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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1250-1257, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134433

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Residential heating with wood is an important source of ambient air pollution. Evidence links air pollution to serious health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to wood smoke pollution causes morphological changes in the development of the rat lung, leading to altered lung structure and function during later life. We presumed that analysis of the fetal lung stereology provides novel insights into the underlying processes mediating particulate matter associated developmental changes and damage. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of exposure during gestational period to wood smoke pollution on lung fetal morphology. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution. Complete lungs samples were obtained from 24 fetus from healthy female G3 rats subjected to cesarean at 19 days post-fecundation. The lungs were prepared for histological and stereological analysis. The volume fraction of terminal bronchioles VV [tb, lung] and volume fraction of parenchyma VV [par, lung], surface density of terminal bronchioles SV [tb, lung] as well as numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung] were calculated by light microscopy. Statistical analysis detected significant differences between groups in volume density VV [tb, lung; %] (p=0.0012) and surface density SV [tb, lung; mm2/mm3] (p<0.0001) of the terminal bronchioles. However, it did not show differences between groups in the stereological parameter volume density VV [par, lung; %] (p=0.0838) and numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung; nº/mm2] (p=0.0705). The analysis of the evidence obtained indicates that exposure to environmental pollution was affects lung maturation, and particularly the proportion and area of terminal bronchioles in the fetal lung. In conclusion, maternal exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in the lower conducting airways of lungs, which, according to urban pollution studies, could be related to early childhood lower respiratory illness. The public health implications of this study are that reducing or avoiding exposure to wood smoke is important before and during pregnancy.


RESUMEN: La calefacción residencial con leña es una fuente importante de contaminación ambiental. La evidencia vincula la contaminación del aire con graves efectos sobre la salud, como la mortalidad y la morbilidad respiratoria y cardiovascular. Hipotetizamos que la exposición prenatal a la contaminación por humo de leña causa cambios en el desarrollo del pulmón de rata, lo que conduce a una morfo-función pulmonar alteradas durante la vida posterior, creemos que el análisis de la estereología pulmonar fetal proporcionará nuevos conocimientos sobre los procesos subyacentes que median esos cambios. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos de la exposición prenatal a la contaminación ambiental por humo de leña sobre la morfología pulmonar fetal. Ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña. En fetos de 19 días post-fecundación fue obtenido el pulmón para análisis histológico y estereológico. Fue determinado la fracción de volumen de bronquiolos terminales VV [tb, pulmón], fracción de volumen del parénquima VV [par, pulmón], densidad superficial de los bronquiolos terminales SV [tb, pulmón] así como la densidad numérica de exocrinocitos NA [ec, pulmón]. El análisis estadístico detectó diferencias significativas entre grupos en la densidad de volumen V [tb, pulmón; %] (p=0,0012) y densidad superficial SV [tb, pulmón; mm2/mm3] (p<0,0001) de los bronquiolos terminales. Sin embargo, no demostró diferencias entre grupos en la densidad de volumen VV [par, pulmón; %] (p=0,0838) y numérica de exocrinocitos bronquiolares NA [ec, pulmón; nº / mm ] (p=0,0705). El análisis de la evidencia obtenida indica que la exposición a la contaminación ambiental afectó la maduración pulmonar, y particularmente la proporción y área de bronquiolos terminales en el pulmón fetal. En conclusión, la exposición materna a la contaminación por humo de leña durante la gestación se asoció a una disminución de las vías respiratorias conductoras de aire en pulmón, lo que, según estudios de contaminación urbana, podría estar relacionado con enfermedades de las vías respiratorias inferiores en la primera infancia. Las implicaciones para la salud pública de este estudio son que reducir o evitar la exposición al humo de leña es importante previo y durante la gestación. Por otro lado, la contaminación por humo de leña tiene un gran impacto en la salud pública que, en teoría, es posible prevenir.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Lung/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Wood , Analysis of Variance , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Environmental Exposure , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Heating , Lung/pathology
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1356-1364, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134448

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Studies in humans showed that prenatal exposure to urban air pollution (AP) influences fetal development, and increases the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes and some diseases in postnatal life. However, most of these were performed in environments where the main source of environmental particulate matters (PM) emission is diesel combustion by motor vehicles and industries, thereby ignoring the effects produced by wood smoke pollution. We hypothesized that morphological changes in the placenta could contribute to the reduction in fetal size associated with different periods of exposure to AP produced by wood smoke pollution prior to and during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to investigate the quantitative effects of long-term exposure to environmental levels of wood smoke pollution on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the placenta in rats. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution in indoor and outdoor environments. At 19 days of gestation, the placentas were obtained by caesarean and were prepared for histological, planimetric and stereological analysis. The volume and proportions of the placental compartments were estimated. In addition, stereological estimators in fetal capillaries were calculated in the labyrinth region. Crown rump length, fetus weight and litter weight were influenced by pregestational and gestational exposure periods. Exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregestational period has significant effect on the volume of the placenta, and consequently on fetal height. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that long-term outdoor exposure to wood smoke pollution from residential heating affects fetal health, decreasing the absolute volume of the entire placenta and the placental interface between the mother and fetus, decreasing the total volume of blood vessels present in the labyrinth region ofthe placenta and affecting the size of the fetus.


