentes ao ampliarem as mobilizações coletivas do próprio movimento, articulando com outros na produção de um "comum".(AU)


This study proposes to analyze the relations and the processes of subjectivation of babassu coconut-breaker women arising from developmental policy interventions in their territories of life and reverberations in the Babassu Coconut-breaker Interstate Movement (MIQCB). From the ethical-aesthetic-political perspective of Cartography, we followed the narratives of the life stories of 24 women, their daily activities and promoted events by MIQCB, we also analyzed the policy documents. We understand that while these policies of rural development contribute to improve the living conditions, in material and symbolic terms, they also produce resonances related to the "self-entrepreneur" mode of subjectivation, which has been handling their ways of living, producing, and relating to themselves and others in the neoliberal capitalist logic. Resistance to neoliberal captures is also present as they expand the collective mobilizations of the movement itself, articulating with others, in the production of a "common."(AU)


Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar los procesos de subjetivación de las mujeres que rompen coco babaçu que surgen de las intervenciones de las políticas de desarrollo en sus territorios de vida y las reverberaciones en el Movimiento Interestadual de las Mujeres que Rompen Coco Babaçu (MIQCB). Desde la perspectiva ético-estético-política de la Cartografía, seguimos las narraciones de las historias de vida de 24 mujeres, sus actividades diarias y eventos del MIQCB, y también analizamos los documentos de las políticas. Si bien estas políticas han contribuido a mejorar las condiciones de vida de las mujeres, en términos materiales y simbólicos, también han producido resonancias del modo de subjetivación "autoempresarial", que ha agenciado sus formas de vivir, producir y relacionarse consigo mismas y con los demás en la lógica capitalista neoliberal. La resistencia a las capturas neoliberales también está presente cuando amplían las movilizaciones colectivas del propio movimiento, articulándose con otros en la producción de un "común".(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Growth and Development , Economics , Government , Politics , Poverty , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Retirement , Rural Population , Social Desirability , Social Justice , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Soil , Women's Rights , Wood , Health Policy, Planning and Management , Socioeconomic Planning , Social Control Policies , Legislation, Environmental , Brazil , Water , Exercise , Ethnicity , Economic Development , Agricultural Cultivation , Poverty Areas , Land Use , Rural Areas , Forests , Organizations , Environmental Health , Conflict of Interest , Workload , Family Planning Policy , Entrepreneurship , Agrochemicals , Interview , Collective Bargaining , Commerce , Crops, Agricultural , Environmental Management , Natural Resources Exploitation , Natural Resources , Renewable Resources , Natural Reservations , Flora , Conservation of Natural Resources , Cultural Diversity , Nature , Feminism , Extraction and Processing Industry , Natural Resources Management , Rural Economy , Capitalism , State , Public Power , Biodiversity , Agriculture , Efficiency , Environment , Environment and Public Health , Health Sciences, Technology, and Innovation Management , Projects , Job Market , Health Surveillance of Products , Control and Sanitary Supervision of Foods and Beverages , Foods Containing Coconut , Machinery , Sustainable Agriculture , Non-Renewable Resources , Agribusiness , Environmental Communication , Femininity , Environmental Policy , Small Business , Ethnic Violence , Sociological Factors , Food , Work-Life Balance , Political Activism , Stakeholder Participation , Socioeconomic Rights , Occupied Territories , Sustainable Development , Social Programs , Indigenous Peoples , Right to Work , Empowerment , Social Inclusion , Gender Equity , Gender Role , Social Vulnerability , Environmental Responsability , Socio-Environmental Responsibility , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Working Conditions , Wildlife Trade , Health Services Needs and Demand , Housing , Human Activities , Human Rights , Labor Unions , Life Change Events , Anthropology , Mining , Occupational Groups
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 216-230, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980999

