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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210432, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254269

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate, by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis, the remaining filling material during endodontic retreatment performed with Protaper retreatment without solvent. Methods: Forty mandibular molars were divided into two groups (n = 20) according to the sealer used in the obturation: the bioceramic TotalFill BC (TF) or the resin-based AH Plus (AHP). The specimens were scanned before instrumentation, after obturation and after filling removal. Only the mesial roots were analysed. The filling volumes and the remaining filling material were calculated in the entire root canal and in the cervical, middle and apical thirds. Results: The volume of obturation and the volume of remaining filling material in the entire root canal and in the cervical, middle and apical thirds of the canal between the groups were not statistically different (independent t-test, p > 0.05). In the AHP group, there was a higher percentage of remaining filling material in the middle third than in the cervical third (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The filling material could not be entirely removed from any specimen


Subject(s)
Root Canal Filling Materials , Retreatment , X-Ray Microtomography , Molar
2.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(4): 1-7, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345516

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the 3D quality of root-end filling, assessing the presence (volume and percentage) of marginal gaps and internal voids formed after retro-filling with three calcium silicate-based materials: MTA Angelus (Angelus Soluçoes Odontologicas, Londrina, PR, Brazil), Biodentine (Septodont Ltd., Saint Maur-des-Faussés, France) and Neo MTA Plus (Avalon Biomed Inc., Bradenton, Florida, US). Thirty human, extracted, single rooted teeth were used. Orthograde root canal treatment, root resection (3mm shorter than the apex) and retrograde cavity preparation with ultrasonic tips were performed. Teeth were divided into 3 groups (n =10 each) following a stratified randomization according to the initial volume of the root-end cavity. After retrofilling, samples were stored for 7 days. Then, two rounds of micro-CT scans were performed: soon after root-end preparation (with the cavity still empty) and 7 days after root-end filling. Marginal gaps, internal voids volume (mm3 and %), as well as, the overall defects (sum of gaps and voids) were evaluated. Statistics compared the three groups in relation to those defects. There was not statistical difference between groups regarding the marginal gaps (P≥ 0.05), the internal voids (P≥ 0.05), and the overall defects (P≥ 0.05). Median (mm3) and % of overall air-entrapment defects (gaps and/or voids) was: 0.004mm3 and 1.749% for MTA Angelus, 0.018mm3 and 6.660% for Biodentine, and 0.012mm3 and 4.079% for Neo MTA Plus. All materials had gaps and/or voids. No differences were found between MTA Angelus, Biodentine and Neo MTA Plus.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou a qualidade 3D de retro-obturações, avaliando a presença (volume e percentagem) de "gaps" marginais e "voids" internos formados a partir da retro-obturação com três materiais à base de silicato de cálcio: MTA Angelus (Angelus Soluções Odontológicas, Londrina, PR, Brasil), Biodentine (Septodont Ltd., Saint Maur-des-Faussés, França) and Neo MTA Plus (Avalon Biomed Inc., Bradenton, Flórida, US). Trinta dentes humanos unirradiculares extraídos foram usados. Após tratamento de canal ortrógrado, resecção radicular (3 mm apicais), o prepare da cavidade retrógrada com pontas ultrassônicas foi realizado. Os dentes foram divididos em três grupos (n= 10 cada) seguindo uma randomização estratificada, de acordo com o volume inicial da cavidade retrógrada. Depois da retro-obturação as amostras foram armazenadas por 7 dias. Duas rodadas de escaneamento de micro-CT foram realizadas: logo após o preparo retrógrado (com a cavidade ainda vazia) e 7 dias após a retro-obturação. O volume de "gaps" marginais e de "voids" internos (mm3 e %), bem como, os defeitos totais (soma de "gaps" e "voids") foram avaliados. Não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos em relação aos "gaps" marginais (P≥ 0,05), "voids" internos (P≥ 0,05), e aos defeitos totais (P≥ 0,05). A mediana (mm3) e porcentagem dos defeitos totais de aprisionamento de ar foi 0,004mm3 e 1,749% para o MTA Angelus, 0,018mm3 e 6,660% para o Biodentine, e 0,012mm3 e 4,079% para o Neo MTA Plus. Todos os materiais tiveram defeitos ("gaps"e/ou "voids"). Não houve diferença entre MTA Angelus, Biodentine e Neo MTA Plus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Filling Materials , Root Canal Obturation , Root Canal Therapy , Silicates , Calcium Compounds , X-Ray Microtomography
3.
Dent. press endod ; 11(1): 72-77, Jan-Apr2021. Tab, Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348251

