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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921624

ABSTRACT

Hypericum species are distributed widely in China, especially in the southwest. This genus is rich in species types in China, including 55 species and 8 subspecies. The main chemical constituents of Hypericum species are flavonoids, xanthones and polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols(PPAPs). PPAPs are characterized by polycyclic and branched-chain substitutions in their structures, which make their structure types diverse. Moreover, they have been found to have antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and other biological activities. This research classified and summarized 344 polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols from Hypericum plants in order to provide a scientific basis for further development and utilization of PPAPs from the genus.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids , Hypericum , Molecular Structure , Phloroglucinol/pharmacology , Xanthones
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880618

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Chondrocyte apoptosis is an important process in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Mangiferin exerts multiple pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis. However, the role of mangiferin in chondrocyte apoptosis is not clear. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of mangiferin in IL-1β-induced chondrocyte apoptosis.@*METHODS@#ATDC5 cells were randomly divided into a control group, a IL-1β group, a MFN-L group, a MFN-M group, a MFN-H group and a MFN+LY294002 group. Cells in the control group were treated with IL-1β (10 ng/mL) for 24 h; cells in the MFN-L group, the MFN-M group and the MFN-H group were pretreated with 5, 10 and 20 μmol/L mangiferin for 1 h respectively, and then they were treated with IL-1β (10 ng/mL) for 24 h; cells in the MFN+LY294002 group were treated with LY294002 (25 μmol/L) for 1 h, then mangiferin (20 μmol/L) and IL-1β (10 ng/mL) for 1 h and 24 h, respectively. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay and cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. Colorimetric assay was conducted to measure the caspase-3 activity. The protein levels of Bcl-2, Bax, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway related proteins were detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared to the control group, cell viability was significantly decreased; cell apoptosis, caspase-3 activity and Bax protein expression were significantly increased; the protein levels of Bcl-2, p-PI3K, and p-Akt were significantly decreased in the IL-1β group (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#Mangiferin could attenuate IL-1β-induced apoptosis of the mice chondrocytes, which is mediated by the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Chondrocytes , Interleukin-1beta , Mice , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Xanthones
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827968

ABSTRACT

To investigate the inhibitory effects of two xanthone compounds, 1-hydroxy-2,3,4,8-4 methoxy xanthone(here in after referred to as Fr15) and 1-hydroxy-2,3,4,6-4 methoxy xanthone(here in after referred to as Fr17), on the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2, and to further investigate their mechanism in combination with transcriptomics. Cell counting was used to detect the effects of two kinds of xanthone compounds Fr15 and Fr17(0, 0.03, 0.15, 0.3 mmoL·L~(-1)) on the proliferation of HepG2 cells; the effects of the two compounds Fr15 and Fr17 on HepG2 cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry; the changes of autophagosomes count in cells were observed under fluorescence microscope; the expression of autophagy marker proteins autophagy marker proteins SQSTM 1(p62) and microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 Ⅰ/Ⅱ(LC3 Ⅰ/Ⅱ) in the cells was detected by Western blot; the differentially expressed genes between the control group and the experimental group were analyzed by RNA-seq transcriptome sequencing; qRT-PCR was used to verify the differentially expressed genes in sequencing. The results showed that compounds Fr15 and Fr17 inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells with the increase of drug concentration and time. Flow cytometry showed that compounds Fr15 and Fr17 had little effect on HepG2 cell cycle. Fluorescence microscopy results showed that the number of autophagosomes in cells increased with the increase of drug concentration. Western blot showed that the expression of p62 protein was decreased and the expression of LC3-Ⅱ protein was significantly increased after drug addition. The results of RNA sequencing showed that 26 102 and 52 351 differentially expressed genes were obtained in Fr15 and Fr17 respectively. Analysis of KEGG showed that drug treatment had a great effect on autophagy pathway. qRT-PCR verified that 6 up-regulated genes were related to autophagy, and their trend was consis-tent with sequencing results, where all 6 genes showed an up-regulated trend. Two xanthone compounds Fr15 and Fr17 may inhibit proliferation of HepG2 cells by inducing autophagy.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Autophagy , Cell Cycle , Hep G2 Cells , Xanthones
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763527