ABSTRACT

Virtually all of the dietary potassium intake is absorbed in the intestine, over 90% of which is excreted by the kidneys regarded as the most important organ of potassium excretion in the body. The renal excretion of potassium results primarily from the secretion of potassium by the principal cells in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN), which is coupled to the reabsorption of Na+ by the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) located at the apical membrane of principal cells. When Na+ is transferred from the lumen into the cell by ENaC, the negativity in the lumen is relatively increased. K+ efflux, H+ efflux, and Cl- influx are the 3 pathways that respond to Na+ influx, that is, all these 3 pathways are coupled to Na+ influx. In general, Na+ influx is equal to the sum of K+ efflux, H+ efflux, and Cl- influx. Therefore, any alteration in Na+ influx, H+ efflux, or Cl- influx can affect K+ efflux, thereby affecting the renal K+ excretion. Firstly, Na+ influx is affected by the expression level of ENaC, which is mainly regulated by the aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) pathway. ENaC gain-of-function mutations (Liddle syndrome, also known as pseudohyperaldosteronism), MR gain-of-function mutations (Geller syndrome), increased aldosterone levels (primary/secondary hyperaldosteronism), and increased cortisol (Cushing syndrome) or deoxycorticosterone (hypercortisolism) which also activate MR, can lead to up-regulation of ENaC expression, and increased Na+ reabsorption, K+ excretion, as well as H+ excretion, clinically manifested as hypertension, hypokalemia and alkalosis. Conversely, ENaC inactivating mutations (pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1b), MR inactivating mutations (pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1a), or decreased aldosterone levels (hypoaldosteronism) can cause decreased reabsorption of Na+ and decreased excretion of both K+ and H+, clinically manifested as hypotension, hyperkalemia, and acidosis. The ENaC inhibitors amiloride and Triamterene can cause manifestations resembling pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1b; MR antagonist spironolactone causes manifestations similar to pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1a. Secondly, Na+ influx is regulated by the distal delivery of water and sodium. Therefore, when loss-of-function mutations in Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) expressed in the thick ascending limb of the loop and in Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) expressed in the distal convoluted tubule (Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome, respectively) occur, the distal delivery of water and sodium increases, followed by an increase in the reabsorption of Na+ by ENaC at the collecting duct, as well as increased excretion of K+ and H+, clinically manifested as hypokalemia and alkalosis. Loop diuretics acting as NKCC inhibitors and thiazide diuretics acting as NCC inhibitors can cause manifestations resembling Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome, respectively. Conversely, when the distal delivery of water and sodium is reduced (e.g., Gordon syndrome, also known as pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2), it is manifested as hypertension, hyperkalemia, and acidosis. Finally, when the distal delivery of non-chloride anions increases (e.g., proximal renal tubular acidosis and congenital chloride-losing diarrhea), the influx of Cl- in the collecting duct decreases; or when the excretion of hydrogen ions by collecting duct intercalated cells is impaired (e.g., distal renal tubular acidosis), the efflux of H+ decreases. Both above conditions can lead to increased K+ secretion and hypokalemia. In this review, we focus on the regulatory mechanisms of renal potassium excretion and the corresponding diseases arising from dysregulation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bartter Syndrome/metabolism , Pseudohypoaldosteronism/metabolism , Potassium/metabolism , Aldosterone/metabolism , Hypokalemia/metabolism , Gitelman Syndrome/metabolism , Hyperkalemia/metabolism , Clinical Relevance , Epithelial Sodium Channels/metabolism , Kidney Tubules, Distal/metabolism , Sodium/metabolism , Hypertension , Alkalosis/metabolism , Water/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980788

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of acupuncture on swallowing function and quality of life for patients with dysphagia in Parkinson's disease (PD).@*METHODS@#A total of 60 patients of PD with dysphagia were randomly divided into an observation group (30 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and a control group (30 cases, 3 cases dropped off). The control group was given conventional medication therapy and rehabilitation training. On the basis of the treatment as the control group, the observation group was given acupuncture at Fengfu (GV 16), Baihui (GV 20), Shenting (GV 24), Yintang (GV 24+), Yansanzhen and bilateral Fengchi (GB 20), 30 min each time, once a day, 6 times a week for 4 weeks. Before and after treatment, the Kubota water swallowing test, standardized swallowing assessment (SSA) and swallowing quality of life (SWAL-QOL) were used to evaluate the swallowing function and quality of life of the two groups.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the Kubota water swallowing test grade, SSA scores in the two groups were decreased compared with those before treatment (P<0.05, P<0.001),the SWAL-QOL scores were increased compared with those before treatment (P<0.001); in the observation group,the Kubota water swallowing test grade and SSA score were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05),the SWAL-QOL score was higher than that in the control group (P<0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#On the basis of conventional medication therapy and rehabilitation training,acupuncture could improve the swallowing function and quality of life for patients of PD with dysphagia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Deglutition , Quality of Life , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Acupuncture Therapy , Water
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980768

