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Rev. ADM ; 78(2): 73-79, mar.-abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247336


El color es un efecto visual de los rayos de luz reflejándose y su concepto es complejo por ser una sensación que se percibe y por las características electromagnéticas. Los dientes varían espacialmente porque son curvados, tienen prolongaciones relativamente pequeñas y vistas en contra de una variable de fondo no uniforme así como típicamente una iluminación no estandarizada, por lo cual difieren en relación con su colorimetría, por lo que el estudio del color es fundamental en la odontología. En la actualidad hay métodos para evaluar el color, desde una simple revisión visual hasta instrumentos como el colorímetro y los espectrofotómetros, los cuales son aparatos utilizados en la medida del color de un objeto a través de su longitud de onda reflejada. Una pigmentación dental se produce por varios factores, ya sean intrínsecos y extrínsecos, estas pigmentaciones son factores importantes tanto en la estética como en el aspecto físico, por lo que es importante poder evaluar la estabilidad de los dientes naturales ante diferentes sustancias que podrían modificar su color natural. En este estudio nos dimos a la tarea de evaluar el cambio de color de dientes naturales ante diferentes bebidas, se eligieron tres bebidas pigmentantes y de uso común: café, vino tinto y jugo de arándano; se utilizaron 10 dientes unirradiculares del mismo color previamente analizados con el espectrofotómetro. Un diente fue la muestra control y los nueve restantes se sumergieron en frascos separados con 10 mL de las tres bebidas elegidas. Realizando la evaluación de color a los 15, 30 y 90 días con ayuda del espectrofotómetro, pudimos observar que el diente sumergido en café no tuvo variación durante los primeros 15 días y el cambio más notable de color fue hasta los 90 días a diferencia de las muestras sumergidas en vino y jugo de arándano cuya variación máxima de color se presentó en 15 días respectivamente (AU)

Color is a visual effect of light rays reflecting and its concept is complex, for being a sensation that is perceived and for the electromagnetic characteristics. Teeth vary spatially because they are curved, have relatively small extensions, and are viewed against a non-uniform background variable as well as typically non-standardized illumination, which is why they differ in relation to their colorimetry. So the study of color is fundamental in dentistry. Currently, there are methods to evaluate color, from a simple visual check to instruments such as the colorimeter and spectrophotometers, which are devices used to measure the color of an object through its reflected wavelength. A dental pigmentation is produced by various factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic, these pigmentations are currently important factors in both aesthetics and physical appearance, so it is important to be able to evaluate the stability of natural teeth against different substances that could modify its natural color. In this study, we undertook the task of evaluating the change in the color of natural teeth when faced with different beverages. Three pigment and commonly used beverages were chosen: coffee, red wine and cranberry juice; 10 single-rooted teeth of the same color previously analyzed with the spectrophotometer were used. One tooth was the control sample and the remaining nine were immersed in separate bottles with 10 mL of the three chosen drinks. Carrying out the color evaluation at 15, 30 and 90 days with the help of the spectrophotometer, we could see that the tooth immersed in coffee did not change during the first 15 days and the most notable change in color was up to 90 days, unlike the samples immersed in wine and cranberry juice whose maximum color variation was presented in 15 days respectively (AU)

Humans , Tooth Discoloration , Beverages , Color , Colorimetry , Esthetics, Dental , Spectrophotometry/methods , Wine , In Vitro Techniques , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Statistical Analysis , Coffee , Juices , Light
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878983


