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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 40-49, May. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Scavenger receptor class B (SRB) is a multifunctional protein in animals that participates in physiological processes, including recognition of a wide range of ligands. Astaxanthin is a major carotenoid found in shrimp. However, the molecular mechanism of astaxanthin and SRB protein binding has not been reported. RESULTS: In the present study, a member of the SRB subfamily, named PmSRB, was identified from the transcriptome of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The open reading frame of PmSRB was 1557 bp in length and encoded 518 amino acids. The structure of PmSRB included a putative transmembrane structure at the N-terminal region and a CD36 domain. Multiple sequence alignment indicated that the CD36 domain were conserved. Phylogenetic analysis showed four separate branches (SRA, SRB, SRC, and croquemort) in the phylogenetic tree and that PmSRB was clustered with SRB of Eriocheir sinensis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the PmSRB gene was widely expressed in all tissues tested, with the highest expression level observed in the lymphoid organ and brain. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that PmSRB-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion proteins were predominantly localized in the cell membrane. The recombinant proteins of PmSRB showed binding activities against astaxanthin in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: PmSRB was identified and characterized in this study. It is firstly reported that PmSRB may take as an important mediator of astaxanthin uptake in shrimp.


Subject(s)
Animals , Penaeidae , Receptors, Scavenger/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Blotting, Western , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Sequence Alignment , Xanthophylls , Receptors, Scavenger/isolation & purification , Receptors, Scavenger/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Transcriptome
2.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1312-1317, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888558

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of astaxanthin (ASTA) on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in suspended leukocyte-depleted red blood cells stored for transfusion.@*METHODS@#The suspended leukocyte-depleted red blood cells were randomly divided into group A, B, C and D. The ASTA was added into preservation solution of suspended leukocyte-depleted red blood cells of group B, C and D with the final concentration 5, 10 and 20 μmol/L, respectively, while DMSO was added into cells of group A in the same volume. After 7, 14, 28 and 42 days of storage, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in red blood cells was detected by fluorescence microplate reader, malondialdehyde (MDA) content was detected by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method, activity of SOD was detected by xanthine oxidase method, the activity of CAT was detected by visible light method, and activity of GSH-Px was detected by colorimetry.@*RESULTS@#After 7, 14, 28 and 42 days of storage, the contents of ROS and MDA in suspended red blood cells of group B, C and D were significantly lower(P<0.05), while the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were higher than those of group A(P<0.05); and CAT activity in cells treated by ASTA was significantly higher at 28 and 42 days of storage in comparison with that of group A(P<0.05). There were positive correlations between the ROS, MDA content in suspended red blood cells of group A, B, C, D and storage time(P<0.01), while negative correlation between SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activity and storage time(P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#ASTA can decrease the oxidative stress level and peroxide damage degree by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities in suspended leukocyte-depleted red blood cells during storage.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Catalase/metabolism , Erythrocytes , Leukocytes , Oxidative Stress , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Xanthophylls
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880649

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) are important source of periodontal tissue reconstruction. Under chronic inflammation, the multi-directional differentiation potential and chemotaxis in hPDLCs are decreased. Therefore, inhibiting inflammatory microenvironment and improving the functional characteristics of stem cells can better promote periodontal tissue reconstruction. This study was to investigate the effect of astaxanthin (AST) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in hPDLCs and the underlying mechanisms.@*METHODS@#hPDLCs were isolated and cultured in vitro, and vimentin and keratin immunocytochemical staining were used to identify hPDLCs. CCK-8 assay was used to measure the effects of AST (1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L) on proliferation of hPDLCs. Quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) and ELISA were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression of inflammatory factors (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α) in the control (Con) group, the LPS group, and the LPS+AST (5, 10, 20, and 50 μmol/L) group. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression of IKBα, phosphorylated IKBα (p-IKBα), and p65 in the Con group, the LPS group, the AST (20 μmol/L) group, and the LPS+AST (20 μmol/L) group. After 10 μmol/L PDTC treatment, the mRNA and protein expressions of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α were detected by RT-qPCR and ELISA.@*RESULTS@#Cell morphology and immunocytochemical staining showed that the cells were in line with the characteristics of hPDLCs. Treatment with AST could promote the proliferation of hPDLCs, which reached the peak at 20 μmol/L. The mRNA and protein expressions of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the LPS group were higher than those in the Con group (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#AST promotes the proliferation of hPDLCs, which is related to suppression of LPS-induced the secretion of inflammatory factors via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Cells, Cultured , Humans , Inflammation/chemically induced , Lipopolysaccharides , NF-kappa B , Periodontal Ligament , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Xanthophylls
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878926

