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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1171-1179, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345277

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield, morphometric and chemical characteristics, and the digestibility of various corn hybrids cultivated in different locations for silage production. Four corn hybrids were grown: P2866H, P3456H, P30R50VYH and P4285YHR, in four locations, defined as farm A; B; C and D. The hybrid P4285YHR presented the highest plant and ear insertion heights (2.72m, 1.52m respectively), with a minimum registered height of 2.63 m and 1.42 m, for plant and ear insertion height, and for that reason it presented the highest yield of fresh biomass (78,089kg ha-1). The TND values showed trend very close to that observed in the DISMS of the whole-plant, with hybrid P3456H presenting the highest estimated value (68.74%), and the hybrid P4285YHR the lowest among them (65.25%). In general, lower fibrous carbohydrates and lignin content, higher fibrous carbohydrates content, together with satisfactory grains participation in the plant structure led to a greater dry matter digestibility. Hybrids with lower plant heights do not necessarily have lower dry biomass yields, but hybrids of greater height and with high stem and leaf participation tend to have a higher aFDN content and less dry matter digestibility.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo e as características morfométricas e químicas, além da digestibilidade de diferentes híbridos de milho cultivados em diferentes locais para produção de silagem. Foram cultivados quatro híbridos de milho: P2866H, P3456H, P30R50VYH e P4285YHR, em quatro locais, definidos como propriedades A; B; C e D. O híbrido P4285YHR apresentou as maiores alturas de planta e de inserção de espiga (2,72m, 1,52m, respectivamente), com altura mínima registrada, nos diferentes locais, de 2,63m e 1,42m, para altura de planta e inserção de espiga, e, por isso, apresentou o maior rendimento de biomassa fresca (78.089kg ha-1). Os valores calculados de NDT mostraram tendência muito próxima àquela observada na DISMS da planta inteira, tendo o híbrido P3456H apresentado o maior valor estimado (68,74%), e o híbrido P4285YHR o menor entre eles (65,25%). Em geral, menores concentrações de carboidratos fibrosos e lignina, maior teor de carboidratos fibrosos, juntamente com satisfatória participação de grãos na estrutura da planta, conduzem a uma maior digestibilidade da matéria seca. Híbridos com menores alturas de planta não necessariamente apresentam menores rendimentos de biomassa seca, mas híbridos de maior altura e com alta participação de colmo e folhas tendem a apresentar maior teor de aFDN e menor digestibilidade da matéria seca.(AU)


Subject(s)
Silage/analysis , Zea mays/anatomy & histology , Zea mays/chemistry , Agricultural Cultivation
2.
Rev. bras. ciênc. saúde ; 23(4): 535-542, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049797

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar experimentalmente o teor de sódio de sal-gadinhos industrializados disponíveis no comércio da Cidade de Maceió, Alagoas. Material e Métodos: Classificar o teor de sódio de acordo com a legislação vigente. Vinte amostras de salgadinho de milho, trigo e batata, de diferentes sabores foram avaliadas utilizando-se a metodologia de espectrofotometria de emissão com atomização em chama. Resultados: Verificou-se que todas as amostras apresentavam a classificação de "alto teor" de sódio, tendo por base a RDC n° 24 de 2010 da Anvisa e que 65% das amostras apresentaram valores reais do teor de sódio superiores aos que estavam declarados nos rótulos. Conclusão: Com relação ao teor de sódio encontrado nos salgadinhos analisados, verificou-se que todas as amostras apresentaram a classificação de "alto teor" de sódio. (AU)


Objective:The objective of the study was to analyze experi-mentally the sodium content of commercially available savory foods in the city of Maceió, Alagoas,. Method: to classify this content according to the current legislation. Twenty samples of corn flakes, wheat and potato snacks of random flavors were evaluated using the emission spectrophotometry with in-line flame atomization method. Results: It was verified that all The samples presented a sodium "high content" classification, based on Anvisa's RDC nº 24 of 2010 and that it was also observed that 65% of the samples had actual values of sodium content higher than those declared on the labels. Conclusion: Regarding the sodium content found in the analyzed snack foods, it was found that all samples had the classification of "high" sodium. (AU)


Subject(s)
Sodium/analysis , Products of Consumer Direct Sale , Industrialized Foods , Sodium/classification , Triticum/chemistry , Solanum tuberosum/chemistry , Zea mays/chemistry , Nutritional Facts
3.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 12(4): 416-422, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-975767

