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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180100, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1059131

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the quality of life of nurses from the Mobile Emergency Care Service of the Federal District (Brazil) and to identify the domains that influenced this assessment. Method: an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional and quantitative study, with data obtained from 123 nurses who answered a questionnaire developed and structured in order to know sociodemographic and clinical variables and with the application of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument Bref, to assess the quality of life. The data were submitted to descriptive statistics and inferential statics. Results: most of the nurses were women, aged between 20 and 40 years old, married, with a specialization degree and without any employment relation with another institution. Most (72.36%) considered their quality of life good or very good and were satisfied or very satisfied with their health (65.03%). The environment domain was the worst evaluated. A significant correlation was observed between the social relations (p=0.049) and environment (p=0.035) domains when correlated with the gender variable. The women rated their social relations and environment better than the men. Conclusion: the knowledge produced by this investigation may support the design of strategies that enable reducing the difficulties related to the life and work of nurses of the Mobile Emergency Care Service. Actions in this direction may contribute to the improvement of health, well-being and quality of life of the professionals and will have positive effects on the quality of health care provided to the population.


RESUMEN Objetivo: evaluar la calidad de vida de los enfermeros del Servicio de Atención Móvil de Emergencias del Distrito Federal (Brasil) e identificar los dominios que influenciaron en esa evaluación. Método: estudio de observación, descriptivo, transversal y cuantitativo, en el que se obtuvieron datos de 123 enfermeros que respondieron a un cuestionario desarrollado y estructurado para descubrir variables sociodemográficas y clínicas y en el que se aplicó el instrumento World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument Bref para evaluar la calidad de vida. Los datos se sometieron a estadística descriptiva y inferencial. Resultados: en su mayoría, los enfermeros eran mujeres de 20 a 40 años de edad, casadas, con un nivel académico de especialización y sin ningún vínculo de empleo con otras instituciones. La mayor parte (72,36%) consideraron que su calidad de vida era buena o muy buena y se mostraron satisfechas o muy satisfechas con su salud (65,03%). El dominio del medio ambiente fue el peor evaluado. Se observó una correlación significativa entre los dominios de las relaciones sociales (p=0,049) y del medio ambiente (p=0,035) al correlacionarlos con la variable del sexo. Las mujeres evaluaron mejor que los hombres sus relaciones sociales y el medio ambiente. Conclusión: los conocimientos obtenidos gracias a esta investigación podrán ayudar a delinear estrategias que permitan reducir las dificultades relacionadas con la vida y el trabajo de los enfermeros del Servicio de Atención Móvil de Emergencias. Implementar acciones en este sentido podrá contribuir a mejorar la salud, el bienestar y la calidad de vida de los profesionales y tendrá efectos positivos sobre la calidad de la atención a la salud que se presta a la población.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a qualidade de vida de enfermeiros do Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência do Distrito Federal (Brasil) e identificar os domínios que influenciaram nessa avaliação. Método: estudo observacional, descritivo, transversal e quantitativo, com dados obtidos de 123 enfermeiros que responderam a um questionário desenvolvido e estruturado para conhecer variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas e com aplicação do World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument Bref, para avaliar a qualidade de vida. Os dados foram submetidos à estatística descritiva e inferencial. Resultados: os enfermeiros eram em sua maioria mulheres, entre 20 a 40 anos, casadas, com nível acadêmico de especialização e sem vínculo empregatício com outra instituição. A maior parte (72,36%) considerou sua qualidade de vida boa ou muito boa e estava satisfeita ou muito satisfeita com a saúde (65,03%). O domínio meio ambiente foi o pior avaliado. Observou-se correlação significativa entre os domínios relações sociais (p=0,049) e meio ambiente (p=0,035) quando correlacionados à variável sexo. As mulheres avaliaram melhor suas relações sociais e o meio ambiente em relação aos homens. Conclusão: o conhecimento produzido por essa investigação poderá subsidiar o delineamento de estratégias que permitam diminuir as dificuldades relacionadas à vida e ao trabalho de enfermeiros do Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência. Ações nesse sentido poderão contribuir para a melhoria da saúde, do bem-estar e da qualidade de vida dos profissionais e terão efeitos positivos sobre a qualidade da assistência à saúde prestada à população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Nursing , Emergency Medical Services , Quality of Life , World Health Organization , Unified Health System , Observation , Answering Services , Emergency Medical Services , Nurses
2.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 3(2)ago.12, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BISSAL | ID: biblio-1117092

ABSTRACT

La Organización Mundial de la Salud elaboró el manual "Alivio del dolor en el cáncer" que proponía 5 recomendaciones para la analgesia. Se han hecho modificaciones para adaptarlo al manejo del dolor agudo en sentido inverso, de más severo a más leve, pero los principios fundamentales se mantienen. Objetivo. Determinar la tasa de adherencia a los principios de la escala analgésica de la Organización Mundial de la Salud en el manejo del dolor agudo posquirúrgico en cirugía electiva


