Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.018
Filter
1.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 74(1): 1-9, mar. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1555079

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En el Perú, el 90% de trigo es importado y su alta cotización internacional (390 dólares TN-1) implica la necesidad de encontrar sustitutos principalmente en productos de panificación que en su mayoría son formulados a base de trigo. Las harinas provenientes de frijol garbanzo y maíz amarillo, pueden mostrarse como alternativas potenciales y contribuir a mejorar el valor nutricional y sensorial del alimento. Objetivo: Desarrollar y evaluar nutricionalmente y sensorialmente una galleta tipo soda sustituyendo parcialmente la harina de trigo (HT) por harina de maíz amarillo (Zea mays) nixtamalizado (HMN) y garbanzo (Cicer arietinum) (HG). Materiales y métodos: Se realizaron tres formulaciones, F1: 70% HT, 20% HMN y 10% HG, F2: 70% HT, 10% HMN y 20% HG y F3: 50% HT, 20% HMN y 30% HG, la muestra control contenía 100% harina de trigo. Se determinaron contenido de proteínas, grasa y carbohidratos por análisis proximal, así como sabor y textura en el análisis sensorial. Resultados: F3 presentó mayor contenido de proteínas (11,88%), grasa (3,70%), y carbohidratos (71,08%), mientras que F2 fue percibido por los panelistas con un sabor moderadamente salado y de textura crujiente. Conclusiones: Se concluye que una sustitución mayor al 50% de harina de trigo por harina de leguminosa y harina de maíz nixtamalizada permite obtener galletas con alto contenido proteico y de textura similar a una galleta tipo soda comercial(AU)


Introduction: In Peru, 90% of wheat is imported and its high international price ($390 per TN) implies the need to find substitutes mainly in baking products that are mostly formulated with wheat. Flours from chickpeas and yellow corn can be shown as potential alternatives and contribute to improving the nutritional and sensory value of the food. Objective: Develop and nutritionally and sensorially evaluate a soda cracker partially substituting wheat flour (HT) with nixtamalized yellow corn flour (Zea mays) (HMN) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) (HG). Material and methods: Three formulations were made, F1: 70% HT, 20% HMN and 10% HG, F2: 70% HT, 10% HMN and 20% HG and F3: 50% HT, 20% HMN and 30% HG, the control samplecontained 100% wheat flour. Protein, fat and carbohydrate content were determined by proximal analysis, as well as flavor and texture were determined in sensory analysis. Results: F3 presented a higher content of proteins (11.88%), fat (3.70%), and carbohydrates (71.08%), while F2 was perceived by the panelists as having a moderately salty flavor and crunchy texture. Conclusions: It is concluded that a substitution of more than 50% of wheat flour by leguminous flour allows obtaining crackers with high protein content and a texture similar to a commercial soda cracker(AU)


Subject(s)
Triticum , Cicer , Flour , Fabaceae , Food Industry , Zea mays , Cookies , Food , Food Handling
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251410, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355887

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dietary habits of bandicoot rats (bandicota bengalensis) were investigated in the agricultural crops of the Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan by analysing stomach contents. The research activities were conducted in major field crops including wheat-groundnut and in the fallow lands during non-crop season at the field boundaries. The specimens were captured from the fields using kill/snap traps, and dissected to collect their stomach samples for laboratory analysis. Light microscopic slides of the plant material were recovered from stomach samples and the reference materials were collected from the field. Results revealed that the bandicoot rat predominantly fed upon cultivated crops during cropping season but consumed wild vegetation during non-cropping season. There was no significance difference between summer and winter diets. Most frequently consumed crop food items were wheat (Triticum aestivum; 28.57%), groundnut (Arachis hypogea; 11.26%), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; 10.17%), chickpea (Cicer arietinum; 9.52%), maize (Zea mays; 6.49%), millet (Pennisetum glaucum; 5.84%), barley (Hordeum vulgare; 4.98%) and mustard (Brassica campestris; 4.98%). Among wild vegetation were consumed khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7.79%), baron dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7.36%) and Prickly flower (Achyranthes aspera; 3.03%). The study concludes that, in addition to consuming wheat and groundnut crops, the Lesser bandicoot rat also subsists on grasses, weeds, and some fodder crops, as important component of its diet in agro-ecosystem of the Pothwar Plateau.


Resumo Os hábitos alimentares de ratos bandicoot (Bandicota bengalensis) foram investigados nas plantações agrícolas do planalto de Pothwar, Paquistão, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. As atividades da pesquisa foram conduzidas nas principais culturas de campo, incluindo trigo e amendoim, e em terras de pousio durante a estação não agrícola nos limites do campo. Os espécimes foram capturados dos campos usando armadilhas kill/snap e dissecados para coletar suas amostras de estômago para análise laboratorial. Lâminas de microscopia de luz do material vegetal foram recuperadas de amostras de estômago; os materiais de referência foram coletados no campo. Os resultados revelaram que o rato bandicoot alimentava-se predominantemente de culturas cultivadas durante a época de cultivo, mas consumia vegetação selvagem durante a época de não colheita. Não houve diferença significativa entre as dietas de verão e inverno. Os alimentos agrícolas mais frequentemente consumidos foram trigo (Triticum aestivum; 28,57%), amendoim (Arachis hypogea; 11,26%), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor; 10,17%), grão de bico (Cicer arietinum; 9,52%), milho (Zea mays; 6,49%), milheto (Pennisetum glaucum; 5,84%), cevada (Hordeum vulgare; 4,98%) e mostarda (Brassica campestris; 4,98%). Entre a vegetação silvestre foram consumidos khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7,79%), barão dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7,36%) e flor espinhosa (Achyranthes aspera; 3,03%). O estudo conclui que, além de consumir culturas de trigo e amendoim, o rato bandicoot pequeno também subsiste de gramíneas, ervas daninhas e algumas culturas forrageiras, componentes importantes de sua dieta no agroecossistema do planalto de Pothwar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Murinae , Pakistan , Crops, Agricultural , Zea mays , Feeding Behavior
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256799, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360215