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Garcinia mangostana Linn., commonly known as mangosteen, is a tropical fruit with a thick pericarp rind containing bioactive compounds that may be beneficial as an adjunctive treatment for schizophrenia. The biological underpinnings of schizophrenia are believed to involve altered neurotransmission, inflammation, redox systems, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neurogenesis. Mangosteen pericarp contains xanthones which may target these biological pathways and improve symptoms; this is supported by preclinical evidence. Here we outline the protocol for a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of adjunctive mangosteen pericarp (1,000 mg/day), compared to placebo, in the treatment of schizophrenia. METHODS: We aim to recruit 150 participants across two sites (Geelong and Brisbane). Participants diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder will be randomized to receive 24 weeks of either adjunctive 1,000 mg/day of mangosteen pericarp or matched placebo, in addition to their usual treatment. The primary outcome measure is mean change in the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (total score) over the 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes include positive and negative symptoms, general psychopathology, clinical global severity and improvement, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, functioning, participants reported overall improvement, substance use, cognition, safety and biological data. A 4-week post treatment interview at week 28 will explore post-discontinuations effects. RESULTS: Ethical and governance approvals were gained and the trial commenced. CONCLUSION: A positive finding in this study has the potential to provide a new adjunctive treatment option for people with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. It may also lead to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of the disorder.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Depression , Fruit , Garcinia mangostana , Garcinia , Inflammation , Neurogenesis , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress , Psychopathology , Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia , Synaptic Transmission , Xanthones
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774305

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of mangiferin on proliferation, apoptosis and cycle of FLT3-ITD mutation-positive acute myeloid leukemia cells and its mechanism.@*METHODS@#The effects of different concentration of mangiferin on proliferation of MV4-11 cells were detected by CCK8 method. Apoptosis, cell cycle and FLT3 transmembrane protein expression were detected by flow cytometry. FLT3 mRNA expression was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) .@*RESULTS@#Mangiferin obviously inhibited MV4-11 proliferation in a concentration and time dependent manner (48 h,r=0.922;72 h,r=0.959;96 h,r=0.973). The ratio of G0/G1 phase in cell cycle increased with the enhancement of concentration of mangiferin in MV4-11 cells for 48 h, and the ratio of S phase decreased with enhasment of concentration. The increase of apoptosis was more obvious. The expression of FLT3 transmembrane protein significantly decreased after the actior of IC50 concentration of mangiferin in MV4-11 cells for 48 h. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the expression of FLT3 mRNA significantly decreased after treatment of MN4-11 cells with mangiferin (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Mangiferin inhibits MV4-11 cell proliferation, arrests cell cycle progression and promotes apoptosis, which may be related with the inhibition of FLT3 activity by mangiferin and the subsequent signaling pathways involved in apoptosis and proliferation of cells.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Mutation , Xanthones , fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813149

ABSTRACT

To observe the protective effect of alpha-mangostin (α-MG) on focal segmental glomurular sclerosis (FSGS) induced by adriamycin.
 Methods: Adriamycin nephropathy (AN) model was induced by adriamycin (10 mg/kg) via a tail vein. Then the mice were treated with α-MG (12.5 mg/kg) or normal salin once daily for 6 weeks. At the end of 6 weeks, the mice were sacrificed, and the kidneys and blood samples were collected. Histopathology of the kidneys were analyzed under the optical microscope. The serum levels of biochemical indicators, such as serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and cholesterol were determined. The levels of superoxide anion, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in kidney tissues were determined. Serum levels of IL-1β, IL-18, IL-10 and adiponectin were determined. The levels of TGF-β1, collagen I (Col I), α-SMA, silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1) and the nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) in kidney tissues were determined using immunohistochemical staining, Western blot, and RT-PCR.
 Results: The levels of SCr, proteinuria, urine protein to creatinine ratio and serum cholesterol were attenuated in AN mice after α-MG treatment, while creatinine clearance rate and serum albumin were upregulated (P<0.05). α-MG treatment alleviated the glomerular and interstitial fibrosis, downregulated the expression of fibrosis markers, such as Col I and α-SMA (P<0.05). α-MG treatment reduced the production of superoxide anion, the levels of MDA and GSH, and increased the activity of CAT and SOD (P<0.05). α-MG treatment inhibitd the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β and IL-18 and promoted the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as the IL-10 and adiponectin (P<0.05); α-MG treatment promoted the expression of Sirt1, inhibitd the expression of NLRP3 in kidney tissues (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: α-MG could attenuates FSGS of mice induced by adriamycin ameliorate and improve renal function. α-MG exerts its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects by up-regulation the expression of Sirt1 and suppression of NLRP3.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Doxorubicin , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental , Kidney , Mice , Mice, Inbred NOD , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Xanthones , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812410