The World Health Organization produced the manual "Cancer pain relief" that proposed 5 recommendations for analgesia. Modifications have been made to accommodate acute pain management in reverse, from more severe to milder, but the fundamental principles remain. Objective. To determine the rate of adherence to the principles of the World Health Organization analgesic scale in the management of acute postoperative pain in elective surgery


Subject(s)
World Health Organization , Pain Management
3.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 108(2): 80-87, mayo-ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1121640

ABSTRACT

La relación entre la exposición a los ruidos y la pérdida auditiva se considera desde hace muchos años. La comunidad odontológica no está exenta de este problema, ya que los profesionales trabajan a diario, y durante tiempos prolongados, con instrumentos ruidosos. Esta revisión bibliográfica tiene como propósito realizar una actualización acerca del riesgo de pérdida auditiva inducida por ruido en el personal que trabaja en la clínica odontológica. En la actualidad, se afirma que los odontólogos y el personal en la clínica dental corren el riesgo de contraer diversas patologías auditivas ­como es el caso de la hipoacusia­ debido al ruido que producen los equipos de alta velocidad. Las enfermedades profesionales del tipo auditivas que se abordan en este trabajo constituyen factores que comprometen no solo el buen estado de salud de los odontólogos y demás profesionales, sino su calidad de vida (AU)


The relationship between noise exposure and hearing loss has been known for many years. The dental community is not exempt from this problem, because they work every day and for long periods of time with noisy instruments. This literature review aims to update the risk of noise-induced hearing loss in personnel working in the dental clinic. The risk to which dentists and staff in the dental clinic are subjected to the high-speed and other noisy equipment is well known, and that can cause various auditory problems such as hearing loss. The occupational diseases of the auditory type that were addressed in this article constitute factors that compromise not only the good state of health of dentists and other professionals who work in similar conditions, but also in their quality of life (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental High-Speed Equipment/adverse effects , Dental Clinics/standards , Dentistry , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced , Noise, Occupational , Occupational Diseases , Quality of Life , World Health Organization , Noise Measurement
4.
Rev. colomb. enferm ; 19(2): 1-4, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1121821

ABSTRACT

La iniciativa Nursing Now ("enfermería ya" o "enfermería ahora", en traducción libre al español) propuesta por el Grupo Parlamentario Multipartidista de Salud Global del Reino Unido y respaldada por el Consejo Internacional de Enfermeras, la Organización Mundial de la Salud y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, inició en el 2017 una campaña de tres años para visibilizar la enfermería en el mundo (1, 2). Esta campaña, que finaliza este año con la declaración del Año Internacional de la Enfermería, se convirtió en una oportunidad para que múltiples grupos de más de sesenta países conformaran un movimiento local, nacional e internacional que, más allá de hacer una declaración de problemáticas y lineamientos generales, permitiera colocar en la agenda de gobiernos e instituciones del mundo los aspectos principales de la profesión con la intención de trascender la representación social que por mucho tiempo la ha estigmatizado e invisibilizado. En el último año de la campaña apareció la pandemia por COVID-19 que produce una catástrofe internacional, colapsa los servicios de salud y demuestra la vulnerabilidad de los sistemas sanitarios que no estaban preparados para tal evento (3). El propósito de este artículo, en ese contexto, es plantear cuáles fueron los aspectos centrales de la campaña, cómo se asumió en Colombia y cómo la aparición de la COVID-19 ha hecho visible de manera contundente la grave situación que afronta el grupo humano en salud y particularmente la enfermería en un sistema que presenta graves grietas en su estructura y que busca generar procesos adaptativos que le permitan afrontar de la mejor forma los retos profesionales que se hicieron visibles con la pandemia.


The initiative Nursing Now ( Enfermería ya or Enfermería Ahora in Spanish) set up by the UK All-Party Parliamentary Group on Global Health and supported by the International Council of Nurses, the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization, launched a three-year campaign in 2017 to make nursing visible around the world (1, 2). This campaign, which closes with the designation of the International Year of the Nurse and the Midwife this year, became an opportunity for multiple groups from more than sixty countries to start a local, national and international movement that, beyond identifying problems and general guidelines, would allow main aspects of the nursing profession to be included on the agenda of governments and institutions around the world to transcend the social representation that has long stigmatized the profession and made it invisible. In the last year of the campaign, the COVID-19 pandemic broke out, causing an international catastrophe, collapsing healthcare services, and demonstrating the vulnerability of health systems that were not prepared for such an event (3). The purpose of this article, in this context, is to present the central aspects of the campaign, how it was received in Colombia, and how the COVID-19 outbreak has made forcefully visible the serious situation that faces the health workers, and particularly the nurses, in a system with a cracked structure that seeks to generate adaptive processes to meet in the best way the professional challenges made visible by the pandemic.


A inciativa Nursing Now ("a enfermagem hoje" ou "enfermagem atual" em tradução livre ao português) proposta pelo Grupo Parlamentar Multipartidista de Saúde Global do Reino Unido e endossada pelo Conselho Internacional de Enfermagem, a Organização Mundial da Saúde e a Organização Pan-americana da Saúde lançaram em 2017 uma campanha de três anos para tornar visível a Enfermagem no mundo (1, 2). A campanha, que será finalizada este ano com a declaração do Ano Internacional da Enfermagem, tornou-se uma oportunidade para que diversos grupos em mais de sessenta países formassem uma mobilização local, nacional e internacional. Esta iniciativa indica problemáticas e lineamentos gerais da profissão que devem ser incluídas nas agenda dos diferentes governos e instituições do mundo com a intenção de transcender a representação social que, por muito tempo, tem produzido a estigmatização e a invisibilização da Enfermagem. No último ano desta campanha aconteceu, em escala mundial, a pandemia por COVID-19, produzindo uma catástrofe internacional, colapsando os serviços de saúde e demostrando a vulnerabilidade e o despreparo dos sistemas sanitários para assumir um problema dessa dimensão(3). O propósito deste artigo é apontar quais foram os aspectos centrais da campanha, a forma como foi desenvolvida na Colômbia e como o surgimento do COVID-19 deu visibilidade, de maneira contundente, à preocupante situação enfrentada pelos profissionais de saúde, particularmente da Enfermagem, inserida em um sistema que apresenta profundas lacunas estruturais, procurando gerar processos adaptativos que lhes permitam enfrentar, da melhor maneira possível, os desafios profissionais que se tornaram visíveis com a pandemia.


Subject(s)
World Health Organization , Nursing , Coronavirus Infections , International Council of Nurses
6.
Rev. ADM ; 77(2): 96-99, mar.-abr. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1102186

ABSTRACT

La seguridad de los pacientes ha sido declarada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) como un «principio fundamental para la atención sanitaria¼. Se menciona y define con la finalidad de caracterizar el problema de los incidentes relacionados con la atención de la salud, y especialmente sobre los eventos adversos. Existen definiciones básicas y operativas que sirven para elaborar reportes y proporcionar un marco referencial inicial, tal y como lo ha venido realizado en México la Comisión Nacional de Arbitraje Médico (CONAMED). La calidad en la atención es uno de los puntos más importantes, y se ha convertido poco a poco en un punto relevante en las agendas de los servicios de salud. Por esta razón debe afrontarse con un modelo de seguridad de los pacientes, con una visión que nos permita conocer los elementos básicos y conceptuales, así como la importancia de las medidas que el profesional en odontología da por hecho conocer por su entrenamiento dentro de las aulas universitarias (AU)


Patient safety has been declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a «fundamental principle for health care¼. It is mentioned and defined in order to characterize the problem of incidents related to health care, and especially about adverse events. There are basic and operational definitions that are used to prepare reports and provide an initial reference framework¸ as has been done in Mexico by the National Commission of Medical Arbitration (CONAMED). Quality of care is one of the most important points, gradually becoming a relevant point in the agendas of health services. It is the reason why it must be faced with a patient safety model, with a vision that allows us to know the basic and conceptual elements, as well as the importance of the measures that the professional in dentistry take for a fact to know for their Training within university classrooms (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Patient Advocacy/legislation & jurisprudence , Security Measures , Dental Care/standards , Patient Harm/legislation & jurisprudence , Quality of Health Care , World Health Organization , Infection Control, Dental , Advisory Committees , Iatrogenic Disease/prevention & control , Mexico
7.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 28(2): 75-81, Abr-Jun. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1121637

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la Organización Mundial de la Salud reporta que la violencia se considera un problema de salud pública, siendo las mujeres con una relación de pareja uno de los grupos más vulnerables, generando en ellas consecuencias físicas, psicológicas y sociales, dicho problema se relaciona con el consumo de drogas, particularmente el alcohol. Objetivo: establecer la relación entre el consumo de alcohol y la violencia de pareja en estudiantes de una escuela de educación superior. Metodología: estudio observacional, prospectivo, transversal de nivel relacional. El universo estuvo conformado por 418 estudiantes de sexo femenino, muestreo aleatorio simple estratificado por grado escolar y grupo de 118 estudiantes. Resultados: no existe correlación entre el consumo de alcohol y la violencia de pareja, encontrando un nivel de significancia mayor a lo esperado. Sin embargo, al realizar el cruce de variables sobre el número de consumiciones con los tipos de violencia, se encuentra correlación, evidenciando que las estudiantes que sufren violencia psicológica consumen más bebidas alcohólicas. Conclusión: el tipo de violencia más frecuente es la psicológica, siendo de mayor impacto el aumento de la violencia sexual. No existe correlación entre el consumo de alcohol y la violencia de pareja, contrario a lo que socialmente se espera, siendo este resultado la pauta para futuras investigaciones.


Introduction: The World Health Organization reported violence as a public health problem, being women with a relationship one of the most vulnerable groups, generating in them physical, psychological and social consequences, this problem is related to the consumption of drugs particularly alcohol. Objective: To establish the relationship between alcohol consumption and partner violence in students of a higher education school. Methodology: Observational, prospective, cross-sectional study of relational level. Universe conformed by 418 students, stratified simple random samplingof 118 students. Results: There is no correlation between alcohol consumption and partner violence, finding a level of significance higher than expected, however, when Crossing the variables of the number of drinks with the types of violence, correlation is found showing that the students who suffer psychological violence consume more alcoholic beverages. Conclusión: The most frequent type of violence is psychological, with the greatest impact being the increase in sexual violence. There is no correlation between alcohol consumption and partner violence, contrary to what is socially expected, this result being the guideline for future research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Students , World Health Organization , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Education, Higher , Ethanol , Intimate Partner Violence , Mexico
8.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 28(2): 92-101, Abr-Jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1121645

ABSTRACT

Introducción: para garantizar la información y la atención de calidad, la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y las normas oficiales del cáncer cervicouterino y los sistemas de salud en México sugieren fortalecer los sistemas de información en salud con el uso de herramientas tecnológicas. Objetivo: el propósito de este estudio es conocer la factibilidad de un proyecto para la innovación de procesos, a través de un sistema electrónico para los registros de las citologías cervicales. Metodología: estudio observacional, transversal, prospectivo, realizado del 4 al 25 de junio de 2018 en la Unidad de Cuidados Integrales e Investigación en Salud de la Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, México. Se estudió al universo del personal sanitario que implementa el Programa de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer Cervico Uterino, con 7 participantes: personal directivo (2) y operativo (5). Resultados: las políticas y recursos institucionales permiten la implementación del proyecto, pues consideran tendría impacto positivo en la atención. Conclusiones: actualmente, la totalidad del personal cuenta con las competencias básicas para el manejo de sistemas electrónicos.


Introduction: To guarantee quality information and care, World Health Organization, Pan American Health Organization and the Official Standards of Cervical Cancer and Health Systems in Mexico suggest strengthening health information systems with the use of technological tools. Objective: The purpose of the study is to know the feasibility of a project for process innovation, through an electronic system for records of cervical cytologies. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, prospective study conducted from June 4 to 25, 2018 in the Unit of Integral Care and Health Research of the Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The universe of health personnel that implements the Timely Detection of Cervical Cancer Program was studied, 7 participants: managerial staff (2) and operative staff (5). Results: Institutional policies and resources allow for the implementation of the project, as they consider it would have a positive impact on care. Conclusions: Currently, all the staff has the basic skills for the management of electronic systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pan American Health Organization , World Health Organization , Information Systems , Technological Development , Uterine Cervical Diseases , Feasibility Studies , Nursing Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Cytological Techniques , Papanicolaou Test , Observational Study , Mexico
9.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 28(1): 15-24, Ene-Mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1121424

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la Organización Mundial de la Salud es una de las organizaciones interesadas en estudiar los factores que determinan la satisfacción de los usuarios en el sistema de salud, donde mencionan que la satisfacción de la población depende más de factores extrínsecos al sistema de salud. Objetivo: identificar el nivel de satisfacción de la atención integral de los usuarios hospitalizados con atención médica y/o quirúrgica. Metodología: estudio descriptivo, transversal, incluyó a 501 usuarios, se aplicó una encuesta de opinión sobre la calidad de la atención hospitalaria. Resultados: el 88.4% de los participantes fueron pacientes, el 93.1% de los usuarios respondieron sentirse entre muy y bastante satisfechos, la calificación que le brindaron a la enfermera fue alta, de 95.4%, seguida de la del médico (94.4%). El 98.4% de los pacientes egresados recomiendan el hospital. Conclusiones: la satisfacción global fue alta en el 93% de los entrevistados.


Introduction: The World Health Organizaron ¡s one of the organizations ¡nterested ¡n studying the factors that determine user satisfaction in the health system, where they mention that population satisfaction depends more on factors extrinsic to the health system. Objective: To identify the level of satisfaction with comprehensive care for users hospitalized with medical and / or surgical care. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study, included 501 users, an opinión survey on the quality of hospital care was applied. Results: 88.4% of the participants were patients, 93.1% of the users responded feeling very and quite satisfied, the score given to the nurse was high, 95.4%; followed by that of the doctor (94.4%). 98.4% of graduated patients recommend the hospital. Conclusions: Overall satisfaction was high in 93% of the interviewees.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Health Care , World Health Organization , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Collection , Patient Satisfaction , Hospital Care , Mexico
10.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200026, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1101595

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Classificar os medicamentos usados durante o parto quanto aos riscos na amamentação, utilizando diferentes fontes e verificando suas discordâncias. Métodos: Estudo transversal inserido na coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas de 2015. Coletaram-se informações sobre o uso de medicamentos, classificando-os quanto ao risco de acordo com: manual do Ministério da Saúde (MS), Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), classificação de Newton e Hale e Academia Americana de Pediatria (AAP). Resultados: Participaram 1.409 mães, utilizando 14.673 medicamentos, sendo 143 fármacos diferentes, dos quais 28 tiveram classificação de risco na amamentação discordante. Entre aqueles com classificação discordante estão morfina (64%), classificada pela AAP e OMS como compatível e pelo MS e por Newton e Hale como criterioso; hioscina (23%), criterioso pelo MS e compatível (A) pela AAP; e metoclopramida (18%), compatível pelo MS, de efeitos desconhecidos (D) pela AAP e evitado de acordo com a OMS. Do total de medicamentos, 49,7% foi classificado como compatível com a amamentação. Quase a totalidade das mulheres utilizou ocitocina (97,4%), seguida de lidocaína (75%), cetoprofeno (69%), cefalotina (66%) e diclofenaco (65%), classificados como compatíveis. Conclusão: Houve amplo uso de medicamentos pelas mães durante a internação para o parto, a maioria deles classificada no mesmo grau de risco, e quase a metade classificada como compatível com a amamentação, porém houve discordância entre as fontes para 19,6% dos medicamentos analisados, o que pode colocar em risco a saúde do lactente ou deixar dúvida quanto ao uso do medicamento ou à prática da amamentação.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To classify the drugs used during childbirth in relation to risks in breastfeeding, by using different sources of information and determining their disagreements. Methods: Cross-sectional study, within the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort. Information about the use of drugs was collected, classified and compared regarding risk according to: 1) Brazil Ministry of Health Manual (MS), 2) World Organization (WHO), 3) Newton and Hale's classification and 4) American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Results: A total of 1,409 mothers participated, and they had used 14,673 medicines, with 143 different drugs, of which 28 showed discordant classification with regard to breastfeeding risk. These 28 drugs included the following: morphine (64%), classified by AAP and WHO as compatible and as judicious use use by MS and Newton and Hale; hyoscine (23%), classified as judicious use by MS and compatible (A) by AAP; and metoclopramide (18%), classified as compatible by MS, of effects unknown (D) by AAP, and should be avoided according to WHO. Of the total drugs, 49.7% were classified as compatible during breastfeeding. Almost all women used oxytocin (97.4%), followed by lidocaine (75%), ketoprofen (69%), cephalothin (66%) and diclofenac (65%), which were classified as compatible. Conclusion: There was extensive use of drugs by mothers in labor during admission, most of the drugs being classified at the same risk and almost half classified as compatible with breastfeeding. However, there was disagreement between the sources for 19.6% of the drugs analyzed, which could endanger the infant's health or leave doubts about the use of the drug or breastfeeding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Breast Feeding , Risk Assessment/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Drug Utilization/classification , Hospitalization , World Health Organization , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Contraindications, Drug , Middle Aged , Milk, Human/drug effects , Mothers
11.
Repert. med. cir ; 29((Núm. Supl.1.)): 27-33, 2020. Il., tablas
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS (Americas), COLNAL | ID: biblio-1118445

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el nuevo Coronavirus (COVID-19) ha sido clasificado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud como una emergencia en salud pública de importancia internacional (ESPII). Se han reconocido casos en todos los continentes. El 6 de marzo de 2020 se confirmó el primer caso en Colombia. Objetivo: presentar la precisión de un pronóstico de la dinámica de transmisión del COVID-19 en Colombia. Metodología: para desarrollar la investigación se utilizó la base de datos de las personas infectadas con el Covid-19, esta información corresponde al período 6 de marzo al 14 de abril de 2020. Para su análisis de predicción se manejó el método modelo de Brown, utilizando el paquete estadístico SPSS v.25. Resultados: se apreció que el error de pronóstico fue muy bajo y correspondió al MAPE (error porcentual medio absoluto), con un 0,03%, seguido del MAD (desviación media absoluta), con un valor de 0,95, es decir que en ambos casos la predicción obtuvieron un alto grado de confiabilidad. Conclusiones: el uso de modelación matemática se ha desarrollado en grado representativo en las últimas décadas y son de gran impulso para ilustrar escenarios eficaces de prevención y control de enfermedades infectocontagiosas.


Introduction: the new Coronavirus (COVID-19) has been declared by the World Health Organization as a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). Cases have been reported on all continents. The first case was confirmed in Colombia on March 6 2020. Objective: to present the accuracy of a forecast of the dynamics of COVID-19 in Colombia. Methodology: the database including people infected with Covid-19 was used to develop the research. This information corresponds to the period between March 6 and April 14 2020. The Brown´s model method was used for the predictive analysis in the SPSS v.25 statistical package. Results: it was observed that the prediction error value was very low and corresponds to a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 0.03%, followed by a mean absolute deviation (MAE) of 0.95, hence, in both cases the quality of prediction had a high degree of reliability. Conclusions: in the last decades, the use of mathematical models has been developed at a representative degree, providing a major impetus for illustrating effective scenarios of infectious disease prevention and control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , World Health Organization , Disease Transmission, Infectious
12.
Cogitare enferm ; 25: e72659, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1094872

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: frente à divulgação do guia COVID-19 - Operational Planning Guidelines to Support Country Preparedness and Response, pela Organização Mundial da Saúde, esta comunicação buscou comparar o conteúdo do Plano de Contingência Nacional às orientações da Organização Mundial da Saúde. DESENVOLVIMENTO: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov2), causador da COVID-19, apresenta transmissão comunitária sustentada no Brasil desde março de 2020. O país lançou seu Plano de Contingência Nacional para Infecção Humana pelo novo Coronavírus COVID-19, em fevereiro de 2020, no intuito de orientar a resposta nacional de combate à doença. CONCLUSÃO: o documento brasileiro atende parcialmente às recomendações do guia internacional e concentra suas principais lacunas nos pilares sobre pontos de entrada, prevenção e controle da infecção por SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 em equipamentos de saúde e espaços comunitários, manejo de casos suspeitos e confirmados e suporte operacional e logístico.


OBJECTIVE: In view of the publication of the COVID-19 guide ­ Operational Planning Guidelines to Support Country Preparedness and Response, by the World Health Organization, this paper attempts to compare the content of the Brazilian National Contingency Plan to the WHO guidelines. DEVELOPMENT: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov2), the virus that causes COVID-19, has a sustained community transmission in Brazil since March 2020. The country launched the National Contingency Plan for Human Infection with the new COVID-19 Coronavirus in February 2020, in order to guide the national response to fight the disease. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian document only partially meets the recommendations of the international guide, the main gaps being the points of entry, prevention, and control of the infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 in health equipment and community spaces, handling suspected and confirmed cases, and operational and logistical support.


RESUMEN: Objetivo: en vista de la divulgación de la guía COVID-19 - Operational Planning Guidelines to Support Country Preparedness and Response, por parte de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, este comunicado tuvo como objetivo comparar el contenido del Plan de Contingencia nacional con las pautas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. DESARROLLO: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov2), que causa el COVID-19, presenta transmisión comunitaria en Brasil desde marzo de 2020. El país lanzó su Plan de Contingencia Nacional para la Infección Humana por el nuevo Coronavirus COVID-19 en febrero de 2020, con la intención de orientar la respuesta nacional de lucha contra la enfermedad. CONCLUSIÓN: el documento brasileño cumple parcialmente las recomendaciones de la guía internacional y concentra sus principales déficits en los pilares sobre puntos de entrada, prevención y control de la infección SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 en equipamientos de salud y espacios comunitarios, manejo de casos sospechados y confirmados, y soporte operativo y logístico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Planning Techniques , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Contingency Plans , Pandemics , World Health Organization
13.
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(3): 1-8, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-1117262

ABSTRACT

A detecção de lesões cariosas oclusais através de sistemas de pontuação visual está em contínua validação com a profundidade histológica do processo de desminerização da cárie. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar o Sistema Internacional de Detecção e Avaliação de Cáries (ICDAS), o Sistema da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) e o exame histológico na detecção de lesões cariosas oclusais. Material e Métodos: 20 pré-molares foram avaliados por exame visual ICDAS, OMS e exame histológico usando estereomicroscópio (SM) para a detecção de cárie oclusal. As superfícies oclusais foram avaliadas por dois examinadores, e todos os dentes foram avaliados visualmente e histologicamente. Resultados: Para cada um dos três sistemas, foi realizada uma análise do coeficiente de correlação interclasses, sendo que a diferença entre os três sistemas de detecção de cárie oclusal foi mínimo. O exame visual através da OMS registrou o maior coeficiente de intercorrelação seguido pelo sistema ICDAS, em seguida, o exame histológico, respectivamente. Conclusão: OMS e ICDAS demonstraram reprodutibilidade e precisão diagnóstica quando comparado com o exame histológico para detecção de cáries oclusais (AU)


Detection of occlusal carious lesions with visual scoring systems is in a continuous validation with the histological depth of carious demineralization. Objective: The present study aimed to compare the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), the World Health Organization (WHO) system and histological examination in detecting occlusal carious lesions. Material and Methods: 20 premolars were evaluated by visual examination using ICDAS, WHO and histological examination using stereomicroscope (SM) for occlusal caries detection. Occlusal surfaces were evaluated by two examiners then all teeth were visually and histologically assessed. Results: For each of three systems the inter class correlation coefficient was examined, the differences between the three systems of occlusal caries detection were minimal. The visual examination through WHO recorded the higher intercorrelation coefficient followed by ICDAS system then histological examination respectively. Conclusion: WHO and ICDAS have demonstrated reproducibility and diagnostic accuracy when compared with histological examination for detecting occlusal caries. (AU)


Subject(s)
World Health Organization , Bicuspid , Dental Caries
15.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782297

ABSTRACT

World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 257 million people were living with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Highest HBV prevalence was found in the WHO Western Pacific Region (6.2%) and in the WHO African Region (6.1%). The HBV vaccine is the best protection against chronic HBV infection and its complications. Globally, routine infant immunization against HBV has increased with an estimated coverage of 84% in 2017. Nevertheless, in many countries further efforts are needed to implement this coverage and ensure national immunization programs for people at major risk for HBV infection. Therapeutic vaccination in chronic HBV infected patients can cause anti-HBV immune responses able to remove and/or cure infected hepatocytes. It shows promising results in murine model and human trials, but these results need to be consolidated by further multicenter clinical studies. In particular, the efficacy of therapeutic vaccine seems to improve by combination therapies.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis , Hepatocytes , Humans , Immunization , Immunization Programs , Immunotherapy , Infant , Prevalence , Vaccination , World Health Organization
16.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782225

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a threat to public health and is the leading cause of death globally. Isoniazid (INH) is an important first-line agent for the treatment of TB considering its early bactericidal activity. Resistance to INH is now the most common type of resistance. Resistance to INH reduces the probability of treatment success and increases the risk of acquiring resistance to other first-line drugs such as rifampicin (RIF), thereby increasing the risk of multidrug-resistant-TB. Studies in the 1970s and 1980s showed high success rates for INH-resistant TB cases receiving regimens comprised of first-line drugs. However, recent data have indicated that INH-resistant TB patients treated with only first-line drugs have poor outcomes. Fortunately, based on recent systematic meta-analyses, the World Health Organization published consolidated guidelines on drug-resistant TB in 2019. Their key recommendations are treatment with RIF-ethambutol (EMB)-pyrazinamide (PZA)-levofloxacin (LFX) for 6 months and no addition of injectable agents to the treatment regimen. The guidelines also emphasize the importance of excluding resistance to RIF before starting RIF-EMB-PZA-LFX regimen. Additionally, when the diagnosis of INH-resistant TB is confirmed long after starting the first-line TB treatment, the clinician must decide whether to start a 6-month course of RIF-EMB-PZA-LFX based on the patient's condition. However, these recommendations are based on observational studies, not randomized controlled trials, and are thus conditional and based on low certainty of the effect estimates. Therefore, further work is needed to optimize the treatment of INH-resistant TB.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Diagnosis , Humans , Isoniazid , Public Health , Rifampin , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , World Health Organization
17.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782157

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vitro impact of ritalinic acid (RA), a major metabolite of methylphenidate (drug to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder), on sperm motility, vitality and oxidative stress.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen samples (n=13) were collected from healthy donors and a semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization. Density gradient centrifugation was performed to isolate motile sperm. Samples were incubated with different concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100, and 1,000 ng/mL) of RA. The non-exposed group (0 ng/mL) was defined as the control group. Samples were analyzed for motility at different time points (0, 60, 150, 240, and 300 minutes) and for vitality and oxidation reduction potential (ORP) (at 0, 240, and 300 minutes). Sperm motility was assessed manually and motion kinetic parameters were recorded by computer aided semen analysis.RESULTS: RA at any tested concentration significantly increased sperm motility compared to the control in a time-dependent manner with a maximum increase after 240 minutes. Motion kinetic parameters were not comparable. For sperm vitality, supplementation with RA significantly maintained survival at higher levels, while non-treated sperm gradually died. These higher levels of vitality were maintained with rising RA concentrations of up to 1,000 ng/mL. A non-significant trend of increased ORP was observed in all study groups.CONCLUSIONS: RA increases sperm motility and maintains vitality at any concentration tested. Therefore, RA might be utilized to improve sperm quality in asthenozoospermic specimens. However, further investigation is ongoing to evaluate the effect of RA on other sperm parameters.


Subject(s)
Centrifugation, Density Gradient , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Methylphenidate , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress , Semen , Semen Analysis , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa , Tissue Donors , World Health Organization
18.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782152

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify the paternal factors responsible for aberrant embryo development leading to loss of foetus in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) through proteomic analysis of ejaculated spermatozoa.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study consisted of male partners of RPL patients (n=16) experienced with two or more consecutive unexplained miscarriages and with no female factor abnormality as revealed by gynaecologic investigation including karyotyping and age matched fertile healthy volunteers (n=20). All samples were collected during 2013 to 2015 after getting institutional ethical approval and written consent from the participants. Seminal ejaculates were collected by masturbation after 2 to 3 days of sexual abstinence and analyzed according to World Health Organization 5th criteria 2010. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrophotometric analysis was used to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Western blotting was used for validation of the key proteins.RESULTS: The data identified 36 protein spots to be differentially expressed by more than 2-fold change with p<0.05 considered as significant. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/mass spectrometry identified GPx4, JIP4, ZN248 to be overexpressed while HSPA2, GSTM5, TF3C1, CC74A was underexpressed in RPL group. Western blot analysis confirmed the differential expression of key redox associated proteins GPx4 and HSPA2 in the RPL group. Functional analysis revealed the involvement of key biological processes that includes spermatogenesis, response to oxidative stress, protein folding and metabolic process.CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides a snapshot of the altered protein expression levels consistent with the potential involvement of the sperm chromatin landscape in early embryonic development.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , Biological Phenomena , Blotting, Western , Chromatin , Embryo Loss , Embryonic Development , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Karyotyping , Male , Masturbation , Metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Protein Folding , Proteomics , Sexual Abstinence , Spectrum Analysis , Spermatogenesis , Spermatozoa , Two-Dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis , World Health Organization
19.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 62-67, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-787272

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the association between body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of asthma. Using data from the 2015 Korean Community Health Survey, 214,971 participants aged between 19 and 106 years were included in this study. Asthma was defined based on the self-report of physician diagnosis. BMI was classified as underweight (<18.5 kg/m²), normal weight (18.5 kg/m²≤BMI<23.0 kg/m²), overweight (23.0 kg/m²≤ BMI<27.4 kg/m²), and obese (≥27.5 kg/m²) based on the BMI categories for Asians by the World Health Organization. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with sampling weights to evaluate the association between BMI and asthma after adjusting for age, educational level, income, type of residential area, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, hypertension, and diabetes. In men, BMI had an inverted J-shaped association with the prevalence of asthma, with an odds ratio of 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.89–2.24) for underweight and 1.12 (95% CIs: 0.97–1.29) for obesity. In women, BMI had a J-shaped association with the prevalence of asthma, with an odds ratio of 1.05 (95% CIs: 0.91–1.22) for underweight and 2.29 (95% CIs: 2.06–2.56) for obesity. In conclusion, in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults, the association between BMI and the prevalence of asthma varied between the sexes. This suggests that malnutrition and obesity are involved in the pathophysiology of asthma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alcohol Drinking , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Asthma , Body Mass Index , Diagnosis , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Hypertension , Logistic Models , Male , Malnutrition , Motor Activity , Obesity , Odds Ratio , Overweight , Prevalence , Smoke , Smoking , Thinness , Weights and Measures , World Health Organization
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 251-256, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811470

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index Short Form (WOMAC-SF) for the assessment of musculoskeletal disorders. We evaluated whether WOMAC-SF correlated with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 12 (WHODAS-12) and Kaigo-Yobo questionnaires for assessing health-outcomes in Korea.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from the Namgaram-2 cohort. WOMAC, WOMAC-SF, WHODAS-12, and Kaigo-Yobo questionnaires were administered to patients with musculoskeletal disorders, including radiology-confirmed knee osteoarthritis (RKOA), sarcopenia, and osteoporosis. The relationships among WOMAC-SF, WHODAS-12, and Kaigo-Yobo scores were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis.RESULTS: WOMAC-SF was associated with the WOMAC questionnaire. The results of confirmatory factor analysis for the hypothesized model with two latent factors, pain and function, provided satisfactory fit indices. WOMAC-SF pain and function were associated with RKOA. Kaigo-Yobo was associated with WOMAC-SF pain (B=0.140, p=0.001) and WOMAC-SF function (B=0.042, p=0.004). WHODAS-12 was associated with WOMAC-SF pain (B=0.679, p=0.003) and WOMAC-SF function (B=0.804, p<0.001).CONCLUSION: WOMAC-SF was validated for the evaluation of low extremity musculoskeletal disorders and health-related quality of life in a community-based population. Furthermore, we confirmed that WOMAC-SF were reflective of disability and frailty, which affect health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Arthritis , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Extremities , Humans , Korea , Ontario , Osteoarthritis, Knee , Osteoporosis , Quality of Life , Sarcopenia , World Health Organization
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