ABSTRACT

Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is one of the most important corn leaf diseases. Appropriate management strategies and the use of resistant cultivars allow disease control. Therefore, knowing the aspects related to the pathogen and the response of hosts makes it possible to design efficient strategies for selecting genotypes resistant to this disease. In this sense, the objective was to carry out the Bipolaris maydis isolate characterization, evaluating the pathogenicity in different popcorn lines and the symptoms generated in the host after inoculation. The isolate characterization consisted of the macromorphological evaluation of the colonies and the micromorphological evaluation of the conidia in the PDA medium. An experiment was carried out in a greenhouse to evaluate the pathogenicity of the isolate, using 20 inbred lines of popcorn in a randomized block design with four replicates. Inoculation was carried out by spraying leaves, with a suspension containing 1.0 x 104 conidia.ml-1 of the CF/UENF 501 isolate of B. maydis. An incidence assessment and three assessments of disease symptom severity were performed, with seven days intervals between evaluations. The morphological characterization data of the isolate were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and for disease severity, the linear regression model was applied the first-degree model. The variance analysis was performed for the linear and angular coefficients obtained for each treatment. When a difference was found, the Scott-Knott clustering algorithm at 5% significance was applied. The isolate had gray-green colonies, a cottony appearance, and an irregular shape. The lines L353, L354, and L624 show more resistance at the beginning and throughout the evaluations. The high virulence of the CF/UENF 501 isolate made it possible to differentiate the lines in terms of disease intensity and the pattern of symptoms presented.


Mancha-de-Bipolaris é uma das mais importantes doenças foliares do milho. Estratégias de manejo adequadas e o uso de cultivar resistente permitem o controle da doença, mas para tanto, conhecer os aspectos associados ao patógeno e a resposta do hospedeiro é necessário para traçar estratégias eficientes para seleção de genótipos resistentes a essa doença. Neste sentido, objetivou-se realizar a caracterização do isolado de Bipolaris maydis avaliando a patogenicidade em diferentes linhagens de milho-pipoca e os sintomas gerados no hospedeiro a partir da inoculação. A caracterização do isolado consistiu na avaliação macromorfológica das colônias e micromofológica dos conídios em meio nutritivo BDA. Para avaliação da patogenicidade do isolado foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação utilizando 20 linhagens endogâmicas de milho-pipoca, com delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. A inoculação foi realizada por meio de pulverização em folhas, com uma suspensão contendo 1,0 x 104 conídios.ml-1 do isolado CF/UENF 501 de B. maydis. Foi realizada uma avaliação de incidência e três avaliações de severidade dos sintomas da doença, com o intervalo de sete dias para cada avaliação. Os dados da caracterização morfológica do isolado foram analisados por meio da estatística descritiva e para severidade da doença foi aplicado o modelo de regressão linear de primeiro grau. Realizou-se a análise de variância para o coeficiente linear e angular obtido para cada tratamento e quando constatada diferença aplicou-se o agrupamento de médias de Scott-knott a 5% de significância. O isolado apresentou colônias com coloração cinza esverdeado, aspecto algodonoso e forma irregular. As linhagens L353 e L354 e L624 estão entre as linhagens que apresentaram maior resistência no inicio e ao longo das avaliações. A elevada virulência do isolado CF/UENF 501 possibilitou diferenciar as linhagens quanto a intensidade da doença, bem como o padrão dos sintomas apresentados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pest Control , Zea mays , Genotype
5.
Semina ciênc. agrar ; 44(5): 1733-1744, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1519130

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to propose a bicompartmental nonlinear model and to identify the best-performing model between the proposed model and the bicompartmental logistic (BL) mode regarding the quality of fit to the curve of cumulative gas production (CGP) using corn silage, sunflower, and their mixtures. Gas production was measured 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 19, 24, 30, 36, 48, 72, and 96 h after beginning the in vitro fermentation process. The generated data were used to generate the parameters of each model tested using the stats package of the R computational tool version 4.0.4. The mathematical models were subjected to the following selection criteria: the adjusted coefficient of determination (Raj.), residual mean square (RMS), mean absolute deviation (MAD), and Akaike information criterion (AIC). It was demonstrated that the proposed model had better performance with a high Raj., and lower values of RMS, AIC, and MAD than the bicompartmental logistic model for the prediction of the parameters of cumulative gas production (CGP), per to present a superior fit in the set of criteria according to the methodology and conditions in which the present study was developed.(AU)


No presente trabalho, com silagem de milho, girassol e suas misturas, objetivou-se propor um modelo não linear bicompartimental e identificar entre o modelo proposto e Logístico Bicompartimental (LB), aquele que apresenta maior qualidade de ajuste à curva de cinética de produção cumulativa de gases (PCG). A leitura da produção de gás foi realizada nos tempos 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 19, 24, 30, 36, 48, 72 e 96 horas, após o início do processo de fermentação in vitro. Os dados gerados foram utilizados para geração dos parâmetros de cada modelo testado com auxílio do pacote stats da ferramenta computacional R versão 4.0.4. Os modelos matemáticos foram submetidos aos seguintes critérios de seleção o coeficiente de determinação ajustado (Raj.), quadrado médio do resíduo (QMR), desvio médio absoluto (DMA) e o critério de informação de Akaike (AIC). Foi demonstrado que o modelo proposto teve melhor desempenho com altos Raj., e menores valores de QMR, AIC e DMA, por apresentar um ajustamento superior no conjunto dos critérios em comparação com o modelo logístico bicompartimental para a predição dos parâmetros de produção cumulativa de gases (PCG) de acordo com a metodologia e condições em que foi desenvolvido o presente estudo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Silage/analysis , Flatulence/veterinary , Rumination, Digestive/physiology , In Vitro Techniques , Zea mays/chemistry , Helianthus/chemistry
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39032, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428167

ABSTRACT

Maize silage has been used as a forage reserve strategy for critical periods or continuous use in animal feed. However, new genotypes and their potential must be identified. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of maize genotypes for silage and grain in one off-season in the midwest region of Brazil, under limited water and frost, and select them for this dual purpose (silage and grain) using the GT Biplot tool. The experiment was performed at Embrapa Western Agriculture in the autumn-winter season of 2021 in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks of six maize genotypes (BRS1010, KWS9606, 1P2224, 1Q2383, BRS3046, and CAPO) with five replications under no-tillage. Silage points were evaluated at harvest when the grain milk line was at ¾ and maize grains at the maturation stage (dry plant). The 1P2224 and 1Q2383 maize genotypes present silage (high green and dry biomass) and grain yield potential. The GT Biplot tool identified the 1P2224 genotype as superior and suitable for cultivation or as a parent in a breeding program in the midwest region of Brazil for silage and grain yield evaluations of one off-season under limited water and frost.