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the clinical efficacy on post-stroke dysphagia treated with four-step acupuncture therapy for opening orifices and benefiting throat combined with neuromuscular electrical stimulation.@*METHODS@#Sixty patients with post-stroke dysphagia were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, with 30 cases in each group. The neuromuscular electrical stimulation was adopted in the control group. Besides the treatment as the control group, in the observation group, the four-step acupuncture therapy for opening orifices and benefiting throat was supplemented. Step 1: the three areas of scalp acupuncture on the affected side were stimulated. Step 2: pricking method was operated on the posterior pharyngeal wall. Step 3: bleeding technique was operated at Jinjin (EX-HN 12) and Yuye (EX-HN 13). Step 4: deep insertion of needle was operated at three-pharynx points. The needles were retained for 30 min at the three areas of scalp acupuncture and the three-pharynx points. The intervention of each group was delivered once daily, 6 times a week, at the interval of 1 day. One course of treatment was 1 week and 4 successive courses were required. The rating of Kubota water swallow test, the score of standardized swallowing assessment (SSA) and the rating of Rosenbek penetration- aspiration scale (PAS) were observed before and after treatment in patients of the two groups. The incidence of clinical complications and clinical efficacy were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared with those before treatment, the rating of Kubota water swallow test, the scores of SSA and the rating of PAS of patients in the two groups were decreased after treatment (P<0.01), and the values of the observation group were lower than those of the control group after treatment (P<0.05). The incidence of clinical complications in the observation group was 13.3% (4/30), lower than 36.7% (11/30) in the control group (P<0.05). The total effective rate in the observation group was 93.3% (28/30), which was better than 70.0% (21/30) in the control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The four-step acupuncture therapy for opening orifices and benefiting throat combined with neuromuscular electrical stimulation can improve the swallowing function of patients with post-stroke dysphagia and reduce the incidence of clinical complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharynx , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Acupuncture Therapy , Stroke/complications , Water , Electric Stimulation
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980758

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of electroacupuncture at "Siguan" points on behavior, colonic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in rats with post-stroke depression (PSD), and explore the effect mechanism of electroacupuncture at Siguan points on PSD.@*METHODS@#Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into a sham-operation group, a stroke group, a PSD group, a drug group and an electroacupuncture group, with 10 rats in each one. The stroke model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method in the stroke group; except for the sham-operation group, the rats in the other groups were intervened with MCAO combined with solitary and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) to establish PSD model. In the electroacupuncture group, electroacupuncture was delivered at "Hegu" (LI 4) and "Taichong" (LR 3), with disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/10 Hz in frequency, for 30 min in each intervention, once daily, for consecutive 21 days. Simultaneously, distilled water (0.01 L•kg-1•d-1) was administrated intragastrically. Fluoxetine solution (2.33 mg•kg-1•d-1) was given by gavage , once a day and for 21 days in the drug group. The same procedure of fixation and gavage with distilled water were adopted in the sham-operation group, the stroke group and the PSD group. Separately, before stroke modeling, after PSD modeling and after 21-day intervention, the consumption of sugar water and the scores of horizontal movement and vertical movement in open-field test were observed. After 21-day intervention, the content of colonic 5-HT was detected by immunohistochemical method, and that of fecal SCFAs was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.@*RESULTS@#After PSD modeling, compared with the stroke group, the sugar water consumption, the horizontal movement scores and vertical movement scores of the open-field test were all reduced in the PSD group, the drug group and the electroacupuncture group (P<0.05). After 21-day intervention, the sugar water consumption and the scores of horizontal movement and vertical movement of the open-field test were increased in the drug group and the electroacupuncture group (P<0.05) when compared with the PSD group; and the horizontal movement score in the electroacupuncture group was lower than that of the drug group (P<0.05). Compared with the sham-operation group, the contents of total fecal SCFAs and acetic acid were lower in the stroke group (P<0.05), and the contents of colonic 5-HT and total fecal SCFAs, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid were reduced in the PSD group (P<0.05). In comparison with the PSD group, the contents of colonic 5-HT and total fecal SCFAs, acetic acid and propionic acid were increased in the drug group and the electroacupuncture group (P<0.05); and the content of colonic 5-HT in the electroacupuncture group was lower than that of the drug group (P<0.05). The level of colonic 5-HT was positively correlated with the contents of total fecal SCFAs and propionic acid (r=0.424, P=0.005; r=0.427, P=0.004).@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture at "Siguan" points can relieve the depression-like behavior of PSD rats, and its underlying mechanism may be related to the regulation of fecal SCFAs, which affects the release of colonic 5-HT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Propionates , Serotonin , Depression/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Stroke/complications , Acetic Acid , Butyric Acid , Water
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981454

