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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1081-1094, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153437

ABSTRACT

Abstract Contamination of Lekki lagoon by petrogenic chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) has been widely reported. The study was aimed at investigating the bioaccumulation of PAH and BTEX in Malapterurus electricus collected from Lekki lagoon in Lagos, Nigeria. BTEX was analyzed in the intestine, water, and sediment samples using 8260B Agilent 7890B gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). While PAHs were tested in the same media using a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Histopathological analysis of the fish intestine was conducted using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains. Parasite intensity, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation activities were investigated in the fish. The parasitic infection detected in Malapterurus electricus was Electrotaenia malopteruri. The parasite showed weak and no depurative capacities for BTEX and PAH respectively. The decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in conjunction with an increase in Malondialdehyde (MDA) characterized relatively higher susceptibility among the male fish. Varieties of tissue injuries increased with the standard length of the fish groups. Results suggest that lengthier and uninfected M. electricus were more susceptible to PAH in Lekki lagoon than the shorter and infected ones. The study demonstrated a promising tendency of the enteric parasite, E. malopteruri to depurate chlorobenzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m+p-xylene, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene from the intestine of its host fish, M. electricus, while PAHs were poorly mediated by the parasite.


Resumo A contaminação da lagoa Lekki por produtos químicos petrogênicos, como hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos (HAP) e benzeno, tolueno, etilbenzeno e xileno (BTEX), foi amplamente relatada. O estudo teve como objetivo investigar a bioacumulação de HAP e BTEX em Malapterurus electricus, coletados na lagoa Lekki, em Lagos, Nigéria. O BTEX foi analisado no intestino, na água e nas amostras de sedimento usando o cromatógrafo de gás Agilent 7890B 8260B acoplado a um espectrômetro de massa (GC-MS). Já os HAP foram testados no mesmo meio utilizando cromatógrafo gasoso acoplado a detector de ionização de chama (GC-FID). A análise histopatológica do intestino do peixe foi conduzida usando colorações de hematoxilina e eosina (H&E). Intensidade de parasitas, enzimas antioxidantes e atividades de peroxidação lipídica foram investigadas nos peixes. A infecção parasitária detectada em Malapterurus electricus foi Electrotaenia malopteruri. O parasita mostrou fraca e nenhuma capacidade depurativa para BTEX e HAP, respectivamente. A diminuição da superóxido dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) e glutationa reduzida (GSH), em conjunto com o aumento do Malondialdeído (MDA), caracterizou a suscetibilidade relativamente maior entre os peixes machos. Variedades de lesões nos tecidos aumentaram com o comprimento padrão dos grupos de peixes. Os resultados sugerem que os M. electricus maiores e não infectados foram mais suscetíveis aos HAP na lagoa Lekki do que os menores e infectados. O estudo demonstrou uma tendência promissora do parasita entérico E. malopteruri de depurar clorobenzeno, etilbenzeno, o-xileno, m + p-xileno e 1,4-diclorobenzeno do intestino de seu peixe hospedeiro, M. electricus, enquanto os HAP foram mal mediados pelo parasita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Parasites , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Catfishes , Toluene , Xylenes , Benzene/analysis , Benzene Derivatives , Bioaccumulation , Nigeria
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2685-2691, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Nitinol-containing devices are widely used in clinical practice. However, there are concerns about nickel release after nitinol-containing device implantation. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of a parylene-coated occluder vs. a traditional nitinol-containing device for atrial septal defect (ASD).@*METHODS@#One-hundred-and-eight patients with ASD were prospectively enrolled and randomly assigned to either the trial group to receive a parylene-coated occluder (n = 54) or the control group to receive a traditional occluder (n = 54). The plugging success rate at 6 months after device implantation and the pre- and post-implantation serum nickel levels were compared between the two groups. A non-inferiority design was used to prove that the therapeutic effect of the parylene-coated device was non-inferior to that of the traditional device. The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi-squared test with adjustment for central effects was used for the comparison between groups.@*RESULTS@#At 6 months after implantation, successful ASD closure was achieved in 52 of 53 patients (98.11%) in both the trial and control groups (95% confidence interval (CI): [-4.90, 5.16]) based on per-protocol set analysis. The absolute value of the lower limit of the 95% CI was 4.90%, which was less than the specified non-inferiority margin of 8%. No deaths or severe complications occurred during 6 months of follow-up. The serum nickel levels were significantly increased at 2 weeks and reached the maximum value at 1 month after implantation in the control group (P  0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The efficacy of a parylene-coated ASD occluder is non-inferior to that of a traditional uncoated ASD occluder. The parylene-coated occluder prevents nickel release after device implantation and may be an alternative for ASD, especially in patients with a nickel allergy.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Catheterization , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial/surgery , Humans , Polymers , Prospective Studies , Prosthesis Design , Septal Occluder Device/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Xylenes
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878361