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O tipo de agulha e fluxo de irrigação é importante para a limpeza adequada no terço apical do canal radicular. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do tipo de agulha e fluxo de irrigação na limpeza do canal radicular e canais laterais simulados e na extrusão apical do irrigante. Métodos: Trinta e dois dentes de resina foram utiliza- dos. Após a instrumentação do canal radicular, foram feitos quatro canais laterais a 2 e 7 mm do ápice. Os canais radiculares foram preenchidos com solução de contraste. Os canais foram irrigados com dois tipos de agulha, 29G e 31G, com diferentes designs (abertura lateral e apical) e dois fluxos (2 ou 5 mL/min), a 1 mm aquém do comprimento de trabalho. O volume da solução de contraste nos canais principal e laterais após irrigação e a extrusão apical do irrigante (mm3 ) foi avaliado por micro-CT, em comparação com a análise inicial. Os dados em porcentagem foram analisados pelos testes ANOVA e Tukey (α=0,05). Resultados: não houve diferença entre os protocolos de irrigação para limpeza da solução de contraste. Maior volume de extrusão apical com agulha 29G com abertura apical e 5 mL/min foi observado, em comparação ao mesmo tipo de agulha e 2 mL/min (p<0,05). Conclusão: Todos os protocolos de irrigação foram associados à limpeza dos canais radiculares. Maior extrusão apical foi observada com agulha 29G ­ abertura apical com maior fluxo de irrigação (5 mL/min). Implicações clínicas: Irrigação endodôntica com agulha com abertura apical e maior fluxo da solução pode favorecer a extrusão dos irrigantes para os tecidos periapicais (AU).


Introduction: needle and irrigation flow rate are important for proper cleaning of the root canal. Aim: to evaluate the influence of type of needle and irrigation flow rate on cleaning of root canal and simulated lateral canals and the apical extrusion of irrigant. Methods: Thirty-two resin teeth were used. After root canal instrumentation, four lateral canals were made at 2 and 7 mm from the apex. Root canals were filled with contrast solution. The root canals were irrigated with two types of needle, 29G and 31G, with different designs (side and apical opening) and two flow rates (2 or 5 mL/min), at 1 mm short of the working length. The volume of the contrast solution in the main and lateral canals after irrigation and apical extrusion of the irrigant (mm3) were evaluated by Micro-CT, in comparison with the initial analysis. Data in percentage were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukeys tests (α = 0.05). Results: no difference among the irrigation protocols for contrast solution cleaning was observed. Higher volume of apical extrusion using needle 29G-apical opening and 5 mL/min in comparison with the same type of needle and 2 mL/min was observed (p < 0.05). Conclusion: all irrigation protocols were associated with root canals cleaning. Greater apical extrusion was observed for needle 29G-apical opening with higher irrigation flow rate (5 mL/min). Clinical implications: endodontic irrigation using a needle with apical opening and higher flow rate of solution may favor extrusion of irrigant to the periapical tissues (AU).


Subject(s)
Periapical Tissue , Root Canal Irrigants , X-Ray Microtomography , Needles , Dental Pulp Cavity , Housekeeping
4.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(1): 42-47, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180727

ABSTRACT

Abstract New methodologies using micro-CT to evaluate solubility besides dimensional and morphological changes of endodontic materials are proposed. However, there is no standardization in the methods. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different dimensions of test samples on volumetric change evaluation of different endodontic materials. AH Plus, FillCanal and Sealapex root canal sealers, Biodentine, IRM and MTA root-end filling cements were used in the tests. Samples of each material with a thickness of 1.5 mm and different diameters were manufactured: 6.3, 7.75, and 9.0 mm. The samples were scanned in micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) after setting and after 7 days of immersion in distilled water. The volumetric change was evaluated by means of the difference in the total volume of the specimens before and after immersion. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (p<0.05). The size of the samples did not affect the percentage of volumetric change of the materials (p>0.05). All sample sizes had greater volume loss for Sealapex among the sealers and Biodentine for the cements (p<0.05). In conclusion, Biodentine and Sealapex had the highest volume loss after immersion. Samples with 1.5 mm thickness, and diameters ranging between 6.3 and 9.0 mm can be used to assess the stability of endodontic materials using micro-CT without affecting the percentage of volumetric change.


Resumo Novas metodologias utilizando micro-CT são propostas para avaliar a solubilidade além de alterações dimensionais e morfológicas em materiais endodônticos. No entanto, não há padronização nos métodos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes dimensões de corpos de prova na avaliação da alteração volumétrica de diferentes materiais endodônticos. Os cimentos obturadores AH Plus, FillCanal e Sealapex e os cimentos retrobturadores Biodentine, IRM e MTA foram utilizados nos testes. Foram confeccionadas amostras de cada material com espessura de 1.5 mm e diâmetros diferentes: 6.3, 7.75 e 9.0 mm. As amostras foram escaneadas em microtomografia computadorizada (micro-CT) após a presa e após 7 dias de imersão em água destilada. A alteração volumétrica foi avaliada por meio da diferença no volume total dos corpos de prova antes e após a imersão. Os dados foram submetidos aos testes ANOVA e Tukey (p<0,05). A dimensão das amostras não afetou o percentual de alteração volumétrica dos materiais (p>0,05). Todos os diâmetros de amostra mostraram maior perda de volume para Sealapex entre os cimentos obturadores e Biodentine entre os cimentos retrobturadores (p<0,05). Como conclusão, Biodentine e Sealapex mostraram a maior perda volumétrica após a imersão. Amostras com 1.5 mm de espessura e diâmetros variando entre 6.3 e 9.0 mm podem ser usadas para avaliação da estabilidade de materiais endodônticos utilizando micro-CT, sem influenciar no percentual de alteração volumétrica.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Filling Materials , Oxides , Root Canal Obturation , Materials Testing , Calcium Compounds , Drug Combinations , Epoxy Resins , X-Ray Microtomography
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20200575, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154620

