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1.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(5): 1427-1435, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352122

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las heridas craneocerebrales penetrantes más frecuentes son las provocadas por armas de fuego; las restantes resultan de rara frecuencia. Se presentó un caso que recibió agresión craneoencefálica por arpón, de forma accidental, fuera del agua. Se describieron los detalles del suceso, los exámenes complementarios, la conducta adoptada, el manejo neuroquirúrgico, y la sorprendente evolución postoperatoria del paciente (AU).


ABSTRACT The most frequent penetrating craniocerebral wounds are those caused by firearms; the remaining ones are rare. We presented a case that received accidental cranioencephalic aggression by harpoon, an event that occurred out of the water. Details of the event, complementary examinations, adopted behavior and neurosurgical management that were decided, as well as the surprising post-operative evolution of the patient were described (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Wounds, Penetrating/surgery , Head Injuries, Penetrating/diagnosis , Wounds, Penetrating/diagnostic imaging , Radiography/methods , Clinical Evolution/methods , Head Injuries, Penetrating/surgery , Head Injuries, Penetrating/diagnostic imaging
2.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(3): 427-437, 20210000. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254232

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El manejo de la herida cardiaca penetrante es un reto dado que requiere un rápido manejo quirúrgico para evitar que su desenlace sea fatal. Múltiples factores pronósticos han sido descritos, sin embargo, no ha sido documentada la relación entre el tiempo de llegada a quirófano y el uso de pledgets con la mortalidad. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional retrospectivo de corte transversal, desde el año 2011 hasta el año 2018, en un hospital universitario de la ciudad de Medellín. Se evaluaron los registros de los pacientes con herida cardiaca penetrante confirmada y se realizó análisis univariado, bivariado y multivariado, así como curvas de supervivencia. Resultados. Los pacientes inestables o con taponamiento cardiaco que llegan al quirófano después del minuto 4 de haber ingresado a urgencias tienen cuatro veces más posibilidades de morir que los que llegan a quirófano antes (RR 4,1 IC95% 1,43­12,07). El uso de pledgets en el reparo de la herida cardiaca, corresponde a un factor protector para los pacientes, con un OR ajustado de 2,5 (IC95% 1,124-5,641). El tipo de traumatismo, la arritmia intraoperatoria y el índice de choque al ingreso también fueron factores pronósticos. Discusión. Se documenta el efecto del tiempo de llegada a quirófano sobre la mortalidad, lo cual permitirá en un futuro generar cambios en el manejo de estos pacientes en función de estos tiempos. La evidencia encontrada sugiere mejores desenlaces con el uso rutinario de pledgets


Introduction. The management of penetrating cardiac injury is challenging since it requires rapid surgical ma-nagement to avoid a fatal outcome. Multiple prognostic factors have been described, however, the relationship between the time of arrival to the operating room and the use of pledgets with mortality has not been documented.Methods. A cross-sectional retrospective observational study was conducted from 2011 to 2018 in a university hospital in the city of Medellín. Records of patients with confirmed penetrating cardiac injury were evaluated, and univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyzes were performed, as well as survival curves.Results. Unstable patients or patients with cardiac tamponade who arrive to the operating room after 4 minutes after being admitted to the emergency room are four times more likely to die than those who arrive to the operating room earlier (RR 4.1 95% CI 1.43­12.07). The use of pledgets in the repair of the cardiac wound corresponds to a protective factor for patients, with an adjusted OR of 2.5 (95% CI 1.124-5.641). The type of trauma, intraoperative arrhythmia and the shock index on admission were also prognostic factors. Discussion. The effect of the time of arrival to the operating room on mortality is documented, which will allow in the future to generate changes in the management of these patients based on these times. The evidence found suggests better outcomes with the routine use of pledgets


Subject(s)
Humans , Wounds, Penetrating , Emergencies , Time-to-Treatment , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Mortality , Heart Injuries
3.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 778-782, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156183

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives The present paper aims to evaluate and compare the histological features of fresh and frozen menisci stored in a tissue bank for 1 month and for 5 years. Methods The meniscal grafts were subjected to a histological study. A total of 10 menisci were evaluated; 2 were frozen for 5 years, 4 were frozen for 1 month, and 4 were fresh, recently harvested specimens. Histological properties were evaluated in sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson trichrome methods. Results The menisci frozen for 1 month showed partially preserved collagen fiber structure and no significant hydropic tissue degeneration. The menisci frozen for 5 years presented an evident dissociation of collagen fibers and multiple foci of hydropic degeneration. Discussion Degeneration was much more significant in menisci stored for 5 years, indicating that a long freezing period results in substantial progression of tissue deterioration. This may suggest that the 5-year period, considered the maximum time for graft storage before transplant, is too long. Conclusion Grafts stored for 1 month showed a slight degenerative change in collagen fibers, whereas menisci frozen for 5 years presented significant tissue degeneration.