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El resultado del tratamiento de blanqueamiento dental puede verse afectado en pacientes que consumen bebidas pigmentantes durante el tratamiento. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en valuar el efecto in vitro de la exposición al extracto de maíz morado (chicha morada) sobre el color del esmalte humano, durante y después del tratamiento del blanqueamiento dental con peróxido de hidrógeno al 35 %. Se utilizaron 48 dientes humanos, divididos en grupos según la bebida a la que se expuso: Extracto de maíz morado peruano (MM), té verde (T) y agua destilada (A); la mitad de los especímenes expuestos a cada bebida fueron sometidos a blanqueamiento dental con peróxido de hidrógeno al 35 % durante los primeros días de exposición a la pigmentación, resultando en los siguientes grupos: Grupo A: Sin blanqueamiento + maíz morado, Grupo B: Sin blanqueamiento + té verde, Grupo C: Sin blanqueamiento + agua destilada, Grupo D: Con blanqueamiento + maíz morado, Grupo E: Con blanqueamiento + té verde, Grupo F: Con blanqueamiento + agua destilada. Los cambios de color se midieron con un espectrofotómetro digital (VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0, VITA, Alemania) antes del blanqueamiento, durante el blanqueamiento, finalizado el blanqueamiento y al final de los 36 días de exposición a los pigmentos. Según el ∆E, el extracto de maíz morado difiere significativamente con el agua destilada (p < 0,05). Con respecto al grado de luminosidad, el extracto de maíz morado con blanqueamiento presentó los menores valores de luminosidad (p < 0,05). En cuanto al croma, no hubo diferencias entre los grupos (p > 0,05). La exposición al extracto de maíz morado pigmenta los dientes, durante el blanqueamiento el extracto de maíz morado no afecta el tratamiento, pero si la exposición continúa luego del blanqueamiento dental, el color de los dientes se verá afectado.


ABSTRACT: The result of tooth whitening treatment may be affected in patients who consume staining drinks during treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro effect of the exposure to purple corn extract (chicha morada) on human enamel color, during and after the treatment of teeth whitening with 35 % hydrogen peroxide. Forty-eight human teeth were used, divided into groups according to the drink to which it was exposed: Peruvian purple corn extract (MM), green tea (T) and distilled water (A); half of the specimens exposed to each drink were subjected to tooth whitening with 35 % hydrogen peroxide during the first days of exposure to pigmentation, resulting in the following groups: Group A: Without bleaching + purple corn, Group B: Without whitening + green tea, Group C: No whitening + distilled water, Group D: With whitening + purple corn, Group E: With whitening + green tea, Group F: With whitening + distilled water. The color changes were measured with a digital spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0, VITA, Germany) before bleaching, during whitening, after whitening and at the end of 36 days of exposure to pigments. According to the ∆E, the purple corn extract differs significantly with the distilled water (p <0.05). Regarding the degree of luminosity, the purple corn extract with whitening presented the lowest luminosity values (p <0.05). As for the chroma, there were no differences between the groups (p> 0.05). Exposure to purple corn extract pigments the teeth, during whitening the purple corn extract does not affect the treatment, but if the exposure continues after tooth whitening, the color of the teeth will be affected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pigments, Biological/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Zea mays/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Beverages , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Color , Hydrogen Peroxide
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(4): 1266-1274, jul.-ago. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-946529

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar os efeitos da substituição total do farelo de soja por milho e ureia sobre consumo e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, perfil metabólico proteico e balanço de nitrogênio de vacas mestiças em lactação em pastejo, com lotação intermitente de capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum). Foram utilizadas 12 vacas mestiças em lactação, com peso corporal médio inicial de 473,0+45,0kg, período de lactação médio de 95,0+42,2 dias e produção de leite de média inicial de 14,1+1,9kg/dia. As vacas eram primíparas e multíparas, mestiças de Girolando, Pardo-Suíço e Jersey. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro níveis de substituição do farelo de soja por milho e ureia (0; 33; 66; 100% na matéria seca - MS). O capim-mombaça apresentou teor médio de proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro de 19 e 59% na MS, respectivamente. A substituição do farelo de soja por milho e ureia não alterou o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente da MS. As concentrações de ureia e N-ureico plasmáticos foram alteradas pela substituição do farelo de soja por milho e ureia. O balanço de nitrogênio foi positivo e não foi alterado com as substituições. Para vacas mestiças produzindo, em média, 12,5kg/dia e mantidas em pasto de qualidade, pode se substituir totalmente o farelo de soja por milho e ureia.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of total replacement of corn by soybean meal and urea on intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein metabolic profile, and nitrogen balance of lactating crossbred cows grazing with intermittent stocking Mombasa grass (Panicum maximum). Twelve milking cows were distributed in a triple 4 x 4 latin design, with a mean initial body weight of 473,0+45,0kg, average lactation period of 95,0+42,2 days and milk production of initial mean of 14,1+1,9kg/day. Cows were primiparous and multiparous. The treatments consisted of four levels of substitution of soybean meal for corn and urea (0; 33; 66; 100% in dry matter - DM). The Mombasa grass showed an average content of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber of 19 and 59% in DM, respectively. The concentrations of urea and plasma urea nitrogen were altered by replacing soybean meal with corn and urea. Protein metabolic profile was changed with the replacement of soybean meal by corn and urea. The nitrogen balance was positive and has not changed with the replacements. For mixed-race cows producing an average of 12.5kg/day and kept in good-quality pastures, one can replace soybean meal totally with corn and urea.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Cattle/metabolism , Lactation , Urea/analysis , Zea mays/chemistry
5.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1671-1681, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886765

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were obtained from vegetable oils of soybean, corn and sunflower. The current study was focused on evaluating the antifungal activity of FAMEs mainly against Paracoccidioides spp., as well as testing the interaction of these compounds with commercial antifungal drugs and also their antioxidant potential. FAMEs presented small IC50 values (1.86-9.42 μg/mL). All three FAMEs tested showed antifungal activity against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. with MIC values ranging from 15.6-500 µg/mL. Sunflower FAMEs exhibited antifungal activity that extended also to other genera, with an MIC of 15.6 μg/mL against Candida glabrata and C. krusei and 31.2 μg/mL against C. parapsilosis. FAMEs exhibited a synergetic effect with itraconazole. The antifungal activity of the FAMEs against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. is likely due to the presence of methyl linoleate, the major compound present in all three FAMEs. The results obtained indicate the potential of FAMEs as sources for antifungal and antioxidant activity.


Subject(s)
Paracoccidioides/drug effects , Picrates/pharmacology , Soybeans/chemistry , Biphenyl Compounds/pharmacology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Zea mays/chemistry , Helianthus/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Picrates/isolation & purification , Biphenyl Compounds/isolation & purification , Plant Oils/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Lethal Dose 50 , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification
6.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1,supl): 695-704, May. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886666

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Both the scientific community and society have shown interest in improving the content of amino acids, carbohydrates and mineral nutrients in maize because it represents an important staple food in many developing countries. Earlier studies demonstrated that the treatment of seeds using ascorbic acid (AsA-seed priming) enhanced soluble carbohydrates, proteins and soluble amino acids for other species. AsA seed priming in maize showed the potential for reducing abiotic stresses. The effects on grain quality have not been previously demonstrated. This study investigated the impacts of AsA seed priming on maize kernel quality of seeds produced by the plants generated from the primed seeds, based on the amino acid profile and carbohydrate and mineral nutrient contents. AsA seed priming improved the maize kernel quality with respect to the ascorbate content, boron allocation, total carbohydrate content and increased soluble amino acid levels, including serine, tyrosine, alanine, valine, glutamate, arginine, proline, aspartate, lysine and isoleucine, whereas soluble methionine was decreased. Therefore, AsA seed priming can represent a potential technique for improving maize grain quality.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Seeds/drug effects , Carbohydrates/analysis , Zea mays/chemistry , Amino Acids/analysis , Minerals/analysis , Zea mays/drug effects
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(3): 680-690, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788964

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A new strain of Thermomyces lanuginosus was isolated from the Atlantic Forest biome, and its β-xylosidases optimization in response to agro-industrial residues was performed. Using statistical approach as a strategy for optimization, the induction of β-xylosidases activity was evaluated in residual corn straw, and improved so that the optimum condition achieved high β-xylosidases activities 1003 U/mL. According our known, this study is the first to show so high levels of β-xylosidases activities induction. In addition, the application of an experimental design with this microorganism to induce β-xylosidases has not been reported until the present work. The optimal conditions for the crude enzyme extract were pH 5.5 and 60 °C showing better thermostability at 55 °C. The saccharification ability of β-xylosidase in the presence of hemicellulose obtained from corn straw raw and xylan from beechwood substrates showed a xylo-oligosaccharide to xylose conversion yield of 80 and 50%, respectively, at 50 °C. Our data strongly indicated that the β-xylosidases activities was not subjected to the effects of potential enzyme inhibitors often produced during fermentation process. These data suggest the application of this enzyme studied for saccharification of hemicellulose, an abundant residue in the American continents, thus providing an interesting alternative for future tests for energy production.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/enzymology , Xylosidases/metabolism , Fermentation , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Substrate Specificity , Temperature , Xylose/metabolism , Biomass , Zea mays/chemistry , Enzyme Activation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis
8.
Rev. salud pública ; 18(3): 1-1, mayo-jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-784966

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Detectar la presencia o ausencia de proteínas transgénicas derivadas de cultivos genéticamente modificados (GM) en harina de maíz comercializadas en Bogotá D.C., Colombia. Métodos Se evaluaron 11 protocolos de extracción de proteína total en 17 harinas pre-cocidas, dos no cocidas y tres controles positivos. Posteriormente, se determinó la presencia de 7 proteínas transgénicas (CP4EPSPS, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1F, Cry2A, Cry34Ab1 y Cry3Bb1) utilizando kits de ELISA comerciales. Resultados Se determinó que el mejor protocolo de extracción de proteína total fue el buffer con Tritón X-100, con el que se obtienen concentraciones de proteína mayores a 0,5 mg/g de harina y no genera interferencia con la técnica de ELISA. Se detectaron cuatro proteínas transgénicas: CP4EPSPS, Cry1F, Cry1Ab y Cry34Ab1 en harinas pre-cocidas y sin pre-cocción, con porcentajes que varían entre el 20 y 100 %. Conclusión Siete de las 19 harinas de maíz evaluadas contienen trazas de proteínas transgénicas (B2,B8,A3,O3,O1,C1 y C2), que confieren resistencia a lepidópteros o coleópteros y tolerancia al herbicida glifosato (CP4EPSPS, Cry1Ab, Cry1F, Cry34Ab1 y Cry3Bb1), todos los eventos detectados están aprobados para el consumo humano en Colombia según el Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social.(AU)


