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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935238

ABSTRACT

The risk of plague epidemics and relapse of various types of plague foci persists in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. For Marmota sibirica plague foci, the animal plague has not been found but antibody has been detected positive. Nowadays, Marmota sibirica has been increasing in population and distribution in China. In bordering countries Mongolia and Russia, the animal plague has been continuously prevalent. For Spermophilus dauricus plague foci, the animal plague has been taken place now and then. Compared to the above foci, the animal plague is most prevalent in Meriones unguiculatus plague foci and frequently spread to humans. Due to higher strain virulence and historical disaster in Marmota sibirica plague foci and Spermophilus dauricus plague foci, plague prevention and control should be strengthened on these foci. In addition to routine surveillance, epidemic dynamics need to be further monitored in these two foci, in order to prevent their relapse and spread to humans.


Subject(s)
Animals , China/epidemiology , Epidemics , Humans , Plague/prevention & control , Prevalence , Sciuridae , Yersinia pestis
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878362

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate reciprocal regulation between Fur and two RyhB homologs in @*Methods@#Regulatory relationships were assessed by a combination of colony morphology assay, primer extension, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and DNase I footprinting.@*Results@#Fur bound to the promoter-proximal DNA regions of @*Conclusion@#Fur and the two RyhB homologs exert negative reciprocal regulation, and RyhB homologs have a positive regulatory effect on biofilm formation in


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Biofilms , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/physiology , Yersinia pestis/physiology
3.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 8(1): 1-3, 01/01/2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100454

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: caracterizar aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos fundamentais, discutir a metodologia do diagnóstico e tecer recomendações sobre as condutas perante a suspeição de casos de peste. Métodos: revisão bibliográfica e levantamento das internações e mortes por peste registradas no Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde. Resultados e conclusões: a existência de diagnósticos equivocados de uma doença potencialmente fatal, além dos registros hipotéticos de internações e mortes, constitui um desafio a ser superado, pois espelha uma situação inaceitável, em que um possível e insólito diagnóstico não é investigado e acumula-se nos sistemas de informação.


Objective: to characterize ground epidemiological and clinical aspects of, discuss the methodology of diagnosis and draw recommendations about the management of suspect cases of plague. Methods: literature review and data collection of hospitalizations and deaths due to plague recorded in the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System. Results and conclusions: the existence of mistaken diagnoses of a potentially fatal disease, as well as hypothetical records of hospitalization and deaths, is a challenge to be overcome, because it reflects an unacceptable panorama in which a possible and unusual diagnosis is not investigated and accumulates in the information systems.


Subject(s)
Yersinia pestis , Epidemiology
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 128-137, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889212

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of Y. pestis by targeting the 3a sequence on chromosome. All 11 species of the genus Yersinia were used to evaluate the specificity of LAMP and PCR, demonstrating that the primers had a high level of specificity. The sensitivity of LAMP or PCR was 2.3 or 23 CFU for pure culture, whereas 2.3 × 104 or 2.3 × 106 CFU for simulated spleen and lung samples. For simulated liver samples, the sensitivity of LAMP was 2.3 × 106 CFU, but PCR was negative at the level of 2.3 × 107 CFU. After simulated spleen and lung samples were treated with magnetic beads, the sensitivity of LAMP or PCR was 2.3 × 103 or 2.3 × 106 CFU, whereas 2.3 × 105 or 2.3 × 107 CFU for magnetic bead-treated liver samples. These results indicated that some components in the tissues could inhibit LAMP and PCR, and liver tissue samples had a stronger inhibition to LAMP and PCR than spleen and lung tissue samples. LAMP has a higher sensitivity than PCR, and magnetic bead capture of DNAs could remarkably increase the sensitivity of LAMP. LAMP is a simple, rapid and sensitive assay suitable for application in the field or poverty areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plague/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Magnetics/methods , Yersinia pestis/isolation & purification , Yersinia pestis/classification , Yersinia pestis/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Immunomagnetic Separation , DNA Primers/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Magnetics/instrumentation
6.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 141-146, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691073

