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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928052

ABSTRACT

A new iridoid glycoside, cornushmf A(1) and nine known iridoids(2-10) were isolated from the water extract of the wine-processed Corni Fructus by various column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by comprehensive spectroscopic methods as 7β-O-(2″-formylfuran-5″-methylene)-morroniside(1), 7-dehydrologanin(2), sweroside(3), 7β-O-methylmorroniside(4), 7α-O-methylmorroniside(5), 7β-O-ethylmorroniside(6), 7α-O-ethylmorroniside(7), cornuside(8), sarracenin(9), and loganin(10).


Subject(s)
Cornus/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Iridoids , Wine
2.
Rev. ADM ; 78(2): 73-79, mar.-abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247336

ABSTRACT

El color es un efecto visual de los rayos de luz reflejándose y su concepto es complejo por ser una sensación que se percibe y por las características electromagnéticas. Los dientes varían espacialmente porque son curvados, tienen prolongaciones relativamente pequeñas y vistas en contra de una variable de fondo no uniforme así como típicamente una iluminación no estandarizada, por lo cual difieren en relación con su colorimetría, por lo que el estudio del color es fundamental en la odontología. En la actualidad hay métodos para evaluar el color, desde una simple revisión visual hasta instrumentos como el colorímetro y los espectrofotómetros, los cuales son aparatos utilizados en la medida del color de un objeto a través de su longitud de onda reflejada. Una pigmentación dental se produce por varios factores, ya sean intrínsecos y extrínsecos, estas pigmentaciones son factores importantes tanto en la estética como en el aspecto físico, por lo que es importante poder evaluar la estabilidad de los dientes naturales ante diferentes sustancias que podrían modificar su color natural. En este estudio nos dimos a la tarea de evaluar el cambio de color de dientes naturales ante diferentes bebidas, se eligieron tres bebidas pigmentantes y de uso común: café, vino tinto y jugo de arándano; se utilizaron 10 dientes unirradiculares del mismo color previamente analizados con el espectrofotómetro. Un diente fue la muestra control y los nueve restantes se sumergieron en frascos separados con 10 mL de las tres bebidas elegidas. Realizando la evaluación de color a los 15, 30 y 90 días con ayuda del espectrofotómetro, pudimos observar que el diente sumergido en café no tuvo variación durante los primeros 15 días y el cambio más notable de color fue hasta los 90 días a diferencia de las muestras sumergidas en vino y jugo de arándano cuya variación máxima de color se presentó en 15 días respectivamente (AU)


Color is a visual effect of light rays reflecting and its concept is complex, for being a sensation that is perceived and for the electromagnetic characteristics. Teeth vary spatially because they are curved, have relatively small extensions, and are viewed against a non-uniform background variable as well as typically non-standardized illumination, which is why they differ in relation to their colorimetry. So the study of color is fundamental in dentistry. Currently, there are methods to evaluate color, from a simple visual check to instruments such as the colorimeter and spectrophotometers, which are devices used to measure the color of an object through its reflected wavelength. A dental pigmentation is produced by various factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic, these pigmentations are currently important factors in both aesthetics and physical appearance, so it is important to be able to evaluate the stability of natural teeth against different substances that could modify its natural color. In this study, we undertook the task of evaluating the change in the color of natural teeth when faced with different beverages. Three pigment and commonly used beverages were chosen: coffee, red wine and cranberry juice; 10 single-rooted teeth of the same color previously analyzed with the spectrophotometer were used. One tooth was the control sample and the remaining nine were immersed in separate bottles with 10 mL of the three chosen drinks. Carrying out the color evaluation at 15, 30 and 90 days with the help of the spectrophotometer, we could see that the tooth immersed in coffee did not change during the first 15 days and the most notable change in color was up to 90 days, unlike the samples immersed in wine and cranberry juice whose maximum color variation was presented in 15 days respectively (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Discoloration , Beverages , Color , Colorimetry , Esthetics, Dental , Spectrophotometry/methods , Wine , In Vitro Techniques , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Coffee , Juices , Light
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878983