ABSTRACT

Chemical examination of an EtOAc extract of cultured Aspergillus versicolor fungus from deep-sea sediments resulted in the isolation of four xanthones, eight anthraquinones and five alkaloids, including a new xanthone, oxisterigmatocystin D (1) and a new alkaloid, aspergillusine A (13). High resolution electron impact mass spectrometry (HR-EI-MS), FT-IR spectroscopy, and NMR techniques were used to elucidate the structures of these compounds, and the absolute configuration of compound 1 was established by its NMR features and coupling constant. Furthermore, the biosynthesis pathway of these xanthones and anthraquinones were deduced, and their antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity in human cancer cell lines (HTC-8, Bel-7420, BGC-823, A549, and A2780) were evaluated. The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay indicated most of the xanthones and anthraquinones possessing moderate antioxidant activities. The Nrf2-dependent luciferase reporter gene assay revealed that compounds 6, 7, 9, and 12 potentially activated the expression of Nrf2-regulated gene. In addition, compounds 5 and 11 showed weak cytotoxicity on A with the IC values of 25.97 and 25.60 μmol·L, respectively.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones , Antioxidants , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Aspergillus , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Gene Expression , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Structure , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Genetics , Metabolism , Seawater , Microbiology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Xanthones , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741612

ABSTRACT

The present study was undertaken to investigate the isolated compounds from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis as potential cholinesterase inhibitors and the ligand-enzyme interactions of selected bioactive compounds in silico. The in vitro cholinesterase results showed that quercetin (3) was the most active AChE inhibitor (12.65 ± 1.57 µg/ml) while garcinexanthone G (6) was the most active BChE inhibitor (18.86 ± 2.41 µg/ml). It is noteworthy to note that compound 6 was a selective inhibitor with the selectivity index of 11.82. Molecular insight from docking interaction further substantiate that orientation of compound 6 in the catalytic site which enhanced its binding affinity as compared to other xanthones. The nature of protein-ligand interactions of compound 6 is mainly hydrogen bonding, and the hydroxyl group of compound 6 at C-10 is vital in BChE inhibition activity. Therefore, compound 6 is a notable lead for further drug design and development of BChE selective inhibitor.


Subject(s)
Butyrylcholinesterase , Catalytic Domain , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Cholinesterases , Computer Simulation , Drug Design , Garcinia , Hydrogen Bonding , In Vitro Techniques , Quercetin , Xanthones
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773620

ABSTRACT

Chemical examination of an EtOAc extract of cultured Aspergillus versicolor fungus from deep-sea sediments resulted in the isolation of four xanthones, eight anthraquinones and five alkaloids, including a new xanthone, oxisterigmatocystin D (1) and a new alkaloid, aspergillusine A (13). High resolution electron impact mass spectrometry (HR-EI-MS), FT-IR spectroscopy, and NMR techniques were used to elucidate the structures of these compounds, and the absolute configuration of compound 1 was established by its NMR features and coupling constant. Furthermore, the biosynthesis pathway of these xanthones and anthraquinones were deduced, and their antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity in human cancer cell lines (HTC-8, Bel-7420, BGC-823, A549, and A2780) were evaluated. The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay indicated most of the xanthones and anthraquinones possessing moderate antioxidant activities. The Nrf2-dependent luciferase reporter gene assay revealed that compounds 6, 7, 9, and 12 potentially activated the expression of Nrf2-regulated gene. In addition, compounds 5 and 11 showed weak cytotoxicity on A with the IC values of 25.97 and 25.60 μmol·L, respectively.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones , Antioxidants , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Aspergillus , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Gene Expression , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Structure , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Genetics , Metabolism , Seawater , Microbiology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Xanthones , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773570