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mirror-image pain is a kind of pain that occurs on the contralateral side, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. Objective To develop an osteoarthritis mouse model for investigating mirror-image pain through observing nocifensive behaviors, histological changes, and nociceptive activity at days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the chemical induction of unilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis. Methodology We randomly divided 6-week-old mice into sham and complete Freund adjuvant groups. To induce nocifensive behaviors, we applied 0.04 g of von Frey filament, 10 psi of air puff, and cold acetone on both sides of whisker pads at different days. The histology of TMJ on both sides was observed by hematoxylin/eosin staining and microcomputed tomography scanning. Furthermore, the nociceptive activity was evaluated using the phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein (pCREB) and a microglia marker at different days in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis. Results Nocifensive behaviors against mechanical and temperature stimuli on the contralateral side became stronger than the baseline on day 28, in agreement with the elevation of the pCREB and the microglia marker in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis. Thus, hypernociception on the contralateral side occurred at day 28. Conclusions Clearly, the TMJ model with unilateral osteoarthritis exhibited mirror-image pain. Therefore, this model is useful in investigating the pathogenesis of pain and in developing treatments.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Osteoarthritis/diagnostic imaging , Temporomandibular Joint , Pain , Freund's Adjuvant , X-Ray Microtomography
6.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e008, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132748

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) voxel size on the evaluation of debris accumulation after passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) in curved root canals prepared with rotary nickel-titanium files. Mesial root canals (n = 24) of mandibular molars with curvature between 25° and 35° were prepared using ProDesign Logic 30/.05 (PDL) or HyFlex EDM 25/.08 (HEDM). PUI was performed after root canal preparation of all root canals. The specimens were scanned using high-resolution (5 μm voxel size) micro-CT imaging before and after experimental procedures. The percentage of debris was analyzed in the middle and apical thirds using images with 5, 10 and 20 μm voxel sizes. Data were compared using unpaired and paired Student's t-test, ANOVA and Tukey's statistical tests (α = 0.05). There were no differences among the debris analyses performed at different voxel sizes (5, 10 and 20 μm) (p > 0.05). The percentage of debris was similar between the root canals prepared by PDL and HEDM before and after PUI (p > 0.05). In both groups, the percentage of debris decreased in the middle third after PUI (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this ex vivo study, it can be concluded that the voxel sizes evaluated did not have a significant impact on the analysis of accumulated debris. However, the results showed a tendency for detection of more debris in the analysis performed using a lower voxel size. PUI decreased the debris accumulation in the middle third of curved root canals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Preparation , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , X-Ray Microtomography , Molar/diagnostic imaging
7.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e080, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1278598

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This research evaluated, in vivo, the accuracy of three electronic apex locators - EALs (Root ZXII, E-PEX and FIND) in teeth with vital pulp submitted to biopulpectomy, preserving the periodontal stump. For this study, 90 single-rooted teeth with extraction indication were selected. After positive pulpal cold sensitivity test, pulp chamber access was performed. The cervical and middle thirds of root canals were instrumented with Reciproc R25, and the K#15 file was used as a standard instrument to determine working length, forming 2 groups: Constriction (insertion of the instrument until the apical constriction limit) and Foramen (insertion of the instrument until the foramen and then repositioning at constriction, without removing the file from the canal). The hand file was stabilized with a light-cured flow resin. After extraction, the samples were analyzed through microCT SkyScan 1272, with CTAN software, which evaluated the proximity between the tip of the file to the apical constriction, providing data for comparative analysis using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (p<0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in the abilities of the EALs to detect the apical constriction after reaching the foramen with Root ZX II showing higher accuracy (89%). However, there was no difference in the accuracy of the three EALs in detecting the apical constriction without reaching the foramen. Based on the present results, we conclude that EALs may show accurate measures in detecting apical constriction and foramen, even without damaging the periodontal stump in biopulpectomy.


Subject(s)
Tooth Apex/diagnostic imaging , Dental Pulp Cavity , Tooth Root , Root Canal Preparation , X-Ray Microtomography , Odontometry
8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e064, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249380

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Sixty moderately curved canals of mandibular molars classified as Vertucci's type IV canal configuration were selected by micro-CT 1174. The teeth were divided into two groups according to the kinematics used, whether reciprocating or rotary motion (n=30, totaling 60 mesial root canals). The instruments used to perform the glide path procedures had identical features (0.15 mm of tip size, 0.04 mm/mm taper, thermal treatment, and square cross-section), but differed in the direction of the cutting blade. The duration of the procedure and the absolute and percentage frequency of the instruments to reach the full working length were recorded. The torsional test (3630-1; 1992) was performed on both used and unused instruments, to evaluate a possible reduction in the torsional resistance when using the glide path procedure. Statistical analysis was performed using the unpaired t-test and the chi-square test, and the level of significance was set at 5%. The type of kinematics used affected the duration of glide path procedures, and the reciprocating motion seemed to induce less torsional stress during glide path procedures.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Preparation , Dental Pulp Cavity , Biomechanical Phenomena , Equipment Design , X-Ray Microtomography , Molar/diagnostic imaging
9.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e060, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249378