Objective To detect the presence or absence of transgenic proteins derived from GM crops in maize flour marketed in Bogota D.C., Colombia. Methods 11 extraction protocols for total protein were evaluated in 17 precooked flour, two uncooked and three positive controls. Subsequently, the presence of 7 transgenic proteins (CP4-EPSPS, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1F, Cry2A, Cry34Ab1 and Cry3Bb1) using commercial ELISA kits was determined. Results It was determined that the best protocol for total protein extraction was buffer with Triton X-100, which allowed obtaining protein concentrations greater than 0.5 mg per gram of flour and does not generate interference with the ELISA technique. Four transgenic proteins were detected: CP4EPSPS, Cry1F, Cry1Ab and Cry34Ab1 in precooked and uncooked flour with percentages varying between 20 and 100 %. Conclusion Seven of the 19 maize flours contain traces of transgenic protein (B2,B8,A3,O3,O1,C1 and C2) that provide resistance to lepidopterans and coleopterans, and tolerance to glyphosate herbicide, (CP4EPSPS- Cry1Ab, Cry1F, Cry34Ab1 and Cry3Bb1). All detected events are approved for human consumption in Colombia, according to the Ministry of Health and Social Protection.(AU)


Subject(s)
Proteins/genetics , Genetic Engineering/instrumentation , Zea mays/chemistry , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Colombia
9.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 83: e0972014, 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1006452

ABSTRACT

Neste trabalho foram determinados os níveis de ácido fólico e de fumonisina B1 (FB1) em farinha de milho consumida por 24 voluntários residentes em um campus universitário no estado de São Paulo, bem como sua relação com as concentrações de ácido fólico sérico nos indivíduos. As análises de ácido fólico e de FB1 em farinha de milho foram realizadas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE), enquanto a determinação de ácido fólico sérico foi feita por kit de imunoensaio. Detectou-se a FB1 em 100% das amostras de farinha de milho, em níveis que variaram de 142 a 3.037 µg kg-1 (média: 738 ± 591 µg kg-1). As concentrações de ácido fólico nas amostras de farinha de milho ficaram entre < 0,3 µg kg-1 (limite de quantificação) e 1.705 µg kg-1, com média de 713 ± 435 µg kg-1, o que representa 47% do limite mínimo exigido pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) para farinhas de milho comercialmente disponíveis. Nas amostras de soro humano, os níveis de ácido fólico variaram de 6,7 a 24,0 ng mL-1 (média: 13,4 ± 5,4 ng mL-1). Não houve correlação (p < 0,05) entre os níveis de ácido fólico no soro dos indivíduos e as concentrações de FB1 ou ácido fólico nas amostras de farinha de milho. Outros estudos são necessários para estimar a ingestão total de FB1 por meio da dieta para averiguar os efeitos das fumonisinas sobre a absorção de ácido fólico nos indivíduos avaliados.(AU)


In the present study, folic acid and fumonisin B1 (FB1) levels were determined in corn flour consumed by 24 volunteers, residents in a university campus in São Paulo State, as well as its relationship with folic acid in serum of individuals. Analyses of folic acid and FB1 in corn flour were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while the determination of folic acid in serum was accomplished using an immunoassay kit. FB1 was detected in 100% of corn samples, at levels ranging from 142 to 3,037 µg kg-1 (which means: 738 ± 591 µg kg-1). The concentrations of folic acid in corn flour samples ranged from < 0.3 µg kg-1 (limit of quantification) to 1,705 µg kg-1, with a mean of 713 ± 435 µg kg-1, which represents 47% of the minimum required by National Agency of Health Surveillance (ANVISA) for corn flour commercially available. The levels of folic acid in human serum samples ranged from 6.7 to 24.0 ng mL-1 (meaning: 13.4 ± 5.4 ng mL-1). No correlations were observed (p < 0.05) between the folic acid levels in serum of individuals and the concentrations of FB1 or folic acid in corn flour samples. Further studies are needed to estimate the total intake of FB1 in the diet to assess the effects fumonisins on the absorption of folic acid in the individuals evaluated.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Zea mays/chemistry , Fumonisins/blood , Serum , Flour , Folic Acid/blood , Healthy Volunteers
10.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 53(1): 60-71, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-784028

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of time of ensiling on chemical composition and in situ degradability of starch of hydrated ground corn (HGC) with medium grain vitreousness. Corn grains harvested at 83% of dry matter (DM) and vitreosity content of 67% ± 3, were dried to 87% DM. Grains were milled into a device with 2 mm sieve, reconstituted to reach 67% DM, and ensiled (density of 880 Kg/m³) for up to 330 days. One HGC sample was collected monthly for in situ determination of composition, fermentation end products and for corn starch degradability. Ensiling time did not affect the DM and crude protein (CP) content of the HGC. However, starch concentration was reduced by 2.4 percentage points at 330 days compared to 3 days of ensiling. Increased concentrations of NH3-N (8.5 times), lactic acid (3.45 times), acetic acid (4.1 times), propionic acid (1.7 times), butyric acid (2.8 times) and alcohol (2.4 times) were observed during the ensiling period. The rapidly degradable fraction (fraction A) and the rate of degradation of the slowly degradable fraction (fraction C) of HGC starch were increased 3.51 and 2.21 times, respectively, during the ensiling period. Conversely, the slowly degradable fraction (fraction B) of the HGC starch was decreased 1.93 times during the ensiling period. The effective degradability of the starch ofHGC increased for passage rates by 0.02/h (79.9% vs. 94.5%); 0.05/h (65.9% vs 90.01%) and 0.08/h (56.98 vs. 86.52%) when it was evaluated at 3 vs 330 days of ensiling, respectively. In conclusion, ensiling time affected the chemical composition and increases rumen starch degradability of HGC with medium vitreousness of the grain endosperm...