Subject(s)
Silage , Crops, Agricultural , Zea mays
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468808

ABSTRACT

Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) is an omnivorous predator that finds different food resources in the corn plant: eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797), uredospores of Puccinia polysora (Underw, 1897), and pollen. Knowing the survival and food preferences of this predator is essential to define its relevance as a biological control agent. We hypothesize that the foraging behavior and predatory capacity of D. luteipes may be affected when several food resources, especially eggs of S. frugiperda, uredospores of P. polysora, and pollen are concurrently in the same plant. The survival of D. luteipes in the nymph stage and their preference among food resources, often available in corn plants, were determined. To verify the survival of D. luteipes, newly hatched nymphs were fed exclusively with 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- a combination of uredospores + eggs, and 5- artificial diet (control). In another experiment, nymphs and adults of D. luteipes with 24 and 48 hours of fasting were individually released in the center of a container with four diets: 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- artificial diet, and maintained for 10 minutes, to evaluate the food choice and feeding time. The exclusive feeding with S. frugiperda eggs caused low nymph survival (8%), but the combination of P. polysora uredospores + S. frugiperda eggs allowed 58.3% survival. D. luteipes preferred feeding during the nighttime and the most significant proportions of choices by nymphs and adults were for pollen and diet, with adults spending more time eating pollen. These findings indicate that the trophic choices of D. luteipes are relevant to understand its contribution as an agent to control pest insects and fungal diseases in corn.


Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) é um predador onívoro, que encontra na planta do milho diferentes recursos alimentares: ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797), uredósporos de Puccinia polysora (Underw, 1897) e pólen. Para definição da relevância desse predador como agente de controle biológico, conhecer a sobrevivência e preferência alimentar é essencial. Nós hipotetizamos que o comportamento de forrageamento e a capacidade de predação de D. luteipes podem ser afetados quando uma mesma planta oferece ovos, uredósporos e pólen, concomitantemente. A sobrevivência de D. luteipes na fase de ninfa e sua preferência entre os recursos alimentares, frequentemente disponíveis nas plantas de milho, foram determinados. Para verificar a sobrevivência de D. luteipes, ninfas recém eclodidas foram alimentadas exclusivamente com 1- uredósporos de P. polysora, 2- ovos de S. frugiperda, 3- pólen de milho, 4- combinação de uredósporos + ovos e 5- dieta artificial (controle). Em outro experimento, ninfas e adultos de D. luteipes com 24 e 48 horas de jejum foram liberadas individualmente, em recipientes contendo quatro dietas: 1- uredósporos de P. polysora, 2- ovos de S. frugiperda, 3- pólen de milho, 4- dieta artificial e mantidas durante 10 min, sendo avaliados a escolha pelo alimento e o tempo de alimentação. A alimentação exclusiva com ovos de S. frugiperda ocasionou baixa sobrevivência das ninfas (8%), porém a combinação de uredósporos de P. polysora + ovos de S. frugiperda possibilitou sobrevivência de 58,3%. D. luteipes preferiu se alimentar durante o período noturno e as maiores proporções de escolhas das ninfas e dos adultos ocorreram no pólen e na dieta, sendo que os adultos gastaram mais tempo se alimentando de pólen. Estas descobertas indicam que as escolhas tróficas de D. luteipes são relevantes para compreender sua contribuição como agente de controle de insetos-praga e doença fúngicas em milho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Diet , Insecta/growth & development , Spodoptera , Zea mays
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-6, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468892

ABSTRACT

A ninety days nutritional trial was directed to explore the effects of dietary chromium on body composition, gut enzyme activity and physiological status of Cirrhinus mrigala by using G & NG corn. Six experimental diets were prepared by using different levels of chromium chloride hexahydrate (0, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg, each with G & NG corn). For this experimental trial, 480 fingerlings, irrespective of sex were distributed in six aquariums each with replicate. Results revealed that gelatinized corn along with increasing level of Cr2Cl3.6H2O have a positive impact upon body composition of fish. Hematology was positively correlated with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation in gelatinized corn. Amylase gut enzyme also showed significant (P<0.05) increase in group fed with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplemented diet (G corn). However, corn with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation did not revealed any significant impact on gut protease enzyme activity. From these results it can be concluded that both chromium chloride hexahydrate and gelatinized corn in fish feed are very beneficial to improve body composition, enzymes activity and physiological health status of fish.


Um ensaio nutricional de 90 dias foi dirigido para explorar os efeitos do cromo dietético na composição corporal, atividade enzimática intestinal e estado fisiológico de Cirrhinus mrigala usando milho G & NG. Seis dietas experimentais foram preparadas usando diferentes níveis de cloreto de cromo hexa-hidratado (0, 0,2, 0,4 mg/kg, cada um com milho G e NG). Para este ensaio experimental, 480 alevinos, independentemente do sexo, foram distribuídos em seis aquários, cada um com réplicas. Os resultados revelaram que o milho gelatinizado, juntamente com o aumento do nível de Cr2Cl3.6H2O, tem um impacto positivo na composição corporal dos peixes. A hematologia foi positivamente correlacionada com a suplementação de cloreto de cromo hexa-hidratado em milho gelatinizado. A enzima amilase intestinal também apresentou aumento significativo (P <0,05) no grupo alimentado com dieta suplementada com cloreto de cromo hexa-hidratado (milho G). No entanto, o milho com suplementação de hexahidrato de cloreto de cromo não revelou nenhum impacto significativo na atividade da enzima protease intestinal. Desses resultados, pode-se concluir que tanto o cloreto de cromo hexa-hidratado quanto o milho gelatinizado na alimentação de peixes são muito benéficos para melhorar a composição corporal, a atividade de enzimas e o estado fisiológico de saúde dos peixes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage , Chromium/administration & dosage , Cyprinidae/growth & development , Cyprinidae/physiology , Cyprinidae/metabolism , Cyprinidae/blood , Zea mays
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243890, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278548