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study aimed to describe the morphometric relationship of root canal orifices on the pulp floor in the presence/absence of mesiobuccal second canal (MB2) in the maxillary first molars and other aspects of its internal anatomy. Sixty-two maxillary first molars were scanned by micro-CT. The presence of the MB2 canal was verified. The distance between the center points of the MB1, MB2, distobuccal (DB), and palatal (P) canal orifices on the pulp floor were measured (MB1-MB2, MB1-DB, MB2-DB, MB1-P, and DB-P). The MB1-P to DB-P ratio was calculated. The distances between the anatomic apex and the MB1 and MB2 apical foramina were measured. The length of the band-shaped isthmus was also measured. Student's t-test was applied to verify the association between the presence of an MB2 canal, the interorifice distances, and the ratio of the MB1-P to DB-P distance (α = 5%). The MB2 canal was present in 43 roots (69.35%). Statistics showed significant differences when MB2 was present for the largest MB1-P distance (p < 0.05) and higher values for the MB1-P to DB-P ratio (p < 0.05). A band-shaped isthmus was detected in 25.8% of MB roots. The mean distance from the apical foramen to the isthmus floor ranged from 1.74 for MB1 canals to 1.42 for MB2 canals. Canal orifice distances on the pulp floor may predict the presence of MB2 canals. There was a high incidence of isthmus, accessory canals, and apical delta in the critical apical zone in MB roots of maxillary first molars.


Subject(s)
Tooth Root/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , X-Ray Microtomography , Molar/diagnostic imaging
10.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e028, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1153621

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the filling ability of a new ready-to-use calcium silicate-based sealer using thermoplastic or single-cone technique in flattened root canals. Twenty-four flattened distal canals of mandibular molars with a buccolingual diameter 4 or more times larger than the mesiodistal diameter were selected. The root canals were prepared and filled (n = 12), according to the following techniques: thermoplastic or single-cone technique using Bio-C Sealer. The teeth were scanned using Skycan 1176 micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) - voxel size 8.74 µm, before and after filling the root canal. The percentage of voids in the filled root canals was evaluated, and the data were statistically analyzed using the unpaired t-test (α = 0.05). The root canals filled using the thermoplastic technique created a smaller percentage of voids in the cervical/middle thirds than those filled using the single-cone technique (p < 0.05). There was no difference in the percentage of voids using either technique in the apical third (p > 0.05). The flattened root canals in the cervical/middle thirds were better filled using the ready-to-use calcium silicate-based sealer associated to the thermoplastic technique, compared with the single-cone technique. In the apical third, the techniques showed similar filling ability.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Filling Materials , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Root Canal Obturation , Root Canal Preparation , X-Ray Microtomography , Gutta-Percha , Molar
11.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1351219

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine in vitro the frequency, shape, type, diameter, and patency of accessory canals in the primary molars pulp chamber floor. Material and Methods: Sixteen healthy primary molars were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy. Descriptive analyses of the frequency, shape (round, oval, or irregular), type (blind, true, or hidden), patency and diameter of the accessory canals were performed. Results: Half of the teeth presented accessory canals, 62.5% of which were located in the upper molars and 37.5% in the lower molars. The most frequent shape was irregular. In three-dimensional analysis, blind accessory canals (12.5%) and with patency (18.7%) of the teeth were observed. The average accessory canal diameter was 51.97 µm (± 26.03 µm). Conclusion: Upper molars showed a higher frequency of accessory canals with larger diameters. The irregular shape was the most frequent. 18.7% of accessory channels showed patency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/instrumentation , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , X-Ray Microtomography/instrumentation , Molar , Brazil/epidemiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology
12.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(1): 1-8, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1145442

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Estudos demostraram que a zircônia monolítica um dos materiais restauradores desenvolvidos recentemente, resolveu vários problemas de restauração de zircônia. Portanto, a precisão marginal e o ajuste interno são necessários para o sucesso clinico e para a qualidade da restauração, e o espaço do cimento pode influenciar o ajuste marginal. Assim, o presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar os efeitos da espessura do cimento e o tipo de restauração na discrepância marginal. Material e métodos: foram usadas para fabricação de coroa total. Dois tipos de materiais incluindo Zirconia monolítica (Zolid) e Sintron foram usadas para produzir a coroa total. As amostras de cada grupo foram digitalizadas em laboratório dentário por um scanner 3D, projetadas e acessadas usando CAD-CAM. As amostras foram divididas em quatro grupos de cinco com espaço de 30 e 50 mícrons de cimento. Para avaliar a discrepância marginal, as coroas foram colocadas em seus respectivos dentes sem o uso de qualquer intermediário e examinados em micro-CT. Os dados foram avaliados pelo software SPSS. Resultados: Descobriu-se que a discrepância marginal do Sintron é maior que a discrepância da zircônia monolítica. Na verdade, a zircônia monolítica com espaço de 50 µm de cimento exibiu uma menor discrepância marginal, e o espaço de cimento do Sintron não influenciou significantemente na discrepância marginal. Conclusão: Concluiu-se que os tipos de material e o espaço do cimento influencia na discrepância marginal da restauração construída pelo fluxo digital (AU)