RESUMEN: Estudios en humanos demostraron que la exposición prenatal a la polución del aire urbano influye en el desarrollo fetal y aumenta la incidencia de resultados adversos de la gestación y algunas enfermedades postnatales. Sin embargo, la mayoría de ellos fueron realizados en entornos donde la principal fuente de emisión de material particulado, fue la combustión de petróleo por vehículos a motor e industrias, ignorando los efectos producidos por el humo de leña producido por la calefacción intradomiciliaria. Hipotetizamos respecto a que los cambios de la placenta contribuirían a la disminución del tamaño fetal relacionado a los períodos de exposición al humo de leña durante los periodos pregestacional y gestacional. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos cuantitativos de la exposición al humo de leña sobre la morfología macroscópica y microscópica en placenta de ratas. Para probar esto, ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña en ambientes interiores y exteriores. A los 19 días de gestación, las placentas fueron obtenidas por cesárea y fueron preparadas para un análisis histológico, planimétrico y estereológico. Fue estimado el volumen absoluto y las proporciones de los compartimentos placentarios. Además, fueron calculados estimadores estereológicos en capilares fetales del laberinto y trofoblasto. La longitud, el peso del feto y el peso de la camada fueron influenciados por los períodos de exposición pregestacional y gestacional. La exposición a la contaminación por humo de leñá durante el período pregestacional tuvo un efecto significativo en el volumen de la placenta y, en consecuencia, en la altura del feto. En conclusión, este estudio demostró que la exposición a largo plazo al humo de leña afecta la salud del feto, disminuyendo el volumen absoluto de la placenta, además, afecta la interfaz placentaria entre la madre y feto, disminuyendo el volumen total de vasos sanguíneos presentes en la región del laberinto placentario y por consecuente afectando el tamaño del feto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Placenta/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Wood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Combustion/adverse effects , Body Size , Fetal Development/drug effects , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter
3.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(4): 1335-1352, 01-06-2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147293

ABSTRACT

The characterization of wood anatomy and proprieties can provide subsidies for rational use of tree species. Enables, oftentimes, the definition of technological potential of wood - and wood products - through the assessment of quality information and also allows it ́s correct identification, contributing to the timber production chain. The objective of this study was to contribute to the knowledge about wood properties of the Cerrado biome (Brazilian savanna) species trough the anatomical characterization and determination of density profile. Twenty trees species belonging to thirteen families occurring in Pirenópolis, Goiás and Brasília, Federal District, Brazil, was selected and radial samples were removed from the tree trunks at the DBH (1.30 m) in a non-destructive way using an incremental probe and a motorized extractor. The qualitative and quantitative anatomical parameters of vessels and fibers and the wood density were determined in the collected samples. Species presented fibers with mean values between 900.5 and 2052.9 µm for the length; 18.1 and 27.7 µm for the diameter; and 4.4 to 9.4 µm for the wall thickness. The species presented a variation in the vessel dimensions from 29.2 to 155.6 µm for the diameter; 17.7 to 32.5% for occupied area; and 2.6 to 165 to vessels.mm-2. The apparent density presented mean values between 0.36 and 1.21 g cm-3. The specie that presented the highest variation of wood density was A. fraxinifolium. According to the radial profiles two patterns of increasing and stable variation in the apparent density of the pith to bark were defined as a function of the wood anatomical characteristics.


A caracterização anatômica e das propriedades da madeira pode auxiliar na tomada de decisão quanto ao uso racional de espécies. Possibilita, muitas vezes, a definição do potencial tecnológico da madeira - e produtos - fornecendo acesso a informações sobre a sua qualidade, além de sua correta identificação, contribuído com a cadeia produtiva madeireira. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar e caracterizar as propriedades da madeira de espécies arbóreas do Cerrado, através da descrição anatômica e determinação do perfil de densidade. Foram selecionadas 20 espécies pertencentes a treze famílias, na cidade de Pirenópolis, Goiás e Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil, e amostras radiais foram retiradas dos troncos das árvores no DAP (1,30 m) de forma não destrutiva, utilizando-se uma sonda de incremento e um extrator motorizado. Nas amostras coletadas, foram determinados os parâmetros anatômicos qualitativos e quantitativos dos vasos e das fibras e a densidade aparente da madeira. As espécies apresentaram fibras com valores médios entre 900,5 a 2052,9 µm para o comprimento; 18,1 a 27,7 µm para o diâmetro e 4,4 a 9,4 µm para a espessura da parede; e variação nas dimensões dos vasos de 29,2 a 155,6 µm para o diâmetro; 17,7 a 32,5% para área ocupada; e 2,6 a 165 vasos.mm-2 para a frequencia dos vasos. A densidade aparente apresentou valores médios entre 0,36 e 1,21 g cm-3. A espécie que apresentou a maior variação de densidade de madeira foi A. fraxinifolium. De acordo com os perfis radiais, dois padrões de variação crescente e estável na densidade aparente, da medula para casca, foram definidos como uma função das características anatômicas.


Subject(s)
Wood , Grassland , Sustainable Development
4.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 20(4): 40-44, out.-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1252982

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Trauma contuso e penetrante na região orbital pode ter um efeito devastador, tanto funcional quanto estético para a órbita e estruturas adjacentes. Uma inspeção meticulosa das pálpebras e do globo deve ser realizada e, se houver suspeita de retenção de um corpo estranho dentro dos tecidos moles orbitais, deve ser obtida uma tomografia computadorizada (TC). O objetivo do presente estudo foi relatar um caso clínico de trauma óculo-orbitário severo ocasionado por acidente com animal. Relato de caso: paciente de 22 anos do gênero masculino apresentou-se em um hospital de referência em trauma na cidade de Campina Grande-PB, com história de acidente com cavalo e colisão em cerca de madeira. A tomografia revelou que havia a presença de um corpo estranho (CE) de madeira que apresentava uma forma pontiaguda e proximidade com estruturas como músculos, vasos e nervos da órbita, além da presença de fratura no assoalho da órbita. Considerações finais: A presença de CE de madeira deve sempre ser investigada quando há trauma direto na cavidade orbitária, pois a madeira é áspera e contém uma grande quantidade de bactérias e parasitas. Sendo assim, deve ser removido o mais precocemente possível a fim de se evitar complicações infecciosas... (AU)


Introduction: Blunt and penetrating trauma to the orbital region can have a devastating effect, both functional and aesthetic for the orbit and adjacent structures. Meticulous inspection of the eyelids and the globe should be performed and, if a foreign body is suspected to be retained within the orbital soft tissues, a computed tomography (CT) scan should be obtained. The aim of the present study was to report a clinical case of severe oculo-orbital trauma caused by an accident with an animal. Case report: a 22-year-old male patient presented at a trauma referral hospital in the city of Campina Grande-PB, with a history of accident with a horse and collision on a wooden fence. The tomography revealed that there was the presence of a wooden foreign body (EC) that had a pointed shape and proximity to structures such as muscles, vessels and nerves in the orbit, in addition to the presence of a fracture in the orbit floor. Final considerations: The presence of wood CE should always be investigated when there is direct trauma to the orbital cavity, as the wood is rough and contains a large amount of bacteria and parasites. Therefore, it should be removed as early as possible in order to avoid infectious complications... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Orbital Fractures/etiology , Eye Foreign Bodies/etiology , Accidental Injuries/complications , Wood , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Eye Foreign Bodies/surgery , Eye Foreign Bodies/diagnostic imaging , Horses
5.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 449-457, 01-03-2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146271

ABSTRACT

Forest Red Gum eucalypt provides a versatile wood and is converted into different purposes. However, such wood is somewhat limited in structural ends, which highlights the need to exploit this gap through diffusion of mechanical properties of suchtimber. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of moisture content reduction, from 30 to 12%, in physical and mechanical properties of Eucalyptus tereticornis, using Brazilian and American documents, to reinforce the structural potential wood and assisting engineers and architects in decision-making for its best building application. We evaluated two physical and fourteen mechanical properties of Eucalyptus tereticornis at two different moisture contents, following the prescriptions of Brazilian (ABNT NBR 7190: 1997) and North American (ASTM D-143-14: 2014) standards. Thus, 1091 repeats were carried out for all properties. By a moisture reduction, the bulk density and eleven strength properties statistically showed changes such as modulus of rupture (static bending, parallel and perpendicular compressions), modulus of elasticity (perpendicular compression and static bending), shear stress, tangential cleavage, and parallel and perpendicular hardnesses. Then, the Eucalyptus tereticornis timber could be better usable if is further applied for structural construction uses.


Eucalipto de goma vermelha prove uma madeira versátil e é convertido para diferentes propósitos. Porém, essa madeira é um pouco limitada para fins estruturais, o que destaca a necessidade de explorar essa lacuna mediante à difusão das propriedades mecânicas de tal madeira. Os resultados obtidos deverão auxiliar os engenheiros e arquitetos na tomada de decisão para a sua melhor aplicação construtiva. Esse artigo estudou a avaliação de duas propriedades físicas e catorze propriedades mecânicas do Eucalyptus tereticornis em dois teores de umidade, seguindo as prescrições dos documentos normativos brasileiro (ABNT NBR 7190: 1997) e norte-americano (ASTM D-143-14: 2014). Assim, 1091 repetições foram conduzidas para todas essas propriedades. Pela redução de umidade de 30% para 12%, a densidade aparente e onze propriedades de resistência demonstraram estatisticamente mudanças, tais como módulos de ruptura (flexão estática ecompressões paralela e perpendicular), módulos de elasticidade (compressão perpendicular e flexão estática), cisalhamento, fendilhamento e as durezas perpendicular e paralela. Então, a madeira de Eucalyptus tereticornispoderia ser melhor utilizável se for também aplicada para usos construtivos estruturais.