ABSTRACT

As the chemotherapeutic resistance of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) rises year by year, searching for novel chemoprevention compounds has become imminent. Gambogic acid (GA) has recently been shown to have anti-tumor effects, but its role and underling mechanism in ENKTL are rather elusive. In the present study, we showed that GA inhibited the cell growth and potently induced the apoptosis of ENKTL cells in vitro in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, GA induced cell death through endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) mediated suppression of Akt signaling pathways and finally the release of the caspase-3 proteases. Overall, our data provided evidences supporting GA as a potential therapeutic agent for ENKTL, which may facilitate further preclinical development of anti-tumor drugs.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Humans , Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Genetics , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Xanthones , Pharmacology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812359

ABSTRACT

As the chemotherapeutic resistance of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) rises year by year, searching for novel chemoprevention compounds has become imminent. Gambogic acid (GA) has recently been shown to have anti-tumor effects, but its role and underling mechanism in ENKTL are rather elusive. In the present study, we showed that GA inhibited the cell growth and potently induced the apoptosis of ENKTL cells in vitro in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, GA induced cell death through endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) mediated suppression of Akt signaling pathways and finally the release of the caspase-3 proteases. Overall, our data provided evidences supporting GA as a potential therapeutic agent for ENKTL, which may facilitate further preclinical development of anti-tumor drugs.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Humans , Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Genetics , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Xanthones , Pharmacology
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812129

ABSTRACT

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) is a well-known tropical tree indigenous to Southeast Asia. Its fruit's pericarp abounds with a class of isoprenylated xanthones which are referred as mangostins. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that mangostins and their derivatives possess diverse pharmacological activities, such as antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic activities as well as neuroprotective properties in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review article provides a comprehensive review of the pharmacological activities of mangostins and their derivatives to reveal their promising utilities in the treatment of certain important diseases, mainly focusing on the discussions of the underlying molecular targets/pathways, modes of action, and relevant structure-activity relationships (SARs). Meanwhile, the pharmacokinetics (PK) profile and recent toxicological studies of mangostins are also described for further druggability exploration in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Infective Agents , Pharmacology , Anticarcinogenic Agents , Pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Cardiovascular Agents , Pharmacology , Fruit , Chemistry , Garcinia mangostana , Chemistry , Humans , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Xanthones , Pharmacology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812077

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to explore the mechanism by which ethanol extract of Bombax ceiba leaves (BCE) and its main constituent mangiferin (MGF) affect diabetic nephropathy by combating oxidative stress. Oral administration of BCE and MGF to normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were carried out. Fasting blood glucose, 24-h urinary albumin, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen were tested, histopathology, and immunohistochemical analysis of kidney tissues were performed. Moreover, mesangial cells were treated with BCE and MGF for 48 h with or without 25 mmol·L of glucose. Immunofluorescence, Western blot and apoptosis analyses were used to investigate their regulation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function. BCE and MGF ameliorated biochemical parameters and restored STZ-induced renal injury in the model mice. In vitro study showed that high glucose stimulation increased oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in mesangial cells. BCE and MGF limited mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) collapse by inhibiting Nox4, mitochondrially bound hexokinase II dissociation, and subsequent ROS production, which effectively reduced oxidative stress, cleaved caspase-3 expression and cell apoptosis. Our work indicated that BCE and MGF had protective effects on diabetic caused kidney injury and prevented oxidative stress in mesangial cells by regulation of hexokinase II binding and Nox4 oxidase signaling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose , Metabolism , Bombax , Chemistry , Caspase 3 , Genetics , Metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Humans , Male , Mice , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Xanthones
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812070