Objective: Studies demonstrated that as one of then ewly developed restorative materials, monolithic zirconia resolved several issues of zirconia restoration. Therefore, marginal accuracy and internal fit are necessary for clinical success and quality of restorations, and cement space may influence the marginal fit. Thus, the present research aimed to investigate the effects of the cement thickness and kind of restoration on the marginal discrepancy. Material and methods: In this study, 20 maxillary left first molars, prepared by DRSK Co., were used to fabricate a full crown. Two types of material included monolithic zirconia (Zolid) and Sintron were used to make a full crown. Samples from each group were scanned by dental laboratory 3D scanner and designed and processed using CAD-CAM. The samples were divided into four groups of five with 30-and 50- µm cement spaces. In order to assess the vertical marginal discrepancy, the crowns were fittedon their respective teeth without using any mediator and examined by a micro-CT scanner. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: It has been found that marginal discrepancy in Sintron is higher than the discrepancy of monolithic zirconia. In fact, monolithic zirconia with 50-micron cement space exhibited the least marginal discrepancy and the cement space in Sintron did not significantly influence the marginal discrepancy. Conclusion: It has been concluded that the material kinds and cement space influence the restoration marginal discrepancy constructed by digital workflow (AU)


Subject(s)
Dental Marginal Adaptation , Dental Cements , X-Ray Microtomography
13.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1469-1480, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922634

ABSTRACT

Effective methods for visualizing neurovascular morphology are essential for understanding the normal spinal cord and the morphological alterations associated with diseases. However, ideal techniques for simultaneously imaging neurovascular structure in a broad region of a specimen are still lacking. In this study, we combined Golgi staining with angiography and synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SRμCT) to visualize the 3D neurovascular network in the mouse spinal cord. Using our method, the 3D neurons, nerve fibers, and vasculature in a broad region could be visualized in the same image at cellular resolution without destructive sectioning. Besides, we found that the 3D morphology of neurons, nerve fiber tracts, and vasculature visualized by SRμCT were highly consistent with that visualized using the histological method. Moreover, the 3D neurovascular structure could be quantitatively evaluated by the combined methodology. The method shown here will be useful in fundamental neuroscience studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Mice , Neural Networks, Computer , Spinal Cord/diagnostic imaging , Synchrotrons , X-Ray Microtomography
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921369

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To compare the effects of different irradiators on the establishment of osteoradionecrosis of jaw model (ORNJ) to explore an ideal modeling method.@*METHODS@#A total of 33 adult SD rats were included and randomly divided into three groups according to the radiation equipment, namely, the blank control (CN, 3 rats), group A (linear accelerator irradiation, 15 rats), and group B (small-animal irradiator irradiation, 15 rats). Groups A and B were irradiated with daily fractions of 7, 8, and 9 Gy for 5 days and further divided into three subgroups as follows: group A@*RESULTS@#At 3 weeks after dental extractions, complete gingival healing was found in the regions of dental extractions in groups A@*CONCLUSIONS@#Small-animal irradiator irradiation is an ideal device for establishing ORNJ model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mandible , Molar , Osteoradionecrosis/etiology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , X-Ray Microtomography
15.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 428-438, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888771