ABSTRACT

In this paper, 50 batches of representative traditional Chinese medicine tablets were selected and the disintegration time was examined with the method in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The disintegration time and disintegration phenomenon were recorded, and the dissolution behaviors of water-soluble and ultraviolet-absorbent components during the disintegration process of tablets were characterized by self-control method. The results revealed that coating type and raw material type influenced the disintegration time of tablets. It was found that only 4% of traditional Chinese medicine tablets had obvious fragmentation during the disintegration process, while 96% of traditional Chinese medicine tablets showed gradual dissolution or dispersion. Furthermore, according to the disintegration speed, disintegration phenomenon, and whether the cumulative dissolution of measured components was > 90% at complete disintegration, a disintegration behavior classification system(DBCS) was created for the regular-release traditional Chinese medicine tablets. As a result, the disintegration behaviors of 50 batches of traditional Chinese medicine tablets were classified into four categories, i.e. ⅠA_2, ⅠB_1, ⅡB_1, and ⅡB_2. traditional Chinese medicine tablets(Class I) with disintegration time ≤ 30 min were defined to be rapid in disintegration, which can be the objective of optimization or improvement of Chinese herbal extract(semi extract) tablets. Different drug release models were used to fit the dissolution curve of traditional Chinese medicine tablets with gradual dissolution or dispersion phenomenon(i.e. Type B tablets). The results showed that the dissolution curves of water-soluble components in the disintegration process conformed to the zero order kinetics and the Ritger-Peppas model. It could be inferred that the disintegration mechanisms of type B tablets were a combination of dissolution controlled and swelling controlled mechanisms. This study contributes to understanding the disintegration behavior of traditional Chinese medicine tablets, and provides a reference for the design and improvement of disintegration performance of traditional Chinese medicine tablets.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Tablets , Water , Drug Compounding
9.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 42-47, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970944

ABSTRACT

Peritoneal ultrafiltration failure is a common reason for peritoneal dialysis (PD) withdrawal as well as mortality in PD patients. Based on the three-pore system, inter-cellular small pores and trans-cellular ultra-small pores (aquaporin-1) are mainly responsible for water transfer across the peritoneum. Both small and ultra-small pores-dependent water (free water) transport decline accompanied with time on PD, with more significant decrease in free water, resulting in peritoneal ultrafiltration failure. The reduction of free water transport is associated with fast peritoneal solute transfer, reduced crystalloid osmotic gradient due to increased interstitial glucose absorption, and declined osmotic conductance to glucose resulted from impaired aquaporin-1 function and peritoneal interstitial fibrosis. The decline of small pore-based water is mainly because of fast loss of crystalloid osmotic gradient, decrease of hydrostatic pressure mediated by peritoneal vasculopathy, as well as reduced absolute number of small pores. The current review discusses the advance on pathogenesis of acquired peritoneal ultrafiltration failure in long-term PD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peritoneum , Ultrafiltration , Dialysis Solutions , Peritoneal Dialysis/methods , Water , Glucose
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970621

ABSTRACT

To explore the changes and the reaction mechanisms between soil microecological environment and the content of secon-dary metabolites of plants under water deficit, this study carried out a pot experiment on the 3-leaf stage seedlings of Rheum officinale to analyze their response mechanism under different drought gradients(normal water supply, mild, moderate, and severe drought). The results indicated that the content of flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, and alkaloids in the root of R. officinale varied greatly under drought stresses. Under mild drought stress, the content of substances mentioned above was comparatively high, and the content of rutin, emodin, gallic acid, and(+)-catechin hydrate in the root significantly increased. The content of rutin, emodin, and gallic acid under severe drought stress was significantly lower than that under normal water supply. The number of species, Shannon diversity index, richness index, and Simpson index of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil were significantly higher than those in blank soil, and the number of microbial species and richness index decreased significantly with the aggravation of drought stresses. In the context of water deficit, Cyanophyta, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Streptomyces, and Actinomyces were the dominant bacteria in the rhizosphere of R. officinale. The relative content of rutin and emodin in the root of R. officinale was positively correlated with the relative abundance of Cyanophyta and Firmicutes, and the relative content of(+)-catechin hydrate and(-)-epicatechin gallate was positively correlated with the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. In conclusion, appropriate drought stress can increase the content of secondary metabolites of R. officinale from physiological induction and the increase in the association with beneficial microbe.