ABSTRACT

To determine the content of extracts in different processed products of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and the content of chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, senkyunolide Ⅰ, coniferyl ferulate, senkyunolide A and ligustilide, in order to study the effect of different proces-sing methods on the alcohol-soluble extract and the content of six ingredients of Chuanxiong Rhizoma. The extract was determined according to the alcohol-soluble extract determination method set forth in item 2201 of the 2020 Chinese Pharmacopoeia Ⅳ; the content was determined by using Agilent TC-C_(18) column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) for gradient elution, with acetonitrile(A)-0.5% acetic acid solution(B) as the mobile phase; the column temperature was at 30 ℃; the flow rate was 1.0 mL·min~(-1), the detection wavelength was 285 nm; and the injection volume was 10 μL. Compared with Chuanxiong Rhizoma, the extracts of processed products all increased significantly; by the degree of increase, the order was stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with honey>stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with rice wine>stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with Angelicae Dahuricae Radix decoction>stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with tea decoction; the HPLC method was convenient and reliable, with a high linear relationship of chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, senkyunolide Ⅰ, coniferyl ferulate, senkyunolide A and ligustilide, and a high precision, repeatability, stability and the sample recovery rate in Chuanxiong Rhizoma and its processed products. There were 15 chromatographic peaks before and after processing, eight of them were identified. Compared with the pre-processing, two chromatographic peaks were added after the stir-frying with honey and rice wine; and four chromatographic peaks were added after the processing with Angelicae Dahuricae Radix decoction; the contents of chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, senkyunolide Ⅰ, coniferyl ferulate, senkyunolide A, and ligustilide in stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with rice wine were all reduced. Except for the content of ferulic acid that increased, the content of the other five components decreased in stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with honey, stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with tea decoction, and stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with Angelicae Dahuricae Radix decoction. Rice wine, honey, decoction of tea and Angelicae Dahuricae Radix could all promote the dissolution of chemical components in Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and increase the content of extract; the changes in the contents of six components of different processed products could provide a certain basis for studying chemical composition and efficacy of different processed products of Chuanxiong Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Chlorogenic Acid , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Rhizome/chemistry , Wine
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878877

ABSTRACT

Rhei Radix et Rhizoma(RRR) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, with extensive pharmacological effects and clinical applications. This paper summarized processing history evolution of RRR and its effect on chemical compositions and pharmacological effects, and provided feasible insights for further studies on the chemical compositions and pharmacological effects of RRR before and after processing. Relevant information demonstrated that RRR has a long history of processing and various methods. At pre-sent, Chinese Pharmacopoeia mainly records four processing methods: cleaning(raw RRR), wine processing(RRR stir-fried with wine), steaming processing(RRR wine steaming), fried charcoal(RRR charring). RRR has a good effect in clearing heat effect, hemostatic effect and blood promoting effect, and its main chemical components are anthraquinone/anthrones, stilbene, phenylbutanone, chromogens, flavonoids and tannin compounds. This paper reviewed the history evolution of RRR and its effect on chemical composition and pharmacological changes, and put forward further study ideas, with the aim to provide a basic reference for processing mechanism, effective material basis and clinical application of RRR.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Roots/chemistry , Rhizome/chemistry , Wine
5.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 169 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1382043

ABSTRACT

O aroma é um dos fatores mais importantes na determinação da qualidade e do caráter do vinho. Isso se deve à presença de compostos voláteis que estão associados às suas características organolépticas ou diferentes proporções entre estes compostos que podem ser influenciadas por fatores vitícolas (clima, solo, cultivar, manejo) e enológicos (maturação da uva, fermentação, tratamentos pósfermentativos). A região do sul de Minas Gerais vem se destacando na produção de espumantes de qualidade, e, nesse contexto, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a influência do manejo da videira no desenvolvimento do aroma, da baga até o espumante, a fim de estabelecer associações com a qualidade do produto final. Os experimentos foram realizados com a cultivar Chardonnay em diferentes condições de manejo, em que foram avaliados clones, porta-enxertos, sistemas de condução e densidades de plantio. Foram analisados os compostos voláteis livres por HS-SPME/GC-MS das bagas, mostos, vinhos base e espumantes nas safras 2016, 2017 e 2018. O trabalho foi dividido em quatro partes para a apresentação dos resultados. A primeira consistiu em verificar a influência do material genético na composição volátil da cv. Chardonnay com os experimentos de clones e portaenxertos; a segunda parte avaliou a composição volátil do clone 809 até o espumante; a terceira, em analisar as vinificações dos diferentes sistemas de condução; e a quarta, em avaliar a evolução dos compostos voláteis da baga ao espumante e analisar os aromas que as densidades de plantio podem conferir ao espumante. As principais classes de compostos aromáticos identificados nas matrizes foram: C6-C9 aldeídos, álcoois superiores, aldeídos ramificados, benzenoides, monoterpenoides, norisoprenoides, sesquiterpenoides, cetonas e ácidos graxos. Os resultados mostraram que os clones e os porta-enxertos apresentaram perfis voláteis diferentes, indicando que a variabilidade entre os clones e que a enxertia têm influência no metabolismo da baga; o clone 809 apresenta maior abundância de compostos monoterpenoides, confirmando o seu caráter moscato, das uvas aos espumantes; os diferentes sistemas de condução e densidades de plantio alteram o metabolismo da14 baga, refletindo no perfil volátil dos espumantes nas safras estudadas. Dessa forma, os dados indicam que a composição volátil sofre influência do manejo da videira ao espumante


Aroma is one of the most important factors in determining the quality and character of wine. This is due to the presence of volatile compounds that are associated with their organoleptic characteristics or different proportions among these compounds that can be influenced by viticultural (climate, soil, cultivar, management) and oenological factors (grape maturation, fermentation, post fermentation treatments). The southern region of Minas Gerais has been standing out in the production of quality sparkling wines, and in this context, the purpose of the present work was to learn about the influence of grapevine management on the development of aroma, from berry to sparkling wine, in order to establish associations with the quality of the final product. The experiments were carried out with the Chardonnay cultivar under different management conditions, in which clones, rootstocks, trellising systems and planting densities were evaluated. The free volatile compounds by HS-SPME/GC-MS of the berries, musts, base and sparkling wines in the 2016, 2017 and 2018 harvests were analyzed. The work was divided into four parts in order to present the results. The first part consisted of verifying the influence of genetic material on the volatile composition of the cv. Chardonnay with the experiments on clones and rootstocks; the second part evaluated the volatile composition of clone 809 up to the sparkling wine; the third one part analyzed the vinification of the different trainig systems; and the fourth part evaluated the evolution of the volatile compounds from the berry to the sparkling wine and analyzed the aromas that the planting densities can confer to the sparkling wine. The main classes of aromatic compounds identified in the matrices were: C6-C9 aldehydes, higher alcohols, branched aldehydes, benzenoids, monoterpenoids, norisoprenoids, sesquiterpenoids, ketones and fatty acids. The results showed that the clones and the rootstocks have different volatile profiles, indicating that variability among clones and that grafting have great relevance to the berry secondary metabolism; the 809 clone presents a greater abundance of monoterpenoid compounds, confirming its muscat character, from grapes to sparkling wines; the different training systems and planting densities alter the berry´s metabolism, reflecting16 in the volatile profile of sparkling wines in the studied harvests. The data indicate that the volatile composition is influenced by the management of the berry to the sparkling wine


Subject(s)
Wine/adverse effects , Vitis/anatomy & histology , Foaming Agents , Agricultural Cultivation , Clone Cells/classification , Total Quality Management/methods , Fermentation , Fruit
6.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 43: 23-31, Jan. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087514

ABSTRACT

Background: Hong Qu glutinous rice wine (HQGRW) is brewed under non-aseptic fermentation conditions, so it usually has a relatively high total acid content. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of the bacterial communities and total acid during the fermentation of HQGRW and elucidate the correlation between total acid and bacterial communities. Results: The results showed that the period of rapid acid increase during fermentation occurred at the early stage of fermentation. There was a negative response between total acid increase and the rate of increase in alcohol during the early fermentation stage. Bacterial community analysis using high-throughput sequencing technology was found that the dominant bacterial communities changed during the traditional fermentation of HQGRW. Both principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that there was a great difference between the bacterial communities of Hong Qu starter and those identified during the fermentation process. Furthermore, the key bacteria likely to be associated with total acid were identified by Spearman's correlation analysis. Lactobacillus, unclassified Lactobacillaceae, and Pediococcus were found, which can make significant contributions to the total acid development (| r| N 0.6 with FDR adjusted P b 0.05), establishing that these bacteria can associate closely with the total acid of rice wine. Conclusions: This was the first study to investigate the correlation between bacterial communities and total acid during the fermentation of HQGRW. These findings may be helpful in the development of a set of fermentation techniques for controlling total acid.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Wine/microbiology , Pediococcus/isolation & purification , Pediococcus/genetics , Pediococcus/metabolism , Time Factors , Acetobacter/isolation & purification , Acetobacter/genetics , Acetobacter/metabolism , Cluster Analysis , Sequence Analysis , Computational Biology , Principal Component Analysis , Fermentation , Microbiota , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/genetics , Lactobacillus/metabolism
7.
Biol. Res ; 53: 02, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089077

ABSTRACT

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been considered for more than 20 years as a premier model organ- ism for biological sciences, also being the main microorganism used in wide industrial applications, like alcoholic fermentation in the winemaking process. Grape juice is a challenging environment for S. cerevisiae , with nitrogen deficiencies impairing fermentation rate and yeast biomass production, causing stuck or sluggish fermentations, thus generating sizeable economic losses for wine industry. In the present review, we summarize some recent efforts in the search of causative genes that account for yeast adaptation to low nitrogen environments, specially focused in wine fermentation conditions. We start presenting a brief perspective of yeast nitrogen utilization under wine fermentative conditions, highlighting yeast preference for some nitrogen sources above others. Then, we give an outlook of S. cerevisiae genetic diversity studies, paying special attention to efforts in genome sequencing for population structure determination and presenting QTL mapping as a powerful tool for phenotype-genotype correlations. Finally, we do a recapitulation of S. cerevisiae natural diversity related to low nitrogen adaptation, specially showing how different studies have left in evidence the central role of the TORC1 signalling pathway in nitrogen utilization and positioned wild S. cerevisiae strains as a reservoir of beneficial alleles with potential industrial applications (e.g. improvement of industrial yeasts for wine production). More studies focused in disentangling the genetic bases of S. cerevisiae adaptation in wine fermentation will be key to determine the domestication effects over low nitrogen adaptation, as well as to definitely proof that wild S. cerevisiae strains have potential genetic determinants for better adaptation to low nitrogen conditions.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Wine/microbiology , Adaptation, Physiological , Vitis/metabolism , Fermentation , Nitrogen/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/growth & development , Vitis/microbiology
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828046

ABSTRACT

Scutellariae Radix(Huangqin) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) used for the treatment of clearing heat in clinical application. It is bitter-cold by using directly, but the bitter-cold property can be relieved after wine-frying. The study of taste changes before and after wine-frying of Scutellariae Radix is of great significance in identifying Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix and clarifying the traditional theory of wine-processing. In this experiment, 10 batches of Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix were prepared. The contents of 5 flavonoids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), and principal component analysis(PCA) was performed with 5 flavonoids as variables. As a result, the contents were different in different batches of Scutellariae Radix, but Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix could not be distinguished. Five sensory attributes(sour, salty, fresh, sweet, and bitter) were evaluated by artificial tasting, and the response values of 7 sensors(AHS, AHS, PKS, CTS, NMS, CPS, ANS, SCS) representing the taste of pieces were detected by electronic tongue. The correlation between sensory evaluation and response values of the electronic tongue were analyzed, and the results showed that the sensory evaluation of sour, salty, fresh, sweet, bitter and AHS, CTS, NMS, ANS, SCS sensors had different degrees of correlation, indicating that the electronic tongue technology can be used as an alternative to artificial taste and can serve as a means for quantifying the taste, and it can be used to evaluate the taste of TCM pieces. The taste method was used to analyze the response values of the electronic tongue, and the results showed that the bitterness of wine-processed Scutellariae Radix decreased and the salty taste increased. PCA was used to analyze taste changes before and after wine-processed Scutellariae Radix, and the results showed that taste differences between 2 pieces were divided into 2 categories. PCA loading scattering plots showed that response of saltiness and bitterness were the major factors to affect overall taste in Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix. Based on electronic tongue response values, the Fisher discriminant model for Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix was established, which showed that it could effectively discriminate them with a recognition rate of 100%. The experimental results showed that the electronic tongue combined with multivariate statistical analysis can be used to evaluate taste of TCM, at the same time, it could provide a fast and simple method for identifying different processed products.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Scutellaria baicalensis , Taste , Wine
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18467, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249175

ABSTRACT

The processing of grapes for the manufacture of juices and wines, generates large quantities of by-products rich in metabolites with antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cicatrizing activities. The high homology between human enzymes and snake venoms makes the latter valuable laboratory tools for the study of pathophysiological processes. Proteases and phospholipases A2 act in processes related to hemostasis and inflammatory response. Thus, in this work, dried pomace obtained from grape (Isabel, Niagara, Bordô, BRS Violeta and Blend cultivars) processing were evaluated on phospholipase, proteolytic, hemolytic and thrombolytic activities induced by snakes venoms and the content of phenolic compounds and minerals was evaluated. The dried pomace exerted inhibitory and potentiating actions in all analyzed activities. The enzymatic modulators present in the evaluated dried pomace have potential for therapeutic use, although their broad characterization is still necessary, in order to define adequate amounts and formulations to obtain efficacy and safety in their use.


Subject(s)
Snake Venoms/adverse effects , Wine/classification , Enzymes/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phospholipases A2/analysis , Vitis/classification , Industrial Waste/analysis
10.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180413, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132167

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Freshly prepared apple tea wine (a combination of tea extract and apple juice) is having yeasty and dull flavour, which needs to be improved to increase the acceptability of this product. Therefore, an attempt has been made for artificial ageing of apple tea wine using different wood chips to improve its physico-chemical, sensory and antimicrobial attributes. Different types of wood chips (Quercus spp., Bombax spp. and Acacia spp.) were added respectively (2.5 g/L to the freshly prepared apple tea wine) and allowed for ageing in carboys for the six months at the room temperature. The influence of each wood species on physico-chemical, sensory and antimicrobial attributes was tested upto 6 months of storage. Storage intervals significantly affected all the physico-chemical attributes (except total sugars, volatile acidity, and antioxidant activity), whereas, the addition of wood chips affected titratable acidity, ethanol, higher alcohols, total phenols, and amino acid. Cluster analysis of the physico-chemical attributes data revealed the same and showed that storage intervals exerted more effect on the physico-chemical and antimicrobial properties of the apple tea wine rather than the wood chips. The antimicrobial activity of 6 months aged wine was low as compared to the fresh wine. Among all the wood chips, apple tea wine aged with Quercus spp. possesses a significantly higher score (according to desirability) than the wine aged with other wood chips and control. In nutshell, apple tea wine matured with Quercus spp. wood chips for 6 months were the best with improved physico-chemical and sensory attributes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tea/chemistry , Wine/analysis , Malus/chemistry , Juices , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Chemical Phenomena
11.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 49: e20200023, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1139425

ABSTRACT

Introduction: One of the most commonly used corrective methods for staining teeth is tooth bleaching. However, subclinical alterations may occur in the micromorphology of dental tissues during the bleaching procedure, such as increases in porosity and surface roughness. Consequently, dental enamel may become more permeable and susceptible to staining. Objective: To evaluate the influence of tooth polishing after in-office bleaching treatment on color stability. Material and method: Thirty-three extracted human molars were used. The teeth were cut in the mesiodistal direction to obtain two samples per tooth (total of 66). The samples were randomly divided into six groups (n=11). Before and after the bleaching treatment, the lightness of the samples and change in lightness (∆L) were determined with a digital spectrophotometer (Easy Shade). The samples were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (three sessions weekly). Three groups were submitted to polishing with felt discs and polishing paste after each session. To simulate the oral conditions during the consumption of colored beverages, the samples were submitted to alternating cycles of immersion in staining solutions (coffee, red wine, and Coca Cola). Result: Polishing resulted in an increase of mean lightness of 4.49 in the red wine group, 2.73 in the coffee group, and 4.08 in the cola group. The difference was significant in the red wine group (p<0.022), but not in the coffee or cola group. Conclusion: Polishing after in-office bleaching using felt discs and polishing paste can reduce the degree of pigment impregnation in patient with red wine rich diet.


Introdução: Um dos métodos mais usados ​​para dentes pigmentados é o clareamento dental. Entretanto, alterações subclínicas podem ocorrer na micromorfologia dos dentes durante procedimentos de clareamento, como aumentos na porosidade e rugosidade superficial. Consequentemente, o esmalte dental pode se tornar mais permeável e suscetível a manchas. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do polimento dentário após o clareamento em consultório na estabilidade da cor. Material e método: Trinta e três molares humanos extraídos foram utilizados. Os dentes foram cortados na direção mesiodistal para obter duas amostras por dente (total de 66). As amostras foram divididas aleatoriamente em seis grupos (n = 11). Antes e após o tratamento clareador, a luminosidade das amostras e a alteração da luminosidade (∆L) foram determinadas com um espectrofotômetro digital (Easy Shade). As amostras foram clareadas com peróxido de hidrogênio 35% (três sessões com intervalos de 7 dias). Três grupos foram submetidos a polimento com discos de feltro e pasta de polimento após cada sessão. Para simular as condições orais durante o consumo de bebidas pigmentadas, as amostras foram submetidas a ciclos alternados de imersão em soluções (café, vinho tinto e Coca Cola). Resultado: O polimento resultou em um aumento da luminosidade média de 4,49 no grupo vinho tinto, 2,73 no grupo café e 4,08 no grupo cola. A diferença foi significativa no grupo vinho tinto (p <0,022), mas não no grupo café ou cola. Conclusão: O polimento após clareamento em consultório usando discos de feltro e pasta polidora pode reduzir o grau de impregnação em pacientes com dieta rica em vinho tinto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Bleaching , Wine , Porosity , Color , Dental Enamel , Dental Polishing , Coffee , Dental Offices
12.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2020. 92 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292367

ABSTRACT

vinhaça é resultante da produção de álcool, após a fermentação do mosto e destilação do vinho. É um resíduo rico em nutrientes, principalmente matéria orgânica, nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio. Para ser despejado em rios e lagos, esse efluente deve passar por tratamentos para remoção desses nutrientes, pois o excesso desses elementos nos corpos hídricos poderia levar a grandes problemas ambientais, de modo que tem sido utilizado em fertirrigação. Microorganismos fotossintetizantes absorvem nutrientes inorgânicos, podendo absorver nutrientes de águas residuais. Se for removida a parte orgânica da vinhaça, a fração inorgânica ou com baixa carga orgânica pode ser a base ou o próprio meio de cultivo destes micro-organismos, que absorvem gás carbônico e sua biomassa é de interesse industrial. Neste contexto, foi estudado o cultivo de Monoraphidium contortum e Synechocystis salina, oriundos de água de mangue, em frascos de Erlenmeyer e em fotobiorreatores tubulares por processo descontínuo, empregando a vinhaça proveniente do tratamento aeróbio (biológico), acoplada a processos físico-químicos, com diferentes diluições. As características físico-químicas das vinhaças tratadas foram avaliadas. Além disso, foram comparados os crescimentos celulares nas diferentes condições experimentais adotadas para o crescimento da microalga M. contortum e da cianobactéria S. salina na vinhaça tratada com e sem diluição. Em cultivos em frascos de Erlenmeyer, em meio proveniente de tratamento biológico, o crescimento celular não diferiu do cultivo em meio padrão, com diluições de 5 e 2 vezes da vinhaça tratada para M. contortum e S. salina, respectivamente. Em fotobiorreator tubular, independente do tratamento ser apenas biológico ou também com carvão ativado, as concentrações celulares máximas (Xm) de M. contortum e S. salina foram da ordem de 1,86x107 células mL-1 e 7,90x106 células mL-1, respectivamente, valores esses menores que os obtidos em meio padrão, com valores de Xm de 2,69x107 células mL-1 e 1,27x106 células mL-1 para M. contortum e S. salina, respectivamente. Em fotobiorreatores tubulares, os teores de mínimos de lipídios de M. contortum e S. salina foram de 33,4 % e 11,0 %, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, os teores mínimos de proteínas da microalga foram de 15,1 % e da cianobactéria foi de 23,2 %


The vinasse is the result of the production of alcohol after the fermentation of the mash and the distillation of the wine. It is a waste rich in nutrients, mainly organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. To be discharged into rivers and lakes, this effluent must be treated in order to remove nutrients, because the excess of these elements in water bodies can lead to major environmental problems, so that it has been used in fertigation. Photosynthetic microorganisms absorb inorganic nutrients and they can absorb nutrients from wastewater. If the organic fraction of vinasse is removed, the inorganic or low organic fraction may be the basis or a medium of cultivation of these microorganisms, which absorb carbon dioxide and its biomass is of industrial interest. In this context, Monoraphidium contortum and Synechocystis salina from mangrove water were cultivated in Erlenmeyer flasks and in tubular photobioreactors by batch process using vinasse from aerobic biological treatment, coupled to physicochemical treatments with different dilutions. The physicochemical characteristics of the treated vinasse were evaluated. In addition, cell growth was compared under different experimental conditions adopted for growth of microalgae M. contortum and cyanobacteria S. salina in vinasse treated with and without dilution. In Erlenmeyer flask cultivations, in medium from the biological treatment, the cell growth was not different of that one in standard medium cultivation, with dilutions of 5 and 2 times the vinasse treated for M. contortum and S. salina, respectively. In the tubular photobioreactor, irrespective if the treatment is only biological or also is carried out treatment with activated charcoal, they were obtained maximum cell concentrations (Xm) of M. contortum and S. salina of 1.86x107 cells mL-1 and 7.90x106 cells. mL-1 , respectively, lower than the standard, whose Xm values were 2.69x107 cells mL-1 and 1.27x106 cells mL-1 for M. contortum and S. salina, respectively. In tubular photobioreactors, the minimum lipid contents of M. contortum and S. salina were 33.4 % and 11.0 %, respectively. In addition, the minimum protein content of microalgae was 15.1 % and cyanobacterium was 23.2 %


Subject(s)
Wine/adverse effects , Distillation/instrumentation , Biomass , Aerobic Treatment/analysis , Waste Products , Carbon Dioxide/pharmacokinetics , Nutrients/analysis , Organic Load/adverse effects , Dilution/methods , Minors/classification , Rivers/chemistry , Cell Enlargement , Chemical Phenomena
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(5): 1356-1368, sept./oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048943

ABSTRACT

Wines are known for its high content of bioactive compounds that can be influenced by the region and climate where the grapes are produced. New regions of production are normally developed using techniques and standards for other traditional regions, but is important to characterize the wine profile, which is different according to the terroir, and can be important for future geographic indications. The aim of this study was to evaluate color, antioxidant activity, anthocyanin content and phenolic compounds profile in wines produced in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Wines were produced in different wineries of the same region using the varieties Syrah, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc (red), Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc (white) and Syrah (rose), from municipalities of Cordislândia, Boa Esperança and Três Corações, located in the south of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Wines produced in Minas Gerais State presented contents of t-resveratrol, total phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols and phenolic acids consistent to the contents observed in wines from traditional regions of production. However, the terroir and the grape variety can result in a differentiation of compounds observed in wines. Syrah red wines produced in Boa Esperança stood out with higher amounts of anthocyanins (24.29 mg L-1), phenolic acids (123,19 mg L-1 ) and flavonols (35.55 mg L-1), when compared to wines from the same variety from other municipalities and other evaluated red wines. Sauvignon Blanc wines from Boa Esperança presented higher contents of phenolic acids and total flavonols, when compared to wines of the same variety produced in Cordislândia. Chardonay wines presented higher total phenolics content, when compared to ohther evaluated white wines. Rose wine produced in the South of Minas Gerais presented the phenolic acids content of 36,33 mg L-1 and total flavonols content of 29,7 mg L-1. The highest antioxidant activity using the DPPH method, (% of free radicals scavenging - FRS) was observed for Syrah wines from Três Corações, (75.37%), but not different from Cabernet Sauvignon wines from Cordislândia (72.50%), values that can be correlated with the largest content of phenolics observed in wines as phenolic compounds (3009 mg L-1). No differences were observed in the contents of the antioxidant activity of white wines. This results indicate that the studied wines present the necessary nutritional and beneficial characteristics to compete in the supply of bioactive compounds during consumption, when compared to wines produced in traditional and different regions in Brazil and other countries.


Vinhos são conhecidos por seu alto teor de compostos bioativos, os quais podem ser influenciados pela região e clima de cultivo das uvas. Novas regiões de produção são normalmente desenvolvidas utilizando técnicas padrões estabelecidos em regiões produtoras tradicionais, mas é importante a caracterização do perfil do vinho obtido, que é diferente de acordo com o terroir e pode ser importante em futuras indicações geográficas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a cor, capacidade antioxidante, teor de antocianinas e perfil de compostos fenólicos em vinhos produzidos no estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil. Vinhos foram produzidos em diferentes vinícolas do estafo utilizando as variedades Syrah, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc (tintos), Chardonnay e Sauvignon Blanc (brancos) e vinhos Syrah (rose) roses dos municípios de Cordislândia, Boa Esperança e Três Corações, localizados no sul de Minas Gerais. Vinhos produzidos no estado de Minas Gerais apresentaram teores de t-resveraatrol, fenólicos totais, antocianinas, flavonóis, favanois e ácidos fenólicos consistentes com os observados em vinhos de outras regiões produtoras. No entanto, o terroir e a variedade de uva podem resultar em uma diferenciação de compostos observados em vinhos. Vinhos Syrah produzidos em Boa Esperança se destacaram com altos teores de antocianinas (24.29 mg L-1), ácidos fenólicos (123.19 mg L-1) and flavanois (35.55 mg L-1), quando comparados com vinhos da mesma variedade de outros municípios e os demais vinhos tintos avalaidos. Vinhos Sauvignon Blanc de Boa Esperança apresentaram altos tores de ácidos fenólicos e flavonoids totais, quando comparados com vinhos da mesma variedade produzidos em Cordislândia. Vinhos Chardonay apresentaram maiores teores de fenólicos totaisquando comparados com outros vinhos brancos avaliados. Vinhos Rosé produzidos no Sul de Minas Gerais apresentaram teores de ácidos fenólicos de 36.33 mg L-1 e toeres de flavonois totais de 29.7 mg L-1. Maior atividade antioxidante pelo método do DPPH (% de sequestro de radicais livres) foi observada em vinhos Syrah produzidos em Três Corações (75.37%), não se diferenciando de vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon de Cordislândia (72,50%), teores que podem ser correlacionados com o maiores tores de de fenólicos em vinhos, na forma de compostos fenólicos (3009 mg L-1).Não foram observadas diferenças nos teores de atividade antioxidante em vinhos brancos. Os resultados indicam que os vinhos de Minas Gerais paresental características nutricionais e benéficas indicadas no consume, quando comparados com vinhos produzidos em tradicionais e diferentes regiões do Brasil e outros países.


Subject(s)
Wine , Vitis , Phytochemicals
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 38: 10-18, Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051447

ABSTRACT

Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is a process in winemaking responsible for the conversion of L-malic acid to L-lactic acid and CO2, which reduces the total acidity, improves the biological stability, and modifies the aroma profile of wine. MLF takes place during or after alcoholic fermentation and is carried out by one or more species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are either present in grapes and cellars or inoculated with malolactic starters during the winemaking process. Although the main bacterium among LAB used in commercial starter cultures for MLF has traditionally been Oenococcus oeni, in the last decade, Lactobacillus plantarum has also been reported as a malolactic starter, and many works have shown that this species can survive and even grow under harsh conditions of wine (i.e., high ethanol content and low pH values). Furthermore, it has been proved that some strains of L. plantarum are able to conduct MLF just as efficiently as O. oeni. In addition, L. plantarum exhibits a more diverse enzymatic profile than O. oeni, which could play an important role in the modification of the wine aroma profile. This enzymatic diversity allows obtaining several starter cultures composed of different L. plantarum biotypes, which could result in distinctive wines. In this context, this review focuses on showing the relevance of L. plantarum as a MLF starter culture in winemaking.


Subject(s)
Wine/microbiology , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolism , Fermentation , Malates/metabolism , Vitis/microbiology , Odorants
15.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(1): 19-22, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990059

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the color alteration of four brands of artificial teeth (Art Plus, Trilux, Bionote and Biolux), after immersion in color solutions of coffee, red wine and urucum. We used 80 artificial teeth, which were standardized with 2 mm thickness. Then, they were subjected to finishing and polishing, and divided into 4 groups (n = 05), which were immersed in one of the 3 types of dye, plus distilled water (control). The samples were immersed daily for 4 hours, then they were removed, washed in tap water, dried with absorbent paper and immersed in distilled water for the subsequent hours in a biological glasshouse at 37 ºC, for 21 days. The evaluation of the color change was made in the periods of 0, 7, 14 and 21 days, by means of the tristimulus colorimeter. The data were subjected to the ANOVA and Tukey test with a 5 % significance. The results showed that the urucum was the substance that caused the greatest staining while the coffee and the wine did not show statistical difference. Regarding trademarks, Trilux presented a statistical difference compared to the other commercial brands, revealing colorimetric alteration only in the 14-day period. It was concluded that the composition of the artificial teeth, the type of pigmenting agent and the immersion time determine the color change.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la alteración de color de cuatro marcas de dientes artificiales (Art Plus, Trilux, Bionote y Biolux), después de inmersión en soluciones colorantes de café, vino tinto y urucum. Se utilizaron 80 dientes artificiales, los cuales fueron estandarizados con 2 mm de espesor. En seguida, los mismos fueron sometidos al acabado y pulido, y divididos en 4 grupos (n = 5), los cuales fueron inmersos en uno de los 3 tipos de colorante, más agua destilada (control). Las muestras permanecieron inmersas diariamente durante 4 horas, luego fueron retiradas, lavadas en agua corriente, secas con papel absorbente e inmersas en agua destilada por las horas subsiguientes en invernadero biológico a 37 ºC, por 21 días. La evaluación del cambio de color se realizó en los períodos de 0, 7, 14 y 21 días, por medio del colorímetro tristimulo. Los datos fueron sometidos a la prueba ANOVA y Tukey con un 5 % de significancia. Los resultados demostraron que el urucum fue la sustancia que provocó mayor manchado mientras que el café y el vino no presentaron diferencia estadística. En cuanto a las marcas comerciales, el Trilux presentó una diferencia estadística en comparación con las otras marcas comerciales, revelando alteración colorimétrica sólo en el período de 14 días. Se concluyó que la composición de los dientes artificiales, el tipo de agente pigmentante y el tiempo de inmersión determinan el cambio de color.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth, Artificial , Tooth Discoloration , Acrylic Resins , Wine , Materials Testing , Analysis of Variance , Coffee , Colorimetry , Coloring Agents , Immersion
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760721

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Smoke , Smoking , Wine
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787395

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability of bulk-fill and conventional resin composites with respect to different storage media and thickness of composites.Filtek™ Z250 and Filtek™ Z350XT were evaluated as conventional resin composites. Filtek™ Bulk-fill Posterior Restorative and Tetric® N-Ceram Bulk Fill were evaluated as bulk-fill resin composites.CIE L*a*b* values of baseline were measured after 24 hours of storage in distilled water, and each resin composite group was divided into three subgroups and stored in distilled water, red wine, and coffee media respectively. Again after 1, 7 and 28 days of immersion, color changes (ΔE*) were calculated using the CIE L*a*b* values.The greatest ΔE* was observed in red wine for all resin composites, and the mean color changes were ranked in the increasing order of distilled water, coffee, red wine. Filtek™ Z350XT exhibited the greatest color change in all media, followed by Filtek™ Bulk-fill Posterior Restorative. Filtek™ Z250 and Tetric® N-Ceram Bulk Fill followed with similar mean color change values. According to the 2 different thicknesses of 2 mm and 4 mm of bulk-fill resin composites, there was no thickness-related difference on color changes.


Subject(s)
Coffee , Immersion , Water , Wine
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 567-576, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771352

ABSTRACT

Ethyl carbamate (EC), a carcinogenic and teratogenic chemical that is widely distributed in various alcoholic beverages, has attracted much attention. Microbial enzymatic degradation of EC in rice wine is always efficient and attractive. In this review, we summarize the research progress and problems of microbial enzymatic elimination of EC in rice wine from three aspects: the mechanisms of EC formation in rice wine, the research progress of acid urease, and the research progress of urethanase. Then, we propose the corresponding strategies to solve the problems: screening new urethanase with satisfied enzyme properties, food-grade expression and directed evolution of the bifunctional Fe³⁺-dependent acid urease and acid urease used in combination with urethanase to eliminate both urea and EC in rice wine.


Subject(s)
Oryza , Urea , Urease , Urethane , Wine
20.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e024, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001615

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of chitosan or nanodiamond incorporation on the color stability and surface roughness of a bisacrylic resin subjected to artificial aging. Four bisacrylic resins were evaluated, namely, control, chitosan-modified material, nanodiamond-modified material, and chitosan-nanodiamond-modified material. Twenty-four specimens were prepared for each material. The surface roughness was determined using a profilometer with a cut-off of 0.25 mm. The baseline color was measured according to the CIE L*a*b* system using a reflectance spectrophotometer. After these tests, the specimens were individually immersed in cola soft drink, red wine, or distilled water (n = 8) for 28 days. After the aging, the surface roughness and final color were re-evaluated. The color stability was determined using the difference between the coordinates obtained before and after the aging process. The data on roughness and color change were evaluated using ANOVA and the Tukey test (α = 0.05). The results show that the incorporation of nanodiamonds and chitosan into a bisacrylic resin provided a better color stability to the materials (p = 0.007). The storage in red wine resulted in a higher variation in the surface roughness values, especially when only the nanodiamond was incorporated to the material (p < 0.05). The incorporation of both chitosan and nanodiamonds are promising in providing an improvement in the properties of the bisacrylic resin when they are simultaneously incorporated in the product.


Subject(s)
Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Color , Composite Resins/chemistry , Chitosan/chemistry , Nanodiamonds/chemistry , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Wine , Materials Testing , Carbonated Beverages , Water/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric
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