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#High-fat diet (HFD) and inflammation are two key contributors to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Shenling Baizhu powder (SLBZP), a classical herbal compound, has been successfully used to alleviate NAFLD. However, its specific mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we assessed the anti-NAFLD effect of SLBZP in vivo.@*METHODS@#Rats were fed an HFD with or without SLBZP or with probiotics. At the end of week 16, an echo magnetic resonance imaging (EchoMRI) body composition analyser was used to quantitatively analyse body composition; a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging system was used to evaluate whole body and liver fat; and the Moor full-field laser perfusion imager 2 was used to assess liver microcirculation, after which, all rats were sacrificed. Then, biochemical indicators in the blood and the ultrastructure of rat livers were evaluated. Protein expression related to the liver Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) signalling pathway was assessed using Western blot analysis. Further, high-throughput screening of 29 related inflammatory factors in liver tissue was performed using a cytokine array.@*RESULTS@#SLBZP supplementation reduced body weight, serum free fatty acid, and insulin resistance index (P < 0.05). It also ameliorated liver microcirculation and ultrastructural abnormalities. EchoMRI and micro-CT quantitative analyses showed that treatment with SLBZP reduced fat mass and visceral fat (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). In addition, SLBZP decreased the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated TLR4/NLRP3 signalling pathway-related proteins and altered the expression levels of some inflammatory cytokines in liver tissues.@*CONCLUSION@#SLBZP can inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation and interleukin-1β release by suppressing LPS-induced TLR4 expression in rats with HFD-induced NAFLD. Thus, SLBZP may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory damage and associated diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Liver , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Powders , Rats , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , X-Ray Microtomography
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2214-2222, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Accumulating evidence suggests that lithium influences mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. As decreased bone formation in femoral heads is induced by glucocorticoids (GCs), we hypothesized that lithium has a protective effect on GC-induced osteonecrosis of femoral heads (ONFH).@*METHODS@#A rat ONFH model was induced by methylprednisolone (MP) and the effect of lithium chloride on the models was evaluated. Micro-computed tomography (CT)-based angiography and bone scanning were performed to analyze the vessels and bone structure in the femoral heads. Hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining were performed to evaluate the trabecular structure and osteocalcin (OCN) expression, respectively. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were isolated from the models, and their proliferative and osteogenic ability was evaluated. Western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect osteogenic-related proteins including Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, and Collagen I.@*RESULTS@#Micro-CT analysis showed a high degree of osteonecrotic changes in the rats that received only MP injection. Treatment with lithium reduced this significantly in rats that received lithium (MP + Li group); while 18/20 of the femoral heads in the MP showed severe osteonecrosis, only 5/20 in the MP + Li showed mild osteonecrotic changes. The MP + Li group also displayed a higher vessel volume than the MP group (0.2193 mm3vs. 0.0811 mm3, P < 0.05), shown by micro-CT-based angiography. Furthermore, histological analysis showed better trabecular structures and more OCN expression in the femoral heads of the MP + Li group compared with the MP group. The ex vivo investigation indicated higher proliferative and osteogenic ability and upregulated osteogenic-related proteins in MSCs extracted from rats in the MP + Li group than that in the MP group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#We concluded that lithium chloride has a significant protective effect on GC-induced ONFH in rats and that lithium also enhances MSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in rats after GC administration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Femur Head , Femur Head Necrosis/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids , Lithium Chloride , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Osteogenesis , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , X-Ray Microtomography
17.
Dent. press endod ; 10(3): 49-55, Sept-Dec.2020. Tab, Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344785

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: O presente estudo usou micro-CT para avaliar a quantidade de material obturador remanescente em canais radiculares curvos que tinham sido obturados com cimento Endosequence BC/Cpoint ou com cimento AH/ guta-percha, depois do retratamento utilizando instrumentos rotatórios ou reciprocantes. Métodos: Sessenta canais mesiovestibulares de molares superiores foram instrumentados até MTwo #35.04. As amostras foram randomicamente alocadas em quatro grupos (n=15): os canais do G1 e G2 foram obturados com AH/guta-percha, e os canais do G3 e G4 foram obturados com BC/Cpoint. O material obturador foi removido usando instrumentos rotatórios ou reciprocantes ­ G1 e G3: R25 Reciproc + reinstrumentação com R40; e G2 e G4: Sistema ProTaper Universal Retratamento + reinstrumentação com MTwo 40.06. Micro-CTs foram usadas para medir a quantidade de material obturador remanescente (mm3 ) para o canal inteiro e para cada terço, em dois momentos: 1) após a remoção do material obturador; e 2) após a reinstrumentação. Resultados: Após a remoção do material obturador, BC/CPoint permaneceu mais dentro do canal do que AH/guta-percha quando o canal inteiro (29,92% x 19,25%, p=0,0290) e o terço apical foram analisados. Após a reinstrumentação, BC/CPoint permaneceu mais do que AH/guta-percha somente no terço apical. Protocolos de tratamento com instrumentos rotatórios ou reciprocantes removeram material obturador sem diferença para AH/guta-percha (G1 e G2: p> 0,05) e BC/CPoint (G3 e G4: p> 0,05). Conclusões: BC/Cpoint é mais difícil de ser removido de canais radiculares curvos do que AH/guta-percha. Instrumentos rotatórios e reciprocantes têm habilidade similar na remoção de material obturador (AU).


Objective: This study used micro-CT to evaluate the amount of remaining filling material in curved root canals obturated with Endosequence BC Sealer/Cpoint or AH/gutta-percha after a rotary or reciprocating retreatment. Methods: Sixty mesiobuccal canals of maxillary molars were instrumented up to MTwo #35.04. Samples were randomly assigned to four groups (n=15): canals from G1 and G2 were filled with AH/gutta-percha, and canals from G3 and G4 were filled with BC/Cpoint. Filling material was removed using rotary or reciprocating instruments: G1 and G3: R25 Reciproc + re-shaping with R40; and G2 and G4: ProTaper Universal Retreatment system + re-shaping with MTwo 40.06. Micro-CT was used to measure the remaining amount of filling material (mm3 ), for the whole canal, and for each third, in two moments: 1) after filling removal and 2) after canal re-shaping. Results: After filling removal, BC/CPoint remained more into the canal than AH/Gutta-percha when the whole canal (29.92% x 19.25%, p = 0.0290) and the apical third were analyzed. After re-shaping, BC/CPoint remained more than AH/Gutta-percha only in the apical third. Rotary or reciprocating retreatment protocols removed filling material without difference for AH/gutta-percha (G1 and G2: p > 0.05) and BC/CPoint (G3 and G4: p > 0.05). Conclusion: BC/Cpoint is more difficult to be removed from curved root canals than AH/gutta-percha. Reciprocating and rotary instruments have similar ability to remove filling material (AU).