ABSTRACT

Adipose tissue hypoxia has been recognized as the initiation of insulin resistance syndromes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of mangiferin on the insulin signaling pathway and explore whether mangiferin could ameliorate insulin resistance caused by hypoxia in adipose tissue. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated under normal and hypoxic conditions, respectively. Protein expressions were analyzed by Western blotting. Inflammatory cytokines and HIF-1-dependent genes were tested by ELISA and q-PCR, respectively. The glucose uptake was detected by fluorescence microscopy. HIF-1α was abundantly expressed during 8 h of hypoxic incubation. Inflammatory reaction was activated by up-regulated NF-κB phosphorylation and released cytokines like IL-6 and TNF-α. Glucose uptake was inhibited and insulin signaling pathway was damaged as well. Mangiferin substantially inhibited the expression of HIF-1α. Lactate acid and lipolysis, products released by glycometabolism and lipolysis, were also inhibited. The expression of inflammatory cytokines was significantly reduced and the damaged insulin signaling pathway was restored to proper functional level. The glucose uptake of hypoxic adipocytes was promoted and the dysfunction of adipocytes was relieved. These results showed that mangiferin could not only improve the damaged insulin signaling pathway in hypoxic adipocytes, but also ameliorate inflammatory reaction and insulin resistance caused by hypoxia.


Subject(s)
3T3-L1 Cells , Adipocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Adipokines , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Animals , Cell Hypoxia , Glucose , Metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Insulin , Metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Mice , NF-kappa B , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Oxygen , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Xanthones , Pharmacology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286870

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) in enhancing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in a rat macrophage cell line and the effect of the media from PGE2-inuced rat macrophages on angiogenetic ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Western blotting and qPCR were employed to investigate the expressions of VEGF protein and mRNAs in rat macrophage cell line NR8383 stimulated by PGE2 in the presence or absence of EP2 receptor inhibitor (AH6809) and EP4 receptor inhibitor (AH23848). Conditioned supernatants were obtained from different NR8383 subsets to stimulate HUVECs, and the tube formation ability and migration of the HUVECs were assessed with Transwell assay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>PGE2 stimulation significantly enhanced the expression of VEGF protein and mRNAs in NR8383 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The supernatants from NR8383 cells stimulated by PGE2 significantly enhanced tube formation ability of HUVECs (P<0.05) and promoted the cell migration. Such effects of PGE2 were blocked by the application of AH6809 and AH23848.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>PGE2 can dose-dependently increase VEGF expression in NR8383 cells, and the supernatants derived from PGE2-stimulated NR8383 cells can induce HUVEC migration and accelerate the growth of tube like structures. PGE2 are essential to corpus luteum formation by stimulating macrophages to induce angiogenesis through EP2/EP4.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Cell Movement , Cells, Cultured , Culture Media, Conditioned , Pharmacology , Dinoprostone , Pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Cell Biology , Humans , Macrophages , Chemistry , Neovascularization, Pathologic , RNA, Messenger , Rats , Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP2 Subtype , Metabolism , Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP4 Subtype , Metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Xanthones , Pharmacology
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(12): 1109-1114, Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762913

ABSTRACT

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus that may result in blindness. We evaluated the effects of activation of endogenous angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 2 on the early stages of DR. Rats were administered an intravenous injection of streptozotocin to induce hyperglycemia. The ACE2 activator 1-[[2-(dimethylamino) ethyl] amino]-4-(hydroxymethyl)-7-[[(4-methylphenyl) sulfonyl] oxy]-9H-xanthone 9 (XNT) was administered by daily gavage. The death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) was evaluated in histological sections, and retinal ACE2, caspase-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. XNT treatment increased ACE2 expression in retinas of hyperglycemic (HG) rats (control: 13.81±2.71 area%; HG: 14.29±4.30 area%; HG+XNT: 26.87±1.86 area%; P<0.05). Importantly, ACE2 activation significantly increased the RCG number in comparison with HG animals (control: 553.5±14.29; HG: 530.8±10.3 cells; HG+XNT: 575.3±16.5 cells; P<0.05). This effect was accompanied by a reduction in the expression of caspase-3 in RGC of the HG+XNT group when compared with untreated HG rats (control: 18.74±1.59; HG: 38.39±3.39 area%; HG+XNT: 27.83±2.80 area%; P<0.05). Treatment with XNT did not alter the VEGF expression in HG animals (P>0.05). Altogether, these findings indicate that activation of ACE2 reduced the death of retinal ganglion cells by apoptosis in HG rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Hyperglycemia/complications , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Retinal Diseases/etiology , Retinal Diseases/prevention & control , Secondary Prevention/methods , Administration, Oral , Apoptosis , /metabolism , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Cell Survival/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Enzyme Activation , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Immunohistochemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Retinal Diseases/metabolism , Retinal Ganglion Cells/metabolism , Retinal Ganglion Cells/pathology , Streptozocin , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Xanthones/administration & dosage
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(1): 223-233, Jan.-Mar. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753788