Resumo Objetivos Avaliar e comparar as características histológicas de meniscos frescos e meniscos congelados armazenados em banco de tecidos por 1 mês e por 5 anos. Métodos Foi feito um estudo histológico com enxertos meniscais. Avaliamos 10 meniscos, sendo 2 que ficaram armazenados sob congelamento por 5 anos, 4 armazenados congelados por 1 mês, e 4 frescos, recém captados. Foram feitos cortes histológicos corados com hematoxilina e eosina e Tricrômico de Masson, para avaliação das propriedades histológicas. Resultados Os meniscos congelados por 1 mês apresentaram preservação parcial da estrutura das fibras colágenas, sem degeneração hidrópica significativa do tecido. Nos meniscos congelados por 5 anos, observamos dissociação evidente das fibras colágenas, com presença de múltiplos focos de degeneração hidrópica. Discussão Encontramos degeneração bem mais significativa nos meniscos armazenados por 5 anos, o que indica que o longo período de congelamento leva à progressão significativa da degeneração do tecido. Isto pode sugerir que o período de 5 anos, considerado período máximo que o enxerto pode permanecer armazenado antes de ser transplantado, é um período muito longo. Conclusão Nos enxertos armazenados por 1 mês, existiu apenas discreta alteração degenerativa das fibras colágenas, enquanto que nos meniscos com 5 anos de congelamento foi observada degeneração significativa do tecido. Tibiais


Subject(s)
Tissue Banks , Wounds, Penetrating , Collagen , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Transplants , Meniscus , Freezing , Goals , Hematoxylin
4.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 702-707, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156200

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Description of the sacropelvic parameters measurement method for S2-alar iliac (S2AI) screw insertion. Methods Descriptive study of the method for measuring sacropelvic parameters for the insertion of the S2AI screw using computed tomography (CT). The data evaluated in multiplanar reconstructions were the parameters of the screw trajectory, including length, diameter and angles of the trajectory in the axial and sagittal planes. Results From the sagittal reconstruction, the axis of the series of axial slices is angled three-dimensionally so that it is possible to visualize the S2 vertebra, the screw entry point, and the anteroinferior iliac spine (AIIS) in the same plane. The entry point is demarcated at the midpoint between the dorsal foramina of S1 and S2. To measure the length of the screw, lines are drawn tangent to the inner and outer cortices of the iliac. The diameter is determined by the shortest distance between the inner and outer iliac faces minus half of the diameter of the screw chosen medially and laterally. The path angle in the axial plane is formed by the anteroposterior midline of the sacrum and the line of the screw length. The craniocaudal inclination angle in relation to the S1 plateau corresponds to the degree of inclination made in the sagittal plane to find the image in which the entry point and the AIIS are seen in the same plane. Conclusion It was possible to adequately assess, through multiplanar CT reconstructions, the sacropelvic parameters necessary for the safe insertion of the S2AI screw.


Resumo Objetivo Descrever como aferir os parâmetros sacropélvicos para a inserção segura do parafuso S2-asa do ilíaco (S2AI). Métodos Estudo descritivo do método de aferição dos parâmetros sacropélvicos para a inserção do parafuso S2AI por meio de tomografia computadorizada (TC). Os dados avaliados em reconstruções multiplanares foram os parâmetros da trajetória do parafuso, incluindo comprimento, diâmetro e ângulos de trajetória nos planos axial e sagital. Resultados A partir da reconstrução sagital, angula-se tridimensionalmente o eixo da série de cortes axiais de modo que seja possível visualizar a vértebra S2, o ponto de entrada do parafuso e a espinha ilíaca anteroinferior (EIAI) no mesmo plano. O ponto de entrada é demarcado no ponto médio entre os forames dorsais de S1 e S2. Para medir o comprimento do parafuso, traçam-se linhas tangenciando as corticais interna e externa do ilíaco. O diâmetro é determinado pela menor distância entre as tábuas interna e externa do ilíaco subtraindo metade do diâmetro do parafuso escolhido medialmente e lateralmente. O ângulo de trajetória no plano axial é formado pela linha média anteroposterior do sacro e a linha do comprimento do parafuso. O ângulo de inclinação craniocaudal em relação ao platô de S1 corresponde ao grau de inclinação feito no plano sagital para encontrar a imagem em que o ponto de entrada e a EIAI são vistos no mesmo plano. Conclusão Foi possível aferir adequadamente, por meio de reconstruções multiplanares de TC, os parâmetros sacropélvicos necessários para a inserção segura do parafuso S2AI.


Subject(s)
Sacroiliac Joint , Sacrum , Spine , Wounds, Penetrating , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Face
5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(6): 1017-1019, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1144003

ABSTRACT

Abstract Case Presentation: A case of a 49-year-old patient, male, victim of stab wound, developing belatedly cardiac tamponade and hemodynamic stability was reported. The patient underwent a pericardial window with drainage of pericardial effusion of blackened aspect; however, without visualization of the cardiac lesion, enlargement of the incision by median sternotomy was opted for. A hematoma was spotted at the left ventricle with epicardial lesion and a patch of pericardium was made with 3-0 polypropylene. The patient developed acute pulmonary edema and atrial fibrillation, which improved after the intensive care unit clinical management, with hospital discharge in the 7th postoperative day.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pericardial Effusion/surgery , Pericardial Effusion/etiology , Pericardial Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Cardiac Tamponade/surgery , Cardiac Tamponade/etiology , Cardiac Tamponade/diagnostic imaging , Wounds, Penetrating , Wounds, Stab/surgery , Wounds, Stab/complications , Sternotomy
6.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(4): 371-375, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138634

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las lesiones del tracto genital femenino tras relaciones sexuales son un problema frecuente en las urgencias de ginecología, pero poco estudiado salvo su aspecto médico-legal. Su incidencia es desconocida ya que muchas mujeres no llegan a consultar por miedo o pudor. El reconocimiento precoz de estas lesiones y su correcto tratamiento puede evitar la parición de secuelas que acompañarán a nuestra paciente durante el resto de su vida. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 18 años con un desgarro perineal con mucosa vaginal íntegra tras su primera relación sexual.


ABSTRACT Injuries to the female genital tract after sexual intercourse are a frequent problem in gynecological emergencies, but little studied except for their medico-legal aspect. Its incidence is unknown since many women do not go to their specialist out of fear or embarrassment. Early recognition of these injuries and their correct treatment may prevent the appearance of sequelae that will accompany our patient for the rest of her life. We present the case of an 18-year-old patient with a perineal tear with intact vaginal mucosa after her first sexual intercourse.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Vagina/injuries , Wounds, Penetrating/etiology , Coitus , Vagina/surgery , Vaginal Diseases/surgery , Vaginal Diseases/etiology , Wounds, Penetrating/surgery , Wounds, Penetrating/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Lacerations , Mucous Membrane/surgery , Mucous Membrane/injuries
7.
Rev. Soc. Odontol. La Plata ; 30(58): 9-12, jul. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119102

ABSTRACT

El abuso del consumo de cocaína puede ocasionar problemas físicos y mentales graves. Dicha droga puede ser utilizada de varias formas y sus efectos sobre la cavidad oral varían según la vía de administración, causando desde erosiones en las piezas dentarias, abrasiones cervicales, caries, enfermedad periodontal, disfunción temporomandibular, xerostomía, ulceraciones hasta la perforación del paladar duro y/o blando. Se describirá el caso clínico de un paciente cocainómano que concurrió al servicio de odontología del Hospital San Martin de La Plata, presentando dos perforaciones en el paladar duro debido al consumo crónico, y el tratamiento de urgencia correspondiente mediante una placa obturatríz que favorece la deglución y el habla del paciente (AU)


Abuse of cocaine use can cause serious physical and mental problems. is drug can be used in several ways and its effects on the oral cavity vary according to the route of administration, causing from erosions in the teeth, cervical abrasions, caries, periodontal disease, temporomandibular dysfunction, xerostomia, ulcerations to the perforation of the hard palate and / or soft.The clinical case of a cocaine patient who attended the dentistry service of the San Martin de La Plata Hospital will be described, presenting two perforations in the hard palate due to chronic consumption, and the corresponding emergency treatment by means of an obturator plate that favors swallowing and He speaks of the patient (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Cocaine/adverse effects , Cocaine-Related Disorders/complications , Palate, Hard/injuries , Patient Care Team , Argentina , Wounds, Penetrating , Dental Service, Hospital , Emergency Treatment
8.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(3): 224-230, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115546

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los traumatismos constituyen la quinta causa de muerte en el adulto mayor (60 años o más), siendo los traumatismos contusos los más frecuentes. Objetivo: Describir características, índices de gravedad de traumatismo (IGT), morbilidad y mortalidad en adultos mayores (AM) hospitalizados con traumatismo torácico (TT). Materiales y Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Período desde enero de 1981 a diciembre de 2017. Revisión de base de datos, protocolos quirúrgicos y fichas clínicas. Descripción de características de TT en AM hospitalizados. Se calculó IGT: Injury Severity Score (ISS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS-T), Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS). Resultados: Total 4.163 TT, AM 513 (12,3%). Hombres: 350 (68,2%), edad promedio 71,2 ± 8,4 años, mediana 70 (rango: 60-103), TT aislado 350 (68,2%), asociado a lesiones extratorácicas 163 (31,8%) y de estos 96 (18,7%) se consideraron politraumatismos. Traumatismo contuso 456 (88,9%) y penetrante 57 (11,1%). La causa más frecuente fueron las caídas en 252 (49,1%). Lesiones y/o hallazgos torácicos más frecuentes: fracturas costales 409 (79,7%), hemotórax 186 (36,3%) y neumotórax 185 (36,1%). Tratamiento definitivo: médico 287 (55,9%), pleurotomía 193 (37,6%) y cirugía 40 (7,8%). Cirugía extratorácica 33 (6,4%). Hospitalización promedio 9,0 ± 8,8 días. Según IGT: ISS promedio 12,1 ± 9,6, RTS-T promedio 11,6 ± 1,3, TRISS promedio 8,1. Morbilidad 76 (14,8%) y mortalidad 26 (5,1%). Discusión: La mayoría de los TT en AM son contusos, causados por accidentes domésticos. Las lesiones y hallazgos más frecuentes fueron fracturas costales y hemotórax. La mortalidad fue menor a la esperada según IGT.


Introduction: Trauma is the fifth leading cause of death in the elderly (60 or older), with blunt trauma being the most frequent. Objective: To describe characteristics, Trauma Severity Indices (TSI) and morbidity and mortality in hospitalized elderly for Thoracic Trauma (TT). Materials and Method: Crosssectional descriptive study was carried out. Term: from January 1981 to December 2017. Database review, surgical protocols and medical records were performed. TT description of characteristics was conducted in hospitalized elderly. TSI was calculated: Injury Severity Score (ISS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS-T), Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS). Results: Total 4.163 TT, 513 elderly (12.3%). Men: 350 (68.2%), average age 71.2 ± 8.4 years, 70 median (range 60-103). Isolated TT: 350 (68.2%), 163 associated with extrathoracic trauma (31.8%) and of these 96 (18.7%) were considered polytraumatism. Blunt trauma 456 (88.9%) and penetrating 57 (11.1%). Most frequent domestic accident mechanism was 196 (38.2%) and 158 traffic accidents (30.8%). Frequently thoracic injuries or findings: 409 rib fractures (79.7%), 186 hemothorax (36.3%), and 185 pneumothorax (36.1%). Final treatment: 287 Medical treatment (55.9%), 193 pleurotomy (37.6%), and 40 thoracic surgery (7.8%). Extrathoracic surgery 33 (6.4%). Average hospitalization: 9.0 ± 8.8 days. According IGT: ISS 12.1 ± 9.6, RTS-T 11.6 ± 1.3, TRISS 8.1. Morbidity: 76 (14.8%) and mortality: 26 (5.1%). Discussion: Most TT in elderly are blunt, caused by domestic accidents. Injuries and most frequent findings were rib fractures and hemothorax. Mortality was lower than expected according to TSI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Thoracic Injuries/etiology , Thoracic Injuries/mortality , Thoracic Injuries/epidemiology , Thoracic Injuries/physiopathology , Wounds, Penetrating/complications , Accidents, Traffic , Trauma Severity Indices , Epidemiology, Descriptive
9.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(1): 43-47, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092889

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción Por su ubicación retroperitoneal, las lesiones de vena cava (LVC) son infrecuentes, presentándose en el contexto de un paciente con múltiples lesiones intraabdominales y en estado crítico. Objetivo Describir la experiencia de pacientes politraumatizados con LVC sometidos a resolución quirúrgica en Hospital Dr. Sotero del Río. Materiales y Método Análisis retrospectivo de 36 pacientes politraumatizados que dentro de la intervención quirúrgica se evidenció LVC en un período comprendido entre el 2010 y 2017. Resultados La serie estuvo compuesta por 36 pacientes, con LVC. El 88,8% son hombres, en el 97,2% el mecanismo de trauma es penetrante. Dentro de los niveles anatómicos vasculares más frecuentemente lesionados está la cava infrarrenal (41,6%), suprarrenal (25%), yuxtarrenal (22,2%) y la retrohepática e intratorácica (5,5% cada una). Las estructuras lesionadas asociadas más frecuentes fueron intestino delgado (38,8%), otros vasos de gran calibre (36,1%) y riñón (30,5%). Dentro del tipo de resolución quirúrgica, al 15,6% se realizó ligadura de vena cava y al 83,3% rafia simple. En 33,3% fue necesaria una toracotomía para el control vascular, siendo 2 de estas toracotomías resucitadoras. La media de hospitalización fue de 19,8 días. La mortalidad fue de 33,3%. Conclusiones De acuerdo a lo presentado, la alta mortalidad de LVC se encontró en el grupo de pacientes con inestabilidad hemodinámica y número de lesiones asociadas, en especial si involucran otros grandes vasos. Los esfuerzos para optimizar la supervivencia se deberían dirigir al traslado rápido prehospitalario y al entrenamiento de los cirujanos que enfrentan este tipo de lesiones.


Introduction For its retroperitoneal location, vena cava injuries are infrequent, however, occurring to a patient with multiple intra-abdominal injuries and in critical condition. Aim To describe the experience of polytraumatized patients with VCI who underwent surgical resolution in the Dr. Sotero del Rio hospital. Materials and Method Retrospective analysis of 36 polytraumatized patients that showed VCI during the surgical intervention within 2010 and 2017. Results The series was composed of 36 VCI patients. 88.8% are men, in 97.2% the mechanism of trauma is penetrating. Within the vascular anatomical levels, the most frequently injured are the infra-renal cava (41.6%) suprarenal (25%), yuxta-renal (22.2%) retro-hepatic and intrathoracic (5.5% each). The most frequent associated injured structures were the small intestine (38.8%) other vessels of large caliber (36.1%) and kidney (30.5%). In relation to the type of surgical resolution, 15.6% had a vena cava ligature and 83.3% simple raffia. In 33.3%, a thoracotomy was required for vascular control, two of them were resuscitative procedures. The average of hospitalization was 19.8 days. The mortality was 33.3%. Conclusions According to what presented, the high mortality of VCI was found in the group of patients with hemodynamic instability and the number of associated injuries; specially if other large vessels are involved. To optimize the survival, the efforts should be focused on a fast prehospital transfer and the training for surgeons who face this type of injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Vena Cava, Inferior/surgery , Vena Cava, Inferior/injuries , Abdominal Injuries/complications , Time Factors , Wounds, Gunshot/surgery , Wounds, Penetrating/surgery , Wounds, Stab/surgery , Chile , Treatment Outcome , Abdominal Injuries/surgery , Abdominal Injuries/mortality
10.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202529, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136588

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the epidemiological profile of patients undergoing exploratory trauma laparotomy based on severity and prognosis criteria, and to determine the predictive accuracy of trauma scoring systems in terms of morbidity and mortality. Methods: retrospective cohort study and review of medical records of patients undergoing exploratory laparotomy for blunt or penetrating trauma at the Hospital de Pronto Socorro de Porto Alegre, from November 2015 to November 2019. Demographic data, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, physiological (RTS and Shock Index), anatomical (ISS, NISS and ATI) and combined (TRISS and NTRISS) trauma scores, intraoperative findings, postoperative complications, length of stay and outcomes. Results: 506 patients were included in the analysis. The mean age was 31 ± 13 years, with the majority being males (91.3%). Penetrating trauma was the most common mechanism of injury (86.2%), predominantly by firearms. The average RTS at hospital admission was 7.5 ± 0.7. The mean ISS and NISS was 16.5 ± 10.1 and 22.3 ± 13.6, respectively. The probability of survival estimated by TRISS was 95.5%, and by NTRISS 93%. The incidence of postoperative complications was 39.7% and the overall mortality was 12.8%. The most accurate score for predicting mortality was the NTRISS (88.5%), followed by TRISS, NISS and ISS. Conclusion: the study confirms the applicability of trauma scores in the studied population. The NTRISS seems to be the best predictor of morbidity and mortality.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes submetidos a laparotomia exploradora por trauma com base em critérios de gravidade e prognóstico, e determinar a acurácia preditiva dos escores de trauma em termos de morbimortalidade. Métodos: estudo de coorte retrospectiva e revisão de prontuários dos pacientes submetidos a laparotomia exploradora por trauma contuso ou penetrante no Hospital de Pronto Socorro de Porto Alegre no período de novembro de 2015 a novembro de 2019. Foram avaliados dados demográficos, mecanismo do trauma, lesões associadas, índices fisiológicos (RTS e Shock Index), anatômicos (ISS, NISS e ATI) e mistos (TRISS e NTRISS), achados intraoperatórios, complicações pós-operatórias, tempo de internação e desfecho. Resultados: foram incluídos 506 pacientes na análise. A idade média foi de 31 ± 13 anos, com predomínio do sexo masculino (91,3%). O trauma penetrante foi o mecanismo de lesão mais comum (86,2%), sendo a maioria por arma de fogo. A média do RTS na admissão hospitalar foi 7,5 ± 0,7. A média do ISS e do NISS foi 16,5 ± 10,1 e 22,3 ± 13,6, respectivamente. A probabilidade de sobrevida estimada pelo TRISS foi de 95,5%, e pelo NTRISS de 93%. A incidência de complicações pós-operatórias foi de 39,7% e a mortalidade geral de 12,8%. O escore com melhor acurácia preditiva foi o NTRISS (88,5%), seguido pelo TRISS, NISS e ISS. Conclusões: o estudo confirma a aplicabilidade dos escores de trauma na população em questão. O NTRISS parece ser o sistema com melhor acurácia preditiva de morbimortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/epidemiology , Wounds, Penetrating/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Laparotomy/methods , Abdominal Injuries/surgery , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/surgery , Wounds, Penetrating/surgery , Injury Severity Score , Trauma Severity Indices , Predictive Value of Tests , Abdominal Injuries/epidemiology , Middle Aged
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(2): 198-205, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101485

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the anatomical and physiological scoring systems and the outcomes of surgical management of penetrating cardiovascular trauma at a rural center. Methods: Seventy-seven patients underwent emergency surgery at our center between January/2012 and October/2018 due to penetrating cardiovascular trauma. Injury Severity Score (ISS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), and Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) were calculated. The validation of these risk scores to predict mortality was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: All trauma scores were correlated with mortality. As ISS, NISS, and TRISS values increased and RTS values decreased, the mortality rate increased. The area under the curve (AUC) in the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was 0.943 for TRISS, 0.915 for RTS, 0.890 for ISS, and 0.896 for NISS (P<0.001 for each). Logistic regression analysis revealed that scores were correlated with mortality (P<0.001 for each). By investigating cardiac injuries alone, only TRISS and RTS results correlated with mortality for cardiac injuries (Mann-Whitney U test, P=0.003 and P=0.01, respectively). The AUC was only statistically significant for TRISS and RTS (AUC=0.929, P<0.05 for both). For vascular injuries, all the scores were significantly correlated with in-hospital mortality (Mann-Whitney U test, P<0.001 for each). TRISS had the highest AUC (AUC=0.946, P<0.001). Conclusion: TRISS has the highest predictivity for in-hospital mortality in patients with penetrating cardiovascular trauma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Wounds, Penetrating , Trauma Severity Indices , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Hospital Mortality
12.
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 33: e003339, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133897

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Many treatment modalities are used for muscle tissue recovery. Photobiomodulation is a modality that can be employed to improve the quality of tissue repair. The use of fractal dimension (FD) is an innovative methodology in the quantitative evaluation of treatment efficacy. Objective: Use FD as a quantitative analysis method to evaluate the effect of photobiomodulation of 904 nanometers (nm) in the initial phase of the muscle regeneration process. Method: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Control Group (CG), Injured and Untreated Group (IUT), and Injured and Treated Group (IT). Muscle injury was induced by cryoinjury in the central region of the anterior tibial (AT) belly of the left posterior limb. This was performed by an iron rod that was previously immersed in liquid nitrogen. Applications started 24 hours after the injury and occurred daily for five days. They were performed at two points in the lesion area. The rats were euthanized on the seventh day. The AT muscles were removed and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Then, the histological sections were stained using the Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) technique and submitted to FD analysis performed by the box-counting method using ImageJ software. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for data normality, and the Kruskall-Wallis test and Dunn's post-test were used for group comparison (p<0.05%). Results: Differences between IT and IUT groups were statistically significant, and it was possible to observe the reduction of fractability with p=0.0034. Conclusion: FD is a useful tool for the analysis of skeletal muscle disorganization in the initial phase of regeneration and confirms the potentially beneficial effects of photobiomodulation to this process.


Resumo Introdução: Diversas modalidades de tratamento são utilizadas para recuperação do tecido muscular, dentre elas a fotobiomodulação pode ser empregada para melhorar a qualidade da regeneração e a dimensão fractal se apresenta como uma metodologia inovadora na avaliação quantitativa da eficácia do tratamento. Objetivo: Utilizar a dimensão fractal como método de análise quantitativa do efeito do Laser de Arseneto de Gálio (AsGa) na fase inicial do processo de regeneração muscular. Método: Foram utilizados trinta ratos Wistar, machos divididos em: Grupo Controle (CT), Grupo lesado e não tratado (LNT) e Grupo Lesado e tratado (LT). A lesão muscular foi induzida por criolesão na região central do ventre do músculo tibial anterior (TA) do membro posterior esquerdo, por meio de uma haste de ferro previamente imersa em nitrogênio líquido. As aplicações foram iniciadas 24 horas após a lesão, diariamente, durante cinco dias, em dois pontos na área da lesão. No sétimo dia os animais foram eutanasiados; o músculo TA retirado, congelado em nitrogênio líquido e os cortes histológicos corados com a técnica de Hematoxilina-Eosina para serem então submetidos à análise de dimensão fractal realizada pelo método boxcounting através do software Image J. Para a normalidade dos dados utilizou-se Kolmogorov Smirnov, para as comparações teste de Kruskall-Wallis com pós teste de Dunn (p<0,05%). Resultados: A comparação entre LT e LNT foi estatisticamente significativa, sendo possível observar a redução da fractabilidade com p=0,0034. Conclusão: A dimensão fractal é uma ferramenta útil para análise da desorganização músculo esquelética na fase inicial da regeneração e mostra o potencial efeito benéfico da fotobiomodulação nesse processo.


Subject(s)
Rats , Regeneration , Muscle, Striated , Laser Therapy , Wounds, Penetrating , Fractals , Animals, Laboratory
13.
Med. infant ; 26(3): 262-266, sept. 2019. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022768

ABSTRACT

Dentro de los daños intencionales en adolescentes, las autoagresiones se han convertido en los últimos años en un tema de interés clínico, social y público, en constante investigación. Una conducta autolesiva es toda conducta autodeliberada destinada a producir daño físico directo en el cuerpo, sin la intención de provocar la muerte. Objetivos: Describir los casos de pacientes con autoagresiones que fueron atendidos por el equipo de adolescencia (clínica pediátrica y salud mental) en el Hospital Garrahan desde el año 2015 al 2017. Diseño observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo. Se incluyeron todos los adolescentes que fueron evaluados en conjunto por el servicio de adolescencia y salud mental. Resultados: Se atendieron 17 casos, rango de edad 12 a 16 años, 14 mujeres. Los motivos de consulta fueron variados, el principal mecanismo de autoagresión elegido fue cortes superficiales en antebrazo y piernas. La mayoría presentó como factor de riesgo principal conflictos familiares, coincidiendo con la bibliografía revisada. Un abordaje integral por personal capacitado en un servicio amigable es necesario para no perder la oportunidad de pesquisar estas situaciones. Así, mediante un trabajo interdisciplinario disminuir los riesgos que conllevan estas conductas (AU)


Within intentional harm in adolescents, over the last years selfinjury has become an issue of clinical, social, and public interest in ongoing research. Self-injurious behavior is all deliberate behavior aimed at producing direct physical harm to the body, without the intention to cause death. Objectives: To describe cases of patients with self-injurious behavior seen by the adolescents team (pediatrics and mental health) at Garrahan Hospital between 2015 and 2017. A retrospective, observational, descriptive study was conducted. All adolescents seen together by the Departments of Adolescence and Mental Health were included in the study. Results: 17 patients were evaluated, with ages ranging from 12 to 16 years; 14 were girls. Main complaints were varied. The main mechanism of self-injury were superficial cuts on the forearms and legs. The main risk factor in the majority of patients were family conflicts, as reported in the literature. A comprehensive approach by trained personnel from a friendly team is necessary so as not to lose the opportunity to screen this type of situations. An interdisciplinary approach may reduce the risks associated with these behaviors (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Wounds, Penetrating/psychology , Adolescent Behavior , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
14.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 71(3): 245-252, jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058264

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El traumatismo penetrante cardiaco (TPC) por sus características y en particular por su alta mortalidad, constituye un desafío quirúrgico permanente. OBJETIVOS: Describir las características, resultados inmediatos y factores pronósticos en TPC. MATERIALES Y MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo transversal, revisión de protocolos prospectivos de traumatismo torácico, registros de pabellón y fichas clínicas. Período enero de 1990-diciembre de 2017. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes con TPC operados. Se describen y analizan diversas variables. Se realizó regresión logística con análisis univariado y multivariado para identificar variables asociadas a morbilidad, deterioro neurológico y mortalidad. RESULTADOS: 220 pacientes operados por TPC, 209 (95,0%) hombres, edad promedio 30,4 ± 13,3, mediana 27 años. Mecanismo: agresión en 202 (91,8%). El agente traumático fue en 186 (84,5%) arma blanca, en 21 (9,5%) arma de fuego. Presentaban taponamiento 169 (76,8%) pacientes, ingresaron en shock 103 (46,8%) y en paro cardiorrespiratorio 20 (9,1%). Vía de abordaje fue esternotomía en 157 (71,4%), toracotomía izquierda en 58 (26,4%). Las cavidades cardiacas lesionadas más frecuentes fueron ventrículo derecho en 110 (50,0%), ventrículo izquierdo en 72 (32,7%). Se hospitalizaron en UCI en el postoperatorio 135 (61,4%), se transfundieron 74 (33,6%), presentaron complicaciones 60 (27,3%) y se reoperaron 21 (9,5%). Mortalidad 28 (12,7%). La estadía postoperatoria tuvo una mediana de 6 días (rango 1-150). Se identificaron factores pronósticos. DISCUSIÓN: Los TPC operados son más frecuentes en hombres agredidos con arma blanca, la cavidad lesionada más frecuente es el ventrículo derecho. Nuestra morbimortalidad es comparable con series internacionales.


INTRODUCTION: Penetrating cardiac trauma (PCT) constitute a permanent surgical challenge due to it characteristics and high mortality. AIM: To describe the findings, outcomes and prognostic factors in PCT. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Cross-sectional descriptive study, review of prospective thoracic trauma protocols and surgical registries. Period January 1990-December 2017. All patients with PCT were included. Various variables are described and analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify factors associated with morbidity, neurologic dysfunction and mortality. RESULTS: 220 patients PCT, 209 (95.0%) men, mean age 30.4 ± 13.3, median 27 years. Mechanism: Aggression in 202 (91.8%). The traumatic agent was cold steel in 186 (84.4%) and fire arm in 21 (9.5%). 169 (76.8%) patients presented with tamponade, 103 (46.8%) shock and 20 (9.1%) cardiopulmonary arrest. Approach was sternotomy in 157 (71.4%), left thoracotomy in 58 (26.4%). The most common injured areas were right ventricle in 110 (50.0%), left ventricle in 72 (32.7%). 135 (61.4%) patients needed postoperative ICU and 74 (33.6%) were transfused. Complications occurred in 60 (27.3%). Twenty-one (9.5%) were reoperated. Mortality 28 (12.7%). The postoperative median stay was 6 days (Range 1-150). Prognostic factors were identified. DISCUSSION: Operated PCT are more frequent in men with stab wound, the most common injured area is the right ventricle. The morbidity and mortality is comparable with international series.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Wounds, Penetrating/surgery , Thoracic Surgical Procedures/mortality , Heart Injuries/surgery , Prognosis , Thoracic Injuries , Wounds, Penetrating/mortality , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Heart Injuries/mortality
15.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 54(2): 134-139, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013698

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To define the major epidemiological features of upper limb penetrating injuries, as well as to identify the causes and the frequency of these lesions at the Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia, a hand surgery center in the city of São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods The present study was based on a sample of consecutive patients from our orthopedics and traumatology institute from May 2014 to May 2016. Data were collected by telephone, and a prestructured questionnaire regarding data and features of the lesions was applied. Descriptive statistics and proportions comparison with the chi-squared test were performed with a p-value < 5% considered as statistically significant. Results At first, 1,648 records were considered and, after applying the exclusion criteria and eliminating duplicate records, 598 records were included in the present study. Most of the patients weremale (77.8%), right-handed (95.82%), with an average age of 37.27 years old.Manual laborers were the most injured individuals (50.00%), and fingers were the most affected site (51.84%). Glass was the most frequent etiologic agent (33.77%). The prevalence of amputation was higher in industrial machinery injuries (p < 0.05) when compared with other causes. Younger patients (< 18 years old) had more glass-related injuries, while older patients ( 60 years old) had more traumas caused by power tools (p < 0.05). Women had more injuries resulting from razors and glass (p < 0.05). Manual laborers had a higher frequency of power tools and industrial machinery-related injuries (p < 0.05) and a higher prevalence of amputations (p < 0.05). Conclusion Themost frequent etiology was glass, especially in individuals < 18 years old.Women and older patients (> 60 years old) presented a high frequency of traumas caused by razors and power tools, respectively. More severe injuries were caused by machinery and were related with work activity.


Resumo Objetivo Definir as principais características epidemiológicas dessas lesões, bem como identificar a causa e a frequência de ferimentos penetrantes no membro superior atendidos no Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia da nossa instituição. Métodos O estudo se baseou em uma amostra de pacientes consecutivos atendidos no Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia dessa instituição, demaio de 2014 amaio de 2016. Os dados foram coletados por contato telefônico, aplicou-se um questionário pré-estruturado sobre os dados e as características das lesões. A análise estatística foi feita de forma descritiva e a comparação das proporções através do teste de quiquadrado, associado ao valor de p, com significância < 5%. Resultados Foramconsiderados 1.648registros inicialmente e, após aplicados os critérios de exclusão e excluídos os duplicados, 598 pacientes foram incluídos na análise final. A maioria dos pacientes era do gênero masculino (77,80%), destros (95,82%), com média no momento do trauma de 37,27 anos. Os trabalhadores manuais foram os mais lesionados (50,00%) e a topografia mais acometida foram os dedos (51,84%). Dentre os agentes etiológicos, destaque para o vidro (33,77%). A prevalência de pacientes comamputação foi maior nos ferimentos por máquinas industriais (p < 0,05) quando comparada com outros agentes etiológicos. Pacientes com menos de 18 anos apresentaram maior frequência de ferimentos ocasionadas por vidro (p < 0,05). Já os pacientes com 60 anos ou mais apresentaram maior prevalência de ferimentos pormáquina de corte (p < 0,05). Mulheres apresentaram maior frequência de ferimentos por lâmina e por vidro (p < 0,05). Os trabalhadores manuais apresentaram maior prevalência de ferimentos por máquinas de corte e industriais (p < 0,05) e maior prevalência de amputações (p < 0,05). Conclusão O agente etiológico mais frequente é o vidro, com relevância maior em menores de 18 anos. Em mulheres e idosos, há grande frequência de lesões causadas por lâminas e máquinas de corte, respectivamente. Lesões de maior gravidade são causadas por máquinas, associadas a atividade laboral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Wounds and Injuries , Wounds, Penetrating , Serial Cross-Sectional Studies , Hand Injuries
16.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(2): 103-106, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003570

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To identify the main causes of traumatic cataracts in childhood, based on a scientific review. Methods: Review in Lilacs, Pubmed, Cochrane, Bireme and Sciencedirect databases for the keywords: infant cataract, traumatic cataract, child, pediatrics, low vision, blindness, cause, incidence, ocular trauma. Results: Seventy-two (72) articles on traumatic cataract were found. From these, 17 presented tables relating the cause of ocular trauma to the formation of cataract in pediatrics. This article presents the main findings and analysis of the topic in the literature. Conclusion: The traumas etiologies which were most prominent in the studies analyzed were pointed objects such as cuttings, splinters and wood stick. Boys were more affected and there was a relation with practice of internal and external activities of domicile, in rural and urban zones.


Resumo Objetivo: Identificar as principais causas das cataratas traumáticas na infância, baseado numa revisão científica. Métodos: Pesquisa nas bases de dados Lilacs, Pubmed, Cochrane, Bireme e Sciencedirect com as palavras- chave: catarata infantil, catarata traumática, criança, pediatria, baixa visão, cegueira, causa, incidência, trauma ocular. Resultados: Foram encontrados setenta e dois (72) artigos sobre catarata traumática. Destes, 17 apresentaram tabelas relacionando a causa do trauma ocular com a formação de catarata em pediatria. Este artigo apresenta os principais achados e análise do tema na literatura. Conclusão: As etiologias dos traumas que apresentaram maior destaque nos estudos analisados foram com objetos pontiagudos como estaca, lascas e graveto de madeira. Meninos foram mais acometidos e houve relação com prática de atividades internas e externas ao domicilio, em zona rural e urbana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cataract/etiology , Eye Injuries/complications , Eye Injuries/etiology , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/complications , Wounds, Penetrating/complications , Cataract/epidemiology , Eye Injuries/epidemiology
17.
Rev. argent. cir. plást ; 25(1): 38-40, 20190000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1358059

ABSTRACT

La silicona podría tener propiedades ideales para estimular la cicatrización de heridas abiertas. Se presentan cuatro casos de heridas en el cuero cabelludo que no cicatrizaban y en todas se observaba tejido de granulación abundante y falta de migración epidérmica. La aplicación de un gel a base de silicona (Stratamed, Stratpharma, Basilea, Suiza), que forma una película directamente sobre la herida, a modo de monoterapia se asoció con una mejor cicatrización de la herida


The silicone could have ideal properties to stimulate the healing of open wounds. We present four cases of wounds on the scalp that did not heal and in all of them there was abundant granulation tissue and lack of epidermal migration. The application as a monotherapy of a silicone-based gel (Stratamed, Stratpharma, Basel, Switzerland), which forms a film directly on the wound, was associated with better wound healing


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Scalp/injuries , Wound Healing , Wounds, Penetrating/therapy , Silicone Gels/therapeutic use , Granulation Tissue
18.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 58(1): e607, ene.-mar. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1093151

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los traumatismos en cuello se pueden clasificar las lesiones en contusas y penetrantes, en el caso de las heridas penetrantes las ocasionadas por arma punzocortante son las más frecuentes. Las manifestaciones clínicas dependen del mecanismo del trauma, tamaño y nivel de la lesión. Paciente masculino de 26 años de edad con heridas por arma punzocortante en cuello y muñecas se ingresó a quirófano de urgencia, se realizó una exploración vascular de cuello encontrando una avulsión completa del ligamento cricotiroideo, se realizó la reparación del defecto con un colgajo de los músculos cricotiroideos, cursando una buena evolución es egresado al duodécimo día. El diagnóstico de las lesiones traqueales es desafiante y debe realizase rápidamente. Se debe instalar una vía aérea definitiva de manera eficaz y planear la reconstrucción quirúrgica. El seguimiento postoperatorio realizado de manera interdisciplinaria es esencial para el pronóstico(AU)


ABSTRACT Neck injuries can be classified as blunt or penetrating injuries. Penetrating injuries caused by a puncturing gun are the most frequent. The clinical manifestations depend on trauma mechanism, and on lesion size and degree. We present the case of a 26-year-old male patient with puncture injuries to the neck and wrists. After he was admitted to the emergency room, a vascular exploration of the neck was performed, finding a complete avulsion of the cricothyroid ligament. The defect was repaired with a flap of the cricothyroid muscles. The patient had a good evolution and was discharged on the twelfth day. The diagnosis of tracheal lesions is challenging and must be carried out quickly. A definitive airway should be installed efficiently, as well as the planning of the surgical reconstruction. The postoperative follow-up performed in an interdisciplinary way is essential for the prognosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Surgical Flaps/transplantation , Trachea/injuries , Wounds, Penetrating/surgery , Neck Injuries/surgery , Laryngeal Muscles/transplantation
20.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 10(1): 58-64, jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1028055

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar a ocorrência de exposição ocupacional a fluidos biológicos em acidentes com perfurocortantes na equipe de enfermagem hospitalar. Métodos: Avaliou-se 747 profissionais, com base em questionários para acidentes de trabalho, mediante entrevista. Resultados: Dos 747 entrevistados, 53,9% sofreram acidentes com perfurocortantes. O risco aumentado de sofrer acidentes relacionou-se com o sexo feminino, horário diurno de trabalho e profissões técnico e auxiliar de enfermagem. Grande parte dos acidentes ocorreu por reencape de agulhas e descarte inadequado dos materiais, por falta de atenção. Mais de um terço dos acidentados não comunicou o acidente. Conclusão: Os profissionais estudados mantêm posturas de risco que devem ser combatidas com políticas de educação em saúde, reforçando a importância da comunicação das ocorrências.


Objective: To determine the occurrence of occupational exposure to biological fluids in sharps injuries in the hospital nursing team. Methods: A total of 747 professionals were interviewed, based on questionnaires for work accidents. Results: Of the 747 interviewees, 53.9% suffered accidents by sharp instruments. The increased risk of accidents was related to the female sex, daytime work hours and nursing technician and assistant professions. A large part of the accidents occurred due to needle recapping and inadequate disposal of materials, due to lack of attention. More than a third of the victims did not report the accident. Conclusion: The studied professionals have attitudes of risk that must be tackled with policies of health education, reinforcing the importance of the communication of occurrences.


Objetivo: Exposición ocupacional a fluidos biológicos en accidentes con punzocortantes en el equipo de enfermería hospitalaria. Métodos: Se evaluaron 747 profesionales, con base en cuestionarios para accidentes de trabajo, mediante entrevista. Resultados: De los 747 entrevistados, 53,9% sufrieron accidentes con punzocortantes. El riesgo aumentado de sufrir accidentes se relacionó con el sexo femenino, horario diurno de trabajo y profesiones técnicas y auxiliares de enfermería. Gran parte de los accidentes ocurrió por reencape de agujas y descarte inadecuado de los materiales, por falta de atención. Más de un tercio de los accidentes no comunicó el accidente. Conclusión: Los profesionales estudiados mantienen posturas de riesgo que deben ser combatidas con políticas de educación en salud, reforzando la importancia de la comunicación de las ocurrencias.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Accidents, Occupational , Nursing, Team , Biological Factors , Wounds, Penetrating
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