Subject(s)
Rhizosphere , Rheum , Droughts , Soil , Catechin , Emodin , Bacteria/metabolism , Water/metabolism , Firmicutes , Soil Microbiology
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970566

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the effect of immersion in the excipient lime water on the toxic component lectin protein and explained the scientific connotation of lime water detoxication during the processing of Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum. Western blot was used to investigate the effects of immersion in lime water with different pH(pH 10, 11, and 12.4), saturated sodium hydroxide, and sodium bicarbonate solution on the content of lectin protein. The protein compositions of the supernatant and the precipitate after immersing lectin protein in lime water of different pH were determined by the SDS-PAGE method combined with the silver staining technique. The MALDI-TOF-MS/MS technique was used to detect the molecular weight distribution of peptide fragments in the supernatant and precipitate after immersing lectin protein in lime water of different pH, and circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to detect the ratio changes in the secondary structure of lectin protein during the immersion. The results showed that immersion in lime water at pH>12 and saturated sodium hydroxide solution could significantly reduce the content of lectin protein, while immersion in lime water at pH<12 and sodium bicarbonate solution had no significant effect on lectin protein content. The corresponding lectin protein bands and molecular ion peaks were not detected at the 12 kDa position in the supernatant and precipitate after immersing the lectin protein in lime water at pH>12, which was attributed to the fact that lime water immersion at pH>12 could significantly change the ratio of the secondary structure of lectin protein, resulting in irreversible denaturation, while lime water immersion at pH<12 did not change the ratio of the secondary structure of lectin protein. Therefore, pH>12 was the key condition for the detoxication of lime water during the processing of Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum. Lime water immersion at pH>12 could cause irreversible denaturation of lectin protein, resulting in a significant decrease in the inflammatory toxicity of Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum, which played a key role in detoxification.


Subject(s)
Lectins , Pinellia , Sodium Bicarbonate , Sodium Hydroxide , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Water
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970507

ABSTRACT

Galli Gigerii Endothelium Corneum(GGEC), the dried gizzard membrane of Gallus gallus domesticus is a Chinese medicinal material commonly used for digestion. However, due to the particularity of texture and composition, its active ingre-dients have not been clarified so far, and there is also a lack of quality evaluation indicators. In this study, UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to analyze the chemical components from the water extract of GGEC, and ten nucleosides were identified for the first time. HPLC fingerprints of the water extracts of GGEC were established and the content of seven nucleosides was determined. The fingerprint similarities of 40 batches of GGEC samples ranged from 0.765 to 0.959, indicating that there were great differences among the GGEC products processed with different methods. In addition, SPSS 22.0 and SIMCA 14.1 were used for hierarchical cluster analysis(HCA) and principal component analysis(PCA) on the 19 common peaks of the HPLC fingerprints of GGEC, and the 40 batches of samples were divided into three categories: raw GGEC, fried GGEC and vinegar-processed GGEC. Eight differential components in GGEC were marked by orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis(OPLS-DA), two of which were adenine and thymine. The results of content determination showed that the total content of the seven nucleosides in raw GGEC, fried GGEC and vinegar-processed GGEC were 182.5-416.8, 205.3-368.7, and 194.2-283.0 μg·g~(-1), respectively. There were significant differences in the content of hypoxanthine, thymine and thymidine among the GGEC products processed with different methods(P<0.05), which were graded in the order of fried GGEC>vinegar-processed GGEC>raw GGEC. This suggested that the content of hypoxanthine, thymine and thymidine tended to increase during the frying process, and the variation range might be related to the degree of heat exposure. The established methods in this study were simple and reproducible, and could be used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of GGEC and its processed pro-ducts. This study also provided reference for the establishment of quality standards of GGEC with chemical components as control index.


Subject(s)
Nucleosides , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Acetic Acid , Thymine , Thymidine , Water , Hypoxanthines
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970504

ABSTRACT

With the approach of untargeted metabolomics and correlation analysis, this study aimed to explore the mechanism of Aurantii Fructus from Lingnan region in alleviating dryness by analyzing the different effects of raw Aurantii Fructus(RAF) and processed Aurantii Fructus(PAF) on fecal endogenous metabolism in normal rats. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into a control group(C), an RAF group(10 g·kg~(-1)), and a PAF group(10 g·kg~(-1)). After seven days of administration, the effects of RAF and PAF on dryness-related indexes were compared, including water intake, fecal water content, salivary secretion, the expression of AQP5, VIP, and 5-HT in the submandibular gland, as well as the expression of AQP3, VIP, and 5-HT in the colon. The fecal samples in each group were determined by LC-MS. Multivariate statistical analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for screening the differential metabolites and metabolic pathways in alleviating dryness of RAF. The results indicated that both RAF and PAF showed certain dryness, and the dryness of RAF was more significant. Moreover, PAF could alleviate dryness of RAF to a certain extent by reducing the water intake, fecal water content, and the expression of AQP3, VIP, and 5-HT in the colon and increasing the salivary secretion and the levels of AQP5, VIP, and 5-HT in the submandibular gland. According to the analysis of fecal metabolomics, 99 and 58 metabolites related to dryness were found in RAF and PAF respectively, where 16 of them played an important role in alleviating dryness of RAF. Pathway analysis revealed that the mechanism of PAF in alleviating dryness of RAF was presumably related to the regulation of riboflavin metabolism, purine metabolism, arginine biosynthesis, pyrimidine metabolism, alanine metabolism, aspartate metabolism, glutamate metabolism, and retinol metabolism pathways. This study suggested that PAF might alleviate dryness of RAF by affecting the metabolic levels of the body, which provides a new basis for further clarifying the processing mechanism of PAF.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin , Metabolomics , Water
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 488-499, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970387

ABSTRACT

Microplastics pollution has attracted worldwide attention. Compared with the status quo of microplastics pollution in marine environment and other major rivers and lakes, the relevant data of the Yellow River basin is relatively inadequate. The abundance, types, and spatial distribution characteristics of microplastic pollution in the sediments and surface water of the Yellow River basin were reviewed. Meanwhile, the status of microplastic pollution in the national central city and Yellow River Delta wetland was discussed, and the corresponding prevention and control measures were put forward. The results showed that the spatial distribution of microplastics pollution in sediments and surface water of the Yellow River basin increased from upstream to downstream, especially in the Yellow River Delta wetland. There are obvious differences between the types of microplastics in sediment and surface water in the Yellow River basin, which is mainly related to the materials of microplastics. Compared with similar regions in China, the microplastics pollution levels in national key cities and national wetland parks in the Yellow River basin are in the medium to high degree, which should be taken seriously. Plastics exposure through various ways will cause serious impact on aquaculture and human health in the Yellow River beach area. To control microplastic pollution in the Yellow River basin, it is necessary to improve the relevant production standards, laws and regulations, and improve the capacity of biodegradable microplastics and the degradation capacity of plastic wastes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Microplastics , Plastics , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Water , China
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970287

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study assesses the impact of iodine-rich processed foods and dining places on the iodine nutritional status of children.@*METHODS@#School-aged children (SAC) in seven provinces in China were selected by school-based multi-stage sampling. Urinary iodine, salt iodine, and thyroid volume (TVOL) were determined. Questionnaires were used to investigate dining places and iodine-rich processed foods. The water iodine was from the 2017 national survey. Multi-factor regression analysis was used to find correlations between variables.@*RESULTS@#Children ate 78.7% of their meals at home, 15.1% at school canteens, and 6.1% at other places. The percentage of daily iodine intake from water, iodized salt, iodine-rich processed foods, and cooked food were 1.0%, 79.2%, 1.5%, and 18.4%, respectively. The salt iodine was correlated with the urinary iodine and TVOL, respectively (r = 0.999 and -0.997, P < 0.05). The iodine intake in processed foods was weakly correlated with the TVOL (r = 0.080, P < 0.01). Non-iodized salt used in processed foods or diets when eating out had less effect on children's iodine nutrition status.@*CONCLUSION@#Iodized salt remains the primary source of daily iodine intake of SAC, and processed food has less effect on iodine nutrition. Therefore, for children, iodized salt should be a compulsory supplement in their routine diet.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iodine , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/analysis , China , Water
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969858

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish and evaluate a method of enriching bacteriophages in natural water based on ferric trichloride-polyvinylidene fluoride (FeCl3-PVDF)membrane filter. Methods: Based on the principle of flocculation concentration, the method of recovering bacteriophage from water sample was established by using iron ion flocculation combined with membrane filter. The titer of phage was determined by Agar double layer method. The recovery efficiency of phage was detected by phage fluorescence staining and real-time fluorescence PCR reaction. Water samples from different sources were collected for simulation experiment to evaluate the enrichment effect. At the same time, the sewage discharged from hospitals was taken as the actual water sample, and the common clinical drug-resistant bacteria were used as the host indicator bacteria to further analyze the enrichment effect of FeCl3-PVDF membrane filter rapid enrichment method on the bacteriophage in natural water samples. Results: The method of enrichment of bacteriophages in natural water by iron ion concentration 50 mg/L and PVDF membrane filter was established. The recovery rate of this method for bacteriophage was 93%-100%. Under the multi-functional microscope, it was found that the bacteriophage of the enriched water sample increased significantly and the fluorescence value of the enriched water sample determined by the enzyme labeling instrument was about 13 times as high as that before enrichment. After concentration of the actual water samples from the hospital drainage, the positive rate of bacteriophage isolation in the concentrated group and the non-concentrated group was 23% and 4%, and the fluorescence value in the concentrated group was 2-24 times as high as that of the non-concentrated group. Conclusion: The method of FeCl3-PVDF membrane filter is a simple, efficient and rapid method for enriching bacteriophages in different water samples.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteriophages , Bacteria , Iron , Iron, Dietary , Water
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981881