ABSTRACT

Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world with application in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control, garden and aquatic environments. However, its use is highly controversial for the possible impact on not-target organisms, such as amphibians, which are vanishing at an alarming and rapid rate. Due to the high solubility in water and ionic nature, the glyphosate requires of surfactants to increase activity. In addition, for the control of coca (Erythroxylum coca) and agricultural weeds in Colombia, formulated glyphosate is mixed and sprayed with the adjuvant Cosmo-Flux®411F to increase the penetration and activity of the herbicide. This study evaluates the acute toxic and sublethal effects (embryonic development, tadpole body size, tadpole swimming performance) of the mixture of the formulated glyphosate Roundup® Active and Cosmo-Flux®411F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species under 96h laboratory standard tests and microcosms, which are more similar to field conditions as they include soil, sand and macrophytes. In the laboratory, embryos and tadpoles of Engystomops pustulosus were the most tolerant (LC50=3 904µg a.e./L; LC50=2 799µg a.e./L, respectively), while embryos and tadpoles of Hypsiboas crepitans (LC50=2 203µg a.e./L; LC50=1 424µg a.e./L, respectively) were the most sensitive. R. humboldti and R. marina presented an intermediate toxicity. Embryos were significantly more tolerant to the mixture than tadpoles, which could be likely attributed to the exclusion of chemicals by the embryonic membranes and the lack of organs, such as gills, which are sensitive to surfactants. Sublethal effects were observed for the tadpole body size, but not for the embryonic development and tadpole swimming performance. In microcosms, no toxicity (LC50 could not be estimated), or sublethal responses were observed at concentrations up to fourfold (14.76kg glyphosate a.e./ha) the highest field application rate of 3.69kg glyphosate a.e./ha. Thus, toxicity was less in the microcosms than in laboratory tests, which may be attributed to the presence of sediments and organic matter which rapidly adsorb glyphosate and surfactants such as POEA. It is concluded that the mixture of glyphosate (Roundup® Active) and Cosmo-Flux®411F, as used in the field, has a negligible toxic effect to embryos and tadpoles of the species tested in this study.


El glifosato es el herbicida más usado en el mundo con aplicaciones para la agricultura, control de malezas forestales, industriales, en jardines y ambientes acuáticos. Sin embargo, su uso es altamente controversial por el posible impacto sobre organismos no blanco, como los anfibios, los cuales están desapareciendo a una tasa alarmantemente rápida. Debido a su alta solubilidad en agua y naturaleza iónica, el glifosato requiere de surfactantes para incrementar su actividad. Además, para el control de Erythroxylum coca y de malezas en la agricultura en Colombia, el glifosato formulado es mezclado y rociado con el coadyuvante Cosmo-Flux®411F para incrementar la penetración y actividad del herbicida. Este estudio evalúa los efectos tóxicos agudos y subletales (desarrollo embrionario, tamaño corporal y desempeño natatorio de los renacuajos) de la mezcla del glifosato formulado Roundup® Activo con el Cosmo-Flux®411F en embriones y renacuajos de cuatro especies de anuros colombianos, bajo pruebas de 96h en condiciones estándar de laboratorio y microcosmos, que son más similares a las condiciones de campo al incluir tierra, arena y macrófitas. En laboratorio, los embriones y renacuajos de Engystomops pustulosus fueron los más tolerantes (CL50=3 904µg a.e./L; CL50=2 799µg a.e./L, respectivamente), mientras que los embriones y renacuajos de Hypsiboas crepitans fueron los más sensibles (CL50=2 203µg a.e./L; CL50=1 424µg a.e./L, respectivamente). R. humboldti y R. marina presentaron una toxicidad intermedia. Los embriones fueron más tolerantes a la mezcla que los renacuajos, lo cual podría ser atribuido a la exclusión de los químicos por las membranas embrionarias y a la falta de órganos, como las branquias, que son más sensibles a los surfactantes. Se observaron efectos subletales en el tamaño corporal de los renacuajos, pero no en el desarrollo embrionario ni el desempeño natatorio de los renacuajos. En microcosmos no se observaron efectos tóxicos ni respuestas subletales a concentraciones hasta cuatro veces (14.67kg glifosato a.e./ha) la tasa de aplicación más alta de 3.69kg glifosato a.e./ha. Por lo tanto, la toxicidad fue menor en los microcosmos que en las pruebas de laboratorio, lo que puede ser atribuido a la presencia de sedimentos y materia orgánica que absorbe rápidamente el glifosato y surfactantes como el POEA. Se concluye que la mezcla del glifosato (Roundup® Activo) y Cosmo-Flux®411F, como se aplica en campo, tiene un efecto tóxico bajo en los embriones y renacuajos de las especies estudiadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anura , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Herbicides/toxicity , Larva/drug effects , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Xanthones/toxicity , Anura/classification , Colombia , Glycine/toxicity , Toxicity Tests, Acute
18.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015; 28 (2): 425-429
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-178136