ABSTRACT

Abstract Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) is an omnivorous predator that finds different food resources in the corn plant: eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797), uredospores of Puccinia polysora (Underw, 1897), and pollen. Knowing the survival and food preferences of this predator is essential to define its relevance as a biological control agent. We hypothesize that the foraging behavior and predatory capacity of D. luteipes may be affected when several food resources, especially eggs of S. frugiperda, uredospores of P. polysora, and pollen are concurrently in the same plant. The survival of D. luteipes in the nymph stage and their preference among food resources, often available in corn plants, were determined. To verify the survival of D. luteipes, newly hatched nymphs were fed exclusively with 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- a combination of uredospores + eggs, and 5- artificial diet (control). In another experiment, nymphs and adults of D. luteipes with 24 and 48 hours of fasting were individually released in the center of a container with four diets: 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- artificial diet, and maintained for 10 minutes, to evaluate the food choice and feeding time. The exclusive feeding with S. frugiperda eggs caused low nymph survival (8%), but the combination of P. polysora uredospores + S. frugiperda eggs allowed 58.3% survival. D. luteipes preferred feeding during the nighttime and the most significant proportions of choices by nymphs and adults were for pollen and diet, with adults spending more time eating pollen. These findings indicate that the trophic choices of D. luteipes are relevant to understand its contribution as an agent to control pest insects and fungal diseases in corn.


Resumo Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) é um predador onívoro, que encontra na planta do milho diferentes recursos alimentares: ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797), uredósporos de Puccinia polysora (Underw, 1897) e pólen. Para definição da relevância desse predador como agente de controle biológico, conhecer a sobrevivência e preferência alimentar é essencial. Nós hipotetizamos que o comportamento de forrageamento e a capacidade de predação de D. luteipes podem ser afetados quando uma mesma planta oferece ovos, uredósporos e pólen, concomitantemente. A sobrevivência de D. luteipes na fase de ninfa e sua preferência entre os recursos alimentares, frequentemente disponíveis nas plantas de milho, foram determinados. Para verificar a sobrevivência de D. luteipes, ninfas recém eclodidas foram alimentadas exclusivamente com 1- uredósporos de P. polysora, 2- ovos de S. frugiperda, 3- pólen de milho, 4- combinação de uredósporos + ovos e 5- dieta artificial (controle). Em outro experimento, ninfas e adultos de D. luteipes com 24 e 48 horas de jejum foram liberadas individualmente, em recipientes contendo quatro dietas: 1- uredósporos de P. polysora, 2- ovos de S. frugiperda, 3- pólen de milho, 4- dieta artificial e mantidas durante 10 min, sendo avaliados a escolha pelo alimento e o tempo de alimentação. A alimentação exclusiva com ovos de S. frugiperda ocasionou baixa sobrevivência das ninfas (8%), porém a combinação de uredósporos de P. polysora + ovos de S. frugiperda possibilitou sobrevivência de 58,3%. D. luteipes preferiu se alimentar durante o período noturno e as maiores proporções de escolhas das ninfas e dos adultos ocorreram no pólen e na dieta, sendo que os adultos gastaram mais tempo se alimentando de pólen. Estas descobertas indicam que as escolhas tróficas de D. luteipes são relevantes para compreender sua contribuição como agente de controle de insetos-praga e doença fúngicas em milho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Predatory Behavior , Insecta , Spodoptera , Zea mays , Larva , Nymph
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1083-1095, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970424

ABSTRACT

Biorefinery of chemicals from straw is an effective approach to alleviate the environmental pollution caused by straw burning. In this paper, we prepared gellan gum immobilized Lactobacillus bulgaricus T15 gel beads (LA-GAGR-T15 gel beads), characterized their properties, and established a continuous cell recycle fermentation process for D-lactate (D-LA) production using the LA-GAGR-T15 gel beads. The fracture stress of LA-GAGR-T15 gel beads was (91.68±0.11) kPa, which was 125.12% higher than that of the calcium alginate immobilized T15 gel beads (calcium alginate-T15 gel beads). This indicated that the strength of LA-GAGR-T15 gel beads was stronger, and the strain was less likely to leak out. The average D-LA production was (72.90±2.79) g/L after fermentation for ten recycles (720 h) using LA-GAGR-T15 gel beads as the starting strain and glucose as the substrate, which was 33.85% higher than that of calcium alginate-T15 gel beads and 37.70% higher than that of free T15. Subsequently, glucose was replaced by enzymatically hydrolyzed corn straw and fermented for ten recycles (240 h) using LA-GAGR-T15 gel beads. The yield of D-LA reached (1.74±0.79) g/(L·h), which was much higher than that of using free bacteria. The wear rate of gel beads was less than 5% after ten recycles, which indicated that LA-GAGR is a good carrier for cell immobilization and can be widely used in industrial fermentation. This study provides basic data for the industrial production of D-LA using cell-recycled fermentation, and provides a new way for the biorefinery of D-LA from corn straw.