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to study the effect and mechanism of fucoxanthin on insulin resistance of obese mice induced by high-fat diet. Fifty C57 BL/6 J male mice were randomly divided into control group and high-fat diet group. The insulin resistance model was induced with high-fat diet for 12 weeks, and model mice were randomly divided into model group, fucoxanthin-0.2% group, fucoxanthin-0.4% group and metformin group. After dietary treatment for 6 weeks, the body weight and epididymal fat weight in each group were measured. Fasting blood glucose(FBG), fasting insulin(FINS), total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), low-density lipoprotein(LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein(HDL-C) were measured, and insulin resistance index(HOMA-IR) was calcula-ted. The pathological morphology in liver was observed by hematoxylin eosin staining, and the expressions of some key proteins in insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS-1)/posphoinositide 3-kinase(PI3 K)/serine-threonine kinase(Akt) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ(PPARγ)/sterol regulatory element binding protein-1(SREBP-1)/fatty acid synthetase(FAS) pathways in liver were detected by Western blot. According to the findings, compared with the model group, levels of body weight, epididymal fat weight, FBG, FINS, TC, TG, LDL-C and HOMA-IR, as well as protein expressions of PPARγ, SREBP-1 and FAS in liver were significantly reduced(P<0.05 or P<0.01), while level of HDL-C and protein expressions of p-IRS-1, IRS-1, PI3 K and p-Akt in liver were signi-ficantly increased after treatment with fucoxanthin(P<0.05 or P<0.01). And the pathological changes of liver tissue in fucoxanthin-treated mice were also improved obviously. The results showed that fucoxanthin could improve obesity, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, and alleviate insulin resistance in obese mice, and its mechanism is possibly related to the regulation of IRS-1/PI3 K/Akt and PPARγ/SREBP-1/FAS pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Liver , Male , Mice , Mice, Obese , Xanthophylls
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1260-1276, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878629

ABSTRACT

The unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis is the best source of natural astaxanthin (AST) in the world due to its high content under stress conditions. Although high light (HL) can effectively induce AST biosynthesis, the specific mechanisms of light signal perception and transduction are unclear. In the current study, we used transcriptomic data of normal (N), high white light (W), and high blue light (B) to study the mechanisms of light inducing AST accumulation from the point of photoreceptors. The original data of 4.0 G, 3.8 G, and 3.6 G for N, W, and B were obtained, respectively, by the Illumina Hi-seq 2000 sequencing technology. Totally, 51 954 unigenes (at least 200 bp in length) were generated, of which, 20 537 unigenes were annotated into at least one database (NR, NT, KO, SwissProt, Pfam, GO, or KOG). There were 1 255 DEGs in the W vs N, 1 494 DEGs in the B vs N, and 1 008 DEGs in the both W vs N and B vs N. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, carotenoid biosynthesis, fatty acids biosynthesis, DNA replication, nitrogen metabolism, and carbon metabolism were the significantly enriched pathways. Moreover, a large number of genes encoding photoreceptors and predicted interacting proteins were predicted in Haematococcus transcriptome data. These genes showed significant differences at transcriptional expression levels. In addition, 15 related DEGs were selected and tested by qRT-PCR and the results were significantly correlated with the transcriptome data. The above results indicate that the signal transduction pathway of "light signal - photoreceptors - interaction proteins - (interaction proteins - transcription factor/transcriptional regulator) - gene expression - AST accumulation" might play important roles in the regulation process, and provide reference for further understanding the transcriptional regulation mechanisms of AST accumulation under HL stress.


Subject(s)
Chlorophyta/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Signal Transduction/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , Xanthophylls
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 988-997, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771829

ABSTRACT

Astaxanthin is widely applied as a nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and aquaculture feed additive because of its high antioxidant activity. Haematococcus pluvialis is a microalgal species that can largely accumulate astaxanthin under adverse environmental conditions. Here we review the research progress of astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis, including the induction and regulation of massive astaxanthin, the relationship between astaxanthin synthesis, photosynthesis and lipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Chlorophyceae , Chlorophyta , Microalgae , Xanthophylls
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 979-983, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954218

ABSTRACT

Turbinaria deccurrens Bory contains bioactive compound that is beneficial for health. Turbinaria deccurrens Bory is one of many species of brown seaweed that grows in Indonesian marine life and has been known to have cytotoxic activity. The aim of this study is to determine fucoxantin content and the cytotoxic activity of extract and fraction T. decurrens on colon cancer cell lines. Cytotoxic assay of ethanolic extract, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanolic fractions against HCT-116 by MTS assay using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Fucoxantin content in extract and fraction were analyzed using Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis. Extract and fraction of T. decurrens contain fucoxanthin with the highest content of fucoxanthin was in ethyl acetate fraction. CCK-8 assay showed that extract, n-hexane and ethyl acetate fraction inhibited the growth of HCT-116. Brown seaweed Turbinaria decurrens was potential as an anticolon cancer agent.