ABSTRACT

Structure-activity relationships of eleven xanthones were comparatively predicted for four cancer cell lines after the compounds were subjected to antiproliferative assay against B-lymphocyte cells [Raji], colon carcinoma cells [LS174T], human neuroblastoma cells [IMR-32] and skin carcinoma cells [SK-MEL-28]. The eleven chemical constituents were obtained naturally from the stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum and Calophyllum soulattri. Inophinnin [1] and inophinone [2] were isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum while soulattrin [3] and phylattrin [4] were found from Calophyllum soulattri. The other xanthones were from both Calophyllum sp. and they are pyranojacareubin [5], rheediaxanthone A [6], macluraxanthone [7], 4-hydroxyxanthone [8], caloxanthone C [9], brasixanthone B [10] and trapezifolixanthone [11]. Compound 3 was found to be the most cytotoxic towards all the cancer cell lines with an IC[50] value of 1.25[micro]g/mL while the simplest xanthone, compound 8 was inactive


Subject(s)
Xanthones , Plant Extracts , Cell Line, Tumor
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812482

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to investigate the chemical constituents of the roots of Cudrania fruticosa Wight. Compounds were isolated by various column chromatographic methods including silica gel, polyamide, sephadex LH-20, and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR techniques, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. Two new xanthones, Cudraxanthone T and U (1-2), along with four known compounds (3-6) were isolated from the roots of Cudrania fruticosa Wight.


Subject(s)
Molecular Structure , Moraceae , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Xanthones , Chemistry
20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1252-1257, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320093

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of gambognic acid (GA) on TRAIL-induced apoptosis of cancer cells, human colon HT-29 cancer cells were treated with GA to promote apoptosis. Inhibition of the cell proliferation was measured with MTT assay and cell apoptosis was detected with formation of DNA ladders in agarose gel electrophoresis, and activation of caspase activity. The content of cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured with flow cytometry. The activities of Caspase-3, -8, -9 were detected using spectrophotometric assay. The levels of c-FLIP, CHOP, DR4 and DR5 in cells were tested by Western blot. Combination of GA (1 µg · mL(-1)) and TRAIL (40 ng · mL(-1)) significantly reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of HT-29 cells over those induced by each agent alone. Percentage of apoptotic cells was increased to 45.5%. GA markedly enhanced the intracellular ROS generation. Expression of CHOP, DR4 and DR5 was up-regulated to 7.38, 5.41, and 4.85 times of the control group, respectively. GA promoted activation of Caspase-3, -8, and -9 by TRAIL (P<0.05). Furthermore, the expression of anti-apoptotic protein c-FLIP was down-regulated to 0.22 ± 0.08 times of the control group. In conclusion, GA sensitizes HT-29 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by promoting ROS-activated ERS pathways, up-regulating of DR4 and DR5, and inhibiting c-FLIP expression.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Metabolism , Caspases , Metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Colonic Neoplasms , Metabolism , Down-Regulation , HT29 Cells , Humans , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand , Pharmacology , Up-Regulation , Xanthones , Pharmacology
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