Subject(s)
Fermentation , Lactobacillus delbrueckii , Zea mays , Lactic Acid , Alginates/chemistry , Glucose
11.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 25(2): e8037, jul-dez. 2022. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1399606

ABSTRACT

Quando se trata de milho pipoca o Brasil é o segundo maior produtor, mas necessitando ainda de importações para suprir a demanda interna do país, visto a importância de estudos que melhor explorem as recomendações agronômicas para a cultura do milho pipoca. Assim, o presente estudo objetivou avaliar o impacto da população de plantas sobre algumas variáveis morfológicas e na produtividade final de grãos de dois híbridos de milho pipoca (8203 e 4512). Foram estudadas as populações de 60.000, 65.000, 70.000, 75.000 e 80.000 plantas por ha-1 no espaçamento de 0,45cm entre linha de semeadura. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola 2018/2019, na área experimental do Departamento de Ciências Agronômicas e Ambientais da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, campus Frederico Westphalen ­ RS, em um delineamento de blocos casualizados em um esquema fatorial (2x5). O diâmetro de colmo, comprimento da espiga e peso de mil sementes diminuíram à medida que se aumentou a população de plantas. Para ambos os híbridos, e para a maioria das variáveis analisadas as densidades populacionais não interferiram de forma significativa na produtividade final de grãos do milho pipoca. Entretanto quando se trabalha a média das populações se observa uma superioridade do híbrido 8203 para as variáveis, altura de planta, altura de inserção da espiga, prolificidade, empalhamento, diâmetro de espiga, número de grãos por espiga, peso de mil sementes e produtividade final de grãos.(AU)


When it comes to popcorn, Brazil is the second largest producer, but still needing imports to supply the country's domestic demand, given the importance of studies that better explore agronomic recommendations for popcorn culture. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the plant population on some morphological variables and the final consumption of two hybrid popcorn kernels (8203 and 4512). The populations of 60.000, 65.000, 70.000, 75.000 and 80.000 plants per ha-1 were studied in the 0.45cm spacing between sowing lines. The experiment was carried out in the agricultural year 2018/2019, in the experimental area of the Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Frederico Westphalen campus - RS, in a randomized block design in a factorial scheme (2x5). The stem diameter, ear length and weight of a thousand seeds decreased as the plant population increased. For both hybrids, and for most of the variables analyzed, population densities did not significantly affect the final grain yield of popcorn. However, when working with the average population, a superiority of the 8203 hybrid is observed for the variables, plant height, height of ear insertion, prolificacy, stuffing, ear diameter, number of grains per ear, weight of a thousand seeds and final productivity of grain.(AU)


En lo que respecta a las palomitas de maíz, Brasil es el segundo mayor productor, pero aún necesita importaciones para satisfacer la demanda interna del país, dada la importancia de los estudios que exploran mejor las recomendaciones agronómicas para el cultivo de palomitas de maíz. Por lo tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el impacto de la población de plantas en algunas variables morfológicas y en el rendimiento final de grano de dos híbridos de palomitas de maíz (8203 y 4512). Se estudiaron las poblaciones de 60.000, 65.000, 70.000, 75.000 y 80.000 plantas por ha-1 en el espacio de 0.45cm entre líneas de siembra. El experimento se realizó en el año agrícola 2018/2019, en el área experimental del Departamento de Ciencias Agronómicas y Ambientales de la Universidad Federal de Santa María, campus Frederico Westphalen - RS, en un diseño de bloques al azar en un esquema factorial (2x5). El diámetro del tallo, la longitud de la mazorca y el peso de mil semillas disminuyeron à medida que aumentó la población de plantas. Para ambos híbridos, y para la mayoría de las variables analizadas, las densidades de población no afectaron significativamente el rendimiento final de grano de las palomitas de maíz. Sin embargo, cuando se trabaja con la población promedio, se observa una superioridad del híbrido 8203 para las variables, altura de la planta, altura de inserción de la mazorca, prolificidad, relleno, diámetro de la mazorca, número de granos por mazorca, peso de mil semillas y productividad final de grano.(AU)


Subject(s)
Seeds/anatomy & histology , Zea mays/physiology , Biodiversity , Two-Hybrid System Techniques
12.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 7-7, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396591

ABSTRACT

The use of pesticides is damaging to the health of farmers and consumers as their use is associated with numerous diseases. Homeopathy is one of the techniques for organic agriculture currentlyauthorized by the MAPA. Aims: To assess the effect of homeopathic compounds on corncob quality in pesticide-free cultures. Methodology:The experiment was performed in, MS-Brazil. Two culture fields were used, each 30m2in size. The homeopathic group treatment consisted of 1ml of30% hydroalcoholic solution with homeopathic ingredients. This solutionwas diluted into 30ml of water and then sprayed onto 100 seeds. The control group was submitted to the same protocol excluding the homeopathic ingredients. The homeopathic ingredients used were Sulph9C, Mag-c12C, and Calc-p9C, prescribed according to Materia Medica instructions. The evaluationwas performed at harvest by comparing theaverage weight of 1000 kernels pergroup, obtained from a weighingof 3000 kernels per group. In addition, a number of corncobs from both groups werequalitatively evaluated as "good" or "bad." Statistics analysis used the T-test to compare the kernel weight averages and Fisher's exact test to analyze the corncob quality frequency. Both groups were naturally infected by a virus from a neighboring sugarcane field, causing qualitative and quantitative losses on both groups. Results and discussion: The average weight of 1000 kernels from the treated group (329 g) was not significantly greater (p=0.06) than the average weight of 1000 kernels from the non-treated group (308 g). It was observed that 71out of 158 (44.9%) corncobs from the homeopathic treatment group were classified as "good" while zero outof 50 (0%) corncobs from the non-treated group were classified as "good", resulting in a significant difference (p<0.01). Conclusion: Homeopathic compounds can be used as a feasible treatment for health and productivity in the corn crop.


