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1.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 137-145, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971340

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the anti-angiogenic activity of Kunxian Capsule (KX) extract and explore the underlying molecular mechanism using zebrafish.@*METHODS@#The KX extract was prepared with 5.0 g in 100 mL of 40% methanol followed by ultrasonication and freeze drying. Freeze dried KX extract of 10.00 mg was used as test stock solution. Triptolide and icariin, the key bioactive compounds of KX were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. The transgenic zebrafish Tg(flk1:GFP) embryos were dechorionated at 20-h post fertilization (hpf) and treated with PTK 787, and 3.5, 7, 14 and 21 µg/mL of KX extract, respectively. After 24-h post exposure (hpe), mortality and malformation (%), intersegmental vessels (ISV) formation, and mRNA expression level of angiogenic pathway genes including phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) were determined. Further, the embryos at 72 hpf were treated with KX extract to observe the development of sub-intestinal vein (SIV) after 24 hpe.@*RESULTS@#The chromatographic analysis of test stock solution of KX extract showed that triptolide and icariin was found as 0.089 mg/g and 48.74 mg/g, respectively, which met the requirements of the national drug standards. In zebrafish larvae experiment, KX extract significantly inhibited the ISV (P<0.01) and SIV formation (P<0.05). Besides, the mRNA expression analysis showed that KX extract could significantly suppress the expressions of PI3K and AKT, thereby inhibiting the mRNA levels of ERKs and MAPK. Moreover, the downstream signaling cascade affected the expression of VEGF and its receptors (VEGFR and VEGFR-2). FGF-2, a strong angiogenic factor, was also down-regulated by KX treatment in zebrafish larvae.@*CONCLUSION@#KX extract exhibited anti-angiogenic effects in zebrafish embryos by regulating PI3K/AKT-MAPK-VEGF pathway and showed promising potential for RA treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Zebrafish
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1606-1619, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970633

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the biological effect and mechanism of Vernonia anthelmintica Injection(VAI) on melanin accumulation. The in vivo depigmentation model was induced by propylthiouracil(PTU) in zebrafish, and the effect of VAI on melanin accumulation was evaluated based on the in vitro B16F10 cell model. The chemical composition of VAI was identified according to the high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Network pharmaco-logy was applied to predict potential targets and pathways of VAI. A "VAI component-target-pathway" network was established, and the pharmacodynamic molecules were screened out based on the topological characteristics of the network. The binding of active molecules to key targets was verified by molecular docking. The results showed that VAI promoted tyrosinase activity and melanin production in B16F10 cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner and could restore the melanin in the body of the zebrafish model. Fifty-six compounds were identified from VAI, including flavonoids(15/56), terpenoids(10/56), phenolic acids(9/56), fatty acids(9/56), steroids(6/56), and others(7/56). Network pharmacological analysis screened four potential quality markers, including apigenin, chrysoeriol, syringaresinol, and butein, involving 61 targets and 65 pathways, and molecular docking verified their binding to TYR, NFE2L2, CASP3, MAPK1, MAPK8, and MAPK14. It was found that the mRNA expression of MITF, TYR, TYRP1, and DCT in B16F10 cells was promoted. By UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and network pharmacology, this study determined the material basis of VAI against vitiligo, screened apigenin, chrysoeriol, syringaresinol, and butein as the quality markers of VAI, and verified the efficacy and internal mechanism of melanogenesis, providing a basis for quality control and further clinical research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Vernonia/chemistry , Melanins/metabolism , Zebrafish/metabolism , Network Pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Apigenin/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1558-1567, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970628

ABSTRACT

Based on mass spectrometry(MS)-guided separation strategy, compound 1 was obtained from the roots of Rhus chinensis. By comprehensive analysis of high resolution-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry(HR-ESI-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) data, and quantum chemical calculation of NMR(qcc-NMR) parameters, compound 1 was elucidated as rhuslactone, a 17-epi-dammarane triterpenoid with a rare 17α-side chain. An HPLC-ELSD method for its quantification in R. chinensis was established and adopted for the quantification of rhuslactone in different batches of R. chinensis. Rhuslactone displayed a good linear relationship within the range of 0.021 3-1.07 μmol·mL~(-1 )(r=0.997 6), and the average recovery was 99.34% [relative standard deviation(RSD) 2.9%). Moreover, the results of the evaluation test of the preventive effects of rhusalctone on coronary heart disease(CHD) and thrombosis showed that rhuslactone(0.11 nmol·mL~(-1)) significantly alleviated heart enlargement and venous congestion and increased cardiac output(CO), blood flow velocity(BFV), and heart rate, thereby reducing thrombus formation in zebrafish with CHD. The effects of rhuslactone on CO and BFV were superior to that of digoxin(1.02 nmol·mL~(-1)), and its effect on improving heart rate was comparable to that of digoxin. This study provides experimental references for the isolation, identification, quality control, and application of rhuslactone from R. chinensis against CHD. It is worth mentioning that this study has discussed some omissions in the determination of the stereochemistry of C-17 in dammarane triterpenoids in the present coursebook Chemistry of Chinese Medicine and some research papers, that is, the compound may be 17-epi-dammarane triterpenoid. This paper has also proposed steps for the establishment of C-17 stereochemistry.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zebrafish , Rhus/chemistry , Triterpenes/analysis , Coronary Disease , Thrombosis
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1280-1288, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970599