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do tempo de ensilagem sobre a composição química e a degradabilidade in situ do amido do milho moído hidratado (MMH) em grãos de média vitreosidade. Os grãos de milho foram colhidos com 83% de matéria seca (MS) e vitreosidade de 67% ± 3, e foram secos até atingirem 87% de MS. Os grãos foram moídos a dois milímetros, sendo posteriormente reconstituídos, 67% MS, e ensilados (densidade de 880 kg / m³) para até 330 dias. Uma amostra MMH foi coletado mensalmente para a determinação da composição, produtos finais da fermentação e para degradabilidade in situ do amido de milho. O tempo de ensilagem não afetou o teor de MS e proteína bruta (PB). No entanto, a concentração de amido foi reduzido em 2,4 pontos percentuais em comparação de 3 com 330 dias de ensilagem. Foram observados o aumento das concentrações de N-NH3 (8,5 vezes), ácidos láctico (3,45 vezes), acético (4,1 vezes), propionico (1,7 vezes), butírico (2,8 vezes) e álcool (2,4 vezes), durante o período de ensilagem. A fracção rapidamente degradável (fração A) e a taxa de degradação da fracção lentamente degradável (fração C) do amido do MMH foram aumentadas 3,51 e 2,21 vezes, respectivamente, durante o período de ensilagem. Por outro lado, a fração lentamente degradável (fração B) do amido do MMH foi diminuída em 1,93 vezes durante o período de ensilagem. A degradabilidade efetiva do amido do MMH foi aumentado para as taxas de passagem de 0,02 / h (79,9% vs. 94,5%); 0,05 / h (65,9% vs 90,01%) e de 0,08/h (56,98% vs. 86,52%)quando foi comparada o período de 3 vs 330 dias de ensilagem, respectivamente. Em conclusão, o tempo de ensilagem afetou acomposição química e aumentou a degradabilidade ruminal do amido do MMH de grãos com média vitreosidade...


Subject(s)
Starch and Fecula , Zea mays/adverse effects , Zea mays/chemistry , Food Composition
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(3): 864-872, May-Jun/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-753912

ABSTRACT

O objetivo foi avaliar as características agronômicas e químico-bromatológicas de dois híbridos de milho Bt (30F35H e CD397YH) ensilados com inoculante enzimobacteriano. Os teores de FDN foram semelhantes para todas as frações de planta, já o teor de FDA diferiu quanto à planta inteira e colmo, enquanto a lignina diferiu em relação à planta inteira, colmo e sabugo. A DIVMS não apresentou diferença entre os híbridos em nenhuma das frações. As silagens foram produzidas em silos experimentais (aproximadamente 200kg). As concentrações de MS, EE, FDN, NDT e DIVMS não mostraram diferença entre as silagens dos híbridos avaliados. Já os teores de MM, PB, FDA e lignina diferiram. Não houve diferença entre as silagens dos híbridos para os valores de NDT estimado e para a DIVMS. Também não foi observado efeito do inoculante sobre os valores de CHT, CNF, FDN e DIVMS. Conclui-se que o híbrido Pioneer foi superior ao Coodetec em produtividade de MV ha-1, porém a composição nutricional das silagens não diferiu na concentração de NDT e digestibilidade avaliadas em ovinos. Não houve efeito do uso de inoculante na digestibilidade da matéria seca e da fração fibra em detergente neutro das silagens.


The aim was to evaluate the agronomic characteristics and chemical composition of the two corn hybrids (30F35H and CD397YH) ensiled with enzymatic bacterial inoculants. NDF were similar for all plant fractions, since the ADF content differed as to the whole plant and stem, lignin differed in relation to the whole plant, stem and cob. IVDMD did not differ among treatments in any of the fractions. The silages were produced in experimental silos (approximately 200kg). The concentrations of MS, EE, NDF, IVDMD and TDN showed no difference between the silages of hybrids. Since the levels of MM, CP, ADF and lignin differed; there was no difference between hybrids for silage TDN and IVDMD. There was also no effect of the use of inoculants on the values of CHT, NFC, NDF and IVDMD. It is concluded that Pioneer was superior to Coodetec productivity of MV-1 ha. The nutritional composition of silages did not differ in the concentration of TDN and digestibility in sheep assessed. There was no effect of using inoculants on the digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber content of the silage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/chemistry , Sheep/metabolism , Zea mays/metabolism , Zea mays/chemistry , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Dietary Fiber , Lignin/analysis , Nutritive Value , Plants, Genetically Modified/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/chemistry
12.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 68(2): 235-243, Mar-Apr/2015.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-752513

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: conhecer as condições de trabalho de agentes penitenciários e os reflexos do exercício da atividade laboral em sua saúde. Método: pesquisa descritiva, qualitativa. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista aberta com agentes de um presídio regional e submetidos a análise de conteúdo na modalidade temática. Resultados: os resultados revelaram condições de trabalho insatisfatórias por deficiência de recursos materiais e descaso do poder público com as questões inerentes à ressocialização do apenado, resultando em exposição aos riscos psicossociais, insatisfação e desgaste emocional dos trabalhadores. Conclusão: investimentos na segurança dos trabalhadores podem contribuir para a promoção de sua saúde. .