Subject(s)
Root Canal Filling Materials , Biofilms , Dental Instruments , X-Ray Microtomography , Lifting , Retreatment , Gutta-Percha , Molar
18.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(6): 605-610, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132347

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the efficiency of using a single instrument from three different rotary multi-file systems and compared them with that of a reciprocating single-file for endodontic retreatment by means of micro-CT. Sixty extracted canines were prepared using a size F2 ProTaper Universal file and obturated. After 30 days of storage at 37ºC and 100% humidity, the teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n=15) based on the type of instrument used to retreatment: ProTaper Next (PTN), ProTaper Gold (PTG), TRUShape 3D (TS), and WaveOne (WO). The canals were retreated using only the size 40 instrument from each system according to the manufacturer's recommendations for torque and speed. The time required to remove the filling material was recorded in seconds. The amount of initial and residual filling material and the quantity of dentin removed were assessed by means of micro-CT. Data were statistically analyzed (ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis) at a 5% significance level. TS instruments required the highest (p<0.05) amount of time (mean, 384.80 ±144.92) compared with the WO (229.67±68.16) and PTG (248.67±64.22) and not so different from PTN instruments (327.67±133.3). No differences in the amount of dentin removed, initial and residual filling volume, and percentages of filling material were observed among the groups. The use of a single rotary instrument from the PTG, TS, and PTN systems was as effective as that of the single-file reciprocating WO system. However, none of the instruments was able to remove the filling materials completely.


Resumo Este estudo laboratorial avaliou por meio de micro-CT a eficiência do uso de um único instrumento de três sistemas rotatórios em retratamentos endodônticos, comparados a um instrumento único reciprocante. Sessenta caninos extraídos foram preparados usando o sistema ProTaper Universal (F2) e obturados. Após 30 dias de armazenamento a 37 ºC e 100% de umidade, os dentes foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n = 15), de acordo com o instrumento utilizado para remover as obturações endodônticas: ProTaper NEXT (PTN), ProTaper Gold (PTG), TRUShape 3D (TS) e WaveOne (WO). Os canais foram retratados usando apenas o instrumento tamanho 40 de cada sistema, seguindo as recomendações do fabricante para torque e velocidade. O tempo necessário para remover a obturação foi registrado em segundos. A quantidade de material remanescente e o volume de dentina removida foram avaliadas por meio de micro-CT. Análise estatística foi realizada (ANOVA e Kruskal-Wallis), com nível de significância de 5%. O tempo de trabalho no grupo TS foi significativamente maior (p<0.05) (média, 384,80 ± 144,92) comparado a WO (229,67 ± 68,16) e PTG (248,67 ± 64,22), e similar a PTN (327,67 ± 133,3). Não houve diferenças entre os grupos na quantidade de dentina removida e nas porcentagens de material obturador residual. O uso de apenas um instrumento rotatório dos sistemas PTG, TS e PTN foi tão eficaz quanto o do sistema WO reciprocante na remoção do material obturador. No entanto, nenhum dos instrumentos conseguiu remover completamente os materiais obturadores.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Filling Materials , Root Canal Obturation , Titanium , Root Canal Preparation , Retreatment , Dental Pulp Cavity , Equipment Design , X-Ray Microtomography , Nickel
19.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(5): 499-504, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132336