ABSTRACT

Chinese tongue diagnosis was initially developed to quickly and efficiently diagnose and prescribe medicine, while at the same time allowing the doctor to have minimal contact with the patient. At the time of its compiling, the spread of Yersinia pestis, often causing septicaemia and gangrene of the extremities, may have discouraged doctors to come in direct contact with their patients and take the pulse. However, in recent decades, modern developments in the field of traditional Chinese medicine, as well as the spread of antibiotics in conjunction with the advancements of microbiology, have overshadowed the original purpose of this methodology. Nevertheless, the fast approaching post-antibiotic era and the development of artificial intelligence may hold new applications for tongue diagnosis. This article focuses on the historical development of what is the world's earliest tongue diagnosis monograph, and discusses the directions that such knowledge may be used in future clinical research.


Subject(s)
China , Diagnosis, Differential , History, Ancient , Humans , Medicine in Literature , History , Plague , Diagnosis , History , Microbiology , Therapeutics , Tongue , Chemistry , Yersinia pestis , Physiology
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(6): 620-626, Nov.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888922

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: The plague, which is an infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, still threatens many populations in several countries. The worldwide increase in human plague cases and the potential use of the bacteria as a biological weapon reinforce the need to study the immunity that is induced by potential vaccine candidates. To determine the immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the F1 protein and the total extract from Y. pestis, we assessed the role of these antigens in inducing an immune response. Methods: The immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the Y. pestis (YP) total extract and the Y. pestis fraction 1 capsular antigen protein (F1) was determined in Swiss-Webster mice immunized with 40 µg or 20 µg for each preparation. Immunophenotyping was performed by flow cytometry. Results: Animals immunized with the YP total extract did not elicit detectable anti-F1 antibodies (Ab) in the hemaglutination/inhibition (HA/HI) test. Animals immunized with 40 µg or 20 µg of the F1 protein produced anti-F1 Abs, with titres ranging from 1/16 to 1/8132. The average of CD3+-CD4+ and CD3+-CD8+ T cells did not differ significantly between the groups. Neither YP total extract nor F1 protein induced a significant expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 in CD4+ T lymphocytes. In addition, F1 failed to induce IFN-γ expression in CD8+ T cells, unlike the YP total extract. Conclusion: The results showed that F1 protein is not an immunogenic T cell antigen, although the YP total extract (40 µg dose) favoured CD8+ T cell-mediated cellular immunity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Spleen/immunology , Yersinia pestis/immunology , Plague Vaccine/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Plague/prevention & control , Spleen/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-10/immunology , CD4-CD8 Ratio , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Flow Cytometry , Immunity, Cellular
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 769-776, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897037

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, the plague is established in several foci located mainly in the northeastern part of the country, where it alternates between active and quiescent periods. These foci in the State of Ceará have high epidemiological importance. In addition to other plague detection activities, plague areas can be monitored through serological surveys of dogs and cats (domestic carnivores), which, following feeding on plague-infected rodents, can develop mild to severe forms of the disease and produce long-lasting antibodies. This study aimed to characterize the circulation dynamics and spatial distribution of Yersinia pestis antibodies in dogs and cats in plague foci areas of Ceará. METHODS: An ecological study was conducted to analyze the temporal series and spatial distribution of secondary data obtained from domestic carnivore serum surveillance in Ceará's plague areas from 1990 to 2014. RESULTS: Joinpoint analysis revealed that the overall trend was a reduction in antibody-positive animals. The mean proportion of antibody-positivity during the whole study period was 1.5% (3,023/203,311) for dogs, and 0.7% (426/61,135) for cats, with more than 4% antibody-positivity in dogs in 1997 and 2002. Antibody titers ranging from 1/16 to 1/64 were frequent. Despite fluctuations and a significant reduction, in recent years, there were antibody-positive animals annually throughout the study period, and the localities containing antibody-positive animals increased in number. CONCLUSION: Yersinia pestis is actively circulating in the study areas, posing a danger to the human population.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Plague/veterinary , Yersinia pestis/immunology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Plague/diagnosis , Plague/immunology , Plague/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/immunology , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
10.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 41: e107, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-961630