RESUMEN Objetivo: conocer las condiciones laborales de guardias de prisión y las consecuencias del ejercicio de la actividad laboral en su salud. Método: investigación cualitativa y descriptiva. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas abiertas con agentes de una cárcel regional y se sometieron a análisis de contenido en la modalidad temática. Resultados: los resultados mostraron condiciones insatisfactorias por la falta de recursos materiales y el abandono por parte del gobierno en los asuntos relacionados con la rehabilitación del condenado, lo que resulta en la exposición a riesgos psicosociales, la insatisfacción y el agotamiento emocional de los trabajadores. Conclusión: las inversiones en la seguridad de los trabajadores pueden contribuir a la promoción de su salud. .


ABSTRACT Objective: to understand the working conditions of prison offi cers and the repercutions of labor activity on their health. Method: qualitative and descriptive research. Data were collected through open interviews with the prison offi cers of a regional prision and the speeches were submitted to content analysis. Results: the results showed unsatisfactory working conditions due to poor material resources and neglect of governmental regarding rehabilitation of convicts, resulting in workers’ exposure to psychosocial risks, dissatisfaction, and emotional distress. Conclusion: investments on the security of workers may contribute to their health promotion. .


Subject(s)
Calcium Carbonate/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Starch/chemistry , Zea mays/chemistry , Biocompatible Materials , Elastic Modulus , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Nanocomposites/ultrastructure , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Permeability , Tensile Strength
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 170-176
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158410

ABSTRACT

In order to better understand the biochemical interactions and to identify new biomarkers for plant resistance against insects, we proposed a suitable lipophilic profiling method for insects and their host plants. The critical components of GC-MS based analysis are: sample amount, extraction, derivatization, temperature gradient, run time, and identification of peaks. For lipophilic metabolite profiling of maize and sorghum, and their insect pest, spotted stem borer larvae, we recommend 100 mg sample weight for seeds and insect samples (whole insect body), and 200 mg for seedlings. Maize and sorghum seeds required less time for fat extraction in comparison to their seedlings and the pest fed on these seedlings. GC-MS was standardized for better separation and intensity of peaks using different temperature gradients in the range of 180-300 C. A total of 48 lipophilic compounds encompassing various classes based on their functional groups such as fatty acids, fatty alcohols, hydrocarbons, sterols and terpenoids, vitamin derivative, etc. were separated in the seedlings (30), seeds (14), and the pest (26) in the retention time range of 3.22 to 29.41 min. This method could be useful to study nutritional aspects of different field crops in relation to various stresses apart from the analysis of lipophilic compounds for better understanding of insect-plant interactions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fats/analysis , Fats/isolation & purification , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/isolation & purification , Fatty Alcohols/analysis , Fatty Alcohols/isolation & purification , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/instrumentation , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/isolation & purification , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/standards , Lipids/analysis , Lipids/isolation & purification , Moths/chemistry , Moths/growth & development , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Seedlings/chemistry , Seeds/chemistry , Sorghum/chemistry , Sterols/analysis , Sterols/isolation & purification , Terpenes/analysis , Terpenes/isolation & purification , Zea mays/chemistry
14.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 64(2): 116-122, jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752682

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to analyze the chemical composition, total phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of two whole corn (Zea mays) based meals traditional from Mexico: “traditional pinole” and “seven grain pinole”; and compare it with information available from ready to eat cereal products based on refined corn and whole grain cereals. Proximate analyses (moisture, ash, fat, protein and fiber) were carried out according to the procedures of AOAC, sugars content was determined by HPLC method; calcium and iron were quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Total phenolic compounds were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method; the antiradical capacity was determined by DPPH colorimetric method and total antioxidant capacity was determined by FRAP method. Traditional and seven grain pinole presented higher energy content and nutrient density (protein and fat) than processed cereals. Calcium content was higher in processed cereals than pinole; seven grain pinole presented the highest conentration of iron. Polyphenolic concentration was higher in both kinds of pinole compared to processed cereals; traditional pinole presented the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH and FRAP methods. The results provide evidence about the important nutrient and antioxidant content of traditional and seven grain pinole compared to processed cereals based on corn and other grains. It is recommended their incorporation in to regular diet as a healthy food, with a good protein level, low sugar content and good antioxidant capacity.