Turbinaria deccurrens Bory contiene compuestos bioactivos que son beneficiosos para la salud. Turbinaria deccurrens Bory es una de muchas especies de algas pardas que crecen en aguas marinas de Indonesia y se ha estudiado su actividad citotóxica. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el contenido de fucoxantina y la actividad citotóxica del extracto y la fracción de T. decurrens en líneas celulares de cáncer de colon. Se llevó a cabo un ensayo citotóxico de extracto etanólico, nhexano, acetato de etilo y fracciones etanólicas contra HCT-116 mediante ensayo MTS utilizando Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). El contenido de fucoxantina en el extracto y la fracción se analizaron usando cromatografía líquida de alta resolución de fase reversa (RP-HPLC). El extracto y la fracción de T. decurrens contienen fucoxantina conmayor contenido de fucoxantina en la fracción de acetato de etilo. El ensayo CCK-8 mostró que la fracción de extracto, n-hexano y acetato de etilo inhibía el crecimiento de HCT-116. El alga marrón Turbinaria decurrens es un agente potencial contra el cáncer de colon.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Xanthophylls/administration & dosage , HCT116 Cells/drug effects , Phaeophyta , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Xanthophylls/analysis , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 34: 37-42, july. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045997

ABSTRACT

Background: Astaxanthin from natural sources is typically esterified with fatty acids; hence, it must be hydrolyzed to remove esters before identification and quantification by conventional HPLC. Alkaline-catalyzed saponification and enzyme-catalyzed enzymolysis are the most commonly used de-esterification methods. However, information on the efficiency and isomerization during de-esterification of natural astaxanthin esters by these two methods remains scarce. Therefore, we conducted two HPLC-based experiments to determine which method is better for hydrolyzing astaxanthin esters. Results: To assess the effect of enzymolysis (0.67 U/mL cholesterol esterase, at 37°C) and saponification (0.021 M NaOH, at 5°C) conditions on free astaxanthin recovery and destruction or structural transformation of astaxanthin, we varied the total treatment time across a range of 195 min. The results showed that enzymolysis and saponification were complete in 60 min and 90 min, respectively. After complete hydrolysis, the maximum free astaxanthin recovery obtained by enzymolysis was 42.6% more than that obtained by saponification. The identification of by-products, semi-astacene and astacene, during the process of saponification also indicated that a more severe degradation of astaxanthin occurred during saponification. Moreover, the composition of astaxanthin isomers during saponification was similar to that of the isomers during enzymolysis between 30 min and 75 min (all-trans:9-cis:13-cis = 21:3:1, approximately) but dramatically changed after 90 min, whereas the composition in the enzymolysis treatment remained relatively stable throughout. Conclusion: Compared with saponification, enzymolysis with cholesterol esterase was recommended as a more accurate method for de-esterification of natural astaxanthin esters for further qualitative and quantitative HPLC analysis.


Subject(s)
Xanthophylls/chemistry , Esters/chemistry , Carotenoids , Xanthophylls/metabolism , Alkalies , Enzymes/metabolism , Esters/metabolism , Hydrolysis , Isomerism
9.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 206-211, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812785

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the improving effect of astaxanthin (AST) on the sperm quality of rats with ornidazole (ORN)-induced oligoasthenozoospermiaand its action mechanism.@*METHODS@#Forty adult male SD rats were equally randomized into groups A (solvent control), B (low-dose ORN [400 mg/(kg·d)]), C (high-dose ORN [800 mg/(kg·d)]), D (low-dose ORN [400 mg/(kg·d)] + AST [20 mg/(kg·d)]), and E (high-dose ORN [800 mg/(kg·d)] + AST [20 mg/(kg·d)]), all treated intragastrically for3 weeks.After treatment, the epididymal tails ononeside was taken for determination of sperm concentration and activity, and the epididymideson the other side harvested for measurement of the activities of GSH-Px, GR, CAT and SOD and the MDA contentin the homogenate.@*RESULTS@#Compared with group A, sperm motilityin the epididymal tail andGSH-Px and SOD activities in theepididymiswere markedly decreased while the MDAcontent significantlyincreased in group B (P<0.05), spermmotility and concentrationin the epididymal tail, testisindex, and the activities of GSH-Px, GR, CAT and SOD in the epididymis were remarkably reduced while theMDA contentsignificantly increased in group C(P<0.05). In comparison with group B, group D showed markedly increased sperm motility ([45.3±8.7]% vs [66.3±8.9]%, P<0.05) in the epididymal tail and SOD activity in the epididymis ([116.7±25.3] U/mg prot vs [146.1±23.8] U/mg prot, P<0.05), decreased MDA content([1.68±0.45] nmol/mg prot vs [1.19±0.42] nmol/mg prot, P<0.05).Compared with group C, group Eexhibited significant increases in the weight gained ([89.0±9.5] vs [99.9±4.1] %, P<0.05) and sperm motility ([17.9±3.5]% vs [27.3±5.3] %, P<0.05) but a decrease in the content of MDA ([2.03±0.30] nmol/mg prot vs [1.52±0.41] nmol/mg prot, P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#AST can improve spermquality in rats with ORN-inducedoligoasthenozoospermia, which may be associated with its enhancing effect on the antioxidant capacity of the epididymis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Asthenozoospermia , Epididymis , Metabolism , Male , Oligospermia , Ornidazole , Oxidative Stress , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa , Metabolism , Xanthophylls , Pharmacology
10.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(1): 15-20, mar. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843145

ABSTRACT

It has been recently found that the natural distribution, habitat, and genetic diversity of astaxanthin-producing yeasts (i.e. Phaffia rhodozyma, synonym Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) is much greater than previously thought. P. rhodozyma is biotechnologically exploited due to its ability to produce the carotenoid pigment astaxanthin and thus, it is used as a natural source of this pigment for aquaculture. P. rhodozyma was also capable of synthesizing the potent UVB sunscreen mycosporine-glutaminol-glucoside (MGG). Therefore, further environmental studies are needed to elucidate its ecological aspects and detect new potential strains for the production of astaxanthin and MGG. However, obtaining new isolates of P. rhodozyma and related species is not always easy due to its low abundance and the presence of other sympatric and pigmented yeasts. In this work we report a successful development of a species-specific primer which has the ability to quickly and accurately detecting isolates representing all known lineages of the genus Phaffia (including novel species of the genus) and excluding closely related taxa. For this purpose, a primer of 20 nucleotides (called PhR) was designed to be used in combination with universal primers ITS3 and NL4 in a multiplex amplification. The proposed method has the sensitivity and specificity required for the precise detection of new isolates, and therefore represents an important tool for the environmental search for novel astaxanthin-producing yeasts.


Recientemente, se ha encontrado que la distribución natural, el hábitat y la diversidad genética de levaduras productoras de astaxantina (p. ej., Phaffia rhodozyma, sinónimo Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) son mucho mayores de lo que se pensaba. P. rhodozyma se explota biotecnológicamente debido a su capacidad para producir el pigmento carotenoide astaxantina y, por lo tanto, se utiliza como una fuente natural de este pigmento para la acuicultura. También se encontró que esta levadura es capaz de sintetizar el potente protector solar UVB micosporina-glutaminol-glucósido (MGG). Por lo tanto, más estudios ambientales para dilucidar sus aspectos ecológicos y detectar nuevas cepas potenciales productoras de astaxantina y MGG son necesarios. Sin embargo, la obtención de nuevos aislamientos de P. rhodozyma y especies relacionadas no siempre es fácil debido a su baja abundancia y a la presencia de otras levaduras simpátricas y pigmentadas. En este trabajo se describe el desarrollo exitoso de un cebador especie-específico que tiene la capacidad de detectar rápidamente y con precisión cepas representativas de todos los linajes del género Phaffia previamente reportados (incluyendo nuevas especies del género) y excluir especies estrechamente relacionadas. Para ello, se diseñó un cebador de 20 nucleótidos (denominado PhR) para ser utilizado en combinación con los cebadores universales ITS3 y NL4 en una amplificación multiplex. El método propuesto tiene la sensibilidad y la especificidad requerida para la detección precisa de nuevos aislamientos y, por lo tanto, representa una importante herramienta para la búsqueda ambiental de nuevas levaduras productoras de astaxantina.


Subject(s)
Yeasts/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Xanthophylls/isolation & purification , Methods , Nucleotides/analysis
11.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(3): 148-153, May 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-750640

ABSTRACT

Background To study the relationship between intracellular anabolism and astaxanthin production, the influence of intracellular protein and fatty acids on astaxanthin production by four mutant Phaffia rhodozyma strains and their variations was investigated in this research. Results First, the content of astaxanthin in cells showed a reverse fluctuation in contrast to that of protein during the whole fermentation process. Moreover, compared with the three other strains, the astaxanthin-overproducing mutant strain of the yeast P. rhodozyma, called JMU-MVP14, had the highest specific productivity of astaxanthin as 6.8 mg/g, whereas its intracellular protein and fatty acid contents were the lowest. In addition, as a kind of sugar metabolic product, ethanol was only produced by P. rhodozyma JMU-VDL668 and JMU-7B12 during fermentation. Conclusions The results indicated that the accumulation of ethanol, intracellular protein, and fatty acids had competition effects on astaxanthin synthesis. This condition may explain why the P. rhodozyma strains JMU-VDL668 and JMU-7B12 achieved relatively lower astaxanthin production (1.7 and 1.2 mg/L) than the other two strains JMU-MVP14 and JMU-17W (20.4 and 3.9 mg/L).


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota/metabolism , Xanthophylls/biosynthesis , Yeasts , Proteins/analysis , Biomass , Xanthophylls/analysis , Culture Techniques , Ethanol/analysis , Fatty Acids , Fermentation
12.
Applied Food Biotechnology. 2015; 2 (1): 39-44
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-171592

ABSTRACT

Microalgae can produce various natural products such as pigments, enzymes, unique fatty acids and vitamins that benefit humans. The objective of the study was evaluation of carotenoids [beta-carotene, zeathanthin, lutein, lycopene and astaxanthin] and chlorophyll a in spirulina microalgae. Spirulina powder has been produced by Jordan's method in Iran. Carotenoids were extracted from Spirulina platensis by adopting a method described by Reboul; then the sample was prepared and injected into a HPLC instrument with triplicate injection. Chlorophyll`s biomass content was determined by spectrophotometer. After assaying the curves of HPLC, the amount of chlorophyll a, astaxanthin, beta carotene, lycopene, zeaxanthin and lutein in spirulina was determined as 4.3 +/- 0.14, 0.21 +/- 0.02, 7393 +/- 2.76, 741 +/- 2.32, 665[+2]/-3.69 and 424 +/- 2.83 microg/ml respectively [p<0.05]


Subject(s)
Carotenoids , Chlorophyll , Natural Resources , Food , Microalgae , beta Carotene , Lutein , Xanthophylls
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-357317

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effect of astaxanthin (ASTA) on oxidative stress of intra- and extra- red blood cells during stored period and the protective function for cell membrane.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The blood of volunteers was collected to prepare suspended red blood cells without leukocytes. Then the red blood cells were randomly divided into group A, group B, group C and group D. The ASTA was added into MAP preservation solution of group B, group C and group D, the final concentration of ASTA was 5, 10 and 20 µmol/L respectively. Group A was used as control group, in which only the dissolved liquid DMSO of ASTA was added. The red blood cells were stored in refrigerator at 2 °C-6 °C. On day 7, 14, 28 and day 42 of storage, the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in red blood cells was detected by fluorescence microplate reader. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was detected with TBA method. The content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) outside cell was detected with spectrophotometric method. The mean corpuscular volume(MCV) was detected with blood cell analyzer. The content of free hemoglobin(FHb) was detected with chemical colorimetry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The ROS, MDA, FHb and H2O2 levels in B, C and D groups were lower than those in control group during the stored period. On day 7 and 14 of storage, among group B, group C, group D and group A, the MCV showed no difference in comparison with control group. On day 28 and 42 of storage, the MCV in B, C and D groups was lower than that in control group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The ASTA can reduce the oxidative stress level of stored red blood cells inside and outside, relieve the peroxidation damage of cell membrane.</p>


Subject(s)
Erythrocyte Count , Erythrocytes , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Leukocytes , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , Xanthophylls
14.
IBJ-Iranian Biomedical Journal. 2015; 19 (2): 96-101
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-161815

ABSTRACT

A high-fat diet [HFD] promotes the oxidative stress formation, which in turn has hazardous effects on reproductive system and fertility. The present study examines the potential positive effects of a restricted high fat diet [RHFD] and antioxidants consumption on sperm parameters and testis tissue in rats. Male rats [n = 48] were divided into four groups [12 in each group]: control group [Cont], HFD group, RHFD, and RHFD with astaxanthin and vitamins E and C group [RHFDA]. After 12 weeks, serum analysis and sperm parameters study were performed. Sections of fixed testes were stained with Hematoxilin and Eosin to study the histological changes. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare the data. HFD fed animals presented significant increase in weight load and serum low density lipoprotein [LDL-C] levels [P < 0.05]. The sperm count in RHFD was lower than three other groups [P < 0.05] and sperm motility of RHFDA group was significantly higher than HFD and RHFD groups [P < 0.05]. The histological study was showed a significant increase in spermatogonium number in RHFDA compared to three other groups [P < 0.05]. The number of spermatocyte I and spermatid in RHFD was significantly [P < 0.05] lower than Cont and HFD groups. HFD and obesity can affect sperm parameters and spermatogenesis and antioxidants consumption may improve their quality. Although the RHFD is a benefit way in weight loss and decrease of LDL-C of serum, but it is suggested that is not effective on sperm quality improvement


Subject(s)
Diet, Fat-Restricted , Antioxidants , Diet, High-Fat , Spermatogenesis , Spermatozoa , Rats, Wistar , Xanthophylls , Vitamin E
15.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(4): 1331-1341, oct.-dic. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753693

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the use of new scientific techniques has effectively improved aquaculture production processes. Astaxanthin has various properties in aquacultureand its antioxidant benefits have been closely related to stress resistance; besides, it is an essential factor for growth in many crustaceans and fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) fed diets containing different amounts of astaxanthin (AX) to the shock and stress of differentphysicochemical environments. A 70-day trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a source of astaxanthin (Carophyll Pink, 10% astaxanthin, w/w, Hoffman-La Roche, Switzerland) at various levels in the diet of M. nipponense juveniles. Four dry diets were prepared: AX0 without astaxanthin, AX50 with 50mg/kg, AX100 with 100mg/kg, and AX150 with 150mg/kg astaxanthin. The feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation water system consisting of 12 fiberglass tanks (1 000L) used for holding prawns. Three replicate aquaria were initially stocked with 36org/m² per tank. During the trial, prawns were maintained on a 12:12-h light:dark photoperiod with an ordinary incandescent lamp, and the water quality parameters were maintained as follows: water temperature, 25-26°C; salinity, 1g/L; pH, 8.5-8.8; dissolved oxygen, 6.0-6.5mg/L; and ammonia-nitrogen, 0.05mg/L. Incorporation of AX, production output, and physiological condition were recorded after 10 weeks of feeding. At the end of the growing period, the prawns were exposed to thermal shock (0°C), ammonia (0.75mg/L), and reduced oxygen (0.5mg/L). The time to lethargyand the time to complete death of the prawns were recorded. The results showed that control prawns had the shortest time to lethargy and death compared with prawns subjected to the other treatments. The results of this study have shown that the amount of muscle tissue and gill carotenoids in prawn fed with an AX150 diet showed greater reduction than those exposed to other treatments. It is possible that higher levels of astaxanthin in the body under oxygen reduction stress can be beneficial forprawns. These results suggest that male prawns showed lethargy earlier than females, and the percentage of carotenoid reduction in muscle and gill tissues was higher inmales. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (4): 1331-1341. Epub 2014 December 01.


En años recientes, la utilización de nuevas técnicas científicas ha tenido un efecto importante en mejorar los procesos de producción en acuicultura. La astaxantina tiene varias propiedades en la acuicultura y sus propiedades antioxidantes se encuentran estrechamente relacionadas con la resistencia al estrés. La astaxantina en muchos crustáceos y peces es un factor esencial para el crecimiento. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la resistencia del langostino (Macrobrachium nipponense) alimentado con dietas conteniendo diferentes cantidades de astaxantina (AX), bajo diferentes condiciones de estrés ambiental. Un ensayo de 70 días fue llevado a cabo para evaluar el efecto de la suplementación de fuentes de astaxantina (Carophyll Pink, 10 % astaxanthin) en varios niveles en la dieta de jóvenes de M. nipponense. Cuatro dietas fueron preparadas: AX0 sin astaxantina, AX50 con 50mg/kg, AX100 con 100mg/kg y AX150 con 150mg/kg de astaxantina. Los ensayos de alimentación fueron conducidos en un sistema de recirculación de agua consistente en 12 estanques de fibra de vidrio (1 000L). Tres replicas fueron sembradas con 36org/m2 por tanque. Durante el experimento los langostinos fueron mantenidos con un fotoperiodo de 12:12 luz:oscuridad con lámparas incandescentes y los parámetros de la calidad del agua fueron mantenidos a 25-26°C la temperatura, 1 g/L la salinidad, 8.5-8.8 el pH, 6.0-6.5 mg/L el oxígeno y 0.05mg/L el nitrógeno amoniacal. La incorporación de la astaxantina, producción y condiciones fisicoquímicas fueron registradas después de 10 semanas de alimentación. Al final del periodo de crecimiento, los langostinos fueron expuestos a un shock térmico (0°C), amonio (0.75mg/L) y reducción de oxígeno 0.5 mg/L. El tiempo de letargia y el tiempo de muerte fueron registrados. Se encontró que la dieta con la mayor concentración de astaxantina (150mg/kg) presentó el mayor tiempo de letargia y la mayor concentración en branquias y músculo en el langostino M. nipponense.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Animal Feed , Ammonia/pharmacology , Dietary Supplements , Palaemonidae/drug effects , Aquaculture , Heat-Shock Response/drug effects , Palaemonidae/physiology , Survival Analysis , Time Factors , Xanthophylls/administration & dosage
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(6): 1779-1786, 12/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-735759

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar o consumo de forragem e o desempenho de ovinos mantidos em pastagem de capim-aruana, submetidos a porcentagens crescentes de proteína bruta (PB) no suplemento, na época seca. Vinte borregos da raça Santa Inês foram utilizados em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os suplementos foram fornecidos em 1,0% do peso corporal, nas porcentagens de 0, 15, 20, 25 e 30%. O aumento de proteína bruta influenciou o consumo total de matéria seca (kg/dia) e a porcentagem do peso vivo, com valores máximos estimados de 1.296g (3,2% de MS) com 21,48 e 21,89% de PB no suplemento, respectivamente. O consumo de forragem máximo, estimado de 893g/dia, ocorreu com a PB de 21,5%. O aumento de PB nos suplementos resultou em efeito quadrático sobre o ganho médio diário, com valor máximo de 104g/dia com a PB de 23% no suplemento. Recomenda-se o uso de suplementos múltiplos com 21 a 23% de PB fornecidos na proporção de 1% do peso corporal (PC) para ovinos mantidos em pastos de capim-aruana na época seca...


The aim of this study was to evaluate the forage intake and grazing sheep performance keep on Aruana grass subjected to increasing crude protein (CP) levels in the supplement on dry season. Twenty Santa Ines male lambs were used, with initial body weight of 31.80kg by a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. The supplements were provided daily at 1% of body weight, with protein levels of 0, 15, 20, 25 and 30%. The increase of the crude protein levels promoted a squarely effect on dry matter intake (kg/day and % of BW), with maximum estimated values of 1296g and 3.2% of DM in CP levels of 21.48 and 21.89, respectively. The maximum forage intake estimated of 893g/day occurred in CP level de 21.51%. The increased of crude protein level in supplements increased squarely the average daily gain, with a maximum of 104g/day, for the 23% crude protein in the supplement. Thus, the use of the multiple supplements supplied in 1% of body weight with CP levels ranged 21 a 23% is indicated for sheep grazing Aruana grass on dry season...


Subject(s)
Animals , Abattoirs , Food Additives/analysis , Biotechnology , Chickens , Carotenoids/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/analysis , Pigmentation/physiology , Xanthophylls/adverse effects
17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1400-1405, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299121

ABSTRACT

The effect of astaxanthin on N(Ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced preeclampsia disease rats was investigated. Thirty pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10): blank group, L-NAME group and astaxanthin group. From day 5 to 20, astaxanthin group rats were treated with astaxanthin (25 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) x bw(-1)) from pregnancy (day 5). To establish the preeclamptic rat model, L-NAME group and astaxanthin group rats were injected with L-NAME (125 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) x bw(-1)) from days 10-20 of pregnancy. The blood pressure and urine protein were recorded. Serum of each group was collected and malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities were analyzed. Pathological changes were observed with HE stain. The expression of NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B), ROCK II (Rho-associated protein kinase II), HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1) and Caspase 3 were analyzed with immunohistochemistry. L-NAME induced typical preeclampsia symptoms, such as the increased blood pressure, urinary protein, the content of MDA, etc. Astaxanthin significantly reduced the blood pressure (P < 0.01), the content of MDA (P < 0.05), and increased the activity of SOD (P < 0.05) of preeclampsia rats. The urinary protein, NO, and NOS were also decreased. HE stain revealed that after treated with astaxanthin, the thickness of basilal membrane was improved and the content of trophoblast cells and spiral arteries was reduced. Immunohistochemistry results revealed that the expressions of NF-κB, ROCK II and Caspase 3 in placenta tissue were effectively decreased, and HO-1 was increased. Results indicated that astaxanthin can improve the preeclampsia symptoms by effectively reducing the oxidative stress and inflammatory damages of preeclampsia. It revealed that astaxanthin may be benefit for prevention and treatment of preeclampsia disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Pressure , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing) , Metabolism , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Placenta , Pre-Eclampsia , Drug Therapy , Pregnancy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism , Xanthophylls , Therapeutic Uses , rho-Associated Kinases , Metabolism
18.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Dec; 50(6): 548-553
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154211

ABSTRACT

The fresh water unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis is a promising natural source of astaxanthin. The present study investigated the transcriptional expression of carotenoid genes for astaxanthin accumulation in H. pluvialis using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). With treatments of 20 and 40 mg/L of gibberllin A3 (GA3), five genes ipi-1, ipi-2, psy, pds and bkt2 were up-regulated with different expression profiles. GA20 (20 mg/L of GA3) treatment had a greater effect on transcriptional expression of bkt2 than on ipi-1 ipi-2, psy and pds (>4-fold up-regulation). However, GA40 (40 mg/L of GA3) induced more transcriptional expression of ipi-2, psy and bkt2 than both ipi-1 and pds. The expression of lyc, crtR-B and crtO for astaxanthin biosynthesis was not affected by GA3 in H. piuvialis. In the presence of GA3, astaxanthin biosynthesis genes of ipi-1, pds and bkt2 were up-regulated at transcriptional level, psy at post-transcriptional level, whereas ipi-2 was up-regulated at both levels. The study could potentially lead to a scale application of exogenous GA3 in astaxanthin production with H. pluvialis just like GAs perform in increasing crops production and it would provide new insight about the multifunctional roles of carotenogenesis in response to GA3.


Subject(s)
Carotenoids/genetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fresh Water , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/drug effects , Gibberellins/pharmacology , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Volvocida/drug effects , Volvocida/genetics , Volvocida/metabolism , Xanthophylls/metabolism
19.
Biol. Res ; 46(2): 201-206, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683998

ABSTRACT

The fresh-water green unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis is known to accumulate astaxanthin under stress conditions. In the present study, transcriptional expression of eight genes involved in astaxanthin biosynthesis exposed to EBR (25 and 50 mg/L) was analyzed using qRT-PCR. The results demonstrated that both 25 and 50 mg/L EBR could increase astaxanthin productivity and the eight carotenogenic genes were up-regulated by EBR with different expression profiles. Moreover, EBR25 induction had a greater influence on the transcriptional expression of ipi-1, ipi-2, crtR-B, lyc and crtO (> 5- fold up-regulation) than on psy, pds, bkt; EBR50 treatment had a greater effect on the transcriptional expression of ipi-2, pds, lyc, crtR-B, bkt and crtO than on ipi-1 and psy. Furthermore, astaxanthin biosynthesis under EBR was up-regulated mainly by ipi1־ and psy at the post-transcriptional level, pds, lyc, crtR-B, bkt and crtO at the transcriptional level and ipi-2 at both levels.


Subject(s)
Brassinosteroids/pharmacology , Carotenoids/biosynthesis , Chlorophyta/genetics , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Steroids, Heterocyclic/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Carotenoids/genetics , Chlorophyta/cytology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Transcription, Genetic , Xanthophylls/biosynthesis
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-322058

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effects of astaxanthin on renal fibrosis and apoptosis induced by partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ninety-six male adult SD rats were randomized into 6 equal groups, namely the blank control group, sham-operated group, UUO group, and astaxanthin group at high, medium, and low doses. Left ureteral ligation was performed in UUO and astaxanthin groups, and two days before the operation, the rats in astaxanthin groups were lavaged with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg astaxanthin daily for 14 days, while the same volume of saline was given to rats in UUO group and sham-operated group. Renal pathological in the rats was observed with HE staining, and the expression levels of TGF-β1, SGK1, and CTGF in the left kidney were detected immunohistochemically; the expression level of Bcl-2 and Bax were detected using Bcl-2 and Bax detection kits.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared to UUO group, high- and medium-dose astaxanthin groups showed obviously ameliorated renal pathologies and reduced expressions of TGF-β1, SGK1, and CTGF in the left kidney with lessened renal cell apoptosis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Astaxanthin can reduce UUO-induced renal fibrosis and renal cell apoptosis, demonstrating the renoprotective effect of astaxanthin against renal fibrosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Connective Tissue Growth Factor , Metabolism , Fibrosis , Immediate-Early Proteins , Metabolism , Kidney , Metabolism , Pathology , Kidney Diseases , Metabolism , Pathology , Male , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Metabolism , Ureteral Obstruction , Metabolism , Pathology , Xanthophylls , Pharmacology , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Metabolism
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