ABSTRACT

Objective To identify 1) the main determinants of persistent Yersinia pestis circulation and the associated threat of plague at Hermelinda Market—a large farmers' market in the city of Trujillo, La Libertad, Peru—and the main actions taken against it, as perceived by local stakeholders; 2) the level of plague risk perception among local actors; and 3) recommended actions to solve the plague threat at the market. Methods A conceptual framework was developed combining a social determinants approach with a complex systems-thinking framework and a knowledge management perspective. A four-step qualitative protocol was carried out (literature review; stakeholder mapping; 37 semi-structured interviews; and coding/analysis). In the fourth step, the data collected in the semi-structured interviews were coded for eight social determinants of health (SDH) variables and analyzed with ATLAS.ti®, and an emerging category analysis was performed to identify risk perception levels. Results Based on analysis by SDH variable, the three main determinants of the plague threat at Hermelinda Market were: 1) local (Trujillo City) governance, 2) infrastructure and basic services, and 3) local culture. According to the same analysis, actions most frequently undertaken against plague involved 1) infrastructure and basic services, 2) social vigilance, and 3) communication. The emerging category analysis indicated local risk perception levels were low, with most of the data pointing to "unhygienic" ("naturalized") lifestyles and a general lack of awareness about the disease prior to plague-related health concerns at the market as the cause. Conclusions The results indicate that the persistent circulation of Yersinia pestis at Hermelinda Market is not simply a technical matter but more of a managerial and cultural problem. As local governance was found to be a main factor in the persistence of this public health threat, future efforts against it should focus on sustainable inter-sectoral planning and education. Actions taken exclusively by the health sector and the improvement of infrastructure and basic services alone will not be enough to reduce the threat of plague at the market.


RESUMEN Objetivo Establecer: 1) los principales determinantes de la circulación persistente de Yersinia pestis y la amenaza asociada de peste en el mercado La Hermelinda, un gran mercado de agricultores en la ciudad de Trujillo, Departamento de La Libertad en Perú, y las medidas más adecuadas para combatir la bacteria, según la percepción de los interesados directos locales; 2) el grado de percepción del riesgo de peste entre los actores locales; y 3) las medidas recomendadas para resolver la amenaza de peste en el mercado. Métodos Se elaboró un marco conceptual que combinaba un enfoque de determinantes sociales con un complejo marco de pensamiento sistémico y una perspectiva de gestión del conocimiento. Se llevó a cabo un protocolo cualitativo de cuatro pasos (revisión bibliográfica; mapeo de interesados directos; 37 entrevistas semiestructuradas y codificación y análisis). En el cuarto paso, los datos recopilados en las entrevistas semiestructuradas fueron codificados conforme a ocho variables de los determinantes sociales de la salud y analizados con el programa ATLAS.ti ®, y luego se realizó un análisis de las categorías emergentes para establecer los grados de percepción del riesgo. Resultados Sobre la base del análisis de las variables de los determinantes sociales de la salud, los tres principales determinantes de la amenaza de peste en el mercado La Hermelinda fueron: 1) la gobernanza local (Ciudad de Trujillo), 2) la infraestructura y los servicios básicos y 3) la cultura local. Según el mismo análisis, las acciones emprendidas con mayor frecuencia contra la peste se vincularon con 1) la infraestructura y los servicios básicos, 2) la vigilancia social y 3) la comunicación. El análisis de las categorías emergentes indicó que los grados locales de percepción del riesgo fueron bajos y la mayoría de los datos apuntaron como causas a los modos de vida "antihigiénicos" ("naturalizados") y a una falta general de concientización acerca de la enfermedad antes de la preocupación acerca de la salud relacionada con la peste en el mercado. Conclusiones Los resultados indican que la circulación persistente de Yersinia pestis en el mercado La Hermelinda no es sencillamente un asunto técnico sino sobre todo un problema cultural y de gestión. Como se encontró que la gobernanza local era un factor importante en la persistencia de esta amenaza a la salud pública, las actividades futuras para combatirla deben centrarse en la planificación y la educación intersectoriales sostenibles. Las medidas adoptadas exclusivamente por el sector de la salud y el mejoramiento de la infraestructura y los servicios básicos por sí solos no serán suficientes para reducir la amenaza de la peste en el mercado.


RESUMO Objetivo Identificar 1) os principais determinantes da circulação persistente de Yersinia pestis e o risco associado de ocorrência da peste no Mercado Hermelinda, um grande mercado de produtos agrícolas no município de Trujillo, La Libertad, Peru, e as principais medidas adotadas para enfrentar esta situação, segundo a percepção dos interessados diretos locais, 2) o nível de percepção do risco de ocorrência da peste entre os atores locais e 3) as ações recomendadas para eliminar o risco de ocorrência da peste no mercado. Métodos Foi desenvolvida uma estrutura conceitual formada pela combinação de um enfoque de determinantes sociais, um enquadramento complexo de reflexão sistêmica e uma perspectiva de gestão do conhecimento. Foi conduzido um protocolo qualitativo de quatro etapas (revisão literária, mapeamento de interessados diretos, 37 entrevistas semiestruturadas e codificação/análise). Na quarta etapa, os dados coletados nas entrevistas semiestruturadas foram codificados para oito variáveis de determinantes sociais da saúde (DSS) e analisados com o programa ATLAS.ti®. Uma análise de categorias emergentes foi realizada para identificar os níveis de percepção de risco. Resultados A partir da análise segundo as variáveis de DSS, os três principais determinantes do risco de ocorrência da peste no Mercado Hermelinda foram: 1) governança local (município de Trujillo), 2) infraestrutura e serviços básicos e 3) cultura local. Segundo a mesma análise, as medidas adotadas com maior frequência para evitar a peste foram: 1) infraestrutura e serviços básicos, 2) vigilância social e 3) comunicação. A análise de categorias emergentes indicou que o nível de percepção local do risco de ocorrência era baixo, sendo que a maioria dos dados apontou como causa hábitos de vida anti-higiênicos ("naturalizados") e falta geral de consciência da doença anterior às preocupações de saúde relacionadas com a peste no mercado. Conclusões Os resultados do estudo indicam que a circulação persistente de Yersinia pestis no Mercado Hermelinda não é simplesmente uma questão técnica, sendo mais um problema administrativo e cultural. Verificou-se que a governança local é um dos principais fatores para a persistência desta ameaça à saúde pública e os esforços futuros devem visar o planejamento intersetorial sustentável e a educação. Medidas adotadas exclusivamente pelo setor da saúde e a melhoria da infraestrutura e serviços básicos por si só não serão suficientes para reduzir o risco de ocorrência da peste no mercado.


Subject(s)
Yersinia pestis , Pesticide Utilization , Peru
11.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2016033-2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721132

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. METHODS: In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred. RESULTS: This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today’s Iran) and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity.


Subject(s)
Africa, Northern , Animals , Disease Outbreaks , Dogs , History of Medicine , Humans , Iran , Mediterranean Region , Middle East , Persia , Plague , Public Health , Rodentia , World Health Organization , Yersinia pestis
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337397

ABSTRACT

Recombinant Fl-V (rFl-V) fusion protein is the main ingredient of the current candidate vaccine against Yersinia pestis infection, which has been under investigation in clinical trial in USA. We investigated the soluble expression conditions of rF1-V in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) that we constructed before. After scale-up and optimization of fermentation processes, we got the optimized fermentation process parameters: the culture was induced at the middle exponential phase with 50 µmol/L of IPTG at 25 °C for 5 h. Soluble rFl-V protein was isolated to 99% purity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography and gel filter chromatography. The protein recovery was above 20%. Protein identity and primary structure were verified by mass spectrometry and Edman sequencing. Results of purity, quality and western blotting analysis indicated that the target protein is a consistent and properly folded product. Furthermore, the immunogenicity of various antigens formulated with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant was evaluated in mice. Serum antibody titers of 4 groups including 20 µg rFl, rV and rFl-V and 10 µg rFl+10 µg rV, were assayed by ELISA after 2 doses. The antibody titers of anti-Fl with 20 µg rFl-V were obviously higher than titers with other groups; meanwhile there were no significant difference of anti-V antibody titers among them. These findings confirm that rFl-V would be the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the plague subunit vaccine.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Animals , Antibodies, Bacterial , Blood , Antibody Formation , Antigens, Bacterial , Allergy and Immunology , Blotting, Western , Chromatography, Ion Exchange , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Mice , Plague , Plague Vaccine , Allergy and Immunology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Allergy and Immunology , Vaccines, Subunit , Allergy and Immunology , Yersinia pestis
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291676

ABSTRACT

Application of the PCR-derived technology in gene identification and genotypes of different ecotype Yersinia pestis to make the high-throughput experimental results can reflect the epidemic history and compare the diversity in genome, pathogenicity, so that results from these experiments provide an important basis for clinical diagnosis, treatment and origin. But the experiment should be considered typing ability, practicality, budget and other experimental factors or conditions, because each PCR-derivative technology has advantages and disadvantages.


Subject(s)
Genotype , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Virulence , Yersinia pestis
14.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 271-274, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-240113

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To identify the epidemiology and etiology characteristics of Tibetan sheep plague in Qinghai plateau.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The background materials of Qinghai Tibetan sheep plague found during 1975 to 2009 were summarized, the regional, time and interpersonal distribution, infection routes, ecological factors for the spread were used to analyze; followed by choosing 14 Yersinia pestis strains isolated from such sheep for biochemical test, toxicity test, virulence factors identification, plasmid analysis, and DFR genotype.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>From 1975 to 2009, 14 Yersinia pestis strains were isolated from Tibetan sheep in Qinghai province. Tibetan sheep, as the infection source, had caused 10 cases of human plague, 25 plague patients, and 13 cases of death. All of the initial cases were infected due to eating Tibetan sheep died of plague; followed by cases due to contact of plague patients, while all the initial cases were bubonic plague. Cases of bubonic plague developed into secondary pneumonic plague and septicemia plague were most popular and with high mortality. Most of the Tibetan sheep plague and human plague occurred in Gannan ecological zone in southern Gansu province, which was closely related to its unique ecological and geographical landscape. Tibetan sheep plague coincided with human plague caused by Tibetan sheep, especially noteworthy was that November (a time for marmots to start their dormancy) witnesses the number of Yersinia pestis strains isolated from Tibetan sheep and human plague cases caused by Tibetan sheep. This constituted the underlying cause that the epidemic time of Tibetan sheep plague lags obviously behind that of the Marmot plague. It was confirmed in the study that all the 14 strains were of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ecotype, with virulence factors evaluation and toxicity test demonstrating strains as velogenic. As found in the (Different Region) DFR genotyping, the strains isolated from Yushu county and Zhiduo county were genomovar 5, the two strain isolated from Nangqian county were genomovar 5 and genomovar 7, while those isolated Delingha region were genomovar 8.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Tibetan sheep were vulnerable to plague infection, hence causing human plague as the infectious source. The Yersinia pestis strains isolated from Tibetan sheep plague carried pathogen characteristics of Qinghai-Tibet plateau plague, developing many new characteristics of such plague.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecology , Genotype , Geography , Humans , Marmota , Plague , Epidemiology , Plasmids , Sheep , Microbiology , Tibet , Epidemiology , Yersinia pestis
15.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 496-500, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-240065

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a gene identification method of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis for plague surveillance.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>According to the specific genomic sequences of Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis, i.e. "pestis Island (PeI)" and "pseudotuberculosis Island (PsI)" and the published genomic sequences of 12 strains of Y. pestis and 4 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis, the specific identification primers of these sequences were designed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 52 strains of Y. pestis and 57 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis and other intestinal bacteria strains were tested with PCR. Of the 5 pairs of Y. pestis identification primers, PeI2 and PeI11 were specific for Y. pestis. Besides Y. pestis, the primers PeI1, PeI3 and PeI12 could detect part of 57 Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. Of the 5 pairs of Y. pseudotuberculosis identification primers, PsI1 could detect all the 52 strains of Y. pestis and 57 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis. PsI7, PsI16, PsI18 and PsI19 were specific for Y. pseudotuberculosis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The primers PsI1, PeI 2 and PeI11, PsI7, PsI16, PsI18 and PsI19 can be used in the rapid identification of Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis, which can be also used to explore the circulation of atypical Y. pestis in quiescent plague foci.</p>


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , China , Epidemiology , DNA Primers , Genomics , Humans , Plague , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Population Surveillance , Methods , Yersinia pestis , Genetics , Yersinia pseudotuberculosis , Genetics
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-302528

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop an up-converting phosphor technology based lateral flow (UPT-LF) assay for rapid and quantitative detection of Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthracis spore and Brucella spp.and make the comparison with BioThreat Alert (BTA) test strips (Tetracore Inc., USA).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Using up-converting phosphor nano-particles (UCP-NPs) as the bio-marker, three double-antibody-sandwich model based UPT-LF strips including Plague-UPT-LF, Anthrax-UPT-LF, Brucella-UPT-LF were prepared and its sensitivity, accuracy, linearity and specificity were determined by detecting 10(10), 10(9), 10(8), 10(7), 10(6), 10(5) and 0 CFU/ml series of concentrations of Y.pestis, B.anthracis, Brucella standards and other 27 kinds of 10(9) CFU/ml series of contrations of bacteria strains.Furthermore, the speed, sensitivity and accuracy of bacteria standards and simulated sample detection were compared between UPT-LF and BTA system.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The detection limit of Plague-UPT-LF, Anthrax-UPT-LF and Brucella-LF was 10(5) CFU/ml. The CV of series of bacteria concentrations was ≤ 15%, and the r between lg (T/C-cut-off) and lg (concentration) was 0.996,0.998 and 0.999 (F values were 1 647.57, 743.51 and 1 822.17. All the P values were <0.001), respectively. The specificity of Plague-UPT-LF and Brucella-LF were excellent, while that of Anthrax-UPT-LF was a little bit regretful because of non-specific reaction with two isolates of B. subtilis and one B.cereus. On-site evaluation showed the detection time of UPT-LF for all Y.pestis, B.anthracis spore and Brucella spp.was 33, 36 and 37 min, while BTA was 115, 115 and 111 min, which revealed the higher detection speed and sensitivity of UPT-LF comparing with BTA. The negative rate of two methods for blank standard was both 5/5, the sensitivity of UPT-LF for Y.pestis,B.anthracis spore and Brucella spp. was all 10(5) CFU/ml, then BTA was 10(6), 10(6) and 10(5) CFU/ml, respectively. The detection rate of UPT-LF for all three bacteria analog positive samples was 16/16, while BTA for B.anthracis was 7/16 only.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The good performance including rapidness, simplicity and high sensitivity will bring the bright future of UPT-LF to be broadly used on-site as first response to bio-terrorism.</p>


Subject(s)
Bacillus anthracis , Brucella , Chromatography, Affinity , Plague , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spores, Bacterial , Yersinia pestis
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-302527

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the plasmid features and geographical distribution characteristics of Yersinia pestis of different plague foci in China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 2 213 Yersinia pestis strains were colected from 11 Chinese plague foci separated during 1943 to 2012, and plasmid DNA according to alkali cracking method, and measured the relative molecular mass (Mr) of plasmid DNA based on the standard plasmid contrast method, then analyzed the plasmid profiles by agar gel electrophoresis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 2 213 strains had 16 kinds of plasmids with different Mr, including 4×10(6), 6×10(6), 7×10(6), 13×10(6), 16×10(6), 20×10(6), 22×10(6), 23×10(6), 27×10(6), 30×10(6), 36×10(6), 45×10(6), 52×10(6), 65×10(6), 72×10(6) and 90×10(6). Plasmid were classified into 26 kinds of plasmid profiles. A total of 2 213 Yersinia pestis strains contained 4 large plasmids, 52×10(6), 65×10(6), 72×10(6) and 90×10(6), whose ratio was 22.10% (589/2 213), 75.60% (1 672/2 213), 0.17% (4/2 213), 2.12% (47/2 213), respectively. Among which, strains with plasmid 52×10(6), 65×10(6), 90×10(6) distributed in Qinghai-Tibet plateau Himalayan Marmot natural plague foci, strains with 72×10(6) plasmid only distributed in Inner Mongolia Meriones unguiculatus natural plague foci and Junggar Basin R. opimus natural plague foci, and 65×10(6) plasmid distributed in all the other foci.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Strains in Chinese 11 plague foci contained 4 kinds of large plasmid, the Mr respectively were 52×10(6), 65×10(6), 72×10(6), 90×10(6), which were classified into 26 kinds of plasmid profiles with other plasmid. These plasmid profiles distributed in relatively independent epidemic focus.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , China , Genotype , Plague , Plasmids , Yersinia pestis
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269952

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the epidemiology data on plague in five counties in Zhejiang province and to evaluate the risk of plague in theses areas.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We selected five monitoring stations as a risk assessment (Qingyuan county, Longquan city, Yiwu city, Wencheng county, and Ruian city) in Zhejiang province where the plague epidemic more serious in the history. At least one constant site and 1-4 variable sites where plague occurred in history were selected for monitoring. We collected the five counties (cities) surveillance data of indoor rat density, indoor Rattus flavipectus density, the Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat, the Xenopsylla cheopis index of Rattus flavipectus in 1995-2014. Isolation of Yersinia pestis was conducted among 171,201 liver samples and F1 antibody were detected among 228,775 serum samples. Risk matrix, Borda count method, and Delphi approach were conducted to assess risk of the plague of five counties (cities) in Zhejiang province.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Indoor rat density in Qingyuan county, Longquan city, Yiwu city, Wencheng county, Ruian city was 1.58%-5.50%, 1.13%-9.76%, 0.56%-3.67%, 2.83%-16.08%, 7.16%-15.96%, respectively; Indoor Rattus flavipectus density of five counties (cities) was 0.08%-2.23%, 0-2.02%, 0-0.54%, 0.71%-5.58%, 0.55%-4.92%, respectively. The Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat in Qingyuan county and Wencheng county was 0.011-0.500 and 0.015-0.227, respectively; The Xenopsylla cheopis index of Rattus flavipectus of Qingyuan county and Wencheng county was 0.119-3.412 and 0.100-1.430, respectively; Ruian City and Yiwu city cannot collected Xenopsylla cheopis, Long quan city only collected the Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat in the five years. Yersinia pestis were not isolated in five counties (cities).There were 3 Apodemus agrarius samples positive of plague F1 antibody test, in Longquan city and Yiwu city in 2005. Borda count method to assess the Longquan city, Yiwu (Borda point were both 321) plague risk was higher than three other regions; Delphi approach to evaluation five counties (cities) belong to the plague had a lower risk areas, according to the level of risk score (Pf) Longquan city and Yiwu (Pf was 0.314, 0.292, respectively) plague risk were higher than three other regions (Pf were all 0.292).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The main host and media were lower in five key plague surveillance counties (cities) of Zhejiang province; The result of Borda count method and Delphi approach for risk assessment indicated that endogenous plague recrudescence was at lower level, but Longquan city and Yiwu city risk were higher than other counties (cities).</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cities , Epidemics , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans , Murinae , Plague , Rats , Risk Assessment , Yersinia pestis
19.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 943-948, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261593

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To type Yersinia (Y.) pestis isolates under different regions (DFR) and to observe their geographical distributions in China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>23 DFRs primers and PMT1 (plasmid) primer were used to verify the DFR genomovars of Y. pestiss strains from 11 plague foci in China. A total of 3 044 Y. pestis isolates were involved for analysis on DFR profiles with the characteristics of geographical distribution.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>52 genomovars were verified in 3 044 Y. pestis strains in China in which 19 genomovars as major and 33 genomovars as minor genomovar. 21 new genomovars, namely genomovar 32 to genomovar 52 were described on the basis of 31 genomovars previously confirmed. Three new genomovars belonged to new major genomovars, namely Himalayan marmot natural plague foci of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau newly added genomovar 32 and genomovar 44 as major genomovars. Mongolian gerbil natural plague foci of Inner Mongolia plateau were newly added genomovar 50 as one of the major genomovars.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Among 21 new genomovars, 3 were major genomovars, with Chinese Y. pestis DFR as the major genomovars which had obvious distribution characteristics.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Genotype , Geography , Yersinia pestis , Classification , Genetics
20.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 109-113, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321654

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the spatial and temporal distributions of animal plague in Junggar Basin natural plague focus.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Data regarding plague antibody (F1) in serum of Great Gerbil (Rhombomys opimus, R. opimus) which were collected from 2005 to 2012 in Junggar Basin and analyzed. The changing rates on the positivity of F1 that appeared spatially and temporally were also analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 4 825 R. opimus serum samples were collected in 13 administrative regions in Junggar Basin.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>showed that plague R. opimus existed in two areas-Gurbantonggut desert in the eastern-center and the clay desert of western Junggar Basin. However, in these two areas, the intensity of animal plague prevalence was different. In the former region where Yesinia pestis positive serum was detected from R. opimus, the detected rate of R. opimus was 8.39%. However, in the latter areas, the average positive rate was 1.56%. The changing trends of R. opimus plague prevalence were also varied annually. In the western Junggar Basin, the trend showed a slowly downward profile. The serum positive rate of R. opimus for Yesinia pestis decreased, from 7.59% in 2005 to 0.61% in 2008, and appeared as a resting state that none of the positive sample could be found since then. However, in the eastern-center Junggar Basin area-also named as Gurbantonggut desert which had been divided into 3 segments(western, central and eastern, according to related geographical characteristics), the changing trends of animal plague seemed quite complex. In the western segment, the animal plague had two epidemic peaks-in 2006 and 2010, with the interval of 4 years, with the higher peak of all the three geographic segments as 45.65% in 2010 and the positive serum of R. opimus for plague could be detected each year from 2006 to 2012. However, there were 3 epidemic peaks in the same period in the central and eastern segments. In the central segment, the peaks appeared in 2006, 2009 and 2011, with the intervals as 2.5 years and the average positive rate 8.92% was seen the lowest in Gurbantonggut desert. In the eastern segment, the first 2 peaks appeared the same season as in the central segment, but the third peak appeared in 2012, with the peak interval as 3 years. The positive rate of R. opimus for plague was also different in seasons, with the positive rate higher in autumn than in spring. These findings showed that the animal plague could be continuously prevalent from spring to autumn in the natural foci of plague in the Junggar Basin.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Both geographical and temporal fluctuations of animal plague existed in the natural foci of Junggar Basin which was also named as geographical heterogeneity. Consequently, animal plague could be divided into two areas-the clay plains desert in the western and the Gurbantonggut desert in the eastern-center Junggar Basin.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Gerbillinae , Plague , Epidemiology , Time , Yersinia pestis
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