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1.
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | SaludCR, LILACS | ID: biblio-1514965

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La gran diversidad de especies maderables tropicales demanda el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías de identificación con base en sus patrones o características anatómicas. La aplicación de redes neuronales convolucionales (CNN) para el reconocimiento de especies maderables tropicales se ha incrementado en los últimos años por sus resultados prometedores. Objetivo: Evaluamos la calidad de las imágenes macroscópicas con tres herramientas de corte para mejorar la visualización y distinción de las características anatómicas en el entrenamiento del modelo CNN. Métodos: Recolectamos las muestras entre el 2020 y 2021 en áreas de explotación forestal y aserraderos de Selva Central, Perú. Luego, las dimensionamos y, previo a la identificación botánica y anatómica, las cortamos en secciones transversales. Generamos una base de datos de imágenes macroscópicas de la sección transversal de la madera, a través del corte, con tres herramientas para ver su rendimiento en el laboratorio, campo y puesto de control. Resultados: Usamos tres herramientas de corte para obtener una alta calidad de imágenes transversales de la madera; obtuvimos 3 750 imágenes macroscópicas con un microscopio portátil que corresponden a 25 especies maderables. El cuchillo ''Tramontina'' es duradero, pero pierde el filo con facilidad y se necesita una herramienta para afilar, el cúter retráctil ''Pretul'' es adecuado para madera suave y dura en muestras pequeñas de laboratorio; el cuchillo ''Ubermann'' es apropiado para el campo, laboratorio y puesto de control, porque tiene una envoltura duradera y láminas intercambiables en caso de pérdida de filo. Conclusiones: La calidad de las imágenes es decisiva en la clasificación de especies maderables, porque permite una mejor visualización y distinción de las características anatómicas en el entrenamiento con los modelos de red neuronal convolucional EfficientNet B0 y Custom Vision, lo cual se evidenció en las métricas de precisión.


Introduction: The great diversity of tropical timber species demands the development of new technologies capable of identifying them based on their patterns or anatomical characteristics. The application of convolutional neural networks (CNN) for the recognition of tropical timber species has increased in recent years due to the promising results of CNNs. Objective: To evaluate the quality of macroscopic images with three cutting tools to improve the visualization and distinction of anatomical features in the CNN model training. Methods: Samples were collected from 2020 to 2021 in areas of logging and sawmills in the Central Jungle, Peru. They were later sized and, after botanical and anatomical identification, cut in cross sections. A database of macroscopic images of the cross-section of wood was generated through cutting with three different tools and observing its performance in the laboratory, field, and checkpoint. Results: Using three cutting tools, we obtained high quality images of the cross section of wood; 3 750 macroscopic images were obtained with a portable microscope and correspond to 25 timber species. We found the ''Tramontina'' knife to be durable, however, it loses its edge easily and requires a sharpening tool, the ''Pretul'' retractable cutter is suitable for cutting soft and hard wood in small laboratory samples and finally the ''Ubermann'' knife is suitable for use in the field, laboratory, and checkpoint, because it has a durable sheath and interchangeable blades in case of dullness. Conclusion: The quality of the images is decisive in the classification of timber species, because it allows a better visualization and distinction of the anatomical characteristics in training with the EfficientNet B0 and Custom Vision convolutional neural network models, which was evidenced in the precision metrics.


Subject(s)
Wood/analysis , Microscopy, Electron , Tropical Ecosystem , Peru , Machine Learning
2.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 317-320, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986038

ABSTRACT

Occupational disease hazards in plywood manufacturing mainly include wood dust, formaldehyde, phenol, ammonia, noise, terpene, microorganisms, etc. The exposure is complex with multiple factors accompanied or coexisted. In the production process, these factors are exceeded, and mass occupational disease hazard events occurred among workers. Exposure to wood dust, formaldehyde, terpene, etc., put workers at increased risk of cancer. This article provides a review of this issue in order to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of occupational disease hazards in plywood manufacturing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Wood/chemistry , Occupational Diseases/chemically induced , Formaldehyde/adverse effects , Terpenes , Dust , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e237813, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278553

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bamboo (Bambusa sp.) is a grass species with high potential for exploitation, however, this raw material is easily attacked by xylophagous agents such as Coleoptera. The objective of this study is thus to analyse the presence of wood-boring beetles associated with Bambusa sp. in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The study was carried out in a bamboo plantation, from August 2016 to July 2017. Two models of ethanolic traps were used, PET Santa Maria and ESALQ-84. Three families of wood-boring beetles were observed in this study: Bostrichidae, Cerambycidae and Curculionidae. 2,144 individuals were identified, belonging to 19 species, in four subfamilies and 11 tribes, and the species Xyleborus affinis was the most frequently collected. Thus, this study constitutes an important contribution to the knowledge of coleoborers associated with bamboo plantations, with the registration of the occurrence of species, as well as contributing to the knowledge of the entomofauna associated with species cultivated in the Southern Amazon.


Resumo O bambu (Bambusa sp.) é uma espécie de gramínea com alto potencial de exploração de fibras, no entanto, essa matéria-prima é facilmente atacada por agentes xilófagos, como os coleópteros. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a presença de besouros associados a Bambusa sp. em Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brasil. O estudo foi realizado em um plantio de bambu, no período de agosto de 2016 a julho de 2017. Foram utilizados dois modelos de armadilhas etanólicas, o PET Santa Maria e ESALQ-84. Três famílias de coleobrocas foram observadas neste estudo: Bostrichidae, Cerambycidae e Curculionidae. Foram identificados 2,144 indivíduos, pertencentes a 19 espécies, em quatro subfamílias e 11 tribos, e Xyleborus affinis foi a espécie com maior número de indivíduos coletados. Assim, este estudo constitui-se em uma importante contribuição para o conhecimento de coleobrocas associadas a plantios de bamboo, com o registro de ocorrência de espécies, bem como contribui para o conhecimento da entomofauna associada a espécies cultivadas na Amazônia Meridional.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coleoptera , Bambusa , Weevils , Wood , Brazil
4.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e243813, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431124

ABSTRACT

Este estudo propõe analisar as relações e os processos de subjetivação de mulheres quebradeiras de coco babaçu decorrentes das intervenções de políticas desenvolvimentistas em seus territórios de vida e reverberações no Movimento Interestadual de Quebradeiras de Coco Babaçu (MIQCB). Sob a perspectiva ético-estético-política da Cartografia, acompanhamos as narrativas das histórias de vida de 24 mulheres, suas atividades cotidianas e eventos do MIQCB, também analisamos os documentos das políticas. Entendemos que, ao passo que tais políticas de desenvolvimento rural contribuem para a melhoria das condições de vida, em termos materiais e simbólicos, elas também produzem ressonâncias relacionadas ao modo de subjetivação do tipo "empresário de si", que agenciam seus modos de viver, de produzir e de se relacionar consigo e com os outros na lógica capitalista neoliberal. A resistência às capturas neoliberais também estão presentes ao ampliarem as mobilizações coletivas do próprio movimento, articulando com outros na produção de um "comum".(AU)


This study proposes to analyze the relations and the processes of subjectivation of babassu coconut-breaker women arising from developmental policy interventions in their territories of life and reverberations in the Babassu Coconut-breaker Interstate Movement (MIQCB). From the ethical-aesthetic-political perspective of Cartography, we followed the narratives of the life stories of 24 women, their daily activities and promoted events by MIQCB, we also analyzed the policy documents. We understand that while these policies of rural development contribute to improve the living conditions, in material and symbolic terms, they also produce resonances related to the "self-entrepreneur" mode of subjectivation, which has been handling their ways of living, producing, and relating to themselves and others in the neoliberal capitalist logic. Resistance to neoliberal captures is also present as they expand the collective mobilizations of the movement itself, articulating with others, in the production of a "common."(AU)


Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar los procesos de subjetivación de las mujeres que rompen coco babaçu que surgen de las intervenciones de las políticas de desarrollo en sus territorios de vida y las reverberaciones en el Movimiento Interestadual de las Mujeres que Rompen Coco Babaçu (MIQCB). Desde la perspectiva ético-estético-política de la Cartografía, seguimos las narraciones de las historias de vida de 24 mujeres, sus actividades diarias y eventos del MIQCB, y también analizamos los documentos de las políticas. Si bien estas políticas han contribuido a mejorar las condiciones de vida de las mujeres, en términos materiales y simbólicos, también han producido resonancias del modo de subjetivación "autoempresarial", que ha agenciado sus formas de vivir, producir y relacionarse consigo mismas y con los demás en la lógica capitalista neoliberal. La resistencia a las capturas neoliberales también está presente cuando amplían las movilizaciones colectivas del propio movimiento, articulándose con otros en la producción de un "común".(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Growth and Development , Economics , Government , Politics , Poverty , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Retirement , Rural Population , Social Desirability , Social Justice , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Soil , Women's Rights , Wood , Health Policy, Planning and Management , Socioeconomic Planning , Social Control Policies , Legislation, Environmental , Brazil , Water , Exercise , Ethnicity , Economic Development , Agricultural Cultivation , Poverty Areas , Land Use , Rural Areas , Forests , Organizations , Environmental Health , Conflict of Interest , Workload , Family Planning Policy , Entrepreneurship , Agrochemicals , Interview , Collective Bargaining , Commerce , Crops, Agricultural , Environmental Management , Natural Resources Exploitation , Natural Resources , Renewable Resources , Natural Reservations , Flora , Conservation of Natural Resources , Cultural Diversity , Nature , Feminism , Extraction and Processing Industry , Natural Resources Management , Rural Economy , Capitalism , State , Public Power , Biodiversity , Agriculture , Efficiency , Environment , Environment and Public Health , Health Sciences, Technology, and Innovation Management , Projects , Job Market , Health Surveillance of Products , Control and Sanitary Supervision of Foods and Beverages , Foods Containing Coconut , Machinery , Sustainable Agriculture , Non-Renewable Resources , Agribusiness , Environmental Communication , Femininity , Environmental Policy , Small Business , Ethnic Violence , Sociological Factors , Food , Work-Life Balance , Political Activism , Stakeholder Participation , Socioeconomic Rights , Occupied Territories , Sustainable Development , Social Programs , Indigenous Peoples , Right to Work , Empowerment , Social Inclusion , Gender Equity , Gender Role , Social Vulnerability , Environmental Responsability , Socio-Environmental Responsibility , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Working Conditions , Wildlife Trade , Health Services Needs and Demand , Housing , Human Activities , Human Rights , Labor Unions , Life Change Events , Anthropology , Mining , Occupational Groups
5.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39002, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415861

ABSTRACT

African mahogany species (Khaya spp.) have proven to be promising in the Brazilian forestry scenario, replacing native mahogany owing to their medium-fast growth and relevant timber value. This study aimed to carry out forest inventory and assessments of a Khaya grandifoliola plantation in the first years after planting, test hypsometric models to describe tree growth, and identify the maximum commercial stem yield (i.e., greater than 6 m in height). The stand was located in the municipality of Piracanjuba (GO), where seedlings of seed origin were used. Twenty random plots with a 15 m radius were allocated, and the total height (HT), stem height (HS), diameter at breast height (DBH), crown area, and forest canopy were measured. Four hypsometric models were employed in this study. The best equation was selected based on determination coefficients and standard errors. Further, the models were cross-validated to evaluate predictability and bias. At four years of planting, the largest class of HS was found to range from 3.1 to 4.1 m, and most trees had a DBH ranging from 0.084 to 0.126 m. The percentage of trees with stems > 6 m was 8.35%. The linear model ensured more consistent results for estimating HT, while the quadratic and Weibull models led to more consistent results for HS. By using models, stem measurements can be measured based on DBH, ultimately aiding the selection of stem management strategies for the growth of forests with greater commercial value.


Subject(s)
Wood/economics , Meliaceae/growth & development
6.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 123-125, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970723

ABSTRACT

Objective: In order to understand the dust concentration in the workplace of dust exposure enterprises in Shenxian. To evaluate the degree of occupational hazard factors of dust exposure enterprises. And provide basis for the formulation of occupational protection standards and management system of dust exposure enterprises. Methods: In February 2022, the dust concentration monitoring data of 89 dust exposure enterprises from 2017 to 2020 by the Shenxian Center for Disease Control and Prevention were collected, and the qualified rates of dust concentration detection of dust exposure enterprises in different years, dust types and enterprise sizes were analyzed. Results: A total of 89 dust enterprises were monitored from 2017 to 2020, 2132 dust samples were collected, and 1818 qualified samples were taken, with a total qualified rate of 85.3%. From 2017 to 2020, the dust detection qualified rates showed a year-by-year increase trend, 78.7% (447/568), 84.1% (471/560), 88.6% (418/472) and 90.6% (482/532), respectively, with statistically significant differences (χ(2)=36.27, P=0.003). The differences in the qualified rates of dust detection samples of silicon dust (66.1%, 41/62), grain dust (86.7%, 1549/1786), cotton dust (84.1%, 106/126) and wood dust (77.2%, 122/158) were statistically significant (χ(2)=29.66, P=0.002). The qualified rate of dust samples in large and medium-sized enterprises (95.1%, 1194/1256) was higher than that of small-sized enterprises (71.2%, 624/876), and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=1584.40, P=0.001) . Conclusion: The qualified rate of dust concentration monitoring results of dust exposure enterprises in Shenxian showed an increase trend year by year, while the pualified rate of dust concentration monitoring in small-sized enterprises was low, and the occupational hazard of silica dust was still severe.


Subject(s)
Dust , Silicon , Wood , Workplace
8.
s.l; s.n; mayo, 2022. 198 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, SDG | ID: biblio-1418120

ABSTRACT

Existen dos factores que han posicionado a la madera como el material constructivo óptimo para el siglo XXI: productividad e impacto en el medio ambiente. Según datos entregados por la ONU1 , se espera un incremento exponencial de la población mundial de un 25% para los próximos 30 años, pasando de 7.700 millones de personas que habían en el 2020, a 9.700 millones para el año 2050, que en conjunto con el aumento de procesos de urbanización y de movimientos migratorios, se traducen en un incremento de la demanda de recursos, especialmente de vivienda, generando un déficit que deberá ser solucionado en un corto período de tiempo. Por otro lado, cada año se liberan en la atmósfera miles de millones de toneladas de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI), que incrementan la temperatura global aportando negativamente a la crisis climática mundial que vivimos hoy. Para hacer frente estos desafíos mundiales de las próximas décadas es necesario que los países implementen iniciativas que busquen un desarrollo más sostenible. En este sentido, planes como los 17 Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) de las Naciones Unidas establecen metas claves que deben ser abordadas por todas las naciones para cumplir los objetivos mundiales para 2030, entre las que se encuentra la necesidad de vivienda, construidas con materiales de baja huella de carbono, para una población en crecimiento.


Subject(s)
Public Housing , Wood , City Planning , Construction Materials , Sustainable Development , Uruguay
9.
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 89: e00222020, 2022.
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1393888

ABSTRACT

Heterobostrychus aequalis (Waterhouse, 1884) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) is considered a severe pest for wood and wood products in regions where it is established. In Brazil, so far, there are no records of its establishment. Therefore, this work reports the interception of this Bostrichidae in the Harbor of Rio de Janeiro, on pallet wood from India. It also defends the maintenance of this insect as an absent quarantine pest (A1), by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply. It also conducts a discussion that addresses the efficiency of wood treatments, usually used to prevent the spread of quarantine pests in environments where there is international transit of wood, demonstrating that they may not be efficient in this regard, especially for insect species that have the capacity to lay eggs on dry wood. In this context, it also suggests population monitoring, combined with inspections, as an aid measure for the early detection of this pest in an environment where there is international transit of wood.


Subject(s)
Wood/parasitology , Coleoptera , Bromides/administration & dosage , Pest Control/methods , Brazil , Harbor Sanitation
10.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(10): e20200357, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1396729

ABSTRACT

This paper examined the regional concentration of native fuelwood production in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, between 1990-2017. Information on native fuelwood was gathered from forestry activities collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). This study analyzed the current situation and the spatial distribution of the state's fuelwood production by quartiles. The following indicators were used to measure market concentration: Gini Coefficient (G), Comprehensive Concentration Index (CCI), Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) and Concentration Ratio [CR(k)]. In Rio Grande do Norte, there was a -2.76% annual decrease in the production of native fuelwood, from 5,280 x10³ m³ (1990) to 777 x10³ m³ (2017). Classification of the municipalities by quartile revealed that most municipalities had low fuelwood production. The G inferred a very strong to absolute inequality for the municipalities and a weak to null inequality for the mesoregions.The CCI demonstrated no market concentration in the municipalities and a regional concentration in the mesoregions. The HHI corroborated the CCI by affirming the presence of a competitive market for the municipalities and microregions and a concentrated market in the mesoregions.The CR(k) of the four largest municipalities indicated a moderately low concentration. This study concluded that there is a competitive market structure for native fuelwood inthe state of Rio Grande do Norte.


Este artigo analisou a concentração regional da produção de lenha nativa do Rio Grande do Norte - Brasil, no período de 1990 a 2017. As informações da lenha nativa foram obtidas da produção da extração vegetal e da silvicultura, disponíveis no Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Analisou a conjuntura, a distribuição espacial da produção de lenha estadual por meio os quartis e mensurou a concentração por meio dos indicadores: Coeficiente de Gini (G), Índice de Concentração Compreensiva (CCI), Índice de Herfindahl-Hirschman (HHI) e Razão de Concentração [CR(k)]. Os resultados mostraram que houve decréscimo de -2,76% a.a. na produção de lenha nativa estadual, partindo de 5.280 x10³ m³ (1990) para 777 x10³ m³ (2017). O quartil municipal revelou que a maioria dos municípios produz pouca lenha; apesar do G ter inferido uma desigualdade muito forte a absoluta para os municípios produtores de lenha e fraca a nula para as mesorregiões, já o CCI mostrou para os municípios que é não concentrado e as mesorregiões tem concentração regional; HHI corroborou com esta afirmação mostrando um mercado altamente competitivo para os municípios e microrregiões e concentrado para as mesorregiões produtoras de lenha; o CR(k) dos quatro maiores municípios foi constatada uma concentração moderadamente baixa. Conclui-se que a lenha nativa do estado do Rio Grande do Norte possui estrutura de mercado competitiva.


Subject(s)
Wood/analysis , Forests , Forestry/methods , Brazil , Semi-Arid Zone
11.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(4): e20210357, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339676

ABSTRACT

Crop residues decomposition are controlled by chemical tissue components. This study evaluated changes on plant tissue components, separated by the Van Soest partitioning method, during cover crop decomposition. The Van Soest soluble fraction was the first to be released from the crop residues, followed by cellulose and hemicellulose. Lignin was the crop residue component that suffered the least degradation, and for certain crop residue types, lignin degradation was not detected. The degradation of the main components of crop residues (soluble fraction, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) is determined by the chemical and structural composition of each fraction.


A decomposição de resíduos culturais é controlada pela composição química do tecido vegetal. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as alterações que ocorrem nos componentes do tecido vegetal, separados pelo fracionamento de Van Soest, durante a decomposição de plantas de cobertura. A fração solúvel foi a primeira a ser liberada dos resíduos culturais, seguida pela celulose e hemicelulose. A lignina foi o componente dos resíduos culturais de menor degradação, sendo que em alguns resíduos culturais não foi possível detectar a degradação deste componente. A degradação dos principais componentes dos resíduos culturais (fração solúvel, celulose, hemicelulose e lignina) é determinada pela composição química e estrutural de cada uma destas frações.


Subject(s)
Waste Products/analysis , Wood/chemistry , Cellulose/chemistry , Lignin/chemistry
12.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 61(4): 536-547, dic. 2021. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1392365

ABSTRACT

En condiciones adecuadas como humedad, alcalinidad, o temperatura, determinados patógenos logran adherirse a las superficies y sobrevivir ciertos períodos fuera de un anfitrión, persistiendo en algunos casos a procesos deficientes de limpieza y desinfección, configurándose como un posible foco de transmisión. Por ello, el correcto saneamiento cumple un propósito vital en la protección de los trabajadores de la industria y otros sectores frente al riesgo de contaminación por contacto directo con las superficies contaminadas. La literatura científica muestra amplia evidencia de la supervivencia de patógenos sobre superficies que son habituales dentro de instalaciones industriales, como acero, aluminio, madera, plástico y vidrio. La supervivencia de microorganismos en las superficies puede configurarse como candidato a marcador de biodisponibilidad, que puede ser usado en la industria para establecer y auditar los planes de higienización y saneamiento industrial, permitiendo estudiar la eficacia de los compuestos usados en la desinfección, y variables como su concentración, temperatura, e intervalos de aplicación y remoción(AU)


Under suitable conditions such as humidity, alkalinity, or temperature, certain pathogens manage to adhere to surfaces and survive certain periods outside of a host, persisting in some cases to poor cleaning and disinfection processes, becoming a possible source of transmission. Therefore, proper sanitation serves a vital purpose in protecting workers in industry and other sectors from the risk of contamination by direct contact with contaminated surfaces. The scientific literature shows ample evidence of the survival of pathogens on surfaces that are common within industrial facilities, such as steel, aluminum, wood, plastic and glass. The survival of microorganisms on surfaces can be configured as a candidate for bioavailability marker, which can be used in the industry to establish and audit industrial sanitation and sanitation plans, allowing to study the efficacy of the compounds used in disinfection, and variables such as its concentration, temperature, and application and removal intervals(AU(


Subject(s)
Biological Availability , Disinfection , Industrial Sanitation , Environmental Pollution , Noxae , Plastics , Steel , Wood , Aluminum , Manufacturing and Industrial Facilities , Glass
13.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(3): 267-273, jul.set.2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399346

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify possible risks factors of exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP)/outdoor air pollution (OAP) and their relationship with noncommunicable diseases in men and women treated by primary care physicians. Method: In total, 551 patients (382 women) attended three basic health units in Uruguaiana, Brazil, for various complaints, and completed a questionnaire about risk factors for exposure to IAP/OAP. Results: Women were significantly more exposed to wood-burning pollutants (79.6% vs. 52.7%, p < 0.0001) for having more housework-related activities; men had more outdoor activities and spent extended periods in traffic (47.3% vs. 18.8%, p < 0.0001). Arterial hypertension (AH)/ chronic respiratory disease (CRD) were more frequent among women. Patients with AH/CRD were more exposed to OAP because of their work (18.1% vs. 11%, p = 0.02) or for living near a source of air pollution (45.6% vs. 29.6%, p = 0.0002) or on a street with heavy traffic (41.7% vs. 33%, p = 0.04). Passive smoking, active smoking, using wood, charcoal, or firewood for cooking, heating, or drying, or burning charcoal indoors were not associated with a higher prevalence of AH/CRD. Conclusion: Exposure to OAP was associated with AH/CRD. Women were more exposed to IAP from burning firewood, and men were more exposed to fossil fuel burning. Knowledge of these behaviors should be directed to primary care physicians and all health professionals so that preventive and educational measures can be implemented.


Objetivo: Identificar possíveis fatores de risco da exposição à poluição intradomiciliar (PID) e extradomiciliar (PED) e sua relação com doenças não transmissíveis (DNT) em homens e mulheres tratados por médicos de atenção primária. Método: Quinhentos e cinquenta e um pacientes (382 mulheres) atendidos em três unidades básicas de saúde em Uruguaiana, Brasil, por queixas diversas, responderam a um questionário sobre os fatores de risco para exposição à PID/PED. Resultados: As mulheres foram significantemente mais expostas aos poluentes da queima de lenha (79,6% vs. 52,7%, p < 0,0001) por terem mais atividades domésticas; os homens praticaram mais atividades ao ar livre e passaram longos períodos no trânsito (47,3% vs. 18,8%, p < 0,0001). Hipertensão arterial (HA) / Doença respiratória crônica (DRC) foram mais frequentes entre as mulheres. Pacientes com HA/DRC foram mais expostos à PED devido ao trabalho (18,1% vs. 11%, p = 0,02), ou por viver perto de uma fonte de poluição do ar (45,6% vs. 29,6%, p = 0,0002), ou em uma rua com trânsito intenso (41,7% vs. 33%, p = 0,04). O fumo passivo, o fumo ativo, o uso de lenha ou carvão para cozinhar, aquecer ou secar ou queimar carvão em ambientes fechados não foram associados a maior prevalência de HA/DRC. Conclusão: A exposição à PED foi associada a HA/CRD. As mulheres foram mais expostas à PID pela queima de lenha, e os homens foram mais expostos à queima de combustíveis fósseis. O conhecimento destes comportamentos deve ser direcionado aos médicos da atenção básica e a todos os profissionais da saúde, para que medidas preventivas e educacionais possam ser implementadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Air Pollution, Indoor , Air Pollution , Environmental Pollutants , Environmental Pollution , Patients , Primary Health Care , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Tobacco , Wood , Smoking , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Health Personnel , Physicians, Primary Care , Fossil Fuels , Hypertension
14.
Acta amaz ; 51(3): 199-206, set 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353492

ABSTRACT

Enquanto o Inventário Florestal Nacional Brasileiro (IFN) está em andamento, há uma demanda crescente para entender o efeito da área do conglomerado sobre a exatidão e precisão da estimativa de atributos florestais. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a área mínima de um conglomerado para estimar o volume comercial (VC) com a mesma acurácia e precisão que as estimativas derivadas do conglomerado original de 8.000 m². A base de dados é proveniente de um inventário realizado em uma unidade florestal (Floresta Nacional do Bom Futuro) no sudoeste da Amazônia brasileira, onde 22 conglomerados foram distribuídos em um desenho amostral em dois estágios. Foram avaliados três produtos: (i) VC de árvores com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP) ≥ 20 cm (P1); (ii) VC de árvores com DAP ≥ 50 cm (P2); e (iii) VC de espécies comerciais com DAP ≥ 50 cm e qualidade de fuste 'nível 1' ou 'nível 2' (P3). O estudo avaliou dez cenários em que a área do conglomerado foi reduzida de 8.000 a 800 m². A acurácia de P1, P2 e P3 foi significativamente menor para reduções < 2.400 m². A precisão foi mais sensível à variação no tamanho do conglomerado, sobretudo para P2 e P3. Os tamanhos mínimos de conglomerado foram ≥ 2.400 m² para estimar P1, ≥ 4.800 m² para estimar P2 e ≥ 7.200 m² para estimar P3. Concluímos que é possível reduzir a área do conglomerado sem perder acurácia e precisão do conglomerado original do IFN. Um conglomerado de 2.400 m² fornece estimativas com a mesma acurácia que o conglomerado original, independentemente do produto avaliado. (AU)


Subject(s)
Wood , Forests , Amazonian Ecosystem , Conservation of Natural Resources , Dimensional Measurement Accuracy
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(3): 773-779, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385414

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Exposure to air pollution and its pollutants has been associated with important effects on human health since the first years of life, thus it has been seen that exposure to tobacco smoke and wood smoke is directly related to cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, respiratory and cancers. However, exposure to air pollution during fetal development and its effects on brain structure and function during early childhood and adolescence have been little studied. In this review we have analyzed the literature on prenatal exposure to tobacco and wood smoke and its relationship with hypothalamic development and cognition in the first years of life.The molecular, morphological and physiological aspects of the relationship between pre- and postnatal exposure to tobacco and wood smoke with neural developmental, cognitive and behavioral problems during early childhood and adolescence have not yet been fully clarified. The information available in the scientific literature based on antecedents obtained from epidemiological studies has been negatively affected by confounding variables and great methodological challenges that make it impossible to affirm an exact causal relationship with certainty.


RESUMEN: La exposición a la contaminación del aire se ha asociado con importantes efectos en la salud humana desde los primeros años de vida. Estudios han demostrado con certeza que la exposición al humo de tabaco y humo de leña está directamente relacionada con enfermedades cardiovasculares, pulmonares, respiratorias y cánceres. Sin embargo, la exposición a la contaminación del aire durante el desarrollo fetal y sus efectos a posteriori sobre la estructura y función del cerebro durante la primera infancia y la adolescencia son aún desconocidos. En esta revisión analizamos la literatura sobre la exposición prenatal al tabaco y al humo de leña y su relación con el desarrollo hipotalámico y la cognición en los primeros años de vida. Los aspectos moleculares, morfológicos y fisiológicos de la asociación entre la exposición pre y postnatal al humo de tabaco o al humo de leña con problemas del desarrollo neurológico normal, cognitivos y de comportamiento durante la primera infancia y la adolescencia aún no se han aclarado completamente. La información disponible en la literatura científica basada en antecedentes obtenidos de estudios epidemiológicos ha sido afectada negativamente por variables de confusión y grandes desafíos metodológicos que hacen imposible afirmar una relación directa y causal exacta con certeza.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Cognition/drug effects , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Hypothalamus/drug effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Smoke , Wood
16.
Acta amaz ; 51(2): 171-180, jun. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353481

ABSTRACT

Os sistemas agroflorestais (SAFs) integram, com práticas sustentáveis, culturas agrícolas e florestais para produção de madeira e alimentos, conservando os serviços ambientais e a biodiversidade. O freijó, Cordia goeldiana, tem potencial para cultivo na Amazônia para fins madeireiros, porém dados sobre as características de sua madeira em SAFs são escassas. Objetivou-se determinar as propriedades físico-mecânicas e aplicações tecnológicas da madeira de freijó produzida em um SAF multiestratificado estabelecido no estado de Rondônia, Brasil em 1996. No SAF, as espécies agrícolas e madeireiras foram estabelecidas em renques duplos no espaçamento 5,0 m x 2,5 m. Abateram-se três árvores de freijó com 19 anos de idade, para caracterização química, física (densidade e estabilidade dimensional) e mecânica (compressão, flexão estática, dureza Janka e cisalhamento) da madeira. A madeira de freijó apresentou composição química similar à de madeiras nobres tropicais, peso moderado (582,63 kg m-3) e estabilidade dimensional elevada em comparação com outras madeiras consagradas no mercado (retração longitudinal, radial e tangencial = 0,25, 4,27 e 6,83%, respectivamente). Os valores de resistência à compressão paralela (32,32 MPa) e perpendicular (8.02 MPa), resistência específica (55,32 MPa kg-1 m-3), dureza Janka paralela (2373,33 N) e perpendicular (2326,67 N), resistência à flexão estática (63,5 MPa) e ao cisalhamento (5,94 MPa) foram semelhantes aos valores observados em outras madeiras tropicais de alta densidade, produzidas em monocultivo e florestas naturais. A madeira em estudo é adequada para fabricação de produtos de alto valor agregado, como móveis finos, pisos residenciais, instrumentos musicais e peças estruturais. (AU)


Subject(s)
Wood , Ecosystem , Chemical Phenomena , Mechanical Tests
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1250-1257, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134433

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Residential heating with wood is an important source of ambient air pollution. Evidence links air pollution to serious health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to wood smoke pollution causes morphological changes in the development of the rat lung, leading to altered lung structure and function during later life. We presumed that analysis of the fetal lung stereology provides novel insights into the underlying processes mediating particulate matter associated developmental changes and damage. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of exposure during gestational period to wood smoke pollution on lung fetal morphology. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution. Complete lungs samples were obtained from 24 fetus from healthy female G3 rats subjected to cesarean at 19 days post-fecundation. The lungs were prepared for histological and stereological analysis. The volume fraction of terminal bronchioles VV [tb, lung] and volume fraction of parenchyma VV [par, lung], surface density of terminal bronchioles SV [tb, lung] as well as numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung] were calculated by light microscopy. Statistical analysis detected significant differences between groups in volume density VV [tb, lung; %] (p=0.0012) and surface density SV [tb, lung; mm2/mm3] (p<0.0001) of the terminal bronchioles. However, it did not show differences between groups in the stereological parameter volume density VV [par, lung; %] (p=0.0838) and numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung; nº/mm2] (p=0.0705). The analysis of the evidence obtained indicates that exposure to environmental pollution was affects lung maturation, and particularly the proportion and area of terminal bronchioles in the fetal lung. In conclusion, maternal exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in the lower conducting airways of lungs, which, according to urban pollution studies, could be related to early childhood lower respiratory illness. The public health implications of this study are that reducing or avoiding exposure to wood smoke is important before and during pregnancy.


RESUMEN: La calefacción residencial con leña es una fuente importante de contaminación ambiental. La evidencia vincula la contaminación del aire con graves efectos sobre la salud, como la mortalidad y la morbilidad respiratoria y cardiovascular. Hipotetizamos que la exposición prenatal a la contaminación por humo de leña causa cambios en el desarrollo del pulmón de rata, lo que conduce a una morfo-función pulmonar alteradas durante la vida posterior, creemos que el análisis de la estereología pulmonar fetal proporcionará nuevos conocimientos sobre los procesos subyacentes que median esos cambios. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos de la exposición prenatal a la contaminación ambiental por humo de leña sobre la morfología pulmonar fetal. Ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña. En fetos de 19 días post-fecundación fue obtenido el pulmón para análisis histológico y estereológico. Fue determinado la fracción de volumen de bronquiolos terminales VV [tb, pulmón], fracción de volumen del parénquima VV [par, pulmón], densidad superficial de los bronquiolos terminales SV [tb, pulmón] así como la densidad numérica de exocrinocitos NA [ec, pulmón]. El análisis estadístico detectó diferencias significativas entre grupos en la densidad de volumen V [tb, pulmón; %] (p=0,0012) y densidad superficial SV [tb, pulmón; mm2/mm3] (p<0,0001) de los bronquiolos terminales. Sin embargo, no demostró diferencias entre grupos en la densidad de volumen VV [par, pulmón; %] (p=0,0838) y numérica de exocrinocitos bronquiolares NA [ec, pulmón; nº / mm ] (p=0,0705). El análisis de la evidencia obtenida indica que la exposición a la contaminación ambiental afectó la maduración pulmonar, y particularmente la proporción y área de bronquiolos terminales en el pulmón fetal. En conclusión, la exposición materna a la contaminación por humo de leña durante la gestación se asoció a una disminución de las vías respiratorias conductoras de aire en pulmón, lo que, según estudios de contaminación urbana, podría estar relacionado con enfermedades de las vías respiratorias inferiores en la primera infancia. Las implicaciones para la salud pública de este estudio son que reducir o evitar la exposición al humo de leña es importante previo y durante la gestación. Por otro lado, la contaminación por humo de leña tiene un gran impacto en la salud pública que, en teoría, es posible prevenir.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Lung/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Wood , Analysis of Variance , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Environmental Exposure , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Heating , Lung/pathology
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1356-1364, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134448

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Studies in humans showed that prenatal exposure to urban air pollution (AP) influences fetal development, and increases the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes and some diseases in postnatal life. However, most of these were performed in environments where the main source of environmental particulate matters (PM) emission is diesel combustion by motor vehicles and industries, thereby ignoring the effects produced by wood smoke pollution. We hypothesized that morphological changes in the placenta could contribute to the reduction in fetal size associated with different periods of exposure to AP produced by wood smoke pollution prior to and during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to investigate the quantitative effects of long-term exposure to environmental levels of wood smoke pollution on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the placenta in rats. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution in indoor and outdoor environments. At 19 days of gestation, the placentas were obtained by caesarean and were prepared for histological, planimetric and stereological analysis. The volume and proportions of the placental compartments were estimated. In addition, stereological estimators in fetal capillaries were calculated in the labyrinth region. Crown rump length, fetus weight and litter weight were influenced by pregestational and gestational exposure periods. Exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregestational period has significant effect on the volume of the placenta, and consequently on fetal height. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that long-term outdoor exposure to wood smoke pollution from residential heating affects fetal health, decreasing the absolute volume of the entire placenta and the placental interface between the mother and fetus, decreasing the total volume of blood vessels present in the labyrinth region ofthe placenta and affecting the size of the fetus.


RESUMEN: Estudios en humanos demostraron que la exposición prenatal a la polución del aire urbano influye en el desarrollo fetal y aumenta la incidencia de resultados adversos de la gestación y algunas enfermedades postnatales. Sin embargo, la mayoría de ellos fueron realizados en entornos donde la principal fuente de emisión de material particulado, fue la combustión de petróleo por vehículos a motor e industrias, ignorando los efectos producidos por el humo de leña producido por la calefacción intradomiciliaria. Hipotetizamos respecto a que los cambios de la placenta contribuirían a la disminución del tamaño fetal relacionado a los períodos de exposición al humo de leña durante los periodos pregestacional y gestacional. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos cuantitativos de la exposición al humo de leña sobre la morfología macroscópica y microscópica en placenta de ratas. Para probar esto, ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña en ambientes interiores y exteriores. A los 19 días de gestación, las placentas fueron obtenidas por cesárea y fueron preparadas para un análisis histológico, planimétrico y estereológico. Fue estimado el volumen absoluto y las proporciones de los compartimentos placentarios. Además, fueron calculados estimadores estereológicos en capilares fetales del laberinto y trofoblasto. La longitud, el peso del feto y el peso de la camada fueron influenciados por los períodos de exposición pregestacional y gestacional. La exposición a la contaminación por humo de leñá durante el período pregestacional tuvo un efecto significativo en el volumen de la placenta y, en consecuencia, en la altura del feto. En conclusión, este estudio demostró que la exposición a largo plazo al humo de leña afecta la salud del feto, disminuyendo el volumen absoluto de la placenta, además, afecta la interfaz placentaria entre la madre y feto, disminuyendo el volumen total de vasos sanguíneos presentes en la región del laberinto placentario y por consecuente afectando el tamaño del feto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Placenta/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Wood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , /adverse effects , Body Size , Fetal Development/drug effects , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter
19.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 20(4): 40-44, out.-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | BBO, LILACS | ID: biblio-1252982

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Trauma contuso e penetrante na região orbital pode ter um efeito devastador, tanto funcional quanto estético para a órbita e estruturas adjacentes. Uma inspeção meticulosa das pálpebras e do globo deve ser realizada e, se houver suspeita de retenção de um corpo estranho dentro dos tecidos moles orbitais, deve ser obtida uma tomografia computadorizada (TC). O objetivo do presente estudo foi relatar um caso clínico de trauma óculo-orbitário severo ocasionado por acidente com animal. Relato de caso: paciente de 22 anos do gênero masculino apresentou-se em um hospital de referência em trauma na cidade de Campina Grande-PB, com história de acidente com cavalo e colisão em cerca de madeira. A tomografia revelou que havia a presença de um corpo estranho (CE) de madeira que apresentava uma forma pontiaguda e proximidade com estruturas como músculos, vasos e nervos da órbita, além da presença de fratura no assoalho da órbita. Considerações finais: A presença de CE de madeira deve sempre ser investigada quando há trauma direto na cavidade orbitária, pois a madeira é áspera e contém uma grande quantidade de bactérias e parasitas. Sendo assim, deve ser removido o mais precocemente possível a fim de se evitar complicações infecciosas... (AU)


Introduction: Blunt and penetrating trauma to the orbital region can have a devastating effect, both functional and aesthetic for the orbit and adjacent structures. Meticulous inspection of the eyelids and the globe should be performed and, if a foreign body is suspected to be retained within the orbital soft tissues, a computed tomography (CT) scan should be obtained. The aim of the present study was to report a clinical case of severe oculo-orbital trauma caused by an accident with an animal. Case report: a 22-year-old male patient presented at a trauma referral hospital in the city of Campina Grande-PB, with a history of accident with a horse and collision on a wooden fence. The tomography revealed that there was the presence of a wooden foreign body (EC) that had a pointed shape and proximity to structures such as muscles, vessels and nerves in the orbit, in addition to the presence of a fracture in the orbit floor. Final considerations: The presence of wood CE should always be investigated when there is direct trauma to the orbital cavity, as the wood is rough and contains a large amount of bacteria and parasites. Therefore, it should be removed as early as possible in order to avoid infectious complications... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Orbital Fractures/etiology , Eye Foreign Bodies/etiology , Accidental Injuries/complications , Wood , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Eye Foreign Bodies/surgery , Eye Foreign Bodies/diagnostic imaging , Horses
20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(4): 1335-1352, 01-06-2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147293

ABSTRACT

The characterization of wood anatomy and proprieties can provide subsidies for rational use of tree species. Enables, oftentimes, the definition of technological potential of wood - and wood products - through the assessment of quality information and also allows it ́s correct identification, contributing to the timber production chain. The objective of this study was to contribute to the knowledge about wood properties of the Cerrado biome (Brazilian savanna) species trough the anatomical characterization and determination of density profile. Twenty trees species belonging to thirteen families occurring in Pirenópolis, Goiás and Brasília, Federal District, Brazil, was selected and radial samples were removed from the tree trunks at the DBH (1.30 m) in a non-destructive way using an incremental probe and a motorized extractor. The qualitative and quantitative anatomical parameters of vessels and fibers and the wood density were determined in the collected samples. Species presented fibers with mean values between 900.5 and 2052.9 µm for the length; 18.1 and 27.7 µm for the diameter; and 4.4 to 9.4 µm for the wall thickness. The species presented a variation in the vessel dimensions from 29.2 to 155.6 µm for the diameter; 17.7 to 32.5% for occupied area; and 2.6 to 165 to vessels.mm-2. The apparent density presented mean values between 0.36 and 1.21 g cm-3. The specie that presented the highest variation of wood density was A. fraxinifolium. According to the radial profiles two patterns of increasing and stable variation in the apparent density of the pith to bark were defined as a function of the wood anatomical characteristics.


A caracterização anatômica e das propriedades da madeira pode auxiliar na tomada de decisão quanto ao uso racional de espécies. Possibilita, muitas vezes, a definição do potencial tecnológico da madeira - e produtos - fornecendo acesso a informações sobre a sua qualidade, além de sua correta identificação, contribuído com a cadeia produtiva madeireira. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar e caracterizar as propriedades da madeira de espécies arbóreas do Cerrado, através da descrição anatômica e determinação do perfil de densidade. Foram selecionadas 20 espécies pertencentes a treze famílias, na cidade de Pirenópolis, Goiás e Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil, e amostras radiais foram retiradas dos troncos das árvores no DAP (1,30 m) de forma não destrutiva, utilizando-se uma sonda de incremento e um extrator motorizado. Nas amostras coletadas, foram determinados os parâmetros anatômicos qualitativos e quantitativos dos vasos e das fibras e a densidade aparente da madeira. As espécies apresentaram fibras com valores médios entre 900,5 a 2052,9 µm para o comprimento; 18,1 a 27,7 µm para o diâmetro e 4,4 a 9,4 µm para a espessura da parede; e variação nas dimensões dos vasos de 29,2 a 155,6 µm para o diâmetro; 17,7 a 32,5% para área ocupada; e 2,6 a 165 vasos.mm-2 para a frequencia dos vasos. A densidade aparente apresentou valores médios entre 0,36 e 1,21 g cm-3. A espécie que apresentou a maior variação de densidade de madeira foi A. fraxinifolium. De acordo com os perfis radiais, dois padrões de variação crescente e estável na densidade aparente, da medula para casca, foram definidos como uma função das características anatômicas.


Subject(s)
Wood , Grassland , Sustainable Development
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