To determine the content of extracts in different processed products of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and the content of chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, senkyunolide Ⅰ, coniferyl ferulate, senkyunolide A and ligustilide, in order to study the effect of different proces-sing methods on the alcohol-soluble extract and the content of six ingredients of Chuanxiong Rhizoma. The extract was determined according to the alcohol-soluble extract determination method set forth in item 2201 of the 2020 Chinese Pharmacopoeia Ⅳ; the content was determined by using Agilent TC-C_(18) column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) for gradient elution, with acetonitrile(A)-0.5% acetic acid solution(B) as the mobile phase; the column temperature was at 30 ℃; the flow rate was 1.0 mL·min~(-1), the detection wavelength was 285 nm; and the injection volume was 10 μL. Compared with Chuanxiong Rhizoma, the extracts of processed products all increased significantly; by the degree of increase, the order was stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with honey>stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with rice wine>stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with Angelicae Dahuricae Radix decoction>stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with tea decoction; the HPLC method was convenient and reliable, with a high linear relationship of chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, senkyunolide Ⅰ, coniferyl ferulate, senkyunolide A and ligustilide, and a high precision, repeatability, stability and the sample recovery rate in Chuanxiong Rhizoma and its processed products. There were 15 chromatographic peaks before and after processing, eight of them were identified. Compared with the pre-processing, two chromatographic peaks were added after the stir-frying with honey and rice wine; and four chromatographic peaks were added after the processing with Angelicae Dahuricae Radix decoction; the contents of chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, senkyunolide Ⅰ, coniferyl ferulate, senkyunolide A, and ligustilide in stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with rice wine were all reduced. Except for the content of ferulic acid that increased, the content of the other five components decreased in stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with honey, stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with tea decoction, and stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with Angelicae Dahuricae Radix decoction. Rice wine, honey, decoction of tea and Angelicae Dahuricae Radix could all promote the dissolution of chemical components in Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and increase the content of extract; the changes in the contents of six components of different processed products could provide a certain basis for studying chemical composition and efficacy of different processed products of Chuanxiong Rhizoma.

Chlorogenic Acid , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Rhizome/chemistry , Wine
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878877


Rhei Radix et Rhizoma(RRR) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, with extensive pharmacological effects and clinical applications. This paper summarized processing history evolution of RRR and its effect on chemical compositions and pharmacological effects, and provided feasible insights for further studies on the chemical compositions and pharmacological effects of RRR before and after processing. Relevant information demonstrated that RRR has a long history of processing and various methods. At pre-sent, Chinese Pharmacopoeia mainly records four processing methods: cleaning(raw RRR), wine processing(RRR stir-fried with wine), steaming processing(RRR wine steaming), fried charcoal(RRR charring). RRR has a good effect in clearing heat effect, hemostatic effect and blood promoting effect, and its main chemical components are anthraquinone/anthrones, stilbene, phenylbutanone, chromogens, flavonoids and tannin compounds. This paper reviewed the history evolution of RRR and its effect on chemical composition and pharmacological changes, and put forward further study ideas, with the aim to provide a basic reference for processing mechanism, effective material basis and clinical application of RRR.

Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Roots/chemistry , Rhizome/chemistry , Wine
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 43: 23-31, Jan. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087514


Background: Hong Qu glutinous rice wine (HQGRW) is brewed under non-aseptic fermentation conditions, so it usually has a relatively high total acid content. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of the bacterial communities and total acid during the fermentation of HQGRW and elucidate the correlation between total acid and bacterial communities. Results: The results showed that the period of rapid acid increase during fermentation occurred at the early stage of fermentation. There was a negative response between total acid increase and the rate of increase in alcohol during the early fermentation stage. Bacterial community analysis using high-throughput sequencing technology was found that the dominant bacterial communities changed during the traditional fermentation of HQGRW. Both principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that there was a great difference between the bacterial communities of Hong Qu starter and those identified during the fermentation process. Furthermore, the key bacteria likely to be associated with total acid were identified by Spearman's correlation analysis. Lactobacillus, unclassified Lactobacillaceae, and Pediococcus were found, which can make significant contributions to the total acid development (| r| N 0.6 with FDR adjusted P b 0.05), establishing that these bacteria can associate closely with the total acid of rice wine. Conclusions: This was the first study to investigate the correlation between bacterial communities and total acid during the fermentation of HQGRW. These findings may be helpful in the development of a set of fermentation techniques for controlling total acid.

Bacteria/isolation & purification , Wine/microbiology , Pediococcus/isolation & purification , Pediococcus/genetics , Pediococcus/metabolism , Time Factors , Acetobacter/isolation & purification , Acetobacter/genetics , Acetobacter/metabolism , Cluster Analysis , Sequence Analysis , Computational Biology , Principal Component Analysis , Fermentation , Microbiota , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/genetics , Lactobacillus/metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828046


Scutellariae Radix(Huangqin) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) used for the treatment of clearing heat in clinical application. It is bitter-cold by using directly, but the bitter-cold property can be relieved after wine-frying. The study of taste changes before and after wine-frying of Scutellariae Radix is of great significance in identifying Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix and clarifying the traditional theory of wine-processing. In this experiment, 10 batches of Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix were prepared. The contents of 5 flavonoids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), and principal component analysis(PCA) was performed with 5 flavonoids as variables. As a result, the contents were different in different batches of Scutellariae Radix, but Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix could not be distinguished. Five sensory attributes(sour, salty, fresh, sweet, and bitter) were evaluated by artificial tasting, and the response values of 7 sensors(AHS, AHS, PKS, CTS, NMS, CPS, ANS, SCS) representing the taste of pieces were detected by electronic tongue. The correlation between sensory evaluation and response values of the electronic tongue were analyzed, and the results showed that the sensory evaluation of sour, salty, fresh, sweet, bitter and AHS, CTS, NMS, ANS, SCS sensors had different degrees of correlation, indicating that the electronic tongue technology can be used as an alternative to artificial taste and can serve as a means for quantifying the taste, and it can be used to evaluate the taste of TCM pieces. The taste method was used to analyze the response values of the electronic tongue, and the results showed that the bitterness of wine-processed Scutellariae Radix decreased and the salty taste increased. PCA was used to analyze taste changes before and after wine-processed Scutellariae Radix, and the results showed that taste differences between 2 pieces were divided into 2 categories. PCA loading scattering plots showed that response of saltiness and bitterness were the major factors to affect overall taste in Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix. Based on electronic tongue response values, the Fisher discriminant model for Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix was established, which showed that it could effectively discriminate them with a recognition rate of 100%. The experimental results showed that the electronic tongue combined with multivariate statistical analysis can be used to evaluate taste of TCM, at the same time, it could provide a fast and simple method for identifying different processed products.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Scutellaria baicalensis , Taste , Wine
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18467, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249175


The processing of grapes for the manufacture of juices and wines, generates large quantities of by-products rich in metabolites with antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cicatrizing activities. The high homology between human enzymes and snake venoms makes the latter valuable laboratory tools for the study of pathophysiological processes. Proteases and phospholipases A2 act in processes related to hemostasis and inflammatory response. Thus, in this work, dried pomace obtained from grape (Isabel, Niagara, Bordô, BRS Violeta and Blend cultivars) processing were evaluated on phospholipase, proteolytic, hemolytic and thrombolytic activities induced by snakes venoms and the content of phenolic compounds and minerals was evaluated. The dried pomace exerted inhibitory and potentiating actions in all analyzed activities. The enzymatic modulators present in the evaluated dried pomace have potential for therapeutic use, although their broad characterization is still necessary, in order to define adequate amounts and formulations to obtain efficacy and safety in their use.

Snake Venoms/adverse effects , Wine/classification , Enzymes/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phospholipases A2/analysis , Vitis/classification , Industrial Waste/analysis
Biol. Res ; 53: 02, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089077


The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been considered for more than 20 years as a premier model organ- ism for biological sciences, also being the main microorganism used in wide industrial applications, like alcoholic fermentation in the winemaking process. Grape juice is a challenging environment for S. cerevisiae , with nitrogen deficiencies impairing fermentation rate and yeast biomass production, causing stuck or sluggish fermentations, thus generating sizeable economic losses for wine industry. In the present review, we summarize some recent efforts in the search of causative genes that account for yeast adaptation to low nitrogen environments, specially focused in wine fermentation conditions. We start presenting a brief perspective of yeast nitrogen utilization under wine fermentative conditions, highlighting yeast preference for some nitrogen sources above others. Then, we give an outlook of S. cerevisiae genetic diversity studies, paying special attention to efforts in genome sequencing for population structure determination and presenting QTL mapping as a powerful tool for phenotype-genotype correlations. Finally, we do a recapitulation of S. cerevisiae natural diversity related to low nitrogen adaptation, specially showing how different studies have left in evidence the central role of the TORC1 signalling pathway in nitrogen utilization and positioned wild S. cerevisiae strains as a reservoir of beneficial alleles with potential industrial applications (e.g. improvement of industrial yeasts for wine production). More studies focused in disentangling the genetic bases of S. cerevisiae adaptation in wine fermentation will be key to determine the domestication effects over low nitrogen adaptation, as well as to definitely proof that wild S. cerevisiae strains have potential genetic determinants for better adaptation to low nitrogen conditions.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Wine/microbiology , Adaptation, Physiological , Vitis/metabolism , Fermentation , Nitrogen/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/growth & development , Vitis/microbiology
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180413, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132167


Abstract: Freshly prepared apple tea wine (a combination of tea extract and apple juice) is having yeasty and dull flavour, which needs to be improved to increase the acceptability of this product. Therefore, an attempt has been made for artificial ageing of apple tea wine using different wood chips to improve its physico-chemical, sensory and antimicrobial attributes. Different types of wood chips (Quercus spp., Bombax spp. and Acacia spp.) were added respectively (2.5 g/L to the freshly prepared apple tea wine) and allowed for ageing in carboys for the six months at the room temperature. The influence of each wood species on physico-chemical, sensory and antimicrobial attributes was tested upto 6 months of storage. Storage intervals significantly affected all the physico-chemical attributes (except total sugars, volatile acidity, and antioxidant activity), whereas, the addition of wood chips affected titratable acidity, ethanol, higher alcohols, total phenols, and amino acid. Cluster analysis of the physico-chemical attributes data revealed the same and showed that storage intervals exerted more effect on the physico-chemical and antimicrobial properties of the apple tea wine rather than the wood chips. The antimicrobial activity of 6 months aged wine was low as compared to the fresh wine. Among all the wood chips, apple tea wine aged with Quercus spp. possesses a significantly higher score (according to desirability) than the wine aged with other wood chips and control. In nutshell, apple tea wine matured with Quercus spp. wood chips for 6 months were the best with improved physico-chemical and sensory attributes.

Humans , Tea/chemistry , Wine/analysis , Malus/chemistry , Juices , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Chemical Phenomena
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(5): 1356-1368, sept./oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048943


Wines are known for its high content of bioactive compounds that can be influenced by the region and climate where the grapes are produced. New regions of production are normally developed using techniques and standards for other traditional regions, but is important to characterize the wine profile, which is different according to the terroir, and can be important for future geographic indications. The aim of this study was to evaluate color, antioxidant activity, anthocyanin content and phenolic compounds profile in wines produced in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Wines were produced in different wineries of the same region using the varieties Syrah, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc (red), Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc (white) and Syrah (rose), from municipalities of Cordislândia, Boa Esperança and Três Corações, located in the south of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Wines produced in Minas Gerais State presented contents of t-resveratrol, total phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols and phenolic acids consistent to the contents observed in wines from traditional regions of production. However, the terroir and the grape variety can result in a differentiation of compounds observed in wines. Syrah red wines produced in Boa Esperança stood out with higher amounts of anthocyanins (24.29 mg L-1), phenolic acids (123,19 mg L-1 ) and flavonols (35.55 mg L-1), when compared to wines from the same variety from other municipalities and other evaluated red wines. Sauvignon Blanc wines from Boa Esperança presented higher contents of phenolic acids and total flavonols, when compared to wines of the same variety produced in Cordislândia. Chardonay wines presented higher total phenolics content, when compared to ohther evaluated white wines. Rose wine produced in the South of Minas Gerais presented the phenolic acids content of 36,33 mg L-1 and total flavonols content of 29,7 mg L-1. The highest antioxidant activity using the DPPH method, (% of free radicals scavenging - FRS) was observed for Syrah wines from Três Corações, (75.37%), but not different from Cabernet Sauvignon wines from Cordislândia (72.50%), values that can be correlated with the largest content of phenolics observed in wines as phenolic compounds (3009 mg L-1). No differences were observed in the contents of the antioxidant activity of white wines. This results indicate that the studied wines present the necessary nutritional and beneficial characteristics to compete in the supply of bioactive compounds during consumption, when compared to wines produced in traditional and different regions in Brazil and other countries.

Vinhos são conhecidos por seu alto teor de compostos bioativos, os quais podem ser influenciados pela região e clima de cultivo das uvas. Novas regiões de produção são normalmente desenvolvidas utilizando técnicas padrões estabelecidos em regiões produtoras tradicionais, mas é importante a caracterização do perfil do vinho obtido, que é diferente de acordo com o terroir e pode ser importante em futuras indicações geográficas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a cor, capacidade antioxidante, teor de antocianinas e perfil de compostos fenólicos em vinhos produzidos no estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil. Vinhos foram produzidos em diferentes vinícolas do estafo utilizando as variedades Syrah, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc (tintos), Chardonnay e Sauvignon Blanc (brancos) e vinhos Syrah (rose) roses dos municípios de Cordislândia, Boa Esperança e Três Corações, localizados no sul de Minas Gerais. Vinhos produzidos no estado de Minas Gerais apresentaram teores de t-resveraatrol, fenólicos totais, antocianinas, flavonóis, favanois e ácidos fenólicos consistentes com os observados em vinhos de outras regiões produtoras. No entanto, o terroir e a variedade de uva podem resultar em uma diferenciação de compostos observados em vinhos. Vinhos Syrah produzidos em Boa Esperança se destacaram com altos teores de antocianinas (24.29 mg L-1), ácidos fenólicos (123.19 mg L-1) and flavanois (35.55 mg L-1), quando comparados com vinhos da mesma variedade de outros municípios e os demais vinhos tintos avalaidos. Vinhos Sauvignon Blanc de Boa Esperança apresentaram altos tores de ácidos fenólicos e flavonoids totais, quando comparados com vinhos da mesma variedade produzidos em Cordislândia. Vinhos Chardonay apresentaram maiores teores de fenólicos totaisquando comparados com outros vinhos brancos avaliados. Vinhos Rosé produzidos no Sul de Minas Gerais apresentaram teores de ácidos fenólicos de 36.33 mg L-1 e toeres de flavonois totais de 29.7 mg L-1. Maior atividade antioxidante pelo método do DPPH (% de sequestro de radicais livres) foi observada em vinhos Syrah produzidos em Três Corações (75.37%), não se diferenciando de vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon de Cordislândia (72,50%), teores que podem ser correlacionados com o maiores tores de de fenólicos em vinhos, na forma de compostos fenólicos (3009 mg L-1).Não foram observadas diferenças nos teores de atividade antioxidante em vinhos brancos. Os resultados indicam que os vinhos de Minas Gerais paresental características nutricionais e benéficas indicadas no consume, quando comparados com vinhos produzidos em tradicionais e diferentes regiões do Brasil e outros países.

Wine , Vitis , Phytochemicals
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 38: 10-18, Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051447


Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is a process in winemaking responsible for the conversion of L-malic acid to L-lactic acid and CO2, which reduces the total acidity, improves the biological stability, and modifies the aroma profile of wine. MLF takes place during or after alcoholic fermentation and is carried out by one or more species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are either present in grapes and cellars or inoculated with malolactic starters during the winemaking process. Although the main bacterium among LAB used in commercial starter cultures for MLF has traditionally been Oenococcus oeni, in the last decade, Lactobacillus plantarum has also been reported as a malolactic starter, and many works have shown that this species can survive and even grow under harsh conditions of wine (i.e., high ethanol content and low pH values). Furthermore, it has been proved that some strains of L. plantarum are able to conduct MLF just as efficiently as O. oeni. In addition, L. plantarum exhibits a more diverse enzymatic profile than O. oeni, which could play an important role in the modification of the wine aroma profile. This enzymatic diversity allows obtaining several starter cultures composed of different L. plantarum biotypes, which could result in distinctive wines. In this context, this review focuses on showing the relevance of L. plantarum as a MLF starter culture in winemaking.

Wine/microbiology , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolism , Fermentation , Malates/metabolism , Vitis/microbiology , Odorants
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(1): 19-22, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990059


ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the color alteration of four brands of artificial teeth (Art Plus, Trilux, Bionote and Biolux), after immersion in color solutions of coffee, red wine and urucum. We used 80 artificial teeth, which were standardized with 2 mm thickness. Then, they were subjected to finishing and polishing, and divided into 4 groups (n = 05), which were immersed in one of the 3 types of dye, plus distilled water (control). The samples were immersed daily for 4 hours, then they were removed, washed in tap water, dried with absorbent paper and immersed in distilled water for the subsequent hours in a biological glasshouse at 37 ºC, for 21 days. The evaluation of the color change was made in the periods of 0, 7, 14 and 21 days, by means of the tristimulus colorimeter. The data were subjected to the ANOVA and Tukey test with a 5 % significance. The results showed that the urucum was the substance that caused the greatest staining while the coffee and the wine did not show statistical difference. Regarding trademarks, Trilux presented a statistical difference compared to the other commercial brands, revealing colorimetric alteration only in the 14-day period. It was concluded that the composition of the artificial teeth, the type of pigmenting agent and the immersion time determine the color change.

RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la alteración de color de cuatro marcas de dientes artificiales (Art Plus, Trilux, Bionote y Biolux), después de inmersión en soluciones colorantes de café, vino tinto y urucum. Se utilizaron 80 dientes artificiales, los cuales fueron estandarizados con 2 mm de espesor. En seguida, los mismos fueron sometidos al acabado y pulido, y divididos en 4 grupos (n = 5), los cuales fueron inmersos en uno de los 3 tipos de colorante, más agua destilada (control). Las muestras permanecieron inmersas diariamente durante 4 horas, luego fueron retiradas, lavadas en agua corriente, secas con papel absorbente e inmersas en agua destilada por las horas subsiguientes en invernadero biológico a 37 ºC, por 21 días. La evaluación del cambio de color se realizó en los períodos de 0, 7, 14 y 21 días, por medio del colorímetro tristimulo. Los datos fueron sometidos a la prueba ANOVA y Tukey con un 5 % de significancia. Los resultados demostraron que el urucum fue la sustancia que provocó mayor manchado mientras que el café y el vino no presentaron diferencia estadística. En cuanto a las marcas comerciales, el Trilux presentó una diferencia estadística en comparación con las otras marcas comerciales, revelando alteración colorimétrica sólo en el período de 14 días. Se concluyó que la composición de los dientes artificiales, el tipo de agente pigmentante y el tiempo de inmersión determinan el cambio de color.

Humans , Tooth, Artificial , Tooth Discoloration , Acrylic Resins , Wine , Materials Testing , Analysis of Variance , Coffee , Colorimetry , Coloring Agents , Immersion
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787395


The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability of bulk-fill and conventional resin composites with respect to different storage media and thickness of composites.Filtek™ Z250 and Filtek™ Z350XT were evaluated as conventional resin composites. Filtek™ Bulk-fill Posterior Restorative and Tetric® N-Ceram Bulk Fill were evaluated as bulk-fill resin composites.CIE L*a*b* values of baseline were measured after 24 hours of storage in distilled water, and each resin composite group was divided into three subgroups and stored in distilled water, red wine, and coffee media respectively. Again after 1, 7 and 28 days of immersion, color changes (ΔE*) were calculated using the CIE L*a*b* values.The greatest ΔE* was observed in red wine for all resin composites, and the mean color changes were ranked in the increasing order of distilled water, coffee, red wine. Filtek™ Z350XT exhibited the greatest color change in all media, followed by Filtek™ Bulk-fill Posterior Restorative. Filtek™ Z250 and Tetric® N-Ceram Bulk Fill followed with similar mean color change values. According to the 2 different thicknesses of 2 mm and 4 mm of bulk-fill resin composites, there was no thickness-related difference on color changes.

Coffee , Immersion , Water , Wine
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 567-576, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771352


Ethyl carbamate (EC), a carcinogenic and teratogenic chemical that is widely distributed in various alcoholic beverages, has attracted much attention. Microbial enzymatic degradation of EC in rice wine is always efficient and attractive. In this review, we summarize the research progress and problems of microbial enzymatic elimination of EC in rice wine from three aspects: the mechanisms of EC formation in rice wine, the research progress of acid urease, and the research progress of urethanase. Then, we propose the corresponding strategies to solve the problems: screening new urethanase with satisfied enzyme properties, food-grade expression and directed evolution of the bifunctional Fe³⁺-dependent acid urease and acid urease used in combination with urethanase to eliminate both urea and EC in rice wine.

Oryza , Urea , Urease , Urethane , Wine
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760721


No abstract available.

Smoke , Smoking , Wine
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 98 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049035


In this study, 83 wines considered by experts as representatives of the following commercial categories: "Argentinean Malbec (AM)", "Brazilian Merlot (BM)", "Uruguayan Tannat (UT)" and "Chilean Carménère (CC)" were analyzed according to their composition of phenolic, volatiles and semi-volatiles compounds. The objective was to identify the chemical compounds profile that characterized each commercial category. From about 600 peaks obtained by chromatographic techniques, 169 were identified and 53 of them were selected for multivariate statistical analysis. Four clusters, designated as "Chemical Categories" were obtained. Chemical Category 2 and Chemical Category 4 were composed by 90% of CC and 68% of AM respectively, Chemical Category 3 grouped mostly CC (50%) and BM (36%), while Chemical Category 1 showed predominance of AM (37%) and UT (30%). Based on the chemical classification, CC wines were characterized by higher content of Isopentyl lactate, Isobutyl alcohol, Ionone, malvidin and gallic acid and lower content of rutin, quercetin and resveratrol. On the other side, AM wines showed higher concentration of myricetin. UT wines had the highest antioxidant activity, higher content of quercetin, epicatechin, rutin and also the highest amount of all semi-volatiles detected in the negative mode, while BM wines only showed the highest concentration of catechin, petunidin and all semi-volatiles detected in the positive mode. Considering that phenolic and volatile compounds are strictly associated to the wines sensory characteristics, these data can contribute to establish criteria for further wines authentication and typification

Neste estudo, 83 vinhos considerados por especialistas como representantes das seguintes categorias comerciais: "Malbec Argentino (AM)", "Merlot Brasileiro (BM)", "Tannat Uruguaio (UT)" e "Carménere Chileno (CC)" foram analisados de acordo com a sua composição de compostos fenólicos, voláteis e semi-voláteis. O objetivo foi identificar a combinação dos compostos químicos que caracteriza cada categoria comercial. De cerca de 600 picos obtidos por técnicas cromatográficas, 169 foram identificados e 53 deles foram selecionados para análise estatística multivariada. Quatro clusters, designados como "Categorias Químicas" foram obtidos. A Categoria Química 2 e a Categoria Química 4 foram compostas por 90% de CC e 68% de AM respectivamente, a Categoria Química 3 agrupou principalmente CC (50%) e BM (36%), enquanto a Categoria Química 1 mostrou predominância de AM (37%) e UT (30%). Com base na classificação química, os vinhos CC foram caracterizados por apresentarem maior teor de lactato isopentílico, álcool isobutílico, ionona, malvidina e ácido gálico e menor teor de rutina, quercetina e resveratrol. Por outro lado, os vinhos AM apresentaram maior concentração de miricetina. Os vinhos UT apresentaram a maior atividade antioxidante, maior teor de quercetina, epicatequina, rutina e também a maior quantidade de todos os semi-voláteis detectados no modo negativo, enquanto os vinhos BM apresentaram a maior concentração de catequina, petunidina e todos os semi-voláteis detectados no modo positivo. Considerando que compostos fenólicos e voláteis estão estritamente associados às características sensoriais dos vinhos, esses dados podem contribuir para o estabelecimento de critérios para posterior autenticação e tipificação de vinhos sul americanos

Wine/analysis , Wine/statistics & numerical data , Volatilization , Algorithms , Chemical Compounds/classification , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Antioxidants
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180377, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039125


Abstract The objective of the present study was to produce wine from wild edible fruits of Flacourtia montana J. Graham. The various physicochemical attributes including total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were analyzed. Further, the prepared wine was evaluated for the antioxidant potential using four different assays, viz., 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power assay and total antioxidant activity. Finally, the wine was subjected for the sensory evaluation. Experimental results revealed that wine had an alcohol content of 7.20%, total phenolic content of 0.776±0.032 mg GAE/ml and total flavonoids of 0.121±0.012 mg QE/ml. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the presence of four major phenolic acids, viz., gallic acid (0.009±0.0005 mg/ml), chlorogenic acid (0.623±0.091 mg/ml), catechin (0.063±0.011 µg/ml) and epicatechin (0.060±0.009 mg/ml). In vitro antioxidant analysis of wine was able to successfully scavenge the free radicals in a dose dependent manner. Sensory scores indicated wine to be good in overall acceptability. Thus, present study highlighted the therapeutic nature of wine prepared from this underutilized fruit which could provide possibilities for enhancing socio-economic benefits among rural communities.

Wine/supply & distribution , Polyphenols , Flacourtia , Antioxidants/chemical synthesis
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e024, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001615


Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of chitosan or nanodiamond incorporation on the color stability and surface roughness of a bisacrylic resin subjected to artificial aging. Four bisacrylic resins were evaluated, namely, control, chitosan-modified material, nanodiamond-modified material, and chitosan-nanodiamond-modified material. Twenty-four specimens were prepared for each material. The surface roughness was determined using a profilometer with a cut-off of 0.25 mm. The baseline color was measured according to the CIE L*a*b* system using a reflectance spectrophotometer. After these tests, the specimens were individually immersed in cola soft drink, red wine, or distilled water (n = 8) for 28 days. After the aging, the surface roughness and final color were re-evaluated. The color stability was determined using the difference between the coordinates obtained before and after the aging process. The data on roughness and color change were evaluated using ANOVA and the Tukey test (α = 0.05). The results show that the incorporation of nanodiamonds and chitosan into a bisacrylic resin provided a better color stability to the materials (p = 0.007). The storage in red wine resulted in a higher variation in the surface roughness values, especially when only the nanodiamond was incorporated to the material (p < 0.05). The incorporation of both chitosan and nanodiamonds are promising in providing an improvement in the properties of the bisacrylic resin when they are simultaneously incorporated in the product.

Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Color , Composite Resins/chemistry , Chitosan/chemistry , Nanodiamonds/chemistry , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Wine , Materials Testing , Carbonated Beverages , Water/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(6 Supplement 1): 37-47, nov./dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-968307


Maceration is the step of the vinification process in which phenolic and aromatic compounds are transferred to wine. This study aimed at producing fine sparkling red wines by testing different grape varieties and maceration lengths. Grapes underwent maceration for 24 hours (Very Short Maceration ­ VSM) and for 48 hours (Short Maceration ­ SM). Sparkling wines were produced by the traditional method and analyses were carried out in the must, base wines and sparkling wines. Analyzes of minerals, volatile compounds and physicochemicals related to total soluble solids (TSS), Volatile Acidity (VA); Free Sulfur Dioxide (Free SO2); Total Sulfur Dioxide (Total SO2); Total Titratable Acidity (TTA); Fixed Acidity (FA); Hydrogenionic Potential (pH); Alcoholic Content (AC); Reduced Dry Extract (RDE); Total Tannins (TT); Total Anthocyanins (TA); Total Polyphenol Content (TPC); Total Color Intensity (TCI). In addition, during the tasting, a quantitative and descriptive record was distributed to the researchers to characterize the wines in relation to color, perlage, aroma, flavor, main descriptor of the aroma and main general adjective. The sparkling wines which had the best evaluations at different maceration lengths were the following: sparkling wine 100% Teroldego (SM) and sparkling wine 62.5% Teroldego, 18.75% Merlot and 18.75% Pinot (SM). Both short maceration (48 hours) and the Teroldego variety were the vinification parameters which provided the best olfactory-gustatory and color characteristics to the sparkling wines under study. All sparkling wines had enological potential to be vinified in red. Maturation and maceration processes under evaluation produced the typical freshness of sparkling wines and the desired red color.

A maceração é a etapa da vinificação na qual os compostos fenólicos e aromáticos são transferidos ao vinho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir espumantes finos tintos testando a variedade de uva e a duração da maceração. As uvas sofreram maceração por 24 horas (Maceração Muito Curta - MMC) e por 48 horas (Maceração Curta - MC). Os espumantes foram produzidos com o método tradicional e as análises realizadas nos mostos, vinhos base e espumantes. Foram realizadas análises de minerais, de compostos voláteis e físico-químicas relacionadas a sólidos solúveis totais (SST), acidez volátil (AV), acidez total (AcT), dióxido de enxofre livre (SO2L) e total (SO2T), acidez fixa (AF), potencial hidrogeniônico (pH), teor alcoólico (TA), extrato seco (ES), extrato seco reduzido (ESR), índice de polifenóis totais (IPT), antocianinas totais (AT), taninos totais (TT) e intensidade total da cor (ITC). Além disso, durante a degustação, uma ficha quantitativa e descritiva foi distribuída aos pesquisadores para caracterizar os vinhos em relação à cor, perlage, aroma, sabor, principal descritor do aroma e principal adjetivo geral. Nas diferentes macerações, os espumantes que obtiveram melhores avaliações foram: 100% Teroldego (MC) e 62,5% Teroldego, 18,75% Merlot e 18,75% Pinot Noir (MC). Indicando que a maceração curta e a variedade Teroldego foram os parâmetros de vinificação que proporcionaram melhores características olfato-gustativas e de coloração aos espumantes estudados. Excetuando-se o espumante 100% Merlot (MC), todos demonstraram possuir potencial enológico para serem vinificados em tinto e as maturações e macerações testadas produziram o frescor característico dos espumantes e a coloração tinta desejada.

Wine , Physical and Chemical Properties , Foaming Agents , Phenolic Compounds , Polyphenols