ABSTRACT

This paper compared the differences between two kinds of Bufonis Venenum produced by Bufo gargarizans gargarizans and B. gararizans andrewsi, and verified the rationality of the market value orientation of Bufonis Venenum based on the zebrafish mo-del. Twenty batches of Bufonis Venenum from Jiangsu province, Hebei province, Liaoning province, Jilin province, and Liangshan, Sichuan province, including B. gargarizans gargarizans and B. gararizans andrewsi, were collected. The UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS combined with principal component analysis was used to compare the differences between two kinds of Bufonis Venenum. According to the limiting conditions of VIP>1, FC<0.5 or FC>2.0, and peak total area ratio>1%, 9 differential markers were determined, which were cinobufagin, cinobufotalin, arenobufagin, resibufogenin, scillaredin A, resibufagin, 3-(N-suberoylargininyl)-arenobufagin, 3-(N-suberoylargininyl)-marinobufagin, and 3-(N-suberoylargininyl)-resibufogenin. The content of 20 batches of Bufonis Venenum was determined according to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition) by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the 2 batches of Bufonis Venenum, CS7(8.99% of total content) and CS9(5.03% of total content), with the largest difference in the total content of the three quality control indexes of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(bufalin, cinobufagin, and resibufogenin) were selected to evaluate their anti-liver tumor activity based on the zebrafish model. The tumor inhibition rates of the 2 batches were 38.06% and 45.29%, respectively, proving that only using the quality control indexes of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia as the value orientation of Bufonis Venenum market circulation was unreasonable. This research provides data support for the effective utilization of Bufonis Venenum resources and the establishment of a rational quality evaluation system of Bufonis Venenum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zebrafish , Bufanolides/analysis , Bufonidae , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Quality Control , Cell Line, Tumor
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 140-147, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970509

ABSTRACT

This study used the zebrafish model to explore the hepatotoxicity of Rhododendri Mollis Flos(RMF). The mortality was calculated according to the number of the survival of zebrafish larvae 4 days after fertilization under different concentration of RMF, and the dose-toxicity curve was fitted to preliminarily evaluate the toxicity of RMF. The liver phenotypes under the sublethal concentration of RMF in the treatment group and the blank control group were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and acridine orange(AO) staining. Meanwhile, the activities of alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) were determined to confirm the hepatotoxicity of RMF. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(real-time PCR) and Western blot were used to determine the expressions of genes and proteins in zebrafish larvae. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry(GC-TOF-MS) was used to conduct untargeted metabolomics testing to explore the mechanism. The results showed that the toxicity of RMF to zebrafish larvae was dose-dependent, with 1 100 μg·mL~(-1) of the absolute lethal concentration and 448 μg·mL~(-1) of sublethal concentration. The hepatocyte apoptosis and degeneration appeared in the zebrafish larvae under the sublethal concentration of RMF. The content of ALT and AST in zebrafish larvae at the end of the experiment was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Under the sublethal concentration, the expressions of genes and proteins related to apoptosis in zebrafish larvae were significantly increased as compared with the blank control group. The results of untargeted metabolomics showed that the important metabolites related to the he-patotoxicity of RMF were mainly enriched in alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and other pathways. In conclusion, it is inferred that RMF has certain hepatotoxicity to zebrafish larvae, and its mechanism may be related to apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zebrafish/genetics , Apoptosis , Larva , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury
6.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 889-899, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987001

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the role of the Notch signaling pathway in regulating neuronal differentiation and sensorimotor ability in a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.@*METHODS@#Zebrafish embryos treated with DMSO or 50 μmol/L DAPT (a Notch signaling pathway inhibitor) were examined for mortality rate, hatching rate, malformation rate, and body length at 15 days post fertilization (dpf). The mRNA expression levels of sox2, neurogenin1 and huc in the treated zebrafish embryos were detected using in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR, and their behavioral responses to strong light and vibration stimulation were observed. The zebrafish embryos were then exposed to DMSO, 1.5% ethanol, DAPT, or both ethanol and DAPT, and the changes in mRNA expression levels of sox2, neurogenin1, huc, and the Notch signaling pathway genes as well as behavioral responses were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Exposure to 50 μmol/L DAPT significantly increased the mortality rate of 1 dpf zebrafish embryos (P < 0.01), decreased the hatching rate of 2 dpf embryos (P < 0.01), increased the malformation rate of 3 dpf embryos (P < 0.001), and reduced the body length of 15 dpf embryos (P < 0.05). DAPT treatment significantly downregulated sox2 mRNA expression (P < 0.01) and increased neurogenin1 (P < 0.05) and huc (P < 0.01) mRNA expressions in zebrafish embryos. The zebrafish with DAPT treatment exhibited significantly shortened movement distance (P < 0.001) and lