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1.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(1): 101-110, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284359

ABSTRACT

Puede decirse que el pensamiento filosófico y la medicina surgieron juntos en los inicios de la civilización griega, cuna de la cultura occidental. En el presente ensayo, se hace una revisión histórica desde la filosofía Pitagórica hasta los paradigmas de Kuhn, mostrando autores y obras de la antigüedad, modernidad y época contemporánea, que ilustran la influencia recíproca entre la filosofía y la medicina.


It is possible to say that philosophical thought and medicine emerged together at the beginning of the Greek civilization, cradle of western culture. In the present trial, a historical review is made, from Pythagorean philosophy to Kuhns' paradigms, showing authors and works from antiquity, modernity and contemporary epoch, illustrating the reciprocal influence between philosophy and medicine


Subject(s)
Philosophy , Thinking , Western World , Medicine
2.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(4): 812-819, out.-dez. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145465

ABSTRACT

Esta nota expõe um breve balanço da história da pandemia de Covid após sete meses de crise. Com esse objetivo, apreendemos três grandes tendências: o impacto letal do negacionismo em países como os Estados Unidos e o Brasil; a chegada da segunda onda na Europa e, enfim, a catástrofe nos países latinoamericanos onde os indicadores pioram em todos eles independentemente das políticas de contenção que foram implementadas desde o mês de março de 2020. Para a discussão dessas três tendências, elaboramos três momentos de reflexão de maior fôlego: a clivagem que separa os modelos de gestão da pandemia na Ásia no Ocidente; a necessidade de uma política social (como o auxílio emergencial) para tornar viáveis as políticas sanitárias na América Latina; e, enfim, uma reflexão mais geral sobre a relação entre as catástrofes e a imaginação.


This paper presents a brief analysis of the history concerning Covid pandemic after its beginning seven months ago. In pursuing this purpose we realised three major trends: the lethal impact of denialism in countries such as United States and Brazil; the arrival of the second wave of coronavirus in Europe; and finally, the Latin American catastrophe where the indicators of people affected by disease worsen in all their countries regardless of the policies to restrain it implemented since March 2020. To discuss these three trends, we have deepened three reflections: the cleavage between the management model of the pandemic in Asia and the Western management model; the need for a social policy (such as an emergency financial aid) to make health policies viable in Latin America; and at last a general reflection on the relationship between the catastrophes and the imagination.


Esta nota expone un breve análisis de la historia de la pandemia de Covid después de siete meses de crisis. Intentando alcanzar este propósito, hemos distinguido tres grandes tendencias: el impacto letal del negacionismo en países como Estados Unidos y Brasil; la llegada de la segunda ola a Europa; y finalmente la catástrofe latinoamericana donde los indicadores del contagio empeoraron en todos los países independiente de las políticas de contención implementadas desde marzo de 2020. Para discutir estas tres tendencias, hemos profundizado tres reflexiones: la diferencia entre el modelo de gestión de la pandemia en Asia y el modelo implementado en Occidente; la necesidad de una política social (como lo auxilio financiero de emergencia) para hacer viables las políticas de salud en Latinoamérica; y por último una reflexión de forma más general sobre la relación entre las catástrofes y la imaginación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Social Isolation , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Management , Pandemics/prevention & control , United States , Brazil , Viral Vaccines , Western World , Denial, Psychological , Health Policy , Latin America , Middle East
3.
Salud bienestar colect ; 4(2): 18-28, may.-ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254386

ABSTRACT

Con este trabajo intentamos una aproximación crítica a las tensiones que caracterizan este hoy que sobrevivimos, precipitado por la pandemia del Covid 19 como catalizador inesperado de la crisis civilizatoria que parece atravesamos como Humanidad. Para ello contrastamos la crisis de los fundamentos, con algunos fundamentos de la crisis, quede manera esencialmente recursiva se hacen posibles. La racionalidad y fines del modelo civilizatorio en crisis, en una posible transición acelerada por la pandemia, permiten hacer visibles algunas condiciones de posibilidad para la construcción de contratos sociales, lógicas y racionalidades que apuntan a la Humanidad como fin y razón de ser; frente al individualismo liquidador del sujeto y la individualidad; y a la Armonía, frente a la metáfora del Desarrollo sin límites y la racionalidad instrumental que la sostiene en la Modernidad Occidental.


With this work we try a critical approach to the tensions that characterize this today that we survive, precipitated by the Covid 19 pandemic as an unexpected catalyst of the civilizing crisis that seems to be going through as Humanity. To do this, we contrast the fundamentals crisis with some fundamentals of the crisis, which in an essentially recursive way are made possible. The rationality and ends of the civilizing model in crisis, in a possible transition accelerated by the pandemic, make it possible to make visible some conditions of possibility for the construction of social contracts, logics and rationales that point Humanity as an end and a reason for being; against the liquidating individualism of the subject and individuality; and Harmony, against the metaphor of Development without limits and the instrumental rationality that sustains it in Western Modernity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Civilization , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Social Change , Chile/epidemiology , Western World
4.
Univ. salud ; 21(3): 240-252, Sep.-Dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1043545

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Ante la crisis epistemológica y sistémica que se encuentra en la civilización occidental, el yagé emerge como alternativa que invita a una reponderación axiológica profunda. Asimismo, el ritual del yagé evidencia los límites del conocimiento médico moderno, dando pauta al abordaje transdisciplinario. Por otro lado, se presentan consecuencias de inserción en el libre mercado, implicando problemas de lucro a costa de tradiciones originarias. En este contexto, se explora el concepto «trabajo espiritual¼ como práctica que busca descolocarse del colonialismo mercantil al tiempo que se aleja del modelo médico moderno. Objetivo: Reflexionar la incorporación del ritual de yagé en Occidente y sus posibilidades como alternativa epistemológica y médica. Materiales y métodos: Revisión de artículos de la base de datos especializados Web of Science, con la palabra clave: "ayahuasca". Resultados: Se estructuró la información teniendo en cuenta los aspectos relacionados con: (a) el contexto de incorporación del yagé al occidente, (b) los límites del conocimiento médico moderno y (c) los problemas de inserción al libre mercado. Conclusiones: Se apoya el diagnóstico de la ruptura epistemológica con occidente, pero reconociendo el estado inicial de las investigaciones y la falta de evidencias documentadas para entrar en una etapa más fructífera para el debate.


Abstract Introduction: In the face of epistemological and systemic crisis in Western civilization, yagé emerges as an alternative that invites a deep axiological reponderation. The yagé ritual demonstrates the limits of modern medical knowledge, giving guidance to a transdisciplinary approach. On the other hand, there are consequences of insertion into the free market, involving profit problems at the expense of original traditions. Thus, the concept of "spiritual work" is explored as a practice that seeks to dislodge itself from commercial colonialism while moving away from the modern medical model. Objective: To reflect on the incorporation of the yage ritual in the West and its possibilities as an epistemological and medical alternative. Materials and methods: Review of articles from the specialized Web of Science database, with the keyword: "ayahuasca". Results: The information was structured considering aspects related to: (a) the context of incorporation of yagé into the West, (b) the limits of modern medical knowledge and (c) the problems of insertion into the free market. Conclusions: The diagnosis of the epistemological rupture with the West is supported while recognizing the initial state of the investigations and the lack of documented evidence in order to enter into a more fruitful debate.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Banisteriopsis , Knowledge , Western World
5.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 26(3): 733-752, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039949

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este artículo analiza cómo el discurso médico incorpora una serie de reflexiones sobre las conductas morales en Buenos Aires en la primera parte del siglo XIX. A través del estudio de tres textos, cuyos autores son los médicos Diego Alcorta, Guillermo Rawson y Francisco Javier Muñiz se identifican una serie de registros argumentales que resaltan el funcionamiento de los órganos, la cuestión de la herencia y la gravitación del clima en función de reflexionar sobre la moralidad de los individuos y las poblaciones. Este fenómeno de transferencia de saberes se debe a la presencia de la tradición médica francesa sumándose a factores locales derivados del intenso proceso de politización de la sociedad bajo el segundo gobierno de Juan Manuel de Rosas.


Abstract This article analyzes how medical discourse incorporated a series of reflections on moral behaviors in Buenos Aires in the early nineteenth century. Based on the study of three texts authored by the physicians Diego Alcorta, Guillermo Rawson and Francisco Javier Muñiz, it identifies a series of discursive registers that stress the role of organ functions, the question of heredity and the influence of climate in reflections on the morality of individuals and populations. This phenomenon of knowledge transfer is due to the presence of the French medical tradition, in addition to local factors stemming from the intense process of politicization of society under the second administration of Juan Manuel de Rosas.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 19th Century , Physicians/history , Political Systems/history , Political Activism , Morals , Argentina , Physicians/ethics , Western World/history , France
6.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 27(1): 38-45, jan.-mar. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041965

ABSTRACT

Resumo A morte é simbólica, histórica e socialmente construída. Mais do que um processo biológico, é uma elaboração cultural, e discuti-la significa, portanto, entender suas representações e práticas. Embora seja atualmente entendida de forma negativa, nem sempre foi tida como tabu. Este artigo busca desvelar de que modo foi estabelecida a oposição entre a vida e a morte em proveito da vida como positividade e as consequências do banimento da ideia de finitude em prol de um mito de imortalidade. A partir de uma revisão da literatura sobre as concepções da morte no Ocidente, especificamente no Brasil, esta discussão propõe repensar a bioética como campo disciplinar que deve abarcar, para além de modelos dogmáticos e autoritários, valores morais plurais. Esta reflexão permite encarar a morte como constituinte da vida e, assim, arrostar a impossibilidade do nada, fim inexorável, como possibilidade infinda, em suas diversas acepções e seus diferentes sentidos.


Abstract Death is symbolically, historically and socially constructed. More than a biological process, death is a cultural elaboration, and discussing it means, therefore, to understand its representations and practices. Although it is currently understood negatively, it was not always considered a taboo. This article aims to unveil how the opposition between life and death favoring life as a positivity was established and what are the consequences of banishing the idea of finitude in favor of a myth of immortality. Through a literature review of the conceptions of death in the Western world, specifically in Brazil, this discussion proposes to rethink bioethics as a discipline that should include, besides dogmatic and authoritarian models, plural moral values. This reflection allows us to face death as a part of life and, thus, to confront the impossibility of nothingness, an inexorable end, as an endless possibility, in its various and different meanings.


Resumen La muerte es simbólica, histórica y socialmente construida. Más que un proceso biológico, es una elaboración cultural, y discutirla significa, por lo tanto, entender sus representaciones y prácticas. Aunque ella sea actualmente entendida de forma negativa, no siempre fue considerada como tabú. Este artículo busca desvelar de qué modo se estableció la oposición entre la vida y la muerte en provecho de la vida como positividad y las consecuencias de la exclusión de la idea de finitud en favor de un mito de inmortalidad. A partir de una revisión de la literatura sobre las concepciones de la muerte en Occidente, específicamente en Brasil, esta discusión propone repensar la bioética como campo disciplinar que debe abarcar, además de modelos dogmáticos y autoritarios, valores morales plurales. Esta reflexión permite encarar la muerte como constituyente de la vida y, así, confrontar la imposibilidad de la nada, fin inexorable, como posibilidad sin fin, en sus diversas acepciones y sus diferentes sentidos.


Subject(s)
Bioethics , Western World , Life , Death
7.
Motriz (Online) ; 25(1): e1018214, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002695

ABSTRACT

This article seeks to reflect on the possibility of a meeting ground where Michel Foucault and Norbert Elias' thought comes together around the issue of the regulation of drives and bodily practices within modernity. Such drives - among which we highlight the use of force and violence, as well as the acceptable regulation of their release and applications - have been the object of particular procedures within the modern era, whether seen in relation to individuals or from to the social body.(AU)


Subject(s)
Social Behavior/history , Sports/trends , Civilization/history , Human Body , Western World
8.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. Univ. Cuenca ; 36(2): 46-54, Noviembre 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-998695

ABSTRACT

La hibridación cultural en salud permite reconocer diversas prácticas que conviven en el mismo espacio y tiempo, un proceso que se cumplen en Saraguro, cantón de la sierra sur-ecuatoriana con una población indígena y mestiza con experiencias en salud que responden a racionalidades distintas. Objetivo:Analizar las concepciones de los sanadores de Saraguro con respecto a la hibridación en salud. Material y métodos:El presente es un estudio cualitativo-interpretativo, con entrevistas a sabios del lugar; las categorías trabajadas son: hibridación, conceptualización y realidad híbrida, a la que se sumó el reto de la integración. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas y luego transcritas a word; para el procesamiento se utilizó el programa Atlas.ti. La triangulación se realizó con un experto universitario en temas de medicina ancestral y la bibliografía consultada.Resultados: Los sanadores de Saraguro mantienen su cosmovisión ancestral en los fenómenos de la salud-enfermedad, en algunas prácticas coexisten expresiones de otras culturas, esta hibridación en salud muestra saberes andinos con elementos de la medicina occidental y de orden religioso. Conclusiones:En Saraguro la medicina ancestral se mantiene vigente a través de los sanadores, sabios en sanación acorde a la cosmovisión andina.Los sanadores mantienen su práctica de acuerdo a las concepciones andinas del proceso salud-enfermedad.Las prácticas en salud ancestral sufren un proceso de hibridación entre lo ancestral y lo occidental además de elementos religiosos.


The cultural hybridization in health allows to recognize diverse practices that coexist in the same space and time, a process that is fulfilled in Saraguro, county of the South-Ecuadorian Andes with an indigenous and mixed ethnic population with health experiences that respond to different rationalities. Objetive:Analyzing the conceptions of Saraguro healers with respect to health hybridization.Method:The present is a qualitative-interpretative study, with interviews to wise people of the place; the worked categories are: Hybridization, conceptualization and hybrid reality, to which the integration challenge was added. The interviews were recorded and then transcribed to word for processing, the Atlas.ti program was used. The triangulation was carried out with a university expert in ancestral medicine subjects and the bibliography consulted. Results: The healers of Saraguro keep their ancestral worldview in the phenomena of health-disease, in some practices expressions of other cultures coexist, this hybridization in health shows Andean knowledge with elements of Western medicine and religious order. Conclusions:In Saraguro the Ancestral Medicine is still valid through the healers, wise in healing according to the Andean cosmovision.The Andean healers keep their practice according to the Andean conceptions of the health-disease process.Ancestral health practices undergo a process of hybridization between the ancestral and the Western as well as religious elements


Subject(s)
Humans , Western World , Population Groups , Medicine, Traditional , Health , Cultural Characteristics , Worldview
9.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 25(3): 841-858, jul.-set. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-975429

ABSTRACT

Resumo O colonialismo ocidental influenciou, a partir do século XIX, o encontro entre saberes tradicional e moderno, resultando na sobreposição da medicina ocidental como modo privilegiado de conhecimento. Em 1958 oficializou-se, sob o nome de medicina tradicional chinesa, a hibridização entre as medicinas chinesa e ocidental e, por meio do desenvolvimento da pesquisa biomédica sobre a acupuntura, cresceu o distanciamento do saber tradicional. Este ensaio aborda mudanças históricas sofridas pela medicina chinesa/acupuntura e discute, sob a óptica pós-colonial, os efeitos de sua absorção pela racionalidade médica moderna. Concluiu-se que o cientificismo na medicina chinesa não ampliou seu potencial terapêutico e resultou na perda de sua autoridade epistemológica.


Abstract Western colonialism influenced the encounter between traditional and modern knowledge from the nineteenth century onwards, resulting in the overlapping of Western medicine as a privileged form of knowledge. In 1958 the hybridization between Chinese and Western medicines became official under the name of traditional Chinese medicine and, through the development of biomedical research on acupuncture, it distanced itself from traditional knowledge. This essay presents historical changes experienced by Chinese medicine/acupuncture and discusses the effects of its absorption by modern medical reasoning from a postcolonial standpoint. The conclusion was that the scientism of Chinese medicine did not broaden its therapeutic potential and resulted in the loss of its epistemological authority.


Subject(s)
History, 20th Century , Politics , Acupuncture/history , Colonialism/history , Knowledge , Western World , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/history
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687911

ABSTRACT

Oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia (OAT) which perplexes doctors and patients due to its complicated etiology, atypical symptoms and poor clinical efficacy, is a general term for the three pathological states of abnormal semen. OAT is the main factor of male infertility. It is also a hot and difficult point in present studies. Empiric drug is the most popular treatment of this disease in the modern medicine. Chinese medicine (CM) is one of the main methods for the treatment of this disease, and it has certain clinical effect. The author believes that the use of modern medical technology to make the diagnosis as clear as possible is the key to treat OAT. The combination of syndrome and disease differentiation is the main mode in the treatment of OAT. Microscopic syndrome differentiation and macroscopic evidence embodies the basic principle of "Si Wai Chuai Nei" and broadens the perspective of CM syndrome differentiation. Classification and treatment are basic methods for the treatment of OAT. The treatment should not be limited to the Shen (Kidney), instead it should focus on the whole body condition. At different stages, the treatment should also pay attention to strengthening the Pi (Spleen), nourishing the Gan (Liver) and promoting blood circulation. Complementing Chinese and Western medicine, and highlighting the characteristics and advantages of CM treatment, have a great guiding value for the treatment of OAT.


Subject(s)
Asthenozoospermia , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Combined Modality Therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Integrative Medicine , Methods , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methods , Oligospermia , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Semen Analysis , Western World
11.
Gut and Liver ; : 125-132, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713724

ABSTRACT

Diverticular disease is one of the most common conditions in the Western world and one of the most common findings identified at colonoscopy. Recently, there has been a significant paradigm shift in our understanding of diverticular disease and its management. The pathogenesis of diverticular disease is thought to be multifactorial and include both environmental and genetic factors in addition to the historically accepted etiology of dietary fiber deficiency. Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) is currently considered a type of chronic diverticulosis that is perhaps akin to irritable bowel syndrome. Mesalamine, rifaximin and probiotics may achieve symptomatic relief in some patients with SUDD, although their role(s) in preventing complications remain unclear. Antibiotic use for acute diverticulitis and elective prophylactic resection surgery are considered more individualized treatment modalities that take into account the clinical status, comorbidities and lifestyle of the patient. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of diverticular disease continues to evolve and is likely to be diverse and multifactorial. Paradigm shifts in several areas of the pathogenesis and management of diverticular disease are explored in this review.


Subject(s)
Colonoscopy , Comorbidity , Dietary Fiber , Diverticulitis , Diverticulum , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Life Style , Mesalamine , Probiotics , Western World
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788031

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In Korea, the incidence of breast cancer peaks in the fifth decade, which is younger than that observed in the Western world. We conducted this study to compare the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of breast cancer in women < 35 and ≥35 years old.METHODS: The medical records of 969 patients treated for breast cancer at the Gil Medical Center from 2008 through 2012 were reviewed. Tumor characteristics, surgical methods, and adjuvant therapies were compared in two groups.RESULTS: Number of childbirths, family history, the proportion of postmenopausal women were lower among those aged < 35 years. However, tumor size, number of metastatic lymph nodes, and surgical procedures were similar in two groups. The rate of triple negative status in younger patients was higher than in older patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was effective in patients positive for hormone receptors and no lymph nodal invasion, and it was effective in patients negative for hormone receptors and lymph nodal invasion in patients aged >35 years old. Postoperative radiotherapy was statistically effective in patients aged < 35 and ≥35 years old that underwent breast-conserving surgery. Pregnancy were significantly associated with survival in younger patients. While lymph node stage, presence of progesterone receptor, and triple negative status were significantly associated with survival on older patients.CONCLUSION: The prognostic factors of breast cancer in patients younger than 35 years old were pregnancy. Triple negative status rate was higher in younger patients than in older patients. Adjuvant therapy had similar effects in patients aged < 35 or ≥35 years old.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Female , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy, Segmental , Medical Records , Parturition , Pregnancy , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Receptors, Progesterone , Western World , Young Adult
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776651

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To provide information about the effectiveness and safety of Ginkgo Leaf Extract and Dipyridamole Injection (GD) as one adjuvant therapy for treating angina pectoris (AP) and to evaluate the relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with meta-analysis.@*METHODS@#RCTs concerning AP treated by GD were searched in China Biology Medicine Disc (SinoMed), PubMed, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), the Chinese Scientifific Journals Database (VIP), Wanfang Database, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, from inception to February, 2017. The Cochrane Risk Assessment Tool was adopted to assess the methodological quality of the RCTs. The Review Manager 5.3 software was utilized to conduct the meta-analysis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 41 RCTs involving 4,462 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The results indicated that the combined use of GD and Western medicine (WM) against AP was associated with a higher total effective rate [risk ratio (RR)=1.25, 95% confifidence interval (CI): 1.21-1.29, P<0.01], total effective rate of electrocardiogram (RR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.21-1.36, P<0.01). Additional, GD combined with WM could decrease the level of plasma viscosity [mean difference (MD)=-0.56, 95% CI:-0,81 to-0.30, P<0.01], fifibrinogen [MD=-1.02, 95% CI:-1.50 to-0.54, P<0.01], whole blood low shear viscosity [MD=-2.27, 95% CI:-3.04 to-1.49, P<0.01], and whole blood high shear viscosity (MD=-0.90, 95% CI: 1.37 to-0.44, P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Comparing with receiving WM only, the combine use of GD and WM was associated with a better curative effect for patients with AP. Nevertheless, limited by the methodological quality of included RCTs more large-sample, multi-center RCTs were needed to confifirm our fifindings and provide further evidence for the clinical utility of GD.


Subject(s)
Angina Pectoris , Drug Therapy , Blood Viscosity , Dipyridamole , Drug Combinations , Humans , Injections , Plant Extracts , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Western World
14.
Motrivivência (Florianópolis) ; 29(51): 13-27, jul. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847578

ABSTRACT

Neste artigo, procuramos problematizar aspectos do processo de desenvolvimento do Kung Fu na China e de sua posterior difusão para o Ocidente à luz da teoria sociológica de Norbert Elias. Para cumprir este objetivo, estruturamos o texto em três partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos alguns elementos da teoria de Elias que são úteis para estudar o Kung Fu. Na segunda parte do artigo, por sua vez, trazemos alguns indícios acerca do processo de difusão do Kung Fu para o Ocidente, tomando como leitura auxiliar a obra "O Mosteiro de Shaolin" de Meir Shahar. Na terceira e última parte do texto, sugerimos que a recepção do Kung Fu no Ocidente engendra um processo social que conjuga elementos da tradição chinesa e da modernidade capitalista, conferindo a essa prática um caráter híbrido e polissêmico.


In this paper, we discuss aspects of the development process of Kung Fu in China and its subsequent spread to the West in the light of sociological theory of Norbert Elias. To meet this goal, we have structured the text into three parts. In the first, we present some elements of theory of Elias that are useful to study Kung Fu. In the second part of the article, in turn, bring some evidence about the Kung Fu diffusion process to the West, taking as a reading aid work "Shaolin Monastery" of Meir Shahar. The third and final part of the text, we suggest that the reception of Kung Fu in the West engenders a social process that combines elements of Chinese tradition and capitalist modernity, giving the practice a hybrid and ambiguous character


En este trabajo se discuten los aspectos del proceso de desarrollo de Kung Fu en China y su posterior propagación hacia el Occidente, a la luz de la teoría sociológica de Norbert Elias. Para cumplir con este objetivo, hemos estructurado el texto en tres partes. En la primera, se presentan algunos elementos de la teoría de Elias que son útiles para estudiar el Kung Fu. En la segunda parte del artículo, a su vez, trae algunas evidencias sobre el proceso de difusión de Kung Fu al Occidente, teniendo como lectura de apoyo el trabajo "Monasterio de Shaolin" de Meir Shahar. En la tercera y última parte del texto, se sugiere que la recepción de lo Kung Fu en Occidente engendra un proceso social que combina elementos de la tradición chino y la modernidad capitalista, dando a la práctica un carácter híbrido y plural.


Subject(s)
Martial Arts/trends , Diffusion of Innovation , Cultural Diffusion , China , Western World
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-156644

ABSTRACT

The common causes of postmenopausal bleeding (PMB), according to the data from the western world, are atrophy, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), endometrial cancer, etc. We conducted a retrospective study to assess whether the causes of PMB in Korean postmenopausal women are similar to those already known. This retrospective study used 10-year medical records (March 2005 to December 2014) of 792 PMB women in the Yonsei University Health System. The data were divided into 2 categories by 5-year intervals to compare the differences between the 2 periods. The most common cause of PMB in Korean women was atrophy (51.1%). Polyps and HRT were the second, followed by anticoagulant medications, cervical cancer, and endometrial cancer. The proportion of patients with cervical cancer significantly decreased during the second half of the decade (8.7% vs. 5.2%; P = 0.048). Although no significant change was noted for HRT, its rank was higher during the latter 5-year period. Only the most common cause of PMB was the same as the conventional data. Interestingly, the proportion of patients with cervical cancer decreased during the latter half of the decade, reflecting the changes in the nation's cancer prevalence rate, while the use of HRT increased.


Subject(s)
Atrophy , Endometrial Neoplasms , Female , Hemorrhage , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Humans , Medical Records , Polyps , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Western World
16.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 24(2): 355-367, maio-ago. 2016. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-792925

ABSTRACT

Em 2015 a temática da morte assistida foi amplamente divulgada pela mídia após o primeiro caso legal de eutanásia ter sido realizado na Colômbia. Além disso, no mesmo ano, o suicídio assistido foi legalizado no Canadá e no estado da Califórnia, nos Estados Unidos. Atualmente, a morte assistida é permitida em quatro países da Europa Ocidental: Holanda, Bélgica, Luxemburgo e Suíça; em dois países norte-americanos: Canadá e Estados Unidos, nos estados de Oregon, Washington, Montana, Vermont e Califórnia; e na Colômbia, único representante da América do Sul. A partir de revisão sistemática da literatura, objetivou-se estabelecer a prevalência e os critérios adotados para a prática da eutanásia e do suicídio assistido em países ocidentais e discutir a posição de países onde essa prática não é reconhecida. Uma melhor compreensão do assunto mostra-se fundamental para a formação de opiniões e fomento de futuros debates.


In 2015 the issue of assisted death was widely publicized by the international media after the first legal euthanasia case was held in Colombia. Also in this same year, assisted suicide was legalized in Canada and in the state of California in the United States. Currently, assisted death is allowed in four Western European countries: Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland; two North American countries: Canada and the US, in the states of Oregon, Washington, Montana, Vermont and California; and Colombia, the sole representative in South America. From a systematic literature review, this work aims to establish the prevalence and the criteria adopted for the practice of euthanasia and assisted suicide in western countries and to discuss the position of similar countries where this practice is not recognized. A better understanding of the subject appears to be critical to the formation of opinions and the encouragement of further discussions.


En 2015, el tema de la muerte asistida fue ampliamente difundida por los medios del mundo después de que el primer caso de la eutanasia legal haya sido realizado en Colombia. También, ese año el suicidio asistido fue legalizado en Canadá y en el estado de California en Estados Unidos. Actualmente, el suicidio asistido está permitido en cuatro países de Europa occidental: Países Bajos, Bélgica, Luxemburgo y Suiza; dos países de América del Norte: Canadá y Estados Unidos, en el estado de Oregon, Washington, Montana, Vermont y California; y Colombia, único representante de América del Sur. A partir de una revisión sistemática de la literatura, se planteo como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los criterios adoptados para la práctica de la eutanasia y el suicidio asistido en los países occidentales y discutir la posición de países similares donde no se reconoce esta práctica. Una mejor comprensión de la materia parece ser crítica para la formación de opiniones y el fomento de las futuras discusiones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Palliative Care , Euthanasia , Suicide, Assisted , Terminally Ill , Humanization of Assistance , Patient Care , Physician-Patient Relations , Life Expectancy , Western World , Personal Autonomy , Research Report , Legislation, Medical
17.
Mundo saúde (Impr.) ; 40(1): [114-142], jan., 20, 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-972969

ABSTRACT

The theology and bioethics of the OrthodoxChurch are radically different from those ofthe West, which were shaped by the cathedralschools, especially those of Chartres andNotre Dame in the 12th century, as well asthe University of Paris, founded in 1208, allof which led to a radical recasting of Christianthought under the influence of Aristotle. Thisdramatic change was associated inter alia withthe introduction by Dominicus Gundissalinus(1110-1190) of a view of metaphysics shaped byAvicenna (Fidora 2013).


A teologia e bioética dos ortodoxosIgreja são radicalmente diferentes das deo Ocidente, que foram moldadas pela catedralescolas, especialmente aqueles de ChartresNotre Dame no século 12, bem comoda Universidade de Paris, fundada em 1208, todos osdas quais levou a uma reformulação radical de Christianpensou sob a influência de Aristóteles. estemudança dramática foi associado, nomeadamente, coma introdução por Dominicus Gundissalinus(1110-1190) de uma visão da metafísica moldada porAvicena (Fidora 2013).


Subject(s)
Humans , Bioethics , Theology , Christianity , Western World , Eastern Orthodoxy , Marriage , Divorce
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198616

ABSTRACT

Gout, which is caused by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in synovial fluid and other tissues, is the most common inflammatory rheumatic disease in men, at least in the Western world, and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. In addition to extremely painful recurrent acute and chronic arthritis, gout is associated with chronic kidney diseases and metabolic syndrome, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and obesity. Thus it has an impact on morbidity and premature mortality. For the proper management of gout, definite diagnosis should come first. Management plans for the treatment of gout have to be designed to meet the requirements of each individual patient and to control both gout and its associated disorders. The goals of treatment for gout are fast pain relief and the prevention of future gout attacks and long-term complications, such as joint destruction and other comorbidities. In this article, recent advanced non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic management strategies for gout and hyperuricemia will be described.


Subject(s)
Arthritis , Comorbidity , Diagnosis , Dyslipidemias , Gout , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Hypertension , Hyperuricemia , Joints , Male , Mortality, Premature , Obesity , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Rheumatic Diseases , Synovial Fluid , Uric Acid , Western World
19.
Journal of Stroke ; : 60-65, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The burden of stroke is comparatively greater in Asian countries than in the Western world. While there has been a documented recent decline in the incidence of stroke in several Western nations due to better risk factor management, much less is known about the nature and trajectory of stroke in Asia over the last decade. The objective of this study was to explore risk factors, medication use, incidence, and one-year recurrence of stroke in Taiwan. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study by reviewing all hospitalized patients (> or = 18 years) with a primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke between 2001 and 2011 from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. RESULTS: A total of 291,381 first-ever ischemic stroke patients were enrolled between 2000 and 2011. The average age was about 70 years and approximately 58.6% of them were men. While prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia, as well as use of statins, antiplatelet agents, and oral anticoagulant agents for atrial fibrillation significantly increased; incidence (142.3 vs. 129.5 per 100,000 in 2000 and 2011, respectively) and one-year recurrence (9.6% vs. 7.8% in 2000 and 2011, respectively) of stroke declined during this period of time. CONCLUSIONS: Over the last decade in Taiwan, rates of primary ischemic stroke and one-year recurrent stroke decreased by 9% and 18% respectively.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Atrial Fibrillation , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hyperlipidemias , Incidence , Male , National Health Programs , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Prevalence , Recurrence , Risk Factors , Stroke , Taiwan , Western World
20.
Journal of Stroke ; : 60-65, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The burden of stroke is comparatively greater in Asian countries than in the Western world. While there has been a documented recent decline in the incidence of stroke in several Western nations due to better risk factor management, much less is known about the nature and trajectory of stroke in Asia over the last decade. The objective of this study was to explore risk factors, medication use, incidence, and one-year recurrence of stroke in Taiwan. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study by reviewing all hospitalized patients (> or = 18 years) with a primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke between 2001 and 2011 from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. RESULTS: A total of 291,381 first-ever ischemic stroke patients were enrolled between 2000 and 2011. The average age was about 70 years and approximately 58.6% of them were men. While prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia, as well as use of statins, antiplatelet agents, and oral anticoagulant agents for atrial fibrillation significantly increased; incidence (142.3 vs. 129.5 per 100,000 in 2000 and 2011, respectively) and one-year recurrence (9.6% vs. 7.8% in 2000 and 2011, respectively) of stroke declined during this period of time. CONCLUSIONS: Over the last decade in Taiwan, rates of primary ischemic stroke and one-year recurrent stroke decreased by 9% and 18% respectively.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Atrial Fibrillation , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hyperlipidemias , Incidence , Male , National Health Programs , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Prevalence , Recurrence , Risk Factors , Stroke , Taiwan , Western World
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