Subject(s)
Wood , Eucalyptus , Humidity
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2260-2276, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878484

ABSTRACT

Dissolving pulp consists of high purity cellulose and is widely used to as raw materials for the production of regenerated cellulose fiber, cellulose ester and cellulose ether. The characteristic of dissolving pulp affects greatly the production and processing performance of subsequent products. The α-cellulose content, hemicellulose content, pulp viscosity, ash, transition metal ion content, fiber morphology, molecular weight distribution of cellulose and the reactivity are the important properties. Because of its green, mild and high efficiency, the application of enzymes in improving the properties of dissolving pulp has a promising application prospect and has been researched significantly. In this review, the main properties of dissolving pulp are presented first, followed by a recommendation of the enzymes to improve these properties. The application and current research of cellulase and xylanase in improving the properties of dissolving pulp are emphasized. The main problems and the future research areas in improving the properties of dissolving pulp by enzymes are revealed. Finally, the technology prospects in this field are proposed.


Subject(s)
Cellulase , Molecular Weight , Viscosity , Wood
7.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0082020, 2020. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1130150

ABSTRACT

Wood is rich in organic compounds; thus, it is susceptible to attacks by several deteriorating agents because they acknowledge such attacks as a necessary energy supply. Fungi stand out among these agents since they can attack the wood in trees (before felling) and in several post-felling stages. Fungi are biological agents that use organic compounds as food sources, and that is the reason why they degrade most chemical components found in wood. Wood attacked by fungi suffers significant value loss, since these degrading agents affect their mechanical and aesthetic properties. Fungi ­ which are classified as staining, molding and rotting ­ are one of the main responsible for the biggest losses in the timber industry. Wood can be virtually used in a whole range of environments, a fact that makes it susceptible to attacks by different fungal species, since the ideal conditions for fungal development change from species to species. In other words, the fact that one or more fungal species are capable of deteriorating wood is directly related to conditions wood is subjected to. Thus, it is essential knowing how to evaluate fungal attacks, symptoms to be taken into consideration at the time to identify the type of attacking organism and the attack stage, as well as the control and prevention measures to be applied to these organisms.(AU)


Rica em compostos orgânicos, a madeira é suscetível ao ataque de diversos agentes deterioradores por ser reconhecida como suprimento necessário de energia. Entre esses agentes, destacam-se os fungos, cujo início de ataque pode se dar ainda na árvore, antes do abate e nas diversas fases posteriores. Os fungos são agentes biológicos que necessitam de compostos orgânicos como fontes de alimento e, por essa razão, degradam grande parte dos componentes químicos da madeira. As madeiras, quando atacadas por fungos, sofrem grandes perdas de valor, afetando suas propriedades mecânicas e estéticas. Os fungos são considerados um dos principais responsáveis pelos maiores prejuízos na indústria madeireira e são classificados como manchadores, emboloradores e apodrecedores. Praticamente, a madeira pode estar em uso em uma variedade de ambientes; sabendo-se que as condições ideais de desenvolvimento de um fungo são diferentes para cada espécie, a madeira ficará suscetível ao ataque por diferentes espécies de fungos. Ou seja, o fato de uma ou mais espécies de fungos serem encontradas deteriorando a madeira está diretamente relacionado às condições em que ela se encontra. Dessa forma, torna-se importante saber como avaliar os ataques feitos por fungos, os sintomas a serem considerados para identificar o tipo de organismo e o estágio do ataque, bem como as medidas de controle e prevenção desses organismos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Wood , Fungi , Organic Chemicals , Trees , Biological Factors , Environment , Energy Supply
8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 3079-3088, ago. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011896

ABSTRACT

Resumo A poluição do ar em ambientes fechados é agravada pela queima de lenha em fogões rústicos e ambientes pouco ventilados. A exposição aos poluentes emitidos por este tipo de combustível resulta no aumento da morbidade e da mortalidade. No Brasil, os estudos e as estimativas são escassos. Visando entender esta problemática, o objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o uso de lenha utilizando as séries de dados das agências governamentais para estimar o número de pessoas expostas. Os resultados apontam que a lenha é o segundo combustível mais usado para cozinhar, sendo utilizada por uma parcela significativa da população, em torno de 30 milhões de brasileiros. Um fator decisivo no maior uso deste combustível é o nível socioeconômico da população associada ao preço do gás liquefeito de petróleo (GLP). Os estudos realizados no país registraram concentrações altas de partículas durante a queima da lenha, excedendo os limites sugeridos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Também foram observadas associações entre a exposição aos poluentes gerados pela queima e o agravamento dos mais diversos problemas de saúde, dentre eles doenças respiratórias e câncer. A substituição da lenha e outros combustíveis sólidos por combustíveis mais limpos deve ser a meta do governo para minimizar custos com a saúde.


Abstract Indoor air pollution is exacerbated by the burning of firewood in rustic stoves and poorly ventilated environments. Exposure to the pollutants emitted by this type of fuel results in increased morbidity and mortality. In Brazil, studies and estimates regarding these conditions are scarce. In order to understand this problem, the objective of this work was to investigate the use of firewood using the data series of government agencies to estimate the number of exposed people. The results indicated that firewood is the second most used fuel for cooking, being used by a significant portion of the population, more than 30 million Brazilians. A decisive factor in the increased use of this fuel is the socioeconomic level of the population associated with the price of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The studies carried out in the country recorded high concentrations of particles during firewood burning, exceeding the limits suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). Associations were also observed between the exposure to the pollutants generated by the burning and the aggravation of health problems, among them respiratory diseases and cancer. Replacing fuelwood and other solid fuels with cleaner fuels should be the government's goal to minimize health costs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Cooking/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Ventilation/standards , Wood , Brazil/epidemiology , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Neoplasms/etiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology
9.
Acta amaz ; 49(1): 75-80, jan. - mar. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119231

ABSTRACT

Wood-cement composite (WCC) is a potential construction material for tropical regions, due to its physico-mechanical properties and resistance to decay and fungi attack. However it is important to test alternative production methods and wood materials that are easier and cheaper than those traditionally used, in order to create a higher demand for this product. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of wood from four Amazonian species (Eschweilera coriaceae, Swartzia recurva, Manilkara amazonica and Pouteria guianensis) in the production of wood-cement composites through a vibro-dynamic compression process, an alternative method to the use of a hydraulic press. The inhibition degree caused by the wood to the cement cure, measured by the factor CA, indicated that all species were compatible with Portland cement (CP II-Z). WCC with densities higher than 1,100 kg m-3 (produced with E. coriaceae and S. recurva particles) showed compressive strength values higher than 10 MPa, which fulfills the minimum requirement for lightweitgh reinforced concrete blocks for structural use. (AU)


Subject(s)
Wood , Amazonian Ecosystem , Manilkara , Pouteria
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773097

ABSTRACT

Two sesquiterpenes were isolated from the agarwood originating from Gyrinops salicifolia with various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were determined as 12-hydroxy-dihydrocyperolone(1) and(rel)-4β,5β,7β-eremophil-9-en-12,8α-olide(2), through a combined analysis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic evidence. Compound 1 was a new compound. Compound 2 showed cytotoxicities against K562 and BEL-7401 cell lines, with IC_(50) values of(17.85±0.04) and(21.82±0.07) mg·L~(-1), respectively [taxol as positive control, with IC_(50) values of(1.97±0.11) and(6.31±0.08) mg·L~(-1)].


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Molecular Structure , Phytochemicals , Pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes , Pharmacology , Thymelaeaceae , Chemistry , Wood , Chemistry
11.
Estud. av ; 33(95): 133-149, 2019. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008308

ABSTRACT

A lenha vem sendo substituída ao longo dos anos por novas formas de energia, como o gás liquefeito de petróleo (GLP) e a eletricidade. Porém, esse combustível ainda representa uma fração significativa da matriz energética brasileira, muito embora as pesquisas referentes ao seu uso ainda sejam limitadas e regionais. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um levantamento da produção, consumo e características da lenha usada com a finalidade de cocção. De acordo com os resultados, em 2016, 26,5% da lenha produzida no Brasil foram empregados com fins residenciais, ou seja, em torno de 2x107 toneladas. A lenha é proveniente tanto da silvicultura, sendo o Paraná o maior produtor, quanto do extrativismo, sendo a Bahia a maior produtora. O estado que apresenta maior dependência desse combustível para a cocção é o Pará, enquanto o Rio de Janeiro, praticamente, não a usa para esse fim. O consumo per capita varia muito de uma região a outra do país. Com base nos dados de 2016, foi estimado um consumo de 1,7 kg/pessoa/dia. No entanto, estudos in loco mostraram variação de 0,7 a 8,5 kg/pessoa/dia. O levantamento aponta que uma parte considerável da lenha é proveniente de matas nativas que têm reflexos no desmatamento de uma dada região. A pouca disponibilidade de dados e a variação entre eles impede uma avaliação mais precisa do uso deste combustível no país e suas implicações para a saúde das florestas. A implantação de políticas públicas deveria ser prioridade do governo, pois o uso da lenha de forma inadequada afeta o manejo da vegetação nativa, além de ser uma questão socioambiental, econômica e de saúde pública.


Firewood has been replaced over the years by new forms of energy, such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity. However, this fuel still accounts for a significant fraction of the Brazilian energy matrix. Research regarding its use remains limited and regional in the country. The objective of this study was survey the production, consumption and characteristics of firewood used for cooking. According to the results, in 2016 26.5% of the firewood produced in Brazil was used for residential purposes, around 2×107 metric tons. Firewood comes from both silviculture, Paraná being the largest producer, and extractivism, Bahia being the largest producer. Pará presented the greatest dependence of this fuel, while Rio de Janeiro practically does not use it for this purpose. Per capita consumption varies from one region to another. Based on data from 2016, it was estimated that consumption was 1.7 kg/person/day. In situ studies showed consumption ranges from 0.7 to 8.5 kg/person/day. The study shows an obvious reliance on native forests to obtain firewood, resulting in deforestation in some areas. The low availability of data and the variation among them prevents a better assessment of the use of this fuel in Brazil and the implications for forest health. The im-plementation of public policies should be a priority of the government, as the improper use of firewood negatively affects the management of native vegetation, as well as being a socio-environmental, economic and public health burden.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Wood , Forestry , Fuels , Conservation of Natural Resources , Extraction and Processing Industry
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to evaluate the risk of exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) during working hours by job status and occupation. METHODS: Using the 4th Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS), 49,674 respondents who answered the question about SHS were studied. A chi-square test was carried out to determine whether there is a significant different in SHS exposure frequency by general and occupational characteristics and experience of discrimination at work and logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify the risk level of SHS exposure by variables. RESULTS: In this study, we found that male workers in their 40s and 50s, workers employed in workplaces with fewer than 50 employees, daily workers, and people working outdoors had a higher rate of exposure to SHS than the others. The top five occupations with the highest SHS exposure were construction and mining-related occupations, metal core-makers-related trade occupations, wood and furniture, musical instrument, and signboard-related trade occupations, transport and machine-related trade occupations, transport and leisure services occupations. The least five exposed occupations were public and enterprise senior officers, legal and administrative professions, education professionals, and health, social welfare, and religion-related occupations. CONCLUSION: Tobacco smoke is a significant occupational hazard. Smoking ban policy in the workplace can be a very effective way to reduce the SHS exposure rate in the workplace and can be more effective if specifically designed by the job status and various occupations.


Subject(s)
Discrimination, Psychological , Education , Humans , Interior Design and Furnishings , Leisure Activities , Logistic Models , Male , Music , Occupations , Smoke , Smoking , Social Welfare , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tobacco , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Wood
13.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 141-150, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence on associations between occupational diesel exhaust and gasoline exposure and colorectal cancer is limited. We aimed to assess the effect of workplace exposure to diesel exhaust and gasoline on the risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: This caseecontrol study included 181,709 colon cancer and 109,227 rectal cancer cases diagnosed between 1961 and 2005 in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Cases and controls were identified from the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study cohort and matched for country, birth year, and sex. Diesel exhaust and gasoline exposure values were assigned by country-specific job-exposure matrices. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using conditional logistic regression models. The results were adjusted for physical strain at work and occupational exposure to benzene, formaldehyde, ionizing radiation, chlorinated hydrocarbons, chromium, and wood dust. RESULTS: Diesel exhaust exposure was associated with a small increase in the risk of rectal cancer (odds ratio 1/4 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.02–1.08). Gasoline exposure was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: This study showed a small risk increase for rectal cancer after workplace diesel exhaust exposure. However, this finding could be due to chance, given the limitations of the study.


Subject(s)
Benzene , Case-Control Studies , Chromium , Cohort Studies , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Dust , Finland , Formaldehyde , Gasoline , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated , Iceland , Logistic Models , Norway , Occupational Exposure , Odds Ratio , Parturition , Radiation, Ionizing , Rectal Neoplasms , Scandinavian and Nordic Countries , Sweden , Vehicle Emissions , Wood
14.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(4): 1580-1596, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003348

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los estudios dendrocronológicos se utilizan para reconstruir algunas variables climáticas; en México, estos estudios se han centrado en los bosques templados del centro y del norte, donde los árboles presentan anillos anuales bien definidos. Pocos estudios se han llevado a cabo en la parte sur del país, donde el crecimiento anual del anillo no se identifica fácilmente y, por lo tanto, esto hace que la datación se dificulte. Se analizó el potencial dendrocronológico de Pinus oocarpa para la reconstrucción de variables climáticas en la porción noroeste de Lagunas de Montebello, Chiapas. Empleando un muestreo selectivo se recolectaron 65 núcleos de incremento de 34 árboles. Aunque las muestras presentaron una alta frecuencia de anillos falsos (8 a 60 %), se logró fechar 30 muestras de 22 árboles (46 %) mediante técnicas dendrocronológicas estándar y el desarrollo de cronologías de anillo total, madera temprana y madera tardía para un período de 91 años (1925-2015). Se encontró una influencia significativa de la precipitación media y de la temperatura media máxima y mínima del período 1961-2004 sobre el crecimiento anual de P. oocarpa. Los resultados muestran que la precipitación inviernoprimavera (enero-mayo) fue la más importante para el crecimiento del anillo anual de la especie. Sin embargo, la correlación más alta se observó entre la precipitación de primavera (marzo-mayo) y la cronología de la madera temprana (r = 0.719, P < 0.05). La cronología de la madera temprana también mostró potencial para reconstruir la temperatura mínima (marzo a mayo) (r = 0.732, P < 0.05), mientras que la cronología de madera tardía registra potencial para reconstruir la temperatura máxima (septiembreenero) (r = 0.714, P < 0.05). Estos resultados muestran que P. oocarpa puede emplearse para reconstruir variables climáticas en los trópicos mexicanos. Se recomienda explorar nuevas áreas con árboles más viejos a fin de aumentar la extensión de las cronologías y reconstruir los registros climáticos varios siglos en el pasado.(AU)


Abstract Dendrochronological studies are used to reconstruct some climatic variables; in México these studies have focused on central and Northern temperate forests where trees present well defined annual rings. Few studies have been carried out in the Southern part of the country where annual ring growth is not easily identified and thus makes cross-dating problematic. We analyzed the dendrochronological potential of Pinus oocarpa Schiede for reconstructing climatic variables in the Northwest portion of Lagunas de Montebello, Chiapas. We used a selective sampling approach and collected 65 increment cores from 34 trees. While our samples showed a high frequency of false rings (8 to 60 %), we were able to date 30 samples from 22 trees (46 %) using standard dendrochronological techniques and developed total chronologies for total ring width, earlywood, and latewood for a period of 91 years (1925-2015). We found a significant influence of mean precipitation and mean maximum and minimum temperature over the annual ring growth of P. oocarpa in the period 1961-2004. Our results show that winter-spring precipitation (January-May) was the most important for the species' annual ring growth. However, we found the highest correlation between spring (March-May) precipitation and the earlywood chronology (r = 0.719, P < 0.05). The earlywood chronology also showed potential for reconstructing minimum temperatures (March to May) (r = 0.732, P < 0.05), while the latewood chronology had the potential for reconstructing the maximum temperature (September to January) (r = 0.714, P < 0.05). These results showed that P. oocarpa can be used to reconstruct climatic variables in the Mexican tropics. We recommend that new areas with older trees should be explored in order to increase the depth of chronologies and reconstruct climate records several centuries into the past.(AU)


Subject(s)
Wood , Climate Change , Pinus , Trees , Mexico
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 623-628, jun. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954163

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have shown that air pollution affects cardio-respiratory function, but its role regarding reproductive processes is unknown. There are few experimental background studies on its effects on the morpho-function in the reproductive system. The use of wood combustion for residential heating (WCRH) in the cities of south-central Chile has increased significantly. As a result, it has become a source of significant emissions of particulate matter suspended (PM) in the air. The possible association between exposure to PM and reproductive problems has been suggested only on the basis of epidemiological studies, most of them carried out in environments where the main source of PM emission is the combustion of oil by motorized vehicles and industries, ignoring the effects produced by the smoke of WCRH. For example, in the city of Temuco-Padre Las Casas, Chile, 93 % of PM emissions correspond to WCRH smoke, thus being considered an urban area with a single PM emission source and the factors that contribute to this type of contamination are reasonably representative of most of the cities in south-central Chile. We therefore suggest this as an adequate setting to evaluate the real effect of the environmental contamination produced by the smoke of WCRH in the reproductive system. The limited number of studies reported on the effects of this type of emission on the female reproductive system, present a challenge for the morphological sciences and also for those who make decisions that affect public health.


Estudios previos han demostrado que la polución del aire afecta la función cardio-respiratoria, pero el rol que tiene ésta respecto a los procesos reproductivos es desconocida. Existen escasos antecedentes experimentales sobre sus efectos sobre la morfo-función en el sistema reproductivo. El uso de la combustión de madera para calefacción residencial (WCRH) en las ciudades del centro-sur de Chile ha aumentado significativamente. Como resultado, se ha convertido en una fuente de emisión importante de material particulado en suspensión (PM) en el aire ambiental. La posible asociación entre exposición a PM y problemas reproductivos ha sido sugerida solo en base a estudios epidemiológicos, la mayoría de ellos realizados en ambientes donde la principal fuente de emisión de PM es la combustión del petróleo por vehículos motorizados e industrias, ignorando los efectos producidos por el humo de WCRH. Por ejemplo, en la ciudad de Temuco-Padre Las Casas, Chile, el 93 % de las emisiones de PM corresponden al humo de WCRH, por lo tanto, es considerada como un área urbana con una fuente de emisión de PM única y los factores que contribuyen a este tipo de contaminación son razonablemente representativos a la mayoría de las ciudades en el centro-sur de Chile, lo que permite sugerirla como un ambiente adecuado para evaluar el efecto de la contaminación ambiental producida por el humo de la WCRH en el sistema reproductivo. Los escasos estudios reportados sobre los efectos de este tipo de emisión sobre el sistema reproductivo femenino constituyen un desafío no tan solo para las ciencias morfológicas, sino que además, para quienes toman decisiones que afectan la salud pública.


Subject(s)
Combustion Products , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Genitalia, Female/drug effects , Heating , Uterus/drug effects , Wood , Chile , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Genitalia, Female/pathology
16.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 255-265, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886904

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study focuses on the effects of different thinning regimes on clonal Eucalyptus plantations growth. Four different trials, planted in 1999 and located in Bahia and Espírito Santo States, were used. Aside from thinning, initial planting density, and post thinning fertilization application were also evaluated. Before canopy closure, and therefore before excessive competition between trees took place, it was found that stands planted under low densities (667 trees per hectare) presented a lower mortality proportion when compared to stand planted under higher densities (1111 trees per hectare). However, diameter growth prior to thinning operations was not statistically different between these two densities, presenting an overall mean of 4.9 cm/year. After canopy closure and the application of the thinning treatments, it was found that thinning regimes beginning early in the life of the stand and leaving a low number of residual trees presented the highest diameter and height growth. Unthinned treatments and thinning regimes late in the life of the stand (after 5.5 years), leaving a large number of residual trees presented the highest values of basal area production. The choice of the best thinning regime for Eucalyptus clonal material will vary according to the plantation objective.


Subject(s)
Wood/growth & development , Forestry , Eucalyptus/growth & development , Fertilizers , Time Factors , Wood/anatomy & histology , Brazil , Eucalyptus/anatomy & histology
17.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 425-438, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886888

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study evaluated the quality of heartwood and sapwood from mature trees of three species of Eucalyptus, by means of the qualification of their proportion, determination of basic and apparent density using non-destructive attenuation of gamma radiation technique and calculation of the density uniformity index. Six trees of each species (Eucalyptus grandis - 18 years old, Eucalyptus tereticornis - 35 years old and Corymbia citriodora - 28 years old) were used in the experimental program. The heartwood and sapwood were delimited by macroscopic analysis and the calculation of areas and percentage of heartwood and sapwood were performed using digital image. The uniformity index was calculated following methodology which numerically quantifies the dispersion of punctual density values of the wood around the mean density along the radius. The percentage of the heartwood was higher than the sapwood in all species studied. The density results showed no statistical difference between heartwood and sapwood. Differently from the density results, in all species studied there was statistical differences between uniformity indexes for heartwood and sapwood regions, making justifiable the inclusion of the density uniformity index as a quality parameter for Eucalyptus wood.


Subject(s)
Wood/anatomy & histology , Eucalyptus/anatomy & histology , Gamma Rays , Quality Control , Specific Gravity , Wood/analysis , Brazil
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Wood is a valuable material for interiors, and the psychophysiological relaxation effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wood chips and essential oils have been reported. However, few studies have identified the odors in full-scale wooden environment, and also, differences in gender have not been clarified. In this study, we aimed to confirm the effects of VOCs emitted from interior wood walls in both human male and female participants.@*METHODS@#We used Japanese cedar timber and analyzed VOCs in the experimental rooms with and without Japanese cedar timber by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The physiological effects were measured using neuroendocrinological and immunological parameters in saliva. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the subjective responses to each odor in the experimental rooms.@*RESULTS@#The main compound emitted from Japanese cedar timber was δ-cadinene, and the total volume of VOCs in the wood condition (presence of VOCs emitted from Japanese cedar) was 282.4 (μg/m). Significant differences between genders in salivary parameters were shown that there were decreases of α-amylase in wood condition and increases of cortisol in the control (absence of VOCs) condition in female participants compared to male participants. The results demonstrated that VOCs in the experimental room with Japanese cedar timber tend to suppress the activation of the sympathetic nervous activity and non-VOCs of Japanese cedar in the control room increase cortisol in female participants.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These results suggest that an indoor environment with wood interior materials has the potential to be useful for health management, especially women's health.


Subject(s)
Adult , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , Cryptomeria , Chemistry , Female , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Metabolism , Male , Saliva , Chemistry , Salivary alpha-Amylases , Metabolism , Sesquiterpenes , Sex Factors , Volatile Organic Compounds , Wood , Chemistry , Young Adult
19.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2018031-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786842

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The possible adverse respiratory effects of airborne pollutants in sawmills have not been thoroughly investigated in Iran. Additionally, the extent to which workers are exposed to this organic dust and its associated bioaerosols has not been extensively quantified. Likewise, the predominant bacterial and fungal species associated with wood dust have not been characterized. The present study was undertaken to address these issues.METHODS: One hundred male individuals exposed to wood dust and 100 unexposed male subjects were investigated. They completed a standardized respiratory symptom questionnaire and underwent spirometry testing. Additionally, airborne concentrations of respirable and inhalable dust particles, bacteria, and fungi were measured.RESULTS: The mean concentrations of inhalable and respirable dust particles, bacteria, and fungi were found to be 2.44, 6.76 mg/m3, 756.38, and 299.15 colony-forming units/m3, respectively. The predominant Gram-negative bacteria in the sawmills included the Pseudomonadaceae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Rhinoscleromatis spp., and the predominant fungi consisted of the zygomycetes and Aspergillus spp. Respiratory symptoms were significantly more prevalent among exposed workers. Significant cross-shift decrements were noted in some pulmonary function parameters. Similarly, pre-shift spirometry results indicated that some pulmonary function parameters were significantly lower in the exposed group.CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to wood dust and its bioaerosols was associated with significantly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and both acute (i.e., partially reversible) and chronic (i.e., irreversible) decrements in the functional capacity of the lung. Additionally, the characterized bioaerosols did not differ significantly from those isolated in other parts of the world.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus , Bacteria , Dust , Fungi , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Humans , Inhalation Exposure , Inhalation , Iran , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Lung , Male , Prevalence , Pseudomonadaceae , Respiratory Function Tests , Spirometry , Wood
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The understanding of the relationship between risk perception, knowledge, and protective behaviors could play a major role in occupational risk control and management. Research exploring how workers perceive, recognize, and react to risks in different occupational settings is scarce in Thailand. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of noise-related risk perceptions and knowledge to the use of hearing protective devices (HPDs) among sawmill workers in Thailand. METHODS: Sawmill workers (n = 540) from four factories in Trang, Southern Thailand, participated in a questionnaire interview from December 2015 to January 2016. Descriptive statistics and linear regression models were used to explore the risk factors related to HPD use. Path diagram analysis was demonstrated and used to evaluate associations. RESULTS: Risk perception was significantly correlated with HPD use (p < 0.01), HPD training (p = 0.01), and the number of years of work experience (p = 0.03). Sawmill workers were likely to use HPDs based on their risk perception and HPD training. However, HPD training was inversely correlated with age and the number of years of work experience. CONCLUSION: The study highlights the importance of risk perceptions and knowledge, and these factors should be emphasized in the design and implementation of any personal safety intervention program for sawmill workers.


Subject(s)
Ear Protective Devices , Hearing , Humans , Linear Models , Risk Factors , Rubber , Thailand , Wood
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