En el presente estudio se analizó la composición química, el contenido de compuestos fenólicos totales y la capacidad antioxidante de dos alimentos elaborados a base de granos enteros de maíz (Zea mays) típicos de México: "pinole tradicional" y "pinole de los siete granos"; y se comparó con la información nutricional ya disponible de dos cereales procesados. El análisis proximal se realizó de acuerdo a los procedimientos de la AOAC, el contenido de azúcares se determinó por HPLC; el calcio y hierro se cuantificaron utilizando espectroscopía de absorción atómica. Los compuestos fenólicos totales se determinaron espectrofotométricamente por el método de Folin-Ciocalteu; la capacidad antirradical se determinó por el método colorimétrico del DPPH, y la capacidad antioxidante total se determinó por el método FRAP. El pinole tradicional y el pinole de los siete granos presentaron una mayor densidad de nutrientes (proteína y grasa) y mayor contenido calórico en comparación con los cereales procesados. El contenido de calcio fue mayor en los cereales procesados; el pinole de los siete granos presentó la mayor concentración de hierro. La concentración de compuestos fenólicos fue mayor en ambos tipos de pinole comparado con los productos procesados; el pinole tradicional presentó la mas alta actividad antioxidante medida por los métodos de DPPH y FRAP. Los resultados muestran evidencia sobre el importante contenido de nutrientes y compuestos antioxidantes del pinole tradicional y pinole de los siete granos; se recomienda su consumo regular, por ser alimentos con un buen nivel de proteína, bajo contenido de azúcar y con una buena capacidad antioxidante.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/analysis , Nutritive Value , Zea mays/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Carbohydrates/analysis , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Mexico , Phenols/analysis , Reference Values
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 35-42, 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709476

ABSTRACT

Variance and performance of two sampling plans for aflatoxins quantification in maize were evaluated. Eight lots of maize were sampled using two plans: manual, using sampling spear for kernels; and automatic, using a continuous flow to collect milled maize. Total variance and sampling, preparation, and analysis variance were determined and compared between plans through multifactor analysis of variance. Four theoretical distribution models were used to compare aflatoxins quantification distributions in eight maize lots. The acceptance and rejection probabilities for a lot under certain aflatoxin concentration were determined using variance and the information on the selected distribution model to build the operational characteristic curves (OC). Sampling and total variance were lower at the automatic plan. The OC curve from the automatic plan reduced both consumer and producer risks in comparison to the manual plan. The automatic plan is more efficient than the manual one because it expresses more accurately the real aflatoxin contamination in maize.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins/analysis , Food Analysis/methods , Zea mays/chemistry , Automation, Laboratory/methods , Reproducibility of Results
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 12(6): 558-571, nov. 2013. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-726590

ABSTRACT

We studied the antioxidant capacity of five varieties of corn grown in Hopelchén, Mexico by the techniques of DPPH, DMPD, oxidation rate, ferric ion reduction and peroxide, the purple variety had the highest antioxidant activity except in test DMPD the red variety which had a better capacity to reduce, in general, the white varieties (native and hybrid) showed similar activity and yellow corn had the lowest activity of all. It also determines the concentration of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins that are present in the corn kernels in a range of 3.39 to 1558 mg of polyphenols and 0,847 to 410 mg of anthocyanins per 100 g of flour. The content of antioxidants in maize varieties can consider it as a functional food by providing exogenous antioxidants to consumers with a consequent protective effects.


Se estudió la capacidad antioxidante de cinco variedades de maíz cultivadas en Hopelchén, México por las técnicas de DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-pricrilhidrazilo), DMPD (N, N,- dimetil-p-fenilendiamina), índice de oxidación, reducción del ion férrico y del peróxido. La variedad morada presentó la mayor actividad antioxidante; excepto en el ensayo de DMPD, en el cual la variedad roja tuvo una mejor capacidad reductora. En general, las variedades blancas (criolla e híbrida) mostraron una actividad similar y, la variedad amarillo tuvo la menor actividad de todas. También se determinó la concentración de compuestos fenólicos y antociánicos que están presentes en las diferentes variedades de maíz en un rango de 3.39 a 1558 mg de polifenoles y de 0.847 a 410 mg de antocianidinas por cada 100 g de harina. El contenido de antioxidantes en las variedades de maíz permite considerarlo como alimento funcional al aportar antioxidantes exógenos a su consumidor con sus consecuentes efectos protectores.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Zea mays/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Anthocyanins/analysis , Biphenyl Compounds , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Mexico , Picrates , Polyphenols/analysis
17.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 63(2): 134-141, June 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-740233

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de la presente investigación fue formular una barra de cereales y leguminosa (Phaseolus vulgaris) y evaluar su impacto sobre la respuesta glicémica de individuos sanos, a fin de contribuir con la oferta de alimentos beneficiosos para la salud del consumidor. Para esto se formuló una barra con una mezcla de cereales (maíz y avena) y dos porcentajes (20% y 30%) de Phaseolus vulgaris. Adicionalmente, se preparó una barra de cereales sin leguminosa (barra control). Mediante evaluación sensorial, se seleccionó la barra con 30% de Phaseolus vulgaris, por ser evaluada con mejor sabor y textura, además esa combinación de cereales y leguminosas favorece la complementación aminoacídica y los criterios de formulación previamente establecidos. La caracterización química indicó un contenido de proteínas mayor en la barra con 30% de Phaseolus vulgaris (13,55%), en relación a la barra control (8,5%). Los contenidos de grasa, cenizas y fibra dietética no presentaron diferencias (p>0,05) entre ambas barras evaluadas. Sin embargo, el contenido de fibra soluble y de almidón resistente de la barra seleccionada resultó un 32,05% y 18,67% mayor, respectivamente, que en la barra control, con lo cual se podría contribuir con la disminución de la velocidad de absorción de la glucosa. La barra seleccionada presentó un índice glicémico bajo (49) y carga glicémica intermedia (12,0) en voluntarios sanos, lo que podría traducirse en una posible reducción de la tasa de absorción de glucosa al torrente sanguíneo, asociada a un contenido de carbohidratos de absorción lenta. La barra formulada representa una propuesta de merienda saludable para el consumidor.