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated by micro-computed tomography (μCT) the filling ability in curved root canals, besides the flow of AH Plus (AHP) and Neo MTA Plus (NMTAP) sealers using different methodologies. Mandibular molars mesial roots with two root canals and degree of curvature between 20° and 40° were selected. The specimens were prepared with the ProDesign R system up to size 35.05 and were filled with the sealers by a continuous wave of condensation technique, Thermo Pack II (n=12). The teeth were scanned using μCT after root canal preparation and obturation. The volumetric percentage of filling material and voids were calculated. Flow was evaluated based on ISO 6876/2012 (n=10). Flow and filling were also evaluated in μCT using a glass plate with a central cavity and four grooves from the central cavity (n=6). Flow was linearly calculated into the grooves. The central cavity filling (CCF) and lateral cavity filling (LCF) were calculated in mm³. Data were submitted to non-paired t test with a significance threshold at 5%. The percentage of filling and voids between the root canals filled with AHP or NMTAP was similar (p>0.05). NMTAP presented the lowest flow in conventional test (p<0.05). Using μCT, sealers had similar CCF, LCF and linear flow (p>0.05). In conclusion, NMTAP and AHP had similar filling ability in curved mesial root canals of mandibular molars without presence of isthmus. Although AHP presented better flow than NMTAP using ISO methodology, there was no difference between these materials regarding volumetric filling when evaluated by μCT.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou por microtomografia computadorizada (μCT) a capacidade de preenchimento de canais radiculares curvos, além do escoamento dos cimentos AH Plus (AHP) e Neo MTA Plus (NMTAP) utilizando diferentes metodologias. Foram selecionadas raízes mesiais de molares inferiores com dois canais radiculares e grau de curvatura entre 20° e 40°. As amostras foram preparadas com o sistema ProDesign R até o tamanho 35.05 e foram obturadas com os cimentos por uma técnica de onda contínua de condensação, Thermo Pack II (n=12). Os dentes foram escaneados usando μCT após o preparo e obturação do canal radicular. A porcentagem volumétrica de material de preenchimento e vazios foram calculados. O escoamento foi avaliado com base na norma ISO 6876/2012 (n=10). O escoamento e o preenchimento também foram avaliados em μCT usando uma placa de vidro com uma cavidade central e quatro canaletas a partir da cavidade central (n=6). O escoamento foi calculado linearmente nas canaletas. O preenchimento da cavidade central (PCC) e o preenchimento da cavidade lateral (PCL) foram calculados em mm³. Os dados foram submetidos ao teste t não pareado com nível de significância de 5%. A porcentagem de preenchimento e vazios entre os canais radiculares preenchidos com AHP ou NMTAP foi semelhante (p>0,05). NMTAP apresentou o menor escoamento no teste convencional (p<0,05). Utilizando μCT, os cimentos apresentaram PCC, PCL e escoamento linear semelhantes (p>0,05). Em conclusão, NMTAP e AHP apresentaram capacidade de preenchimento semelhante em canais mesiais curvos de molares inferiores sem presença de istmo. Embora o AHP tenha apresentado melhor escoamento que o NMTAP usando a metodologia ISO, não houve diferença entre esses materiais em relação ao preenchimento volumétrico quando avaliados por μCT.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Filling Materials , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Root Canal Obturation , Root Canal Preparation , X-Ray Microtomography , Gutta-Percha
20.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(5): 505-510, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132327

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study used microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) images to assess the prevalence, number, and location of apical ramifications (ARs) in the root canals of different dental groups in a Brazilian population. Three hundred and sixty-seven extracted human teeth, totaling 475 roots, were scanned by micro-CT at 19.6 µm spatial resolution. The obtained images were evaluated by two observers in consensus, and a descriptive analysis was performed to verify the prevalence, number, and location of ARs in each dental group. Chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of ARs in different types of roots, and one-way analysis of variance compared the number of ARs in the apical 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm of the root. Significance level was established at 5% (α=0.05). ARs were present in 253 (53.3%) of the 475 roots evaluated. A total of 607 ARs were detected, with the vast majority (530) located at one and two millimeters from the main foramen. The highest prevalence of ARs was observed in maxillary canines (65%); maxillary premolars - single-rooted (83.3%), buccal root (80%), and palatine root (73.3%); mandibular premolars (64.2%); mesiobuccal root of maxillary molars (76.6%); and mesial root of mandibular molars (66.6%). For the Brazilian population, most of the ARs are located in the apical 1 and 2 mm of the root, with greater prevalence in the posterior teeth and maxillary canines. These findings suggest the need for additional attention while planning endodontic treatments, including strategies to effectively clean and fill the apical region.


Resumo O presente estudo utilizou imagens de microtomografia computadorizada (MicroCT) para avaliar a prevalência, número e localização de ramificações apicais (RAs) dos canais radiculares de diferentes grupos dentários em uma população brasileira. Trezentos e sessenta e sete dentes humanos extraídos (totalizando 475 raízes) foram escaneados em um aparelho de MicroCT, com uma resolução espacial de 19,6 µm. As imagens foram analisadas em consenso por dois avaliadores, e uma análise descritiva foi realizada para verificar a prevalência, número e localização de RAs em cada grupo dentário. O teste Qui-quadrado foi utilizado para comparar a prevalência de RAs em diferentes tipos de raízes e a análise de variância (ANOVA - um critério) comparou o número de RAs em 1 mm, 2 mm e 3 mm apicais da raiz. O nível de significância foi estabelecido em 5% (α=0,05). As RAs estavam presentes em 253 (53,3%) das 475 raízes avaliadas. Foram detectadas 607 RAs com a maioria (530) localizada a 1 e 2 milímetros do forame principal. A mais alta prevalência de RAs foi observada nos caninos superiores (65%); pré-molares superiores - unirradiculares (83,3%), raiz vestibular (80%) e raiz palatina (73,3%); pré-molares inferiores (64,2%); raiz mésio-vestibular dos molares superiores (76,6%); e raiz mesial dos molares inferiores (66,6%). Na população brasileira, a maioria dos RAs está localizada em 1 e 2 mm apicais da raiz, com maior prevalência nos dentes posteriores e nos caninos superiores. Esses achados sugerem atenção adicional ao planejar um tratamento endodôntico, bem como adoção de estratégias para uma limpeza e obturação efetiva da região apical dos dentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Root , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Brazil , X-Ray Microtomography , Molar
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