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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 414-422, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001449

ABSTRACT

Abstract Birds of prey and from Psittacidae family are host to fungal microbiota and play an important role in the epidemiology of zoonoses. Few studies in the literature have characterized mycelial and yeast fungi in the droppings of these birds and correlated the isolates with the zoonotic potential of the microorganisms. Droppings from 149 birds were evaluated and divided into two groups: captive: Rhea americana araneipes, Primolius maracana, Ara ararauna, Ara chloropterus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Amazona aestiva, Ara macao macao, Ramphastos toco, Sarcoramphus papa, Busarellus nigricollis, Bubo virginianus nacurutu, Buteogallus coronatus, Buteogallus urubitinga urubitinga, Spizaetus melanoleucus, Spizaetus ornatus ornatus, Buteo albonotatus, Geranoaetus albicaudatus albicaudatus, Rupornis magnirostris magnirostris and Harpia harpyja, and quarantined birds: Amazona aestiva and Eupsitulla aurea. The fungal isolates were identified according to macroscopic (gross colony appearance), micromorphological and biochemical characteristics. Among birds displayed in enclosures, Aspergillus niger (41.1%) and Candida kefyr (63.8%) were the fungi most frequently isolated in Harpia harpyja and Ramphastos toco, respectively. For quarantined birds, the following percentages were observed in Eupsittula aurea , (76.6%) C. krusei, (84.4%) C. kefyr and (15.2%) C. famata, while in Amazona aestiva, (76.2%) C. krusei was observed. These findings indicate potentially pathogenic species in the bird droppings assessed, which constitute a risk of exposure for keepers and individuals who visit the zoo. Birds of the Cerrado and Pantanal of Mato Grosso (Central Western region of Brazil) could act in the epidemiological chain of important zoonoses.


Resumo Aves de rapina e psitacídeos são hospedeiras de uma rica microbiota fúngica e desempenham um papel importante na epidemiologia de zoonoses. Poucos estudos na literatura têm caracterizado fungos micelianos e leveduras nos excrementos de pássaros e correlacionados estes isolados com o potencial zoonótico dos microrganismos isolados. Excrementos de 149 aves foram divididas e avaliados em dois grupos: Em cativeiro: Rhea americana araneipes, Primolius maracana, Ara ararauna, Ara chloropterus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Amazona aestiva, Ara macao macao, Ramphastos toco, Sarcoramphus papa, Busarellus nigricollis , Bubo virginianus nacurutu, Buteogallus coronatus, Buteogallus urubutinga urubitinga, Spizaetus melanoleucus, Spizaetus ornatus ornatus, Buteo albonotatus, Geranoaetus albicaudatus albicaudatus, Rupornis magnirostris magnirostris e Harpia harpyja e aves em quarentena: Amazona aestiva e Eupsittula aurea). Os isolados de leveduras e de fungos micelianos foram identificados em observações macroscópicas (aspectos das colônias), características micromorfológicas e bioquímicas. Entre as aves indicadas em compartimentos, Aspergillus niger (41,1%) e Candida kefyr (63,8%) foram os fungos mais isolada em Harpia harpyja e Ramphastos toco, respectivamente. Para as aves em quarentena, os seguintes percentuais foram observados em Eupsittula aurea (76,6%) C. krusei, (84,4%) C. kefyr e (15,2%) C. famata, enquanto em Amazona aestiva (76,2%) de C. krusei foi observada. Estes resultados indicam a presença de espécies potencialmente patogênicos nas excretas das aves avaliadas, constituem um risco a exposição para os criadores e pessoas que visitam o zoológico. Aves do Pantanal e do Cerrado de Mato Grosso (região Centro-Oeste do Brasil) poderia atuar na cadeia epidemiológica das zoonoses importantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Parrots/microbiology , Raptors/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Brazil , Risk Assessment , Rheiformes , Feces/microbiology , Animals, Zoo
2.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(4): 400-403, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975604

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Otomycosis is a common problem in otolaryngology practice. However, we usually encounter some difficulties in its treatment because many patients show resistance to antifungal agents, and present high recurrence rate. Objectives To determine the fungal pathogens that cause otomycosis as well as their susceptibility to the commonly used antifungal agents. Additionally, to discover the main reasons for antifungal resistance. Methods We conducted an experimental descriptive study on 122 patients clinically diagnosed with otomycosis from April 2016 to April 2017. Aural discharge specimens were collected for direct microscopic examination and fungal culture. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed against the commonly used antifungal drugs. We tested the isolated fungi for their enzymatic activity. Results Positive fungal infection was found in 102 samples. The most common fungal pathogens were Aspergillus and Candida species, with Aspergillus niger being the predominant isolate (51%). The antifungal susceptibility testing showed that mold isolates had the highest sensitivity to voriconazole (93.48%), while the highest resistance was to fluconazole (100%). For yeast, the highest sensitivity was to nystatin (88.24%), followed by amphotericin B (82.35%), and the highest resistance was to terbinafine (100%), followed by Itraconazole (94.12%). Filamentous fungi expressed a high enzymatic ability, making them more virulent. Conclusion The Aspergillus and Candida species are the most common fungal isolates in otomycosis. Voriconazole and Nystatin are the medications of choice for the treatment of otomycosis in our community. The high virulence of fungal pathogens is owed to their high enzymatic activity. Empirical use of antifungals should be discouraged.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Otomycosis/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Candida/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Epidemiology, Experimental , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Voriconazole/pharmacology , /pharmacology
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 808-815, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974288

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Chicha, a type of beer made mainly with maize or cassava, is a traditional fermented beverage of the Andean region. There have only been a few studies on yeasts associated with chicha fermentation, and the species diversity occurring during the production of this beverage is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the biodiversity of yeasts in chicha, and to characterize the Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations associated with the production of chicha de jora, seven-grain chicha, chicha de yuca, and chicha de morocho in Ecuador. The molecular diversity of S. cerevisiae populations was determined by restriction polymorphism mitochondrial profiles. The beverages were characterized based on their physicochemical parameters. Twenty-six species were identified, and the most prevalent species were S. cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii. Other yeast species were isolated at low frequencies. Among 121 isolates of S. cerevisiae, 68 different mtDNA molecular profiles were identified. These results showed that chichas are fermented by a high number of different strains of S. cerevisiae. Some other species provided a minor contribution to the fermentation process. The chicha presented generally similar physicochemical parameters to those observed for other traditional fermented beverages, and can be considered as an acid fermented beverage.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolation & purification , Beer/microbiology , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Yeasts/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classification , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Beer/analysis , Yeasts/classification , Yeasts/genetics , Manihot/metabolism , Manihot/microbiology , Zea mays/metabolism , Zea mays/microbiology , Biodiversity , Ecuador , Fermentation
4.
Hig. aliment ; 32(278/279): 74-78, 30/04/2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-909979

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as características higienicossanitárias dos refrescos armazenados em garrafas tipo PET e em refresqueiras comercializados em estabelecimentos de um município do Recôncavo da Bahia. Foram analisadas, quanto à presença de bolores, leveduras e coliformes termotolerantes, 10 amostras de refrescos, acondicionadas em garrafas PET e refresqueiras. Das cinco amostras analisadas, duas (40%) armazenadas em garrafas PET, e uma (20%) armazenada em refresqueiras, apresentou-se em desacordo com os padrões estabelecidos pela legislação vigente. Na análise de bolores e leveduras, encontrou-se elevado crescimento destes micro- -organismos em quatro amostras (80%) armazenadas em garrafas PET e em cinco amostras (100%) armazenadas em refresqueiras. As informações obtidas nessa pesquisa demonstraram que os refrescos coletados estavam em condições higienicossanitárias insatisfatórias, podendo representar causas de infecções de origem alimentar aos consumidores.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary characteristics of refreshment stored in PET bottles and in refreshments marketed in establishments in a municipality in the Recôncavo da Bahia. For the presence of molds, yeasts and thermotolerant coliforms, 10 samples of refreshment, packed in PET bottles and coolers, were analyzed. Of the five samples analyzed, two (40%) stored in PET bottles, and one (20%) stored in refrigerators, were in disagreement with the standards established by current legislation. When analyzing molds and yeasts, a high growth of these microorganisms was found in four samples (80%) stored in PET bottles and in five samples (100%) stored in coolants. The information obtained in this research showed that the refreshments collected were in unsatisfactory hygienic-sanitary conditions, and may represent causes of food-borne infections to consumers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Food Contamination/analysis , Juices , Food Microbiology , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Brazil , Food Packaging , Food Storage/standards , Coliforms , Multiple Tube Method/methods , Fungi/isolation & purification , Legislation, Food
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 162-168, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889200

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT For the implementation of cellulosic ethanol technology, the maximum use of lignocellulosic materials is important to increase efficiency and to reduce costs. In this context, appropriate use of the pentose released by hemicellulose hydrolysis could improve de economic viability of this process. Since the Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to ferment the pentose, the search for pentose-fermenting microorganisms could be an alternative. In this work, the isolation of yeast strains from decaying vegetal materials, flowers, fruits and insects and their application for assimilation and alcoholic fermentation of xylose were carried out. From a total of 30 isolated strains, 12 were able to assimilate 30 g L-1 of xylose in 120 h. The strain Candida tropicalis S4 produced 6 g L-1 of ethanol from 56 g L-1 of xylose, while the strain C. tropicalis E2 produced 22 g L-1 of xylitol. The strains Candida oleophila G10.1 and Metschnikowia koreensis G18 consumed significant amount of xylose in aerobic cultivation releasing non-identified metabolites. The different materials in environment were source for pentose-assimilating yeast with variable metabolic profile.


Subject(s)
Pentoses/metabolism , Xylose/metabolism , Yeasts/metabolism , Vegetables/microbiology , Xylitol/metabolism , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Yeasts/classification , Yeasts/genetics , Ethanol/metabolism , Fermentation
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 68-75, Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888852

ABSTRACT

Abstract Yeast infections have acquired great importance due to increasing frequency in immunocompromised patients or patients undergoing invasive diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, and also because of its high morbidity and mortality. At the same time, it has been seen an increase in the emergence of new pathogenic species difficult to diagnose and treat. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility of 89 yeasts from different sources against the antifungals amphotericin B, voriconazole, fluconazole and flucytosine, using the VITEK® 2 Compact system. The antifungal susceptibility was performed automatically by the Vitek® 2 Compact system. The origin of the yeasts was: Group 1 - microbiota of wild animals (W) (26/89), 2 - cow's milk with subclinical mastitis (M) (27/89) and 3 - hospital enviorment (H) (36/89). Of the 89 yeasts submitted to the Vitek® 2 test, 25 (20.9%) were resistant to fluconazole, 11 (12.36%) to amphotericin B, 3 (3.37%) to voriconazole, and no sample was resistant to flucytosine. Regarding the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), fluconazole showed an MIC between 1 and 64 mg/mL for the three groups, voriconazole had an MIC between 0.12 and 8 mg/mL, amphotericin B had an MIC between 0.25 and 4 mg/mL for group H and group W respectively, between 0.25 and 16 mg/mL for group M and flucytosine had an MIC equal to 1μg/mL for all groups. The yeasts isolated from the H group showed the highest resistance to fluconazole 12/89 (13.49%), followed by group W (7.87%) and group M (5.62%). The more resistant group to voriconazole was followed by the M and H groups, the W group showed no resistance to this antifungal. Group H was the least resistant (2.25%) to amphotericin.


Resumo As infecções por leveduras têm adquirido grande importância, devido ao aumento da sua frequência em pacientes imunocomprometidos ou pacientes submetidos a técnicas diagnosticas e terapêuticas agressivas, e devido sua alta morbidade e mortalidade. Paralelamente tem-se observado um incremento na aparição de novas espécies patógenas difíceis de diagnosticar e tratar. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a suscetibilidade in vitro de 89 leveduras de diferentes origens frente aos antifúngicos Anfotericina B, Voriconazol, Fluconazol e Fluocitocina pelo Sistema Vitek® 2. O antifungigrama foi realizado automaticamente pelo Vitek® 2 Compact. A origem das leveduras foi: Grupo 1- Microbiota de Animais Silvestres (S) (26/89), 2- Leite com mastite bovina subclínica (L) (27/89) e 3- Ambiente Hospitalar (H) (36/89). Das 89 leveduras submetidas à carta Vitek®, 25 (20.09%) foram resistentes ao fluconazol, oito (8.99%) à anfotericina B, três (3.37%) ao voriconazol, e nenhuma amostra mostrou-se resistente a fluocitosina. O grupo três (H) foi mais resistente ao fluconazol que os demais, já o dois (L) foi mais resistente ao voriconazol e a anfotericina B que os outros dois. O fluconazol pode ter apresentado maior número de resistências devido ser um fármaco comumente usado principalmente em humanos. As leveduras isoladas de humanos apresentaram maior número de resistências aos fármacos testados do que as leveduras isoladas de animais silvestres. O que pode ocorrer devido a uma maior exposição dos humanos aos fármacos em relação aos animais que vivem isolados em ambientes selvagens e na maioria dos casos nunca teve contato com fármacos de qualquer origem.


Subject(s)
Animals , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Yeasts/drug effects , Milk/microbiology , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Cattle , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Asymptomatic Infections , Animals, Wild
7.
Hig. aliment ; 31(272/273): 68-71, 30/10/2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-876113

ABSTRACT

A manteiga é um produto lácteo fabricado a partir do creme de leite pasteurizado. É necessária uma série de condições e cuidados, desde a obtenção da matéria-prima até a sua comercialização, para evitar o comprometimento da sua qualidade e evitar danos à saúde do consumidor. Nessa perspectiva, este trabalho avaliou a qualidade microbiológica de diferentes marcas de manteiga extra qualidade comercializadas no norte do Mato Grosso. Foram determinados coliformes totais, termotolerantes e Escherichia coli, bolores e leveduras. Todas as marcas avaliadas apresentaram resultados negativos para coliformes. Os resultados da contagem de bolores e leveduras variaram de 1,0x102 a 8,37x104 UFC/g.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Butter/microbiology , Food Contamination/analysis , Food Microbiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Food Samples , Fungi/isolation & purification , Multiple Tube Method , Yeasts/isolation & purification
8.
Hig. aliment ; 31(270/271): 119-123, 29/08/2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-848955

ABSTRACT

A etapa de salga é de fundamental importância na produção de queijos por contribuir com diversos parâmetros como: formação do sabor, maturação, controle microbiológico, controle de umidade, dentre outros. O processo de salga de queijos em salmoura é largamente utilizado no Brasil, podendo acarretar problemas de contaminação microbiana nos produtos em virtude de falhas em sua correção ou recuperação. Este trabalho teve por objetivo acompanhar a qualidade da salmoura em uma pequena indústria de laticínios situada em Minas Gerais, durante seu período de utilização. Foram realizadas determinações de temperatura, acidez titulável, concentração de NaCl, além de contagem padrão de micro-organismos mesófilos aeróbios, determinação do número mais provável de coliformes totais e termotolerantes e contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras. O experimento foi conduzido em três repetições, sendo as análises realizadas em duplicata nos tempos 0, 7, 14, 21 e 30 dias de armazenamento. Os valores encontrados para as análises de temperatura e cloreto de sódio apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela literatura. O valor de acidez titulável manteve-se constante em 0,08% de ácido lático durante todo o período analisado, indicando necessidade de correção. A contagem de mesófilos aeróbios variou entre 1,23 log UFC.mL-1 a 3,64 log UFC. mL-1, coliformes totais e termotolerantes entre <0,47 log NMP. mL-1 a 1,17 log NMP. mL-1 e fungos filamentosos e leveduras 1 log UFC. mL-1 (est.) a 2,9 log UFC. mL-1 (est.). A salmoura apresentou boa qualidade microbiológica e físico-química, exceto quanto à acidez titulável, que deve ser corrigida. Foi verificado aumento da carga microbiana no momento da correção da concentração de sal, o que pode estar relacionado à qualidade deste produto.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cheese/analysis , Dairying , Food Preservation/methods , Food Production , Sodium Chloride/administration & dosage , Coliforms , Food Contamination/prevention & control , Food Microbiology , Chemical Phenomena , Yeasts/isolation & purification
9.
Hig. aliment ; 31(264/265): 127-131, 27/02/2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-833125

ABSTRACT

Devido a poucos relatos da qualidade das castanhas-do-brasil oriundas do estado de Mato Grosso avaliaram-se as condições microbiológicas e nutricionais de amêndoas coletadas e beneficiadas, com e sem casca, por produtores de Itaúba/MT. Foram adquiridas 18 amostras em 3 locais distintos (6 amostras por local - 3 com casca e 3 descascadas). Foi investigada a qualidade microbiológica (coliformes totais, termotolerantes, Escherichia coli e bolores e leveduras) e nutricional (peso de 100 amêndoas, umidade, lipídios, proteína bruta e minerais totais). Os níveis de coliformes termotolerantes apresentaram-se abaixo do limite de tolerância preconizado pela legislação brasileira, contudo foi encontrada alta contaminação por bolores e leveduras, sendo as amêndoas sem cascas as mais contaminadas (627,27UFC.g-1). Observaram- se teores apreciáveis de lipídeos (63,25g.100g-1), proteína bruta (15,44g.100g-1) e minerais totais (2,69g.100g-1), porém elevados níveis de umidade (5,55g.100g-1), que podem estar relacionados com a alta contaminação fúngica encontrada. O descascamento influenciou na qualidade nutricional do produto, pois foram observadas diferenças significativas nas castanhas com e sem casca para os teores de lipídios, proteína bruta e cinzas entre os locais de amostragem e as formas de comercialização (teste Tukey p≤0,05).


Subject(s)
Humans , Bertholletia/microbiology , Food Contamination/analysis , Food Microbiology , Prunus dulcis/microbiology , Brazil , Coliforms , Food Samples , Fungi/isolation & purification , Chemical Phenomena , Yeasts/isolation & purification
10.
São Paulo; s.n; 2017. 106 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-878847

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Nas últimas décadas, as infeções fúngicas invasivas por leveduras tornou-se um importante problema de saúde pública, dado sua incidência crescente relacionada ao aumento da população suscetível. O reconhecimento destes patógenos em aspectos como, distribuicão ambiental e caraterísticas fenotípicas, são pilares essenciais para sua vigilância e controle. Objetivo: Descrever a frequência dos agentes de criptococose e outras leveduras com potencial patogênico e comparar essa frequência em excretas de aves silvestres em três municípios do estado de São Paulo, com vistas a melhor conhecimento da distribuição desses agentes no ambiente, além de determinar o perfil de suscetibilidade in vitro a antifúngicos de uso clínico. Método: No período de 2 anos, aves silvestres foram identificadas em áreas de circulação de 3 municípios de São Paulo (Praia Grande, Santos e Rio Claro) e submetidas à coleta de excretas para isolamento de leveduras com potencial patogênico. Análise microscópica e macroscópica para classificação presuntiva de gênero foram realizados em todas as colônias de leveduras obtidas das amostras de excretas. A suscetibilidade dos isolados de leveduras aos antífúngicos: fluconazol, voriconazol e anfotericina B foi determinada segundo método de referência europeu (AFST-EUCAST). Análise de dados: Foi utilizada a regressão de Poisson com a opção robusta para estimar razões de prevalência e identificar variáveis associadas com os principais isolados identificados, com opção de cluster para agrupar os isolados por excreta. Foi avaliado o nível de concordância entre os dois métodos de identificação (fenotípico e MALDI-TOF), utilizando o coeficiente Kappa. Adicionalmente, foi estimada a correlação entre os MIC´s dos fármacos estudados no total de espécies identificadas, utilizando o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman. Resultados: Das 294 excretas coletadas, 42,2 por cento continham leveduras, incluindo espécies de Candida 62 por cento , seguido por Rhodotorula 16,4 por cento , Cryptococcus 10,4 por cento , Trichosporon 6,6 por cento e Pichia 2,7 por cento . Muitas espécies, verificadas em alta frequência, tem forte potêncial de causar infecção invasiva, como: C. parapsilosis stricto sensu, C. tropicalis, Clavispora lusitaniae, C. krusei, C. orthopsilosis, C. glabrata, C. laurenti, C. albicans, C. metapsilosis, C. nivariensis e Meyerozyma guilliermondii. A resistência ao fluconazol, voriconazol e anfotericina B ocorreu nesses isolados, sendo documentada uma forte correlação entre a susceptibilidade, principalmente entre os azois (fluconazol e voriconazol), no entanto, a correlação mesmo sendo menor também foi significativa entre esses fármacos e a anfotericina. De 13 espécies de aves silvestres dispersoras de leveduras, as de maior frequência foram: Sula leucogaster 26,2 por cento , Turdus leucomelas 17 por cento , Larus dominicanus 15 por cento , Thalasseus maximus 11,2 por cento , Thalasseus acuflavidus 5,4 por cento , Tangara sayaca 4,4 por cento , Turdus amaurochalinus 3,7 por cento , Sterna hirundinacea e Pitangus sulphuratus 2,7 por cento . Os gêneros identificados apresentaram associações entre local, estação do ano e espécies de aves. Conclusões: Dentre as principais espécies de aves estudadas, 3 eram de hábitos migratórios (Thalasseus maximus, Thalasseus acuflavidus e Sterna hirundinacea) o que permite inferir dispersão interamericana de leveduras patogênicas. Diversas espécies resistentes a antifúngicos foram descritas, pela primeira vez, em excretas de aves silvestres conferindo a este estudo o valor de contribuir para o conhecimento da epidemiologia das infecções fúngicas por leveduras


Background: In recent decades, invasive yeast fungal infections have become an important public health problem, due to their increasing incidence related to the increase in the susceptible population. The recognition of these pathogens in aspects such as environmental distribution and phenotypic characteristics are essential pillars for their surveillance and control. Objective: To describe the frequency of cryptococcosis agents and other yeasts with pathogenic potential and to compare this frequency in excreta of wild birds in three municipalities of the state of São Paulo, with a view to a better knowledge of the distribution of these agents in the environment, in addition to determining the profile of in vitro susceptibility to antifungals for clinical use. Method: During two years, wild birds were identified in circulation areas of three municipalities of São Paulo (Praia Grande, Santos and Rio Claro) and were screened for yeasts with pathogenic potential. Microscopic and macroscopic analysis for presumptive genus classification were performed in all yeast colonies obtained from excreta samples. Susceptibility of yeast isolates to antifungals: fluconazole, amphotericin B and voriconazole was determined according to the European reference method (AFST-EUCAST). Data analysis: Poisson regression was used with the robust option to estimate prevalence ratios and to identify variables associated with the main isolates identified, with option of cluster to group the isolates by excreta. The level of agreement between the two identification methods (phenotype and MALDI-TOF) was evaluated using the Kappa coefficient. Additionally, the correlation was estimated between MICs of the drugs studied in total of species identified, using Spearman\'s correlation coefficients. Results: Of the 294 excreta collected, half contained yeasts, including Candida species (62 per cent ), followed by Rhodotorula (16.4 per cent ), Cryptococcus (10.4 per cent ), Trichosporon (6.3 per cent ) and Pichia (2.7 per cent ). Many species, verified at high frequency, have a strong potential to cause invasive infection, such as: C. parapsilosis stricto sensu, C. tropicalis, Clavispora lusitaniae, C. krusei, C. orthopsilosis, C. glabrata, C. laurentii, C. albicans, C. metapsilosis, C. nivariensis and Meyerozyma guilliermondii. Resistance to fluconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B occurred in these isolates and a strong correlation was reported between susceptibility, mainly between azole (fluconazole and voriconazole), however, the correlation, even though it was lower, was also significant between these drugs and amphotericin. From 13 species of wild birds dispersing yeasts, the ones with the highest frequency were: Sula leucogaster 26,2 per cent , Turdus leucomelas 17 per cent , Larus dominicanus 15 per cent , Thalasseus maximus 11,2 per cent , Thalasseus acuflavidus 5,4 per cent , Tangara sayaca 4,4 per cent , Turdus amaurochalinus 3,7 per cent , Sterna hirundinacea e Pitangus sulphuratus 2,7 per cent . The identified genera presented associations between site, season of the year and species of birds. Conclusion: Among the main species of birds studied, 3 were of migratory habits (Thalasseus maximus, Thalasseus acuflavidus and Sterna hirundinacea), which allows inferring the inter - American dispersion of pathogenic yeasts. Several species resistant to antifungal were described for the first time in excreta of wild birds, conferring to this study the value of contributing to the knowledge of the epidemiology of fungal infections by yeasts


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds , Colimetry , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Intestinal Elimination , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Amphotericin B , Antibodies, Fungal , Fluconazole , Voriconazole
11.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 31(2): 9-22, dic. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-868812

ABSTRACT

Las levaduras juegan un importante rol en la naturaleza siendo el mayor reservorio de ellas el suelo. Mediante el método de las diluciones seriadas y posterior siembra en agar Sabouraud se aislaron en cultivo puro 77 cepas de levaduras desde un mismo suelo trumao del sur de Chile, usado como pradera permanente (30 cepas), pradera en rotación (30 cepas) y como control bosque nativo (17 cepas), estas cepas se identificaron molecularmente por PCR-RFLP en conjunto con secuenciación del rDNA de ITS-5.8S, además se realizo una caracterización fisiológica (asimilación fuente de carbono, de nitrógeno y fermentación de azucares) a cada cepa. Mediante las técnicas moleculares las 77 cepas se reunieron en 10 grupos, de estos solamente tres grupos se pudieron identificar a nivel de especie y uno hasta género: Devariomyces hansenii. Pichia fermentan. Kazachstania exigua., Candida sp.


Yeasts plays an important role in nature, It is the largest reservoir of soil them. By the method of serial dilutions and subsequent planting in Sabouraud agar were isolated in pure culture 77 strains of yeast from the same volcanic ash soil of southern Chile, used as permanent pasture (30 strains), rotation pasture (30 strains) and native forest as a control (17 strains), these strains were identified molecularly by PCR-RFLP in conjunction with rDNA sequencing ITS-5.8S, physiological characterization addition was performed to each strain (carbon and nitrogen source assimilation and fermentation of sugars). Using molecular techniques met the 77 strains in 10 groups; only three groups could be identified to species level and one to gender: Devariomyces hansenii; Pichia fermented; Kazachstania exigua; Candida sp.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genetic Markers , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Yeasts/physiology , Yeasts/genetics , Yeasts/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Soil Microbiology , Chile , Volcanic Eruptions/adverse effects , Porosity , Soil Characteristics
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 889-895, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828185

ABSTRACT

Abstract Solid-state fermentation can be used to produce feeds for ruminants, which can provide an enriched population of yeasts to improve ruminal fermentation. Fermentation of apple bagasse was performed to obtain a yeast-rich product, with the objective of isolating, identifying, and characterizing yeast strains and testing their capability to enhance in vitro ruminal fermentation of fibrous feeds. Yeasts were isolated from apple bagasse fermented under in vitro conditions, using rumen liquor obtained from cannulated cows and alfalfa as a fibrous substrate. A total of 16 new yeast strains were isolated and identified by biochemical and molecular methods. The strains were designated Levazot, followed by the isolate number. Their fermentative capacity was assessed using an in vitro gas production method. Strain Levazot 15 (Candida norvegensis) showed the greatest increase in gas production (p < 0.05) compared with the yeast-free control and positively affected in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of alfalfa and oat straw. Based on these results, it was concluded that the Levazot 15 yeast strain could be potentially used as an additive for ruminants consuming high-fiber diets. However, further studies of effects of these additives on rumen digestion, metabolism, and productive performance of ruminants are required.


Subject(s)
Animals , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Yeasts/classification , Cellulose , Malus , Food Additives , Animal Feed/microbiology , Phylogeny , Yeasts/genetics , Yeasts/metabolism , Ruminants , Fermentation
13.
Hig. aliment ; 30(262/263): 89-93, 30/12/2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-831859

ABSTRACT

Os alimentos podem ser contaminados no decorrer das várias etapas do processo de produção e comercialização. A contaminação em açougues pode ocorrer devido à inadequada manipulação, higienização ou manutenção e limpeza inadequada de equipamentos e utensílios. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a higienização e sanitização de açougues da cidade de Januária-MG, verificando as condições higienicossanitárias dos estabelecimentos por meio da realização de análises microbiológicas do ambiente, superfícies, utensílios e da água utilizada nos estabelecimentos. Para as amostras do ar ambiental, superfícies e utensílios, foram realizadas contagens de micro-organismos aeróbios mesofílicos, enterobactérias e bolores e leveduras. Contagem de coliformes totais e coliformes a 45°C foram realizadas a partir das amostras de água. Todos os açougues analisados apresentaram condições higienicossanitárias insatisfatórias devido às contagens elevadas de mesófilos aeróbios e bolores e leveduras no ar ambiental, nas superfícies de manipulação e nos utensílios utilizados, sugerindo a possibilidade de contaminação dos alimentos e possível risco à saúde dos consumidores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Abattoirs/standards , Food Hygiene/standards , Food Inspection , Coliforms , Cooking and Eating Utensils , Food Contamination/analysis , Food Handling , Fungi/isolation & purification , Yeasts/isolation & purification
14.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(3): 187-190, set. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290554

ABSTRACT

Dentro del género Candida, la especie más frecuentemente aislada de materiales clínicos es Candida albicans. Debido a la emergencia de otras especies que pueden presentar mayor índice de resistencia a los antifúngicos, se hace necesaria la identificación rápida de aquellas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el rendimiento del sistema RapID™ Yeast Plus a partir de subcultivos en 2 formulaciones diferentes, agar Sabouraud dextrosa modificado por Emmons (medio indicado en el inserto del equipo) y agar Sabouraud glucosado, que es el utilizado habitualmente en los laboratorios de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Se estudiaron 166 cepas de muestras clínicas provenientes de los distintos hospitales que integran la Red de Micología de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. De los resultados obtenidos se concluye que se deben mantener las condiciones y el medio de cultivo indicado por el fabricante


Within the genus Candida, Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species from clinical samples. Due to the emergence of other species which can show a higher index of antifungal resistance, a fast identification of these species is necessary. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of the RapID Yeast Plus system from two different subculture media formulations: Sabouraud dextrose agar adjusted by Emmons (the medium is indicated in the equipment insert) and Sabouraud glucose agar, which is the most frequently used in Buenos Aires City laboratories. One hundred and sixty-six clinical sample strains coming from different hospitals belonging to the Mycology Network of Buenos Aires City were studied. From the obtained results, we conclude that the conditions and culture medium indicated by the manufacturer should be followed


Subject(s)
Yeasts/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Culture Media/analysis , Candidiasis/diagnosis , Evaluation Study
15.
Hig. aliment ; 30(258/259): 78-82, 30/08/2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-2589

ABSTRACT

Nesta pesquisa foram analisadas nove amostras de polpas de frutas congeladas, no sabor manga, obtidas em dois hipermercados e três minimercados de Salvador - BA. As amostras foram analisadas em triplicata, realizando-se a determinação de coliformes totais e termotolerantes, além de bolores e leveduras. As amostras apresentaram 100% de contaminação por bolores e leveduras, sendo que as contagens variaram de < 1 até 2,5 x 105 UFC/g. As bactérias termotolerantes apresentaram o total de 11,1% de contaminação acima do padrão microbiológico vigente, porém as bactérias totais, por não terem padrão estabelecido, não podem ser reportadas como contaminadas. Conclui-se que as polpas de frutas comercializadas na cidade de Salvador - BA não estão nas condições higienicossanitárias adequadas de acordo com a legislação vigente.


In this research were analyzed nine samples of frozen fruit pulps in manga flavor, chosen because the pH is 3.3 to 4.5, (Embrapa 2000) and obtained in two hypermarkets and three minimarkets in Salvador, Bahia. The samples were analyzed in triplicate by performing the determination of thermotolerant coliforms in addition to yeasts and molds. Samples showed 100% contamination by molds and yeasts, and counts ranged from <1 to 2,5 x 105 CFU/g. The thermotolerant bacteria showed a total of 11,1% of contamination above the current microbiological standard, but the total bacteria by not having standard established, may not be reported as contaminated. It concludes that the fruit pulp sold in the city of Salvador-BA are not in the proper sanitary conditions in accordance with current legislation.


Subject(s)
Food Contamination/analysis , Microbiological Techniques , Mangifera/microbiology , Good Manufacturing Practices , Frozen Foods , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Food Samples , Coliforms , Food Microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification
16.
Hig. aliment ; 30(256/257): 128-131, maio/junho 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1700

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade microbiológica de polpas de frutas congeladas comercializadas na cidade de Cuiabá - MT, comparando aos padrões da legislação vigente. Foi avaliada a qualidade microbiológica de 25 amostras de polpas de frutas coletadas na cidade de Cuiabá-MT, de cinco diferentes polpas (abacaxi, acerola, caju, goiaba e maracujá) e de cinco marcas comerciais (denominadas A, B, C, D e E), para determinação da população global de bolores e leveduras, em unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC/mL), determinação do Número Mais Provável (NMP. mL-1) de coliformes totais e termotolerantes (a 45ºC) e determinação da presença/ausência de Salmonella sp. Os resultados para detecção de Salmonella sp. coliformes totais e termotolerantes nas polpas congeladas mostraram que estas se encontravam de acordo com a legislação vigente. Para a contagem de bolores e leveduras, porém, três amostras (12%) apresentaram índices elevados, acima do limite máximo estabelecido pela legislação vigente. Tais resultados sugerem possível inadequação do controle higiênico de algumas das indústrias evidenciando que as condições higiênicas durante o processamento, manipulação e armazenamento podem estar em desacordo com as Boas Práticas de Fabricação (BPF).


This work aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of frozen pulps (pineapple, acerola, cashew, guava, passion fruit) from five commercial brands commercialized in Cuiabá city, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Analysis microbiological were performed (Salmonella sp., molds and yeasts, total coliform, and thermotolerant counts) in 25 samples, in accordance with the accordance to the Brazilian legislation requirements. The counts of Salmonella sp., total and thermotolerant coliforms in the samples were in accordance to the Brazilian legislation requirements, except for frozen pulp of pineapple of one commercial brand for Escherichia coli because was present, but with value lower than of the legislation limit. Results for molds and yeasts were bigger than legislation limit, with presence in 12% of total samples. Concluded with this work that it is possible that some frozen pulps in some commercial brands sold in Cuiabá were not being manipulated neither with necessary hygienic conditions during processing, handling and storage.


Subject(s)
Food Contamination/analysis , Food Microbiology , Frozen Foods , Fruit/microbiology , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Brazil , Food Samples , Microbiological Techniques , Fungi/isolation & purification
17.
Hig. aliment ; 30(254/255): 85-87, 30/04/2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-836647

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a contaminação por bolores e leveduras em queijos tipo Minas, produzido artesanalmente e comercializados em feiras livres na cidade de Pelotas, Brasil. Foram visitadas doze feiras cadastradas no site da Prefeitura de Pelotas e coletadas amostras em oito. As amostras foram coletadas em sacos estéreis e a análise ocorreu no Laboratório de Microbiologia do Instituto de Biologia da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Foram pesadas 25 gramas de amostra e homogeneizadas em 225 mL de água peptonada 0,1%. Foram realizadas diluições seriadas 10-1 a 10-4 em tubos contendo 9 mL de água peptonada 0,1%. Cada diluição foi vertida em placas de Petri com Ágar Sabouraud Dextrose contendo 9 mL de cloranfenicol e incubadas a 36°C/48horas. Os resultados indicaram contagens de 0,1x104 log UFC/g para bolores, em duas amostras. Verificou-se contagem expressivas de leveduras em seis amostras, variando de 0,8x104 a 33,3x104 log UFC/g. A contaminação por bolores e leveduras no produto demonstra a falta de higiene no processo de fabricação. Concluiu-se que os queijos Minas artesanais apresentaram contaminação por micro-organismos indesejáveis no produto, que podem causar riscos à saúde do consumidor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cheese/microbiology , Food Contamination/analysis , Food Microbiology , Street Food , Food Samples , Fungi/isolation & purification , Yeasts/isolation & purification
18.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(1): 15-20, mar. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843145

ABSTRACT

It has been recently found that the natural distribution, habitat, and genetic diversity of astaxanthin-producing yeasts (i.e. Phaffia rhodozyma, synonym Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) is much greater than previously thought. P. rhodozyma is biotechnologically exploited due to its ability to produce the carotenoid pigment astaxanthin and thus, it is used as a natural source of this pigment for aquaculture. P. rhodozyma was also capable of synthesizing the potent UVB sunscreen mycosporine-glutaminol-glucoside (MGG). Therefore, further environmental studies are needed to elucidate its ecological aspects and detect new potential strains for the production of astaxanthin and MGG. However, obtaining new isolates of P. rhodozyma and related species is not always easy due to its low abundance and the presence of other sympatric and pigmented yeasts. In this work we report a successful development of a species-specific primer which has the ability to quickly and accurately detecting isolates representing all known lineages of the genus Phaffia (including novel species of the genus) and excluding closely related taxa. For this purpose, a primer of 20 nucleotides (called PhR) was designed to be used in combination with universal primers ITS3 and NL4 in a multiplex amplification. The proposed method has the sensitivity and specificity required for the precise detection of new isolates, and therefore represents an important tool for the environmental search for novel astaxanthin-producing yeasts.


Recientemente, se ha encontrado que la distribución natural, el hábitat y la diversidad genética de levaduras productoras de astaxantina (p. ej., Phaffia rhodozyma, sinónimo Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) son mucho mayores de lo que se pensaba. P. rhodozyma se explota biotecnológicamente debido a su capacidad para producir el pigmento carotenoide astaxantina y, por lo tanto, se utiliza como una fuente natural de este pigmento para la acuicultura. También se encontró que esta levadura es capaz de sintetizar el potente protector solar UVB micosporina-glutaminol-glucósido (MGG). Por lo tanto, más estudios ambientales para dilucidar sus aspectos ecológicos y detectar nuevas cepas potenciales productoras de astaxantina y MGG son necesarios. Sin embargo, la obtención de nuevos aislamientos de P. rhodozyma y especies relacionadas no siempre es fácil debido a su baja abundancia y a la presencia de otras levaduras simpátricas y pigmentadas. En este trabajo se describe el desarrollo exitoso de un cebador especie-específico que tiene la capacidad de detectar rápidamente y con precisión cepas representativas de todos los linajes del género Phaffia previamente reportados (incluyendo nuevas especies del género) y excluir especies estrechamente relacionadas. Para ello, se diseñó un cebador de 20 nucleótidos (denominado PhR) para ser utilizado en combinación con los cebadores universales ITS3 y NL4 en una amplificación multiplex. El método propuesto tiene la sensibilidad y la especificidad requerida para la detección precisa de nuevos aislamientos y, por lo tanto, representa una importante herramienta para la búsqueda ambiental de nuevas levaduras productoras de astaxantina.


Subject(s)
Yeasts/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Xanthophylls/isolation & purification , Methods , Nucleotides/analysis
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 18-24, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775112

ABSTRACT

Abstract Phenol and phenolic compounds are environmental pollutants present in industrial wastewaters such as coal tar, oil refineries and petrochemical plants. Phenol removal from industrial effluents is extremely important for the protection of environment. Usually, phenol degradation is carried out by physicochemical methods that are costly and produce hazardous metabolites. Recently, phenol biodegradation has been considered. Yeasts are the most important phenol biodegraders. In this study, the phenol-degrading yeast from environmental samples (soil and wastewater) was isolated from the coking plant of Zarand, Kerman. Then total heterotrophic yeasts were counted. The soil samples had higher rates of yeast degrader, in comparison to wastewater samples. After three passages, four yeasts (K1, K2, K7 and K11) that had the highest growth rate were selected for further study. Also, these yeasts were able to remove phenol measured by Gibbs reagent. The effect of four different concentrations of phenol (50, 125, 200 and 275) mg L−1 was measured and three degradation patterns in these yeasts were observed. The hydrophobicity and emulsification activity were measured in all eleven yeasts. Finally, strong yeasts in phenol degrading yeasts were identified by molecular method using amplification of 18S rRNA gene region. The sequencing results showed that these isolated yeasts belonged to Candida tropicalis strain K1, Pichia guilliermondii strain K2, Meyerozyma guilliermondii strain K7 and C. tropicalis strain K11.


Subject(s)
Industrial Waste , Phenol/metabolism , Waste Water/microbiology , Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism , Yeasts/classification , Yeasts/metabolism , Biotransformation , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Iran , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Soil Microbiology , Yeasts/genetics , Yeasts/isolation & purification
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