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study was designed to conduct a retrospective and systematic occupational health risk assessment (OHRA) of enterprises that used benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) in Shanghai, China.@*Methods@#All data for the study were obtained from 1,705 occupational health examination and evaluation reports from 2013 to 2017, and a semiquantitative model following Chinese OHRA guidelines (GBZ/T 298-2017) was applied for the assessment.@*Results@#The selected enterprises using BTX were mainly involved in manufacturing of products. Using the exposure level method, health risk levels associated with exposure to BTX were classified as medium, negligible, or low. However, the risk levels associated with benzene and toluene were significantly different according to job types, with gluers and inkers exhibiting greater health risks. For the same job type, the health risk levels assessed using the comprehensive index method were higher than those using the exposure level method.@*Conclusion@#Our OHRA reveals that workers who are exposed to BTX still face excessive health risk. Additionally, the risk level varied depending on job categories and exposure to specific chemicals. Therefore, additional control measures recommended by OHRA guidelines are essential to reduce worker exposure levels.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Benzene/analysis , China , Humans , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Toluene/analysis , Xylenes/analysis
4.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(11): e00351520, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350407

ABSTRACT

A gasolina é uma mistura complexa de substâncias, dentre elas estão hidrocarbonetos como o benzeno, tolueno, etilbenzeno e xilenos (BTEX), sendo esses compostos emitidos para a atmosfera, com destaque ao benzeno, por ser comprovadamente carcinogênico. Objetivamos avaliar as concentrações de BTEX no ar de postos de revenda de combustíveis no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, e calcular o risco de câncer associado a estas exposições. Foram realizados dois tipos de amostragem (fixa e móvel) adaptadas da metodologia nº 1.501 do Instituto Nacional de Segurança e Saúde Ocupacional (Estados Unidos), em seis postos de revenda de combustíveis na Zona Oeste da cidade. A amostragem fixa foi feita próxima às bombas de combustível, enquanto a móvel foi realizada através da coleta do ar na zona respiratória dos trabalhadores (frentistas), conforme estes se deslocavam pelo posto. As amostras foram analisadas por cromatografia gasosa com detecção por ionização em chama. Com os resultados das amostragens foram feitos os cálculos de risco à saúde, usando os indicadores Quociente de perigo (HQ) e Risco de câncer (CR), para avaliar os possíveis efeitos não-carcinogênicos e carcinogênicos, respectivamente, nos trabalhadores dos postos de revenda de combustíveis. As concentrações ambientais para a maioria dos compostos BTEX foram abaixo dos limites preconizados, menos para o benzeno, um composto carcinogênico, que apresentou concentrações muito acima dos limites, levando a altos valores de risco de câncer. Os resultados demonstraram que há riscos à saúde dos trabalhadores de postos de revenda de combustíveis, principalmente o risco de desenvolver câncer, devido à exposição excessiva ao benzeno.


Gasoline is a complex mixture of substances, including aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). These compounds are emitted into the air, with the special relevance of benzene since it is provenly carcinogenic. The study aimed to assess BTEX concentrations in filling stations in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to calculate the cancer risk associated with such exposures. Two types of sampling were performed (stationary and mobile), adapted from methodology n. 1,501 (U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) for aromatic hydrocarbons, in six filling stations in the West Zone of Rio de Janeiro. Stationary sampling was done near the fuel pumps, while mobile sampling was done in the breathing zone of the workers (station attendants) as they moved around the station. The samples were analyzed with gas chromatography flame ionization detector. The sampling results were used to calculate the health risk, using the indicators Hazard quotient (HQ) and Cancer risk (CR) to assess the possible non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic effects, respectively, in filling station workers. Environmental concentrations for the most of the BTEX compounds were below the recommended limits, except for benzene, a carcinogenic compound, which displayed concentrations far above the limits, leading to high cancer risk values. The results showed that there are health risks for filling station attendants, especially the risk of developing cancer from excessive exposure to benzene.


La gasolina es una mezcla compleja de sustancias, entre ellas existen hidrocarburos como el benceno, tolueno, etilbenceno y xilenos (BTEX), emitiéndose estos compuestos a la atmósfera, donde se destaca el benceno, al tratarse de un carcinogénico comprobado. Los objetivos fueron evaluar las concentraciones de BTEX en el aire de puestos de reventa de combustibles, en el municipio de Río de Janeiro, Brasil, así como calcular el riesgo de cáncer asociado a estas exposiciones. Se realizaron dos tipos de muestra (fija y movible), adaptadas de la metodología nº 1.501 del Instituto Nacional de Seguridad y Salud Laboral (EE.UU.), en seis puestos de reventa de combustibles de la zona oeste de la ciudad. La muestra fija se realizó cerca de las bombas de combustible, mientras que la móvil se hizo mediante tomas de aire en la zona respiratoria de los trabajadores (de la gasolinera), a medida que estos se desplazaban por el lugar de trabajo. Las muestras se analizaron por cromatografía gaseosa con detección por ionización en llama. Junto a los resultados de las muestras, se realizaron cálculos de riesgo para la salud, usando los indicadores Cociente de peligro (HQ) y Riesgo de cáncer (CR), con el fin de evaluar los posibles efectos no-carcinogénicos y carcinogénicos, respectivamente, en los trabajadores de los puestos de reventa de combustibles. Las concentraciones ambientales para la mayoría de los compuestos BTEX estuvieron por debajo de los limites preconizados, menos en el caso del benceno, un compuesto carcinogénico, que presentó concentraciones muy por encima de los límites, llevando a altos valores de riesgo de cáncer. Los resultados demostraron que existen riesgos para la salud de los trabajadores de puestos de reventa de combustibles, principalmente, riesgo de desarrollar cáncer, debido a la exposición excesiva al benceno.


Subject(s)
Humans , Xylenes/analysis , Xylenes/toxicity , Benzene/analysis , Benzene/toxicity , Toluene/analysis , Toluene/toxicity , United States , Benzene Derivatives , Brazil
5.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(5): 670-677, sep.-oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127330

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To assess neuropsychological performance among workers at a paint factory in Mexico City. Materials and methods: During 2004 and 2005 we assessed the neuropsychological performance of 208 workers who were exposed to organic solvents at a paint factory, mainly toluene and xylene. We categorized workers into low and high exposure groups using a cumulative index for toluene, based on times spent in different tasks. We evaluated cognitive and motor functions with 13 neuropsychological tests. Results: We found lower attention, longer time to complete the test β=5.5 (R2=12.3%), and a lower score in the motor-cognitive test β=-15.7 (R2=19.5%) in the high exposure group through multiple linear regression model analysis, with adjustment for age and education. Conclusion: Our results are similar to the ones reported in the literature, but the effects are less severe, probably due to lower exposure to organic solvents.


Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar el desempeño neuropsicológico de los trabajadores de una fábrica de pintura en la Ciudad de México. Material y métodos: Se evaluó el desempeño neuropsicológico de 208 trabajadores expuestos a disolventes orgánicos, principalmente tolueno y xileno, en una fábrica de pintura en la Ciudad de México durante 2004 y 2005. Se categorizaron en grupos de baja y alta exposición con un índice acumulado de tolueno con base en el tiempo empleado por actividad. Se evaluaron funciones motoras y cognitivas con 13 pruebas neuropsicológicas. Resultados: Se registró un tiempo más largo para completar la prueba β=5.5 (R2=12.3%) y una puntuación baja en la prueba motor-cognitiva de β=-15.7 (R2=19.5%) en el grupo de alta exposición en los modelos de regresión lineal múltiple, ajustados por confusores. Conclusión: Los presentes resultados son similares a los reportados en la literatura, aunque los efectos son menos graves, probablemente debido a la baja exposición.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Paint/toxicity , Psychomotor Performance/drug effects , Attention/drug effects , Solvents/toxicity , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Time Factors , Toluene/toxicity , Xylenes/toxicity , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Educational Status , Mexico , Neuropsychological Tests
6.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 355-361, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Painters in the automotive sector are routinely exposed to volatile organic solvents, and the levels vary depending on the occupational health and safety controls enforced at the companies. This study investigates the levels of exposure to organic vapors and the existence of controls in the formal economy sector in southern Colombia. METHODS: This is an exploratory study of an observational and descriptive character. An analysis of solvents is conducted via the personal sampling of painters and the analysis of samples using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 1501 method. The amount of solvents analyzed varied according to the budget allocated by the companies. The person in charge of the occupational safety and health management system was interviewed to learn about the exposure controls implemented at the companies. RESULTS: A medium exposure risk for toluene was found in one company. Another presented medium risk for carbon tetrachloride, xylene, ethylbenzene, and n-butanol. The others showed low risk of exposure and that the controls implemented were not sufficient or efficient. CONCLUSION: These results shed light on the working conditions of these tradespeople. The permissible limits established by Colombian regulations for the evaluated chemical contaminants were not exceeded. However, there were contaminants that exceeded the limits of action. The analysis of findings made it possible to propose improvements in occupational safety and health management systems to allow the optimization of working conditions for painters, prevent the occurrence of occupational diseases, and reduce costs to the country's health system.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Carbon Tetrachloride , Colombia , Humans , Methods , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Health , Social Control, Formal , Solvents , Toluene , Xylenes
7.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 17(3): 359-368, nov 19, 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247808

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a regeneração e o reparo de tecidos ósseos perdidos é objeto de estudo da Bioengenharia Tecidual. O uso de biomateriais substitutos ósseos biomiméticos visa estimular os sistemas celulares e bioquímicos para restabelecer de modo mais eficiente o tecido ósseo nos casos de sua reconstrução. Ao investigar o processo de remodelação, é vital identificar áreas de novo crescimento para avaliar a eficácia dos biomateriais implantados e respectivos regimes de tratamento. A avaliação qualitativa e quantitativa da regeneração óssea pode ser realizada através da aplicação de marcadores como o Xilenol, a Tetraciclina, a Calceína e a Alizarina. A administração desses marcadores de forma associada possibilita ainda marcar sequencialmente camadas de nova deposição e remodelação durante o reparo. Objetivo: estabelecer um protocolo para utilização dos marcadores fluorescentes de reparo ósseo xilenol, tetraciclina, calceína e alizarina, em ratos. Metodologia: foram utilizados 35 ratos da linhagem Wistar, machos adultos, com massa corpórea entre 350 e 400g, e idade aproximada de 4 a 5 meses, distribuídos randomicamente em 5 grupos experimentais, submetidos à confecção de defeito ósseo circular de 8 mm em região de calvária, e administração dos diferentes marcadores segundo os grupos; XO ­ Xilenol; Ca ­ Calceína; Al ­ Alizarina; Te ­ Tetraciclina; C ­ Controle. Após 15 dias de experimento, os animais foram eutanasiados e as calvárias processadas e analisadas por histomorfometria, microscopia de epifluorescência e microscopia de fluorescência. Resultados: todos protocolos empregados para utilização dos marcadores fluorescentes xilenol, calceína, alizarina e tetracicilina foram úteis para identificar área de deposição mineral durante o período analisado de regeneração óssea em ratos. As imagens obtidas pela microscopia de fluorescência revela a presença dos marcadores incorporados à matriz óssea neoformada, no entanto a utilização da Alizarina e Calceína dentro dos protocolos testados mostraram-se mais eficientes. Conclusão: os protocolos testados nesse estudo apresentaram-se viáveis para utilização em pesquisas envolvendo marcadores de regeneração óssea, com resultados superiores para Alizarina e Calceína


Introduction: The regeneration and repair of lost bone tissues is the subject of a study of Tissue Bioengineering. The use of biomimetic biomaterial bone substitutes aims to stimulate the cellular and biochemical systems to restore more efficiently the bone tissue in the cases of its reconstruction. When investigating the remodeling process, it is vital to identify areas of new growth to evaluate the efficacy of implanted biomaterials and their treatment regimens. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of bone regeneration can be performed through the use of markers such as Xylenol, Tetracycline, Calcein and Alizarin. The administration of such markers in an associated manner also makes it possible to sequentially mark layers of new deposition and remodeling during the repair. Objective: to establish a protocol for the use of fluorescent xylenol, tetracycline, calcein and alizarin bone repair markers in rats. Metodology: thirtyfive male adult Wistar rats with a body mass ranging from 350 to 400 g and approximately 4 to 5 months old were randomly assigned to 5 experimental groups submitted to a circular bone defect of 8 mm in the region of calvaria, and administration of the different markers according to the groups; XO ­ Xylenol; Ca ­ Calcein; Al-Alizarin; Te ­ Tetracycline; C ­ Control. After 15 days of experiment, the animals were euthanized and the calvaria processed and analyzed by histomorphometry, epifluorescence microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Results: all protocols used for fluorescence markers xylenol, calcein, alizarin and tetracycline were useful to identify area of mineral deposition during the analyzed period of bone regeneration in rats. The images obtained by fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of the markers incorporated into the neoformed bone matrix, however the use of Alizarin and Calcein within the protocols tested were more efficient. Conclusion: the protocols tested in this study were feasible for use in research involving markers of bone regeneration, with superior results for Alizarin and Calcein.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Tissue Engineering/methods , Fluorescent Dyes/pharmacology , Tetracycline/pharmacology , Xylenes/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Pilot Projects , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Microscopy, Fluorescence
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786748