The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13,55%) relative to the bar control (8,5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32,05% and 18,67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12,0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Avena/metabolism , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Glycemic Index , Phaseolus/metabolism , Zea mays/metabolism , Avena/chemistry , Digestion/physiology , Food Handling , Nutritive Value , Phaseolus/chemistry , Time Factors , Zea mays/chemistry
18.
Bulletin of High Institute of Public Health [The]. 2013; 43 (1): 13-21
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-160301

ABSTRACT

Acrylamide is a chemical compound produced in starchy foods that have been cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide is proven to be carcinogenic in rodents and a probable human carcinogen, with increasing evidence of positive associations with human cancers. Acrylamide is formed in potato crisps, chips, bread and crisp bread. lt was first discovered by scientists in Sweden in 2002. To determine the level of acrylamide in popular Egyptian brands of potato crisps and corn products produced by domestic food industrial factories. Seven brands of potato and eight brands of corn products were collected, crashed and after preparing the extracts of each sample, high performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] was used for measuring the amount of acrylamide. The amounts of acrylamide ranged 247-1677 micro g/kg in potato brands and <35-419 micro g/kg in corn products. As acrylamide is a dangerous toxin for human health, its level in these products, that are used extensively by people especially children, should be strictly traced and reduced


Subject(s)
Acrylamide/adverse effects , Solanum tuberosum/chemistry , Zea mays/chemistry
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(2): 371-375, 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688569

ABSTRACT

The productivity of wheat and corn crops depends on climatic conditions and resistance against phytopathogenic fungi such as those of the genus Fusarium. Some species of this genus produce zearalenone (ZEA), a mycotoxin with hyperestrogenic effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of ZEA in samples of cracked wheat (n = 109), popcorn (n = 51) and corn grits (n = 50) commercialized in the State of Paraná, Brazil. Commercial samples of each crop were collected between September 2007 and June 2008 and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. The method used for detection of the mycotoxin in wheat and corn derivatives presented a recovery rate of 94.5% and 99.5%, respectively, detection limit of 40 μg.kg-1 and quantification limit of 55 μg.kg-1. No contamination with ZEA was detected in cracked wheat samples. Among the corn derivatives, only one cracked corn sample was contaminated with ZEA (64 μg.kg-1). Despite the low contamination observed, monitoring the occurrence of mycotoxins in foods is important to ensure safety.


Subject(s)
Triticum/chemistry , Zea mays/chemistry , Zearalenone/analysis , Brazil , Chromatography, Thin Layer
20.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 62(2): 103-111, jun. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710610

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate iron bioavailability of maize genotypes, and analyze the correlation between in vitro and in vivo methods. Dialysable iron was analyzed in 13 genotypes from which 5 were selected for the biological assay. Mean iron content of the genotypes (n=13) was 17.93±2.93 mg kg-1. Phytate varied from 0.77% to 1.03%; phytate: iron molar ratio from 30.64 to 55.41; and soluble iron from 13.17 to 39.63%. The highest value for dialysable iron was 19.14%. In the biological assay, the control group, that received ferrous sulphate, did not present significant difference between the genotypes for Hb gain, Hb gain per gram of iron consumed and HRE. Hb gain did not present a significant correlation with in vitro assay. However, there were positive correlations varying from 0.653 to 0.809. The maize genotypes evaluated presented a good bioavailability since the genotypes showed the same result in hemoglobin gain than control group.


Biodisponibilidade de ferro de diferentes genótipos de milho desenvolvidos em programa de melhoramento genético: estudos in vitro e in vivo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a biodisponibilidade do ferro de genótipos de milho e analisar a correlação entre métodos in vitro e in vivo. Ferro dialisável foi analisado em13 genótipos, a partir do qual 5 foram selecionados para o ensaio biológico. A média de teor de ferro dos genótipos (n= 13) foi 17,93 ± 2,93 mg kg-1. O teor de fitato variou de 0,77% a 1,03%; razão molar fitato:ferro de 30,64 a 55,41; e ferro solúvel de 13,17 a 39,63%.O valor mais alto para o ferro dialisável foi 19,14%. No ensaio biológico, o grupo controle, que recebeu sulfato ferrso, não apresentou diferença significativa entre os genótipos no ganho Hb, ganho de Hb por grama de ferro consumido e HRE. Ganho de Hb não apresentou correlação significativa com o ensaio in vitro. No entanto, houve correlações positivas variando de 0,653 a 0,809. Os genótipos de milho avaliados apresentaram uma boa biodisponibilidade uma vez que os genótipos apresentaram o mesmo resultado quanto ao ganho de hemoglobina em relação ao grupo controle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/prevention & control , Food, Fortified/analysis , Iron, Dietary/pharmacokinetics , Phytic Acid/analysis , Plants, Genetically Modified/chemistry , Zea mays/genetics , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/diet therapy , Biological Availability , Breeding , Biological Assay/methods , Dialysis , Genotype , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Zea mays/chemistry
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