Subject(s)
Zea mays , Sustainable Agriculture
13.
Biol. Res ; 55: 1-1, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383902

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maize (Zea mays L.) is a widely cultivated cereal and has been used as an optimum heavy metal phytoremediation crop. Metallothionein (MT) proteins are small, cysteine-rich, proteins that play important roles in plant growth and development, and the regulation of stress response to heavy metals. However, the MT genes for maize have not been fully analyzed so far. METHODS: The putative ZmMT genes were identified by HMMER. The heat map of ZmMT genes spatial expression analysis was generated by using R with the log2 (FPKM + 1). The expression profiles of ZmMT genes under three kinds of heavy metal stresses were quantified by using qRT-PCR. The metallothionein proteins was aligned using MAFFT and phylogenetic analysis were constructed by ClustalX 2.1. The protein theoretical molecular weight and pI, subcellular localization, TFs binding sites, were predicted using ProtParam, PSORT, PlantTFDB, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 9 ZmMT genes were identified in the whole genome of maize. The results showed that eight of the nine ZmMT proteins contained one highly conserved metallothio_2 domain, while ZmMT4 contained a Metallothio_PEC domain. All the ZmMT proteins could be classified into three major groups and located on five chromosomes. The ZmMT promoters contain a large number of hormone regulatory elements and hormone-related transcription factor binding sites. The ZmMT genes exhibited spatiotemporal specific expression patterns in 23 tissues of maize development stages and showed the different expression patterns in response to Cu, Cd, and Pb heavy metal stresses. CONCLUSIONS: We identified the 9 ZmMT genes, and explored their conserved motif, tissue expression patterns, evolutionary relationship. The expression profiles of ZmMT genes under three kinds of heavy metal stresses (Cu, Cd, Pb) were analyzed. In summary, the expression of ZmMTs have poteintial to be regulated by hormones. The specific expression of ZmMTs in different tissues of maize and the response to different heavy metal stresses are revealed that the role of MT in plant growth and development, and stress resistance to heavy metals.


Subject(s)
Metals, Heavy , Zea mays , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/genetics , Stress, Physiological , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Metallothionein/genetics , Metallothionein/metabolism
14.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210050, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360569

ABSTRACT

Scorpionism is a worldwide problem that has already made thousands of victims, and multi-disciplinary approaches for controlling their populations are to be more successful. Hens are often mentioned as tools for controlling scorpions; however, systematic/experimental behavioral studies are not available. Moreover, there is no systematic information on the effect of scorpion venoms on hens. Using the venomous yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, the present study aimed to clarify the following aspects: (1) voracity of hens, (2) how hens react when stung, (3) the effect of scorpion stings on hen behavior during attacks, and (4) hen survivorship after feeding on scorpions. Methods: We attracted hens with corn powder, offered them scorpions and then recorded the hen-scorpion interaction. To test the effects of the sting we manually removed the scorpion's telson. Results: We found that some hens ate up to six scorpions within minutes. By means of an ethogram and drawings, we showed that they exhibited several aversive behaviors when capturing scorpions. Removal of the scorpion telson stopped the aversive reactions, which was not observed in the control group. Finally, hens did not exhibit atypical behaviors after 1, 7 and 30 days and were all alive after 30 days. Conclusion: This is the first empirical and video recorded study providing evidence that hens are clearly affected by scorpion venom but do not die. Therefore, they may have potential to be used in biological control of these arthropods.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Scorpion Venoms/poisoning , Biological Products , Scorpion Stings , Scorpions , Chickens/metabolism , Zea mays
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e232612, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153482

ABSTRACT

Three experiments were done with different particle sizes of corn feed on its zootechnical performance, passing rate and apparent digestibility of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). In the first, 200 juveniles were used and distributed in 20 tanks (220 L), 10 fish per unit (four replicates). The experimental system used to record passage time was composed of five incubators with 200 L. In the second, 75 juveniles were used per 55 days (three replications). In the third, 75 juveniles were used and distributed in five incubators of 200 L. All experiments were performed randomly. Different linear behavior treatments were observed for apparent digestibility of crude protein; and the smaller particle size (150 µm) had better results digestibility. smaller particle size of the corn had better results, affected the growth performance of tambaqui and the apparent digestibility of crude protein and ether extract. Thus, is recommended that a particle size of 150 µm of corn be used for tambaqui.


Três experimentos foram realizados com diferentes tamanhos de partícula de ração para o desempenho zootécnico, taxa de aprovação e digestibilidade aparente de tambaqui juvenil (Colossoma macropomum). No primeiro, foram utilizados 200 juvenis e distribuídos em 20 tanques (220 L), 10 peixes por unidade (quatro repetições). O sistema experimental utilizado para registrar o tempo de passagem foi composto por cinco incubadoras com 200 L. No segundo, 75 juvenis foram utilizados por 55 dias (três repetições). No terceiro, 75 juvenis foram utilizados e distribuídos em cinco incubadoras de 200 L. Todos os experimentos foram realizados aleatoriamente. Diferentes tratamentos de comportamento linear foram observados para digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta; e o menor tamanho de partícula (150 µm) apresentou melhor digestibilidade dos resultados. menor tamanho de partícula do milho apresentou melhores resultados, afetou o desempenho de crescimento de tambaquis e a digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta e extrato etéreo. Portanto, recomenda-se o uso de um tamanho de partícula de 150 µm de milho para o tambaqui.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zea mays , Characiformes , Particle Size , Diet/veterinary , Animal Feed/analysis
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238763, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1180734

ABSTRACT

We report the discovery that the earwig predator Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) feed on Puccinia polysora Underw uredospore, the causal agent of Southern Rust of Corn (SRC), which is a primary disease affecting the maize crop in Brazil. We performed experiments in laboratory and greenhouse to test the effect of D. luteipes (1st/2nd and 3rd/4th instars, and adults) fungivory on the P. polysora uredospore concentration. All trials showed a significant reduction of the initial concentration of uredospore. There was a reduction in uredospore concentration with increase in number of D. luteipes feeding on them. We also tested the uredospore consumption by quantifying its percentage in the feces of D. luteipes. Nymphs of the 2nd, 4th instar and adults fed 88%, 85%, and 83.8% of the uredospore, respectively. For nymphs of the 3rd instar, the percentage of uredospore consumption (75.6%) was statistically significant compared with the other groups. In greenhouse experiment, at twenty-eight days after plant inoculation with 9.9 x 104 uredospores, the percentage of uredospore consumption was 81.7%. Our results confirmed the fungivory of D. luteipes on P. polysora uredospore. This is the first report of D. luteipes fungivory, which may play an important role in the biological control of P. polysora in corn.