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the protective effect of artesunate on hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) and its mechanism in neonatal rats. Methods 7-day-old neonatal SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, artesunate 5 mg/kg group, artesunate 10 mg/kg group, artesunate 20 mg/kg group and dexamethasone 6 mg/kg group, with 18 rats in each group. HIBD models were established in groups except for the sham operation group. The sham operation group only needed to separate the left common carotid artery without ligation and nitrogen-oxygen mixed gas ventilation. Each group was injected with drug intraperitoneally right after surgery and the rats in the sham operation group and the model group were injected with an equal volume of normal saline (once a day for a total of 5 times). One hour after the last injection, the rats in each group were scored for neurological defects. After the rats were sacrificed, the brain water content was measured and the pathological changes of the brain tissues of rats were observed. Terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to detect the neuronal cell apoptosis, and ELISA was applied to detect the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in brain tissues and peripheral blood of each group of rats. Western blot analysis was adopted to detect the protein expression levels of NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) and caspase-1 in the rats brain tissues of each group. Results Compared with the model group, the neurological deficit score was decreased; the pathological damage of brain tissues was relieved; the brain water content was significantly reduced; the apoptosis number of hippocampal neurons was decreased significantly; the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in brain tissues and peripheral blood were significantly reduced; the protein expression levels of NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 were significantly lowered in the middle-dose and high-dose artesunate groups and the dexamethasone group. Conclusion Artesunate can improve the neurological function, relieve the brain damage, and alleviate the brain edema in neonatal rats with HIBD. It can protect the HIBD, which may be related to the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reduction of inflammatory cytokine secretion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Artesunate/pharmacology , Brain/metabolism , Caspases/metabolism , Dexamethasone , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-6/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Water/metabolism
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981576

ABSTRACT

To explore the effects of plasma jet (PJ) and plasma activated water (PAW) on the sterilization of Streptococcus mutans ( S. mutans) and compare the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods, so as to provide a basis for plasma treatment of dental caries and to enrich the treatment means of dental caries, an atmospheric pressure plasma excitation system was built, and the effects of PJ and PAW on the sterilization rate of S. mutans and the changes of temperature and pH during treatment were studied under different excitation voltage ( U e ) and different excitation time ( t e ). The results showed that in the PJ treatment, the difference in the survival rate of S. mutans between the treatment group and the control group was statistically significant ( P = 0.007, d=2.66) when U e = 7 kV and t e = 60 s, and complete sterilization was achieved at U e = 8 kV and t e = 120 s in the PJ treatment. In contrast, in the PAW treatment, the difference in the survival rate of S. mutans between the treatment group and the control group was statistically significant ( P = 0.029, d = 1.71) when U e = 7 kV and t e = 30 s, and complete sterilization was achieved with PAW treatment when U e = 9 kV and t e = 60 s. Results of the monitoring of temperature and pH showed that the maximum temperature rise during PJ and PAW treatment did not exceed 4.3 °C, while the pH value after PAW treatment would drop to a minimum of 3.02. In summary, the optimal sterilization parameters for PJ were U e =8 kV and 90 s < t e ≤ 120 s, while the optimal sterilization parameters for PAW were U e = 9 kV and 30 s< t e ≤ 60 s. Both treatment methods achieved non-thermal sterilization of S. mutans, where PJ required only a smaller U e to achieve complete sterilization, while at pH < 4.7, PAW only required a shorter t e to achieve complete sterilization, but its acidic environment could cause some chemical damage to the teeth. This study can provide some reference value for plasma treatment of dental caries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptococcus mutans , Dental Caries/therapy , Sterilization , Temperature , Water
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. map, tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468827

ABSTRACT

The colonization pattern of fish assemblages in streams is often studied in the context of environmental filters. On the other hand, when fish assemblages are subjected to anthropogenic effects, variables associated with environmental quality assume more importance. Therefore, this work evaluated the richness and composition of fish from streams sampled at different urbanization levels, aiming to determine any direct effects on the structure of fish assemblages. To accomplish this, samples were collected from 2003 to 2011 at 31 sites distributed among 3 microbasins in the Rio Ivinhema Basin, Alto Rio Paraná. Based on environmental variables, physicochemical of the water and analysis of the use and occupation of the soil, the microbasins were classified into different urbanization levels (low, medium and high). A total of 4,320 individuals were sampled, out of which 57 fish species were recorded. Sampled sites with medium urbanization level presented higher richness compared to sampled sites with high urbanization level which presented lower richness. Species richness in these sites was explained mainly by water temperature and water velocity. Results confirmed that urbanization does directly affect environmental integrity, which, in turn, can lead to the homogenization of stream assemblages.


Estudos sobre assembleias de peixes em riachos enfatizam o papel dos filtros ambientais associados ao padrão de colonização das assembleias, por outro lado, quando a assembleia está sujeita aos efeitos antropogênicos, as variáveis ambientais associadas à qualidade ambiental assumem maior importância. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a riqueza e a composição de peixes de riachos amostrados em diferentes níveis de urbanização, buscando evidenciar se o efeito reflete diretamente na estrutura das assembleias. As amostragens foram realizadas em 31 locais distribuídos em três microbacias na bacia Rio Ivinhema, Alto Rio Paraná, no período de 2003 a 2011. Com base nas variáveis ambientais, físico-químicos da água e análise do uso e ocupação do solo as microbacias foram classificadas em diferentes níveis de urbanização (baixo, médio e alto). Foram amostrados um total 4.320 indivíduos, dos quais foram registradas 57 espécies de peixes. Os locais amostrados com influência média da urbanização apresentaram maior riqueza de espécies, entretanto, os locais amostrados com alta influência da urbanização apresentaram menor riqueza de espécies. Dessa forma, constatamos que a urbanização influencia diretamente na integridade ambiental, que pode levar a homogeneização das assembleias de riachos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Soil Analysis , River Basins/analysis , Fishes/classification , Fishes/growth & development , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Urbanization , Land Use , Water/analysis , Water/chemistry
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244718, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278533

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the functioning of the photosystem II and quality of C. xanthocarpa seedlings cultivated under intermittent water deficit and shading levels and the influence of shading on recovery potential after suspension of the stress conditions. The seedlings were subjected to three levels of shading (0, 30, and 70%), six periods of evaluation (start: 0 days; 1st and 2nd photosynthesis zero: 1st and 2nd P0; 1st and 2nd recovery: 1stand 2nd REC; and END), and two forms of irrigation (control: periodically irrigated to maintain 70% substrate water retention capacity, and intermittent irrigation: suspension of irrigation). The plants subjected to intermittent irrigation conditions at 0% shading showed a reduction in water potential (Ψw) and potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and maximum efficiency of the photochemical process (Fv/F0) and an increase in basal quantum production of the non-photochemical processes (F0/Fm). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in the leaves than in the roots. The C. xanthocarpa is a species sensitive to water deficit but presents strategies to adapt to an environment under temporary water restriction, which are more temporary are most efficient under shading. The seedlings with water deficit at all levels of shading exhibited higher protective antioxidant activity and lower quality at 0% shading. The shading minimizes prevents permanent damage to the photosystem II and after the re-irrigation, the evaluated characteristics showed recovery with respect to the control group, except POD and SOD activities in the leaves.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade de enzimas antioxidantes, o funcionamento do fotossistema II e a qualidade de mudas de C. xanthocarpa cultivadas sob déficit hídrico intermitente e níveis de sombreamento e a influência do sombreamento sobre o potencial de recuperação após suspensão das condições de estresse. As mudas foram submetidas a três níveis de sombreamento (0, 30 e 70%), seis períodos de avaliação (início: 0 dias; 1ª e 2ª fotossíntese zero: 1ª e 2ª P0; 1ª e 2ª recuperação: 1ª e 2ª REC; e final), e duas formas de irrigação (controle: periodicamente irrigado para manter 70% da capacidade de retenção de água do substrato, e irrigação intermitente: suspensão da irrigação). As plantas submetidas às condições de irrigação intermitente a 0% de sombreamento apresentaram redução do potencial hídrico (Ψw) e eficiência quântica potencial do fotossistema II (Fv/Fm) e máxima eficiência do processo fotoquímico (Fv/F0) e aumento da produção quantica basal dos processos não fotoquímicos (F0/Fm). A atividade da superóxido dismutase (SOD) foi maior nas folhas do que nas raízes. C. xanthocarpa é uma espécie sensível ao déficit hídrico, mas apresenta estratégias para se adaptar a um ambiente com restrição hídrica temporária, sendo mais eficientes sob sombreamento. As mudas com déficit hídrico em todos os níveis de sombreamento exibiram maior atividade antioxidante protetora e menor qualidade no sombreamento 0%. O sombreamento minimiza danos permanentes ao fotossistema II e após a re-irrigação, as características avaliadas apresentaram recuperação em relação ao grupo controle, exceto atividades de POD e SOD nas folhas.


Subject(s)
Water , Seedlings , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Antioxidants
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