ABSTRACT

The industrial complexes built during the course of economic development in South Korea played a pivotal role in the country's rapid economic growth. However, this growth was accompanied by health problems due to the pollutants released from the industrial complexes inevitably located near residential areas, given the limited land area available in South Korea. This study was conducted to evaluate the exposure to each pollutant emanating from industrial complexes for residents living in nearby areas, and to determine the substances requiring priority attention in future surveys. Pollutants were comprehensively categorized according to their emission and exposure levels based on data previously collected from the study areas. The emission, ambient concentration, and biomarker concentration levels of major pollutants emitted from eight national industrial complexes (Ulsan, Pohang, Gwangyang, Yeosu, Chungju, Daesan, Sihwa, and Banwol) were determined and tabulated. Each of the values was compared with the national/local average values, reference values, or control area concentrations depending on availability. Substances with completed exposure pathways and with high values for emissions, ambient concentrations, and biomarker concentrations were considered the substances posing exposure risks to the residents living near the corresponding industrial complex. The substances requiring continuous monitoring or supplementary exposure investigation were also categorized and presented. Lead and benzene had higher values for emissions, ambient concentrations, and biomarker concentrations in the Ulsan Industrial Complex area; thus, they were most likely to pose exposure risks to residents living in the area's neighborhoods. In other areas, styrene, xylene, cadmium, nitrogen oxide, trichloroethylene, nickel, manganese, and chromium required continuous monitoring, and arsenic, nickel, manganese, and chromium required biomarker measurements. In conclusion, the substances identified and categorized in this study need to be given appropriate attention in future surveys on exposure risks and health effects related to industrial complexes.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Benzene , Cadmium , Chromium , Economic Development , Environmental Pollutants , Korea , Manganese , Nickel , Nitrogen , Reference Values , Residence Characteristics , Styrene , Trichloroethylene , Xylenes
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762521

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Organic solvent-induced chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) is known as a non-progressive disorder that does not progress after diagnosis. The authors present a case those symptoms worsened after continued exposure to organic solvent after returning to work. Because such a case has not been reported in South Korea to the best of our knowledge, we intend to report this case along with literature review. CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old man, who performed painting job at a large shipyard for 20 years, was receiving hospital treatment mainly for depression. During the inpatient treatment, severe cognitive impairment was identified, and he visited the occupational and environmental medicine outpatient clinic for assessing work relatedness. In 1984, at the age of 27, he began performing touch-up and spray painting as a shipyard painter. Before that he had not been exposure to any neurotoxic substances. In 2001, at the age of 44, after 15 years of exposure to mixed solvents including toluene, xylene and others, he was diagnosed with CTE International Solvent Workshop (ISW) type 2A. After 7 years of sick leave, he returned to work in 2006. And he repeated return-to-work and sick leave in the same job due to worsening of depressive symptoms. He had worked four times (2006–2010, 2011–2011, 2011–2011, 2016–2017) for a total of 5 years as a shipyard painter after first compensation. During the return-to-work period, the mean values of the mixed solvent index ranged from 0.57 to 2.15, and except for a one semiannual period, all mean values were above the standard value of 1. We excluded other diseases that can cause cognitive impairment like central nervous system diseases, brain injury, psychological diseases and metabolic diseases with physical examinations, laboratory tests, and brain image analysis. And finally, throughout neuropsychological tests, an overall deterioration in cognitive function was identified compared to 2002, and the deterioration types was similar to that often shown in the case of CTE; thus a diagnosis of CTE (ISW) type 3 was made. CONCLUSION: This case is showing that CTE can go on with continued exposure to mixed solvents. Appropriate “fitness to work” should be taken to prevent disease deterioration especially for the sick leave workers.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Brain , Brain Injuries , Central Nervous System Diseases , Cognition , Cognition Disorders , Compensation and Redress , Depression , Diagnosis , Education , Environmental Medicine , Humans , Inpatients , Korea , Metabolic Diseases , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Occupational Diseases , Paint , Paintings , Physical Examination , Return to Work , Sick Leave , Solvents , Toluene , Xylenes
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718068

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to tobacco smoke causing irritation and inflammation in the airways tends to reduce serum periostin concentrations in adults. We now investigate prospective cross-sectional study on 135 Korean students aged 7 years in the first grade who were participating in the Seongnam Atopy Project for Children's Happiness 2016 (SAP2016) cohort. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show significant inverse correlations between serum periostin concentration and exposure to xylene and formaldehyde in children. Our findings suggested the need for caution in using the serum periostin level as a marker for allergic diseases, since exposure to volatile organic compounds and formaldehyde may confound the interpretation of these results.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemiologic Studies , Formaldehyde , Happiness , Humans , Inflammation , Prospective Studies , Smoke , Tobacco , Volatile Organic Compounds , Xylenes
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714899

ABSTRACT

The industrial complexes built during the course of economic development in South Korea played a pivotal role in the country's rapid economic growth. However, this growth was accompanied by health problems due to the pollutants released from the industrial complexes inevitably located near residential areas, given the limited land area available in South Korea. This study was conducted to evaluate the exposure to each pollutant emanating from industrial complexes for residents living in nearby areas, and to determine the substances requiring priority attention in future surveys. Pollutants were comprehensively categorized according to their emission and exposure levels based on data previously collected from the study areas. The emission, ambient concentration, and biomarker concentration levels of major pollutants emitted from eight national industrial complexes (Ulsan, Pohang, Gwangyang, Yeosu, Chungju, Daesan, Sihwa, and Banwol) were determined and tabulated. Each of the values was compared with the national/local average values, reference values, or control area concentrations depending on availability. Substances with completed exposure pathways and with high values for emissions, ambient concentrations, and biomarker concentrations were considered the substances posing exposure risks to the residents living near the corresponding industrial complex. The substances requiring continuous monitoring or supplementary exposure investigation were also categorized and presented. Lead and benzene had higher values for emissions, ambient concentrations, and biomarker concentrations in the Ulsan Industrial Complex area; thus, they were most likely to pose exposure risks to residents living in the area's neighborhoods. In other areas, styrene, xylene, cadmium, nitrogen oxide, trichloroethylene, nickel, manganese, and chromium required continuous monitoring, and arsenic, nickel, manganese, and chromium required biomarker measurements. In conclusion, the substances identified and categorized in this study need to be given appropriate attention in future surveys on exposure risks and health effects related to industrial complexes.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Benzene , Cadmium , Chromium , Economic Development , Environmental Pollutants , Korea , Manganese , Nickel , Nitrogen , Reference Values , Residence Characteristics , Styrene , Trichloroethylene , Xylenes
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786733

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of plants to purify indoor air by observing the effective reduction rate among pollutant types of particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). PM and four types of VOCs were measured in a new building that is less than three years old and under three different conditions: before applying the plant, after applying the plant, and a room without a plant. The removal rate of each pollutant type due to the plant was also compared and analyzed. In the case of indoor PM, the removal effect was negligible because of outdoor influence. However, 9% of benzene, 75% of ethylbenzene, 72% of xylene, 75% of styrene, 50% of formaldehyde, 36% of acetaldehyde, 35% of acrolein with acetone, and 85% of toluene were reduced. The purification of indoor air by natural ventilation is meaningless because the ambient PM concentration has recently been high. However, contamination by gaseous materials such as VOCs can effectively be removed through the application of plants.


Subject(s)
Acetaldehyde , Acetone , Acrolein , Benzene , Formaldehyde , Particulate Matter , Plants , Styrene , Toluene , Ventilation , Volatile Organic Compounds , Xylenes
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786717

ABSTRACT

This study utilized the Community Multiscale Air Quality model to simulate the spatial distribution of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) concentrations from large national industrial complexes (IC) located in the Ulsan metropolitan region (UMR). Through controlling pollutant emissions from major IC, this study performed a quantitative analysis of the influence of pollutant emissions on BTX concentrations in surrounding urban areas. The results showed that approximately 40% of the annual average BTX concentrations in nearby urban grids were directly influenced by pollutant emissions from the IC. Seasonal modeling results indicated that average BTX concentrations were high around petrochemical complexes, with higher concentrations in the surrounding urban areas during the summer (July). All three of the BTX pollutants showed similar seasonal differences. Daily contributions differed significantly throughout the modeling period, with some values reaching a maximum of 80% during July. Overall, when urban areas were located downwind of the IC, contributions rose. Moreover, this study compared the differences in BTX contributions at each measurement point within the IC and urban areas, which showed that the influence of the IC emissions decreased significantly with distance. The spatial distribution and direct influence of the IC on BTX concentrations in the UMR identified through this study could be used to provide input data in environmental epidemiological studies.


Subject(s)
Benzene , Epidemiologic Studies , Seasons , Toluene , Xylenes
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203751

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of plants to purify indoor air by observing the effective reduction rate among pollutant types of particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). PM and four types of VOCs were measured in a new building that is less than three years old and under three different conditions: before applying the plant, after applying the plant, and a room without a plant. The removal rate of each pollutant type due to the plant was also compared and analyzed. In the case of indoor PM, the removal effect was negligible because of outdoor influence. However, 9% of benzene, 75% of ethylbenzene, 72% of xylene, 75% of styrene, 50% of formaldehyde, 36% of acetaldehyde, 35% of acrolein with acetone, and 85% of toluene were reduced. The purification of indoor air by natural ventilation is meaningless because the ambient PM concentration has recently been high. However, contamination by gaseous materials such as VOCs can effectively be removed through the application of plants.


Subject(s)
Acetaldehyde , Acetone , Acrolein , Benzene , Formaldehyde , Particulate Matter , Plants , Styrene , Toluene , Ventilation , Volatile Organic Compounds , Xylenes
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158110

ABSTRACT

To determine the relationship between the oral ingestion volume of xylene and methyl hippuric acid (MHA) in urine, we measured MHA in 11 patients whose ingested xylene volume was identified. The best-fit equation between urine MHA and ingested amount of xylene was as follows: y (ingested amount of xylene, mL/kg) = −0.052x² + 0.756x (x = MHA in urine in g/g creatinine). From this equation, we estimated the ingested xylene volume in 194 patients who had ingested pesticide of which the formulation was not available. Our results demonstrated that oxadiazole, dinitroaniline, chloroacetamide, organophosphate, and pyrethroid were xylene-containing pesticide classes, while the paraquat, glyphosate, glufosinate, synthetic auxin, fungicide, neonicotinoid, and carbamate classes were xylene-free pesticides. Sub-group univariate analysis showed a significant association between MHA levels in urine and ventilator necessity in the pyrethroid group. However, this association was not observed in the organophosphate group. Our results suggest that MHA in urine is a surrogate marker for xylene ingestion, and high urine MHA levels may be a risk factor for poor clinical outcome with some pesticide poisoning.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Eating , Humans , Indoleacetic Acids , Paraquat , Pesticides , Poisoning , Respiratory Insufficiency , Risk Factors , Ventilators, Mechanical , Xylenes
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(3): 934-938, Sept. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828965

ABSTRACT

In this study we examined the effects histopathologic and immunohistochemical of xylene inhalation in rats by using light microscopy. Adult wistar albino rats were used in this study. Eight rats were in control group and 8 rats were in the experimental group. The experimental group was exposed to 300 ppm formaldehyde 3­5 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. The lining epithelium of respiratory mucosa showed a loss of ciliated cells with metaplasia of goblet cells, hyperplasia of squamous cells and edema, inflamation in sub epithelial area). In the group treated xylene. Disruption of cell-cell contact was observed. Weak expression of E-cadherin was observed between cells. The vascular endothelium of capillaries and venoles showed intense immunostaining for VEGF.


Se examinó el efecto histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico de la inhalación de xileno en ratas mediante el uso de microscopía de luz. Se utilizaron ratas albinas Wistar adultas. Ocho ratas formaron parte del grupo control y 8 del grupo experimental. El grupo experimental fue expuesto a 300 ppm de formaldehído, 3­5 min/día, 5 días/semana, durante 8 semanas. El epitelio de revestimiento de la mucosa respiratoria mostró una pérdida de células ciliadas con metaplasia de células caliciformes, hiperplasia de células escamosas y edema, con inflamación en la zona subepitelial. En el grupo tratado con xileno se observó una interrupción del contacto célula-célula. Se observó una débil expresión de E-cadherina entre las células. El endotelio vascular de los capilares y vénulas mostraron intensa inmunotinción de VEGF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Xylenes/administration & dosage , Cadherins/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron , Rats, Wistar , Respiratory Mucosa/ultrastructure , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects
17.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 104(2): 66-71, jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-790191

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: evaluar ex vivo la cantidad de material de obturación durante el retratemiento endodóntico ortógrado con el uso de dos técnicas de desobturación. Materiales y métodos: se utilizaron 30 caninos humanos extraídos, de conducto único y raíces rectas. Los conductos se instrumentaron con ProGlider (Dentsply/Maillefer, Ballaigues, Suiza) y ProTaper Next X1, X2 y X3 (Dentsply/Maillefer, Ballaigues, Suiza) hasta la longitud de trabajo (LT), luego, se sobrepasó 1 mm del foramen apical con una lima tipo K #20. A continuación se obturaron con conocs de gutapercha ProTaper Next X3 (Dentsply / Maillefer, Ballaigues, Suiza), condensación lateral y termocompactación. Como sellador endodóntico, se utilizó el AHPlus (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Alemania), coloreado con tinta china azul. Los especímenes se dividieron aleatoriamente en dos grupos de 15 dientes. Las raíces se montaron en tubos Eppendorf, que fueron pesados previamente en una balanza de precisión. En el grupo 1 (n=15) se removió la gutapercha con instrumentos D1, D2 del sistema ProTaper Universal, hasta el tercio medio y luego hasta la LT con D3 y limas Hedstroem #40 (Dentsply/Maillefer, Ballaigues, Suiza), empleando xilol. La remoción se completó con ProTaper Next x4 hasta la LT. En el grupo 2 (n=15) se removió la gutapercha con el sistema ProTaper Universal D1, D2 y D3 hasta el tercio apical y se completó con ProTaper Next x4 hasta la LT. En ambos grupos se realizaron lavajes con 3 ml de agua destilada a cada cambio de instrumento y al finalizar la instrumentación. Se retiraron las tapas con los especímenes de los tubos Eppendorf, los cuales fueron colocados en una estufa de cultivo a 27ºC durante 5 días. Los tuvos se pesaron nuevamente (sin sus tapas) para determinar la diferencia de peso correspondiente al material de obturación extravasado. La comparación de las diferencias de peso promedio entre los dos grupos se realizó mediante la prueba no paramétrica de Mann-Whitney.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental High-Speed Equipment , Root Canal Filling Materials , Retreatment/methods , Root Canal Therapy/adverse effects , Dental Instruments , Gutta-Percha/adverse effects , Root Canal Obturation/methods , Statistical Analysis , Xylenes
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815028

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of Van-Clear on vamplification of human telomerase RNA component (hTERC) gene in cervical tissues by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and to determine the potential for Van-Clear to replace xylene.
@*METHODS@#A total of 278 specimens of cervix uteri were collected from inpatients of Department of Gynaecology in Boai Hospital of Zhongshan from January to February, 2015, with 81 cases of normal specimens, 68 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I, 57cases of CIN2, 42 cases of CIN3 and 30 cases of cervical invasive cancer. Double samples were collected from the same region. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to detect the changes in the amplification of hTERC gene in 2 groups of specimens from the cervical biopsy.
@*RESULTS@#Differences in the positive expression rate of hTERC gene between the 2 groups of cervical lesions at all levels were not statistically significant (P>0.05).
@*CONCLUSION@#There is no significant difference in the positive rate of hTERC gene expression between the slices made by Van-clear and xylene. As an environmental-friend product, Van-Clear possesses certain value in detection of cervical hTERC gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization.


Subject(s)
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Genetics , Female , Gene Amplification , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , RNA , Genetics , Telomerase , Genetics , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Genetics , Xylenes , Chemistry
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285246

ABSTRACT

Bi-yuan-ling granule (BLG) is a traditional Chinese medicine compound composed mainly of baicalin and chlorogenic acid. It has been demonstrated to be clinically effective for various inflammatory diseases such as acute rhinitis, chronic rhinitis, atrophic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis. However, the underlying mechanisms of BLG against these diseases are not fully understood. This study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of BLG, and examine its protective effects on mouse acute lung injury (ALI). The hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing assay in Kunming mice were adopted to evaluate the pain-relieving effects of BLG. The anti-inflammatory activities of BLG were determined by examining the effects of BLG on xylene-caused ear swelling in Kunming mice, the cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats, carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. The results showed that BLG at 15.5 mg/g could significantly relieve the pain by 82.5% (P<0.01) at 1 h after thermal stimulation and 91.2% (P<0.01) at 2 h after thermal stimulation. BLG at doses of 7.75 and 15.5 mg/g reduced the writhing count up to 33.3% (P<0.05) and 53.4% (P<0.01), respectively. Additionally, the xylene-induced edema in mice was markedly restrained by BLG at 7.75 mg/g (P<0.05) and 15.5 mg/g (P<0.01). BLG at 5.35 and 10.7 mg/g significantly reduced paw edema by 34.8% (P<0.05) and 37.9% (P<0.05) at 5 h after carrageenan injection. The granulomatous formation of the cotton pellet was profoundly suppressed by BLG at 2.68, 5.35 and 10.7 mg/g by 15.4%, 38.2% (P<0.01) and 58.9% (P<0.001), respectively. BLG also inhibited lung W/D ratio and the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in ALI mice. In addition, the median lethal dose (LD50), median effective dose (ED50) and half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of BLG were found to be 42.7, 3.2 and 12.33 mg/g, respectively. All the findings suggest that BLG has significantly anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects and it may help reduce the damage of ALI.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Acute Lung Injury , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Analgesics , Pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Carrageenan , Chlorogenic Acid , Pharmacology , Dinoprostone , Disease Models, Animal , Dosage Forms , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Ear , Pathology , Edema , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred Strains , Pain , Drug Therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Xylenes
20.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 312-316, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unleaded petrol contains significant amounts of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX). Toxic responses following occupational exposure to unleaded petrol have been evaluated only in limited studies. The main purpose of this study was to ascertain whether (or not) exposure to unleaded petrol, under normal working conditions, is associated with any hepatotoxic or nephrotoxic response. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which 200 employees of Shiraz petrol stations with current exposure to unleaded petrol, as well as 200 unexposed employees, were investigated. Atmospheric concentrations of BTX were measured using standard methods. Additionally, urine and fasting blood samples were taken from individuals for urinalysis and routine biochemical tests of kidney and liver function. RESULTS: The geometric means of airborne concentrations of BTX were found to be 0.8 mg m-3, 1.4 mg m-3, and 2.8 mg m-3, respectively. Additionally, means of direct bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea and plasma creatinine were significantly higher in exposed individuals than in unexposed employees. Conversely, serum albumin, total protein, and serum concentrations of calcium and sodium were significantly lower in petrol station workers than in their unexposed counterparts. CONCLUSION: The average exposure of petrol station workers to BTX did not exceed the current threshold limit values (TLVs) for these chemicals. However, evidence of subtle, subclinical and prepathologic early liver and kidney dysfunction was evident in exposed individuals.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Benzene , Bilirubin , Calcium , Creatinine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fasting , Hydrocarbons, Aromatic , Kidney , Liver , Occupational Exposure , Plasma , Serum Albumin , Sodium , Threshold Limit Values , Toluene , Urea , Urinalysis , Xylenes
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