Relatamos a descoberta de que o predador Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) se alimenta de uredosporos de Puccinia polysora Underw, o agente causal da ferrugem polisora que é uma doença primária que afeta a cultura do milho no Brasil. Realizamos experimentos em laboratório e em casa de vegetação para testar o efeito da fungivoria de D. luteipes (1º/2º e 3º/4º iìstares e adultos) sobre a concentração de uredosporos de P. polysora. Todos os ensaios mostraram uma redução significativa da concentração inicial de uredosporos. Houve uma redução na concentração de uredosporos com o aumento do número de D. luteipes alimentando-se deles. Também testamos o consumo de uredosporos quantificando sua porcentagem nas fezes de D. luteipes. Ninfas do 2º e 4º ínstar, assim como adultos, alimentaram-se de 88%, 85% e 83,8% dos uredosporos, respectivamente. Para ninfas do 3º ínstar, a porcentagem de consumo de uredosporos (75,6%) foi estatisticamente significativo em comparação com os outros grupos. No experimento em casa de vegetação, aos 28 dias após a inoculação das plantas com 9,9 x 104 uredosporos, a porcentagem de consumo de uredosporos foi de 81,7%. Nossos resultados confirmaram a fungivoria de D. luteipes em uredosporos de P. polysora. Este é o primeiro relato de fungivoria de D. luteipes, que pode ter papel importante no controle biológico de P. polysora em milho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zea mays , Brazil , Nymph
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239639, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249218

ABSTRACT

Among the plants defense mechanisms, the induction and emission of volatile organic compounds, which can be used to attract natural enemies, such predators insects. Although well studied, the induction of plant volatiles that attract natural enemies can vary according to intensity of infestation of herbivores and the species of host plant. We investigated the olfactory behavioral responses of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to the volatiles of infested maize (Zea mays) plants by the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in early and advanced infestations. The Bt (Viptera) maize cultivar Impact® was used for tests the behavior of N. californicus. After initial and advanced infestations, the phytophagous mites T. urticae were removed, and the plants were tested using a "Y" olfactometer. The following treatments were evaluated: air vs. air, uninfested plants vs. air, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 10 females of T. urticae, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 100 females of T. urticae, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 200 females of T. urticae and plants infested with 10 vs. plants infested with 200 females of T. urticae. The predatory mite N. californicus did not show preference to the treatments tested, suggesting that maize plants infested by T. urticae do not induce volatiles capable of attracting the predatory mite N. californicus. We concluded that N. californicus is not attracted by maize plants infested by T. urticae.


Dentre os mecanismos de defesa de plantas, a indução e emissão de compostos orgânicos voláteis, podem ser utilizados para atrair inimigos naturais, como insetos predadores. Embora bem estudada, a indução dos voláteis de plantas que atraem inimigos naturais pode variar de acordo com a intensidade de infestação de herbívoros e a espécie de planta hospedeira. Investigamos as respostas comportamentais olfativas do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) aos voláteis de plantas infestadas pelo ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836) (Acari: Tetranychidae). A cultivar de milho Bt (Viptera) Impact® foi utilizada para testar o comportamento de N. californicus. Após infestações iniciais e avançadas, os ácaros fitófagos T. urticae foram removidos e as plantas testadas em olfatômetro "Y". Os seguintes tratamentos foram avaliados: ar vs. ar, plantas não infestadas vs. ar, plantas não infestadas vs. plantas infestadas com 10 fêmeas de T. urticae, plantas não infestadas vs. plantas infestadas com 100 fêmeas de T. urticae, plantas não infestadas vs. plantas infestadas com 200 fêmeas de T. urticae e plantas infestadas com 10 vs. plantas infestadas com 200 fêmeas de T. urticae. O ácaro predador N. californicus não mostrou preferência aos tratamentos testados, sugerindo que plantas de milho infestadas por T. urticae não induzem voláteis capazes de atrair o ácaro predador N. californicus. Concluímos que N. californicus não é atraído por plantas de milho infestadas por T. urticae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Tetranychidae , Acari , Mites , Predatory Behavior , Smell , Zea mays
18.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(10): 20210022, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364721

ABSTRACT

This research analyzed the efficiency situation of corn farms operating in the Adana province of Turkey. In this context, required farm management data were collected from 111 corn farmers by using face to face survey method during the 2019-2020 cultivation season. To determine the technical efficiency (TE) levels of corn farms, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was applied. Furthermore, factors that cause the inefficiency in corn farms were detected by using the Tobit regression model. According to research results, the average TE levels of corn farms in the research area under the variable return to scale conditions are reported as 0.887 (111 farms). These results suggested that if farms reduced their input use by 11.3% on average, they can achieve the same output level and be able to reach full technical efficiency. The most ineffective source in terms of farms performance is machine expenditures with 68.2% of excessive use followed by labor use. In this regard, mechanization modernization, education and training of the labor force and more sensitive fertilizers and pesticide use can increase the efficiency of corn farms. Results of the Tobit regression model indicated that factors such as experience, education, number of tractors and size of the irrigated area positively influenced the TE, whereas family size in corn farming has a negative effect.


Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo analisar a situação de eficiência das fazendas de milho operando na província de Adana, na Turquia. Neste contexto, os dados necessários de gestão da fazenda foram coletados de 111 produtores de milho usando o método de pesquisa frente a frente durante a temporada de cultivo de 2019-2020. Para determinar os níveis de eficiência técnica (TE) das fazendas de milho, foi aplicada a Análise Envoltória de Dados (DEA). Além disso, os fatores que causam a ineficiência nas fazendas de milho foram detectados por meio do modelo de regressão Tobit. De acordo com os resultados da pesquisa, os níveis médios de TE das fazendas de milho na área de pesquisa sob as condições de retorno variável à escala são encontrados em 0,887 (111 fazendas). Esses resultados sugerem que, se as fazendas reduzirem o uso de insumos em 11,3% em média, podem atingir o mesmo nível de produção e alcançar eficiência técnica plena. A fonte mais ineficaz em termos de desempenho das fazendas são os gastos com máquinas, com 68,2% do uso excedente continuado com o uso de mão de obra. Nesse sentido, a mecanização, a modernização, a educação e o treinamento da força de trabalho e o uso de fertilizantes e pesticidas mais sensíveis podem ser sugeridos para aumentar a eficiência das fazendas de milho. Os resultados do modelo de regressão Tobit indicam que fatores como experiência, escolaridade, número de tratores e tamanho da área irrigada influenciaram positivamente no TE, enquanto o tamanho da família na cultura do milho tem efeito negativo.


Subject(s)
Cost Efficiency Analysis , 24444 , Zea mays , Turkey , Regression Analysis
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-7, 2022. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468441

ABSTRACT

We report the discovery that the earwig predator Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) feed on Puccinia polysora Underw uredospore, the causal agent of Southern Rust of Corn (SRC), which is a primary disease affecting the maize crop in Brazil. We performed experiments in laboratory and greenhouse to test the effect of D. luteipes (1st/2nd and 3rd/4th instars, and adults) fungivory on the P. polysora uredospore concentration. All trials showed a significant reduction of the initial concentration of uredospore. There was a reduction in uredospore concentration with increase in number of D. luteipes feeding on them. We also tested the uredospore consumption by quantifying its percentage in the feces of D. luteipes. Nymphs of the 2nd, 4th instar and adults fed 88%, 85%, and 83.8% of the uredospore, respectively. For nymphs of the 3rd instar, the percentage of uredospore consumption (75.6%) was statistically significant compared with the other groups. In greenhouse experiment, at twenty-eight days after plant inoculation with 9.9 x 104 uredospores, the percentage of uredospore consumption was 81.7%. Our results confirmed the fungivory of D. luteipes on P. polysora uredospore. This is the first report of D. luteipes fungivory, which may play an important role in the biological control of P. polysora in corn.


Relatamos a descoberta de que o predador Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) se alimenta de uredosporos de Puccinia polysora Underw, o agente causal da ferrugem polisora que é uma doença primária que afeta a cultura do milho no Brasil. Realizamos experimentos em laboratório e em casa de vegetação para testar o efeito da fungivoria de D. luteipes (1º/2º e 3º/4º iìstares e adultos) sobre a concentração de uredosporos de P. polysora. Todos os ensaios mostraram uma redução significativa da concentração inicial de uredosporos. Houve uma redução na concentração de uredosporos com o aumento do número de D. luteipes alimentando-se deles. Também testamos o consumo de uredosporos quantificando sua porcentagem nas fezes de D. luteipes. Ninfas do 2º e 4º ínstar, assim como adultos, alimentaram-se de 88%, 85% e 83,8% dos uredosporos, respectivamente. Para ninfas do 3º ínstar, a porcentagem de consumo de uredosporos (75,6%) foi estatisticamente significativo em comparação com os outros grupos. No experimento em casa de vegetação, aos 28 dias após a inoculação das plantas com 9,9 x 104 uredosporos, a porcentagem de consumo de uredosporos foi de 81,7%. Nossos resultados confirmaram a fungivoria de D. luteipes em uredosporos de P. polysora. Este é o primeiro relato de fungivoria de D. luteipes, que pode ter papel importante no controle biológico de P. polysora em milho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Fungi/pathogenicity , Host Microbial Interactions , Neoptera , Pterygota/parasitology , Zea mays/microbiology
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-6, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468499

ABSTRACT

Among the plants defense mechanisms, the induction and emission of volatile organic compounds, which can be used to attract natural enemies, such predators insects. Although well studied, the induction of plant volatiles that attract natural enemies can vary according to intensity of infestation of herbivores and the species of host plant. We investigated the olfactory behavioral responses of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to the volatiles of infested maize (Zea mays) plants by the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in early and advanced infestations. The Bt (Viptera) maize cultivar Impact® was used for tests the behavior of N. californicus. After initial and advanced infestations, the phytophagous mites T. urticae were removed, and the plants were tested using a "Y" olfactometer. The following treatments were evaluated: air vs. air, uninfested plants vs. air, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 10 females of T. urticae, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 100 females of T. urticae, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 200 females of T. urticae and plants infested with 10 vs. plants infested with 200 females of T. urticae. The predatory mite N. californicus did not show preference to the treatments tested, suggesting that maize plants infested by T. urticae do not induce volatiles capable of attracting the predatory mite N. californicus. We concluded that N. californicus is not attracted by maize plants infested by T. urticae.


Dentre os mecanismos de defesa de plantas, a indução e emissão de compostos orgânicos voláteis, podem ser utilizados para atrair inimigos naturais, como insetos predadores. Embora bem estudada, a indução dos voláteis de plantas que atraem inimigos naturais pode variar de acordo com a intensidade de infestação de herbívoros e a espécie de planta hospedeira. Investigamos as respostas comportamentais olfativas do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) aos voláteis de plantas infestadas pelo ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836) (Acari: Tetranychidae). A cultivar de milho Bt (Viptera) Impact® foi utilizada para testar o comportamento de N. californicus. Após infestações iniciais e avançadas, os ácaros fitófagos T. urticae foram removidos e as plantas testadas em olfatômetro “Y”. Os seguintes tratamentos foram avaliados: ar vs. ar, plantas não infestadas vs. ar, plantas não infestadas vs. plantas infestadas com 10 fêmeas de T. urticae, plantas não infestadas vs. plantas infestadas com 100 fêmeas de T. urticae, plantas não infestadas vs. plantas infestadas com 200 fêmeas de T. urticae e plantas infestadas com 10 vs. plantas infestadas com 200 fêmeas de T. urticae. O ácaro predador N. californicus não mostrou preferência aos tratamentos testados, sugerindo que plantas de milho infestadas por T. urticae não induzem voláteis capazes de atrair o ácaro predador N. californicus. Concluímos que N. californicus não é atraído por plantas de milho infestadas por T. urticae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Volatilization , Acari/parasitology , Zea mays
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL