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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878338

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Exposure to microgravity results in postflight cardiovascular deconditioning in astronauts. Vascular oxidative stress injury and mitochondrial dysfunction have been reported during this process. To elucidate the mechanism for this condition, we investigated whether mitochondrial oxidative stress regulates calcium homeostasis and vasoconstriction in hindlimb unweighted (HU) rat cerebral arteries.@*Methods@#Three-week HU was used to simulate microgravity in rats. The contractile responses to vasoconstrictors, mitochondrial fission/fusion, Ca @*Results@#An increase of cytoplasmic Ca @*Conclusion@#The present results suggest that mitochondrial oxidative stress enhances cerebral vasoconstriction by regulating calcium homeostasis during simulated microgravity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Cerebral Arteries , Homeostasis , Male , Mitochondria/physiology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/physiology , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Weightlessness Simulation
2.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1001-1005, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether collagen peptides can improve the immune functions of mice under the condition of simulated weightlessness.@*METHODS@#Mouse tail-suspension model was used to simulate the effects of weightlessness. Tail-suspended mice were intraperitoneally injected with 600 mg collagen peptides per kilogram body weight once a day for 10 days. Then, the mice were killed, and white blood cells were counted and classified. Lymphocyte subsets and T lymphocyte proliferations in spleens were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Compared with normal control group, total and differential count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, T cells,CD4 and CD8 T cells, B cells and NK cells, and splenic T lymphocyte proliferation all decreased in the weightlessness simulated mice (P<0.05). Except for NK cells, the above-mentioned parameters were increased after administration of collagen peptides, and some of the parameters were recovered to the levels of normal control mice (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Collagen peptides can effectively improve peripheral blood lymphocyte distributions and T lymphocyte proliferations of mice under the condition of simulated weightlessness. This study nay provid the experimental basis for improvement of immune functions of astronauts.


Subject(s)
Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cell Proliferation , Collagen , Lymphocyte Count , Mice , Peptides , Spleen , Weightlessness , Weightlessness Simulation
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776535

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To introduce a modified protocol for generating the simulated weightlessness rat model by hindlimb unloading.@*METHODS@#Ninety male adult SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group, classical suspension group and modified suspension group (n=30/group). In the classical suspension group, a strip of medical adhesive tape was attached to the tail, with horizontal filament tape wrapping. A piece of gauze was wrapped around the tail at the outermost layer and the tail was suspended for hindlimb unloading. In the modified suspension group, a layer of plastic net was added between the horizontal filament tape and the gauze to reduce the squeeze on the tail as a buffer zone and ensure proper circulation of the tail. After 4 weeks of suspension, damage to the tail and sheath detachment were observed. Meanwhile the body weight and right soleus wet weight of rats were measured.@*RESULTS@#The ratio of right soleus wet weight to body weight was decreased significantly in both the classical suspension group and the modified suspension group compared with the control group, while there was no difference in body weight among the three different groups. Importantly, the incidence of tail ischemia and necrosis (13.3% vs 40.0% in the classical suspension group) and the incidence of sheath detachment from tail (3.3% vs 26.7% in the classical suspension group) were significantly lower whereas the success rates of model (33.3% vs 83.3% in classical suspension group) was significantly higher in the modified suspension group.@*CONCLUSION@#The modified protocol decreases the incidence of tail necrosis and sheath detachment in the rat tail suspension and increases the success rate of the hindlimb unloading rat model, with improved simplicity and practicability.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hindlimb Suspension , Male , Muscle, Skeletal , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Weightlessness Simulation , Methods
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774189

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aim to investigat the effect of microgravity on osteoblast differentiation in osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1). In addition, we explored the response mechanism of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway to "zero- " in MC3T3-E1 cells under the simulated microgravity conditions. MC3T3-E1 were cultured in conventional (CON) and simulated microgravity (SMG), respectively. Then, the expression of the related osteoblastic genes and the specific molecules in NF-κB signaling pathway were measured. The results showed that the mRNA and protein levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN) and type Ⅰ collagen (CoL-Ⅰ) were dramatically decreased under the simulated microgravity. Meanwhile, the NF-κB inhibitor α (IκB-α) protein level was decreased and the expressions of phosphorylation of IκB-α (p-IκB-α), p65 and phosphorylation of p65 (p-p65) were significantly up-regulated in SMG group. In addition, the IL-6 content in SMG group was increased compared to CON. These results indicated that simulated microgravity could activate the NF-κB pathway to regulate MC3T3-E1 cells differentiation.


Subject(s)
3T3 Cells , Animals , Cell Differentiation , Mice , NF-kappa B , Physiology , Osteoblasts , Signal Transduction , Weightlessness Simulation
5.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 202-212, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771317

ABSTRACT

The Chinese space station will be built around 2020. As a national space laboratory, it will offer unique opportunities for studying the physiological effects of weightlessness and the efficacy of the countermeasures against such effects. In this paper, we described the development of countermeasure systems in the Chinese space program. To emphasize the need of the Chinese space program to implement its own program for developing countermeasures, we reviewed the literature on the negative physiological effects of weightlessness, the challenges of completing missions, the development of countermeasure devices, the establishment of countermeasure programs, and the efficacy of the countermeasure techniques in American and Russian manned spaceflights. In addition, a brief overview was provided on the Chinese research and development on countermeasures to discuss the current status and goals of the development of countermeasures against physiological problems associated with weightlessness.


Subject(s)
China , Humans , Program Evaluation , Space Flight , Weightlessness , Weightlessness Simulation
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773378

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the dynamic impacts of simulated microgravity (SM) on different vital brain regions of rats.@*METHODS@#Microgravity was simulated for 7 and 21 days, respectively, using the tail-suspension rat model. Histomorphology, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines and the expression of some key proteins were determined in hippocampus, cerebral cortex and striatum.@*RESULTS@#21-day SM decreased brain derived neurotrophic factor and induced neuron atrophy in the cerebral cortex. Strong oxidative stress was triggered at day 7 and the oxidative status returned to physiological level at day 21. Inflammatory cytokines were gradually suppressed and in striatum, the suppression was regulated partially through c-Jun/c-Fos.@*CONCLUSION@#The results revealed that the significant impacts of SM on rat brain tissue depended on durations and regions, which might help to understand the health risk and to prevent brain damage for astronauts in space travel.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Metabolism , Pathology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Metabolism , Cytokines , Metabolism , Male , Oxidative Stress , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Weightlessness Simulation
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776072

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To better understand the pathological causes of bone loss in a space environment, including microgravity, ionizing radiation, and ultradian rhythms.@*METHODS@#Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into a baseline group, a control group, a hindlimb suspension group, a radiation group, a ultradian rhythms group and a combined-three-factor group. After four weeks of hindlimb suspension followed by X-ray exposure and/or ultradian rhythms, biomechanical properties, bone mineral density, histological analysis, microstructure parameters, and bone turnover markers were detected to evaluate bone loss in hindlimbs of rats.@*RESULTS@#Simulated microgravity or combined-three factors treatment led to a significant decrease in the biomechanical properties of bones, reduction in bone mineral density, and deterioration of trabecular parameters. Ionizing radiation exposure also showed adverse impact while ultradian rhythms had no significant effect on these outcomes. Decrease in the concentration of the turnover markers bone alkaline phosphatase (bALP), osteocalcin (OCN), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRAP-5b) in serum was in line with the changes in trabecular parameters.@*CONCLUSION@#Simulated microgravity is the main contributor of bone loss. Radiation also results in deleterious effects but ultradian rhythms has no significant effect. Combined-three factors treatment do not exacerbate bone loss when compared to simulated microgravity treatment alone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomechanical Phenomena , Bone Density , Physiology , Bone Resorption , Metabolism , Femur , Metabolism , Hindlimb Suspension , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tibia , Metabolism , Ultradian Rhythm , Weightlessness Simulation , X-Rays
8.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 229-237, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691006

ABSTRACT

<p><b>PURPOSE</b>Microgravity is known to cause endothelium dysfunction in astronauts returning from spaceflight. We aimed to reveal the regulatory mechanism in alterations of human endothelial cells after simulated microgravity (SMG).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We utilized the rotary cell culture system (RCCS-1) to explore the subsequent effects of SMG on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>SMG-treated HUVECs appeared obvious growth inhibition after return to normal gravity, which might be attributed to a set of responses including alteration of cytoskeleton, decreased cell adhesion capacity and increased apoptosis. Expression levels of mTOR and its downstream Apaf-1 were increased during subsequent culturing after SMG. miR-22 was up-regulated and its target genes SRF and LAMC1 were down-regulated at mRNA levels. LAMC1 siRNAs reduced cell adhesion rate and inhibited stress fiber formation while SRF siRNAs caused apoptosis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SMG has the subsequent biological effects on HUVECs, resulting in growth inhibition through mTOR signaling and miR-22-mediated mechanism.</p>


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Physiology , Humans , Laminin , Genetics , MicroRNAs , Physiology , Weightlessness Simulation
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 323-327, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-303153

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Few studies have focused on peripheral nerve conduction during exposure to microgravity. The -6° head-down tilt (HDT) comprises an experimental model used to simulate the space flight environment. This study investigated nerve conduction characteristics of rhesus monkeys before and after prolonged exposure to HDT.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Six rhesus monkeys (3-4 years old) were tilted backward 6° from the horizontal. Nerve conduction studies (NCSs) were performed on the median, ulnar, tibial, and fibular motor nerves. Analysis of variance with a randomized block design was conducted to compare the differences in the NCS before and 7, 21, and 42 days after the -6° HDT.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The proximal amplitude of the CMAP of the median nerve was significantly decreased at 21 and 42 days of HDT compared with the amplitude before HDT (4.38 ± 2.83 vs. 8.40 ± 2.66 mV, F = 4.85, P = 0.013 and 3.30 ± 2.70 vs. 8.40 ± 2.66 mV, F = 5.93, P = 0.004, respectively). The distal amplitude of the CMAP of the median nerve was significantly decreased at 7, 21, and 42 days of HDT compared with the amplitude before HDT (7.28 ± 1.27 vs. 10.25 ± 3.40 mV, F = 4.03, P = 0.039; 5.05 ± 2.01 vs. 10.25 ± 3.40 mV, F = 6.25, P = 0.04; and 3.95 ± 2.79 vs. 10.25 ± 3.40 mV, F = 7.35, P = 0.01; respectively). The proximal amplitude of the CMAP of the tibial nerve was significantly decreased at 42 days of HDT compared with the amplitude before HDT (6.14 ± 1.94 vs. 11.87 ± 3.19 mV, F = 5.02, P = 0.039).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>This study demonstrates that the compound muscle action potential amplitudes of nerves are decreased under simulated microgravity in rhesus monkeys. Moreover, rhesus monkeys exposed to HDT might be served as an experimental model for the study of NCS under microgravity.</p>


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Physiology , Animals , Female , Head-Down Tilt , Physiology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Neural Conduction , Physiology , Weightlessness Simulation
10.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 194-200, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331666

ABSTRACT

Cardiac remodeling is the heart's response to external or internal stimuli. Weightlessness/simulated weightlessness leads to cardiac atrophy and heart function declining. Understanding the mechanism of cardiac atrophy under weightlessness is important to help astronaut recover from unloading-induced cardiovascular changes after spaceflight. Unloading-induced changes of hemodynamics, metabolic demands and neurohumoral regulation contribute to cardiac atrophy and function declining. During this process, Ca(2+)-related signaling, NF-κB signaling, ERK signaling, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy are involved in weightlessness-induced cardiac atrophy. This article reviews the underlying mechanism of cardiac atrophy under weightlessness/simulated weightlessness.


Subject(s)
Atrophy , Heart , Heart Diseases , Hemodynamics , Humans , NF-kappa B , Space Flight , Weightlessness , Weightlessness Simulation
11.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 391-402, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331645

ABSTRACT

It has been shown that the minimum gravity exposure requirements vary greatly among different physiological systems. A preliminary comparison between two extremes, vessels vs. bones, shows that not only the mechanostat at the tissue level differs greatly, but also the bone loss during weightlessness may also involve calcium deposition-resorption changes. It seems that the surprising efficacy of intermittent artificial gravity (IAG) is due to the vascular tissues possessing a strong resilience or "memory" function toward restoring their original pre-stress and tensegrity state at the 1 G environment. It appears that the bone tissue is related to a more complex tensegrity paradigm involving both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and a longer half time for calcium deposition-absorption. Cell-level models (CellML) for calcium dynamics is currently available. We hope that the Physiome Project can use this modeling framework to help interpret the resistance of bones to IAG and to evaluate whether the "intermittent" or "continuous" AG scheme should be adopted eventually for future exploration-class spaceflight.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone and Bones , Calcium , Gravity, Altered , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , Rats , Weightlessness , Weightlessness Simulation
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-333611

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of simulated microgravity on erythroid differentiation of K562 cells and explore the possible mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The fourth generation rotating cell culture system was used to generate the simulated microgravity environment. Benzidine staining was used to evaluate the cell inhibition rate, and real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect GATA-1, GATA-2, Ets-1, F-actin, β-Tubulin and vimentin mRNA expressions. The changes of cytoskeleton were observed by fluorescence microscopy, and Western blotting was employed to assay F-actin, β-tubulin and vimentin protein expression levels.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Benzidine staining showed that simulated microgravity inhibited erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. K562 cells treated with Hemin presented with increased mRNA expression of GATA-1 and reduced GATA-2 and Ets-1 mRNA expressions. Simulated microgravity treatment of the cells resulted in down-regulated GATA-1, F-actin, β-tubulin and vimentin mRNA expressions and up-regulated mRNA expressions of GATA-2 and Ets-1, and reduced F-actin, β-tubulin and vimentin protein expressions. Exposure to simulated microgravity caused decreased fluorescence intensities of cytoskeletal filament F-actin, β-tubulin and vimentin in the cells.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Simulated microgravity inhibits erythroid differentiation of K562 cells possibly by causing cytoskeleton damages to result in down-regulation of GATA-1 and up-regulation of GATA-2 and Ets-1 expressions.</p>


Subject(s)
Actins , Metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Down-Regulation , GATA1 Transcription Factor , Metabolism , GATA2 Transcription Factor , Metabolism , Hemin , Pharmacology , Humans , K562 Cells , Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1 , Metabolism , Tubulin , Metabolism , Up-Regulation , Vimentin , Metabolism , Weightlessness Simulation
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-235320

ABSTRACT

Exposure to thermal environment is one of the main concerns for manned space exploration. By focusing on the works performed on thermoregulation at microgravity or simulated microgravity, we endeavored to review the investigation on space thermal environmental physiology. First of all, the application of medical requirements for the crew module design from normal thermal comfort to accidental thermal emergencies in a space craft will be addressed. Then, alterations in the autonomic and behavioral temperature regulation caused by the effect of weightlessness both in space flight and its simulation on the ground are also discussed. Furthermore, countermeasures like exercise training, simulated natural ventilation, encouraged drink, etc., in the protection of thermoregulation during space flight is presented. Finally, the challenge of space thermal environment physiology faced in the future is figured out.


Subject(s)
Aerospace Medicine , Body Temperature Regulation , Environment , Exercise , Humans , Space Flight , Weightlessness , Weightlessness Simulation
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-235319

ABSTRACT

Muscle unloading due to long-term exposure of weightlessness or simulated weightlessness causes atrophy, loss of functional capacity, impaired locomotor coordination, and decreased resistance to fatigue in the antigravity muscles of the lower limbs. Besides reducing astronauts' mobility in space and on returning to a gravity environment, the molecular mechanisms for the adaptation of skeletal muscle to unloading also play an important medical role in conditions such as disuse and paralysis. The tail-suspended rat model was used to simulate the effects of weightlessness on skeletal muscles and to induce muscle unloading in the rat hindlimb. Our series studies have shown that the maximum of twitch tension and the twitch duration decreased significantly in the atrophic soleus muscles, the maximal tension of high-frequency tetanic contraction was significantly reduced in 2-week unloaded soleus muscles, however, the fatigability of high-frequency tetanic contraction increased after one week of unloading. The maximal isometric tension of intermittent tetanic contraction at optimal stimulating frequency did not alter in 1- and 2-week unloaded soleus, but significantly decreased in 4-week unloaded soleus. The 1-week unloaded soleus, but not extensor digitorum longus (EDL), was more susceptible to fatigue during intermittent tetanic contraction than the synchronous controls. The changes in K+ channel characteristics may increase the fatigability during high-frequency tetanic contraction in atrophic soleus muscles. High fatigability of intermittent tetanic contraction may be involved in enhanced activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) and switching from slow to fast isoform of myosin heavy chain, tropomyosin, troponin I and T subunit in atrophic soleus muscles. Unloaded soleus muscle also showed a decreased protein level of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and the reduction in nNOS-derived NO increased frequency of calcium sparks and elevated intracellular resting Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in unloaded soleus muscles. High [Ca2+]i activated calpain-1 which induced a higher degradation of desmin. Desmin degradation may loose connections between adjacent myofibrils and further misaligned Z-disc during repeated tetanic contractions. Passive stretch in unloaded muscle could preserve the stability of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channels by means of keeping nNOS activity, and decrease the enhanced protein level and activity of calpain to control levels in unloaded soleus muscles. Therefore, passive stretch restored normal appearance of Z-disc and resisted in part atrophy of unloaded soleus muscles. The above results indicate that enhanced fatigability of high-frequency tetanic contraction is associated to the alteration in K+ channel characteristics, and elevated SERCA activity and slow to fast transition of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms increases fatigability of intermittent tetanic contraction in atrophic soleus muscle. The sarcomeric damage induced by tetanic contraction can be retarded by stretch in atrophic soleus muscles.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium Signaling , Calpain , Metabolism , Desmin , Metabolism , Muscle Contraction , Muscle Fatigue , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscular Atrophy , Myosin Heavy Chains , Metabolism , Rats , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum , Pathology , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases , Metabolism , Weightlessness Simulation
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247141

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of simulated microgravity and carbon ion irradiation (CIR) on spermatogenic cell apoptosis and sperm DNA damage to the testis of male Swiss Webster mice, and assess the risk associated with space environment.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sperm DNA damage indicated by DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and high DNA stainability (HDS) was measured by sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). Apoptosis of spermatogenic cells was detected by annexin V-propidium iodide assay. Bax (the expression levels of p53) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were measured by immunoblotting; p53 and PCNA were located by immunohistology.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>HDS, DFI, apoptosis index, and the expression levels of p53 and Bax were detected to be significantly higher in the experimental groups (P<0.05) compared with those in the control group; however, the PCNA expression varied to a certain degree. p53- and PCNA- positive expression were detected in each group, mainly in relation to the spermatogonic cells and spermatocytes.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The findings of the present study demonstrated that simulated microgravity and CIR can induce spermatogenic cell apoptosis and sperm DNA damage. Sperm DNA damage may be one of the underlying mechanisms behind male fertility decline under space environment. These findings may provide a scientific basis for protecting astronauts and space traveler's health and safety.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Radiation Effects , Carbon , Cell Proliferation , Radiation Effects , DNA Damage , Heavy Ions , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Mice , Random Allocation , Sperm Count , Spermatogenesis , Radiation Effects , Spermatozoa , Radiation Effects , Testis , Radiation Effects , Weightlessness Simulation
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-306510

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) signaling pathway in osteo- blast differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cultured in simulated microgravity.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Rat BMSCs were cultured in simulated microgravity (by rotating clinostat) in the presence of 10 µmol/L pioglitazone, 10 µmol/L GW9662, or both pioglitazone and GW9662, with the cells cultured in normal gravity as the control group. After osteogenic induction for 14 days, the cells were stained with alizarin red for the bone nodules and with oil red-O for the fat cells, and the fat rate was calculated. ALP activity in the cells was determined in each group, and RT-PCR was performed to detect cellular expressions of PPARγ mRNA.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Pioglitazone significantly inhibited osteoblast differentiation of the BMSCs, whereas GW9662 promoted the cell differentiation by suppressing the activation of PPARγ.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>We hypothesize that the activation of PPARγ signaling pathway is one of the main mechanisms for inhibited osteoblast differentiation of rat BMSCs in simulated microgravity, and inhibiting PPARγ pathway activation can effectively prevent and treat microgravity-induced osteoporosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Osteoblasts , Cell Biology , Osteogenesis , PPAR gamma , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Weightlessness Simulation
17.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 96-100, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-333129

ABSTRACT

One of the most important and urgent issues in the field of space medicine is to reveal the potential mechanism underlying the disused muscle atrophy during the weightlessness or microgravity environment. It will conduce to find out effective methods for the prevention and treatment of muscle atrophy during a long-term space flight. Increasing data show that muscle spindle discharges are significantly altered following the hindlimb unloading, suggesting a vital role in the progress of muscle atrophy. In the last decades, we have made a series of studies on changes in the morphological structure and function of muscle spindle following simulated weightlessness. This review will discuss our main results and related researches for understanding of muscle spindle activities during microgravity environment, which may provide a theoretic basis for effective prevention and treatment of muscle atrophy induced by weightlessness.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hindlimb Suspension , Muscle Spindles , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscular Atrophy , Space Flight , Weightlessness Simulation
18.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 143-148, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-333123

ABSTRACT

One of the major circulatory changes that occur in human during space flight and simulated weightlessness is a cerebral redistribution of body fluids, which is accompanied by an increase of blood volume in the upper body. Therefore, atrial myocardium should increase the secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), but the researches lack common conclusion until now. The present study was to investigate the expression level of ANP in simulated weightlessness rats, and to confirm the changes of ANP by observing the associated proteins of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs). The tail-suspended rat model was used to simulate weightlessness. Western blots were carried out to examine the expression levels of ANP and SNARE proteins in atrial and left ventricular myocardium. The results showed that ANP expression in atrial myocardium showed an increase in 4-week tail-suspended rats (SUS) compared with that in the synchronous control rats (CON). We only detected a trace amount of ANP in the left ventricular myocardium of the CON, but found an enhanced expression of ANP in left ventricular myocardium of the SUS. Expression of VAMP-1/2 (vesicle associated SNARE) increased significantly in both atrial and left ventricular myocardium in the SUS compared with that in the CON. There was no difference of the expression of syntaxin-4 (target compartment associated SNARE) between the CON and SUS, but the expression of SNAP-23 showed an increase in atrial myocardium of the SUS compared with that in the CON. Synip and Munc-18c as regulators of SNAREs did not show significant difference between the CON and SUS. These results suggest that the expression of ANP shows an increase in atrial and left ventricular myocardium of 4-week tail-suspended rats. Enhanced expression of VAMP-1/2 associated with ANP vesicles confirms the increased expression of ANP in atrial and left ventricular myocardium.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atrial Natriuretic Factor , Metabolism , Heart Ventricles , Metabolism , Myocardium , Metabolism , Rats , SNARE Proteins , Metabolism , Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 1 , Metabolism , Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 2 , Metabolism , Weightlessness Simulation
19.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1212-1215, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-278404

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to explore the effect of cordyceps sinensis enhancing lymphocyte proliferation and surface CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. The splenic lymphocytes were separated from mice and cultured in the rotary cell culture system simulated microgravity environment. The cells were treated with different concentration of cordyceps sinensis solution (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 µg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively, then the cells were harvested, and analyzed for cell proliferation and the expression of cell surface markers (CD4 and CD8). The results showed that under simulated microgravity environment, the lymphocyte proliferation was inhibited. When the concentration of cordyceps sinensis was 25 or 50 µg/ml, the lymphocyte proliferation, CD4 and CD8 expressions all increased, but 50 µg/ml cordyceps sinensis could inhibit the proliferation ability with the time prolonging. It is concluded that the suitable concentration of cordyceps sinensis displayed the ability to enhance the lymphocyte proliferation and CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. These results may be valuable for screening drugs which can be potentially against immunosuppression under simulated microgravity.


Subject(s)
Animals , CD4 Antigens , Metabolism , CD8 Antigens , Metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Cordyceps , Immune Tolerance , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphocytes , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Polysaccharides , Pharmacology , Spleen , Cell Biology , Weightlessness Simulation
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-271715

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the AC impedance of rat blood was measured with Agilent 4294A impedance analyzer in the frequency range of 10(4)-10(8) Hz, and the effect of simulated weightlessness (SWL)on electrical properties of rat blood was investigated by analyzing the data characteristics with the use of electrical impedance spectroscopy, the Bode diagram, the Nyquist diagram and the Nichols diagram. The results demonstrated 60 days SWL caused some changes: (1) the electrical impedance of rat blood were reduced, mainly in the real part of complex impedance (Z'o and Z'infinity), the electrical impedance modulus amplitude (|Z*|o and |Z*|infinity), the impedance relaxation strength (deltaZ', delta|Z*|) and the logarithm of impedance modulus amplitude at low frequency (Log |Z*|o) were lower than that in the control (CON) group; (2) the characteristic frequency of the electrical impedance spectrum of rat blood and the phase angle were increases, mainly in the characteristic frequency (fc1, fc2) and the phase angle [theta(p) (degree), theta(p) (radian)] increased compared with that in the CON group. These data indicate that SWL leads to reduced resistivity and enhanced conductivity of blood.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood , Blood Physiological Phenomena , Dielectric Spectroscopy , Methods , Electric Impedance , Male , Rats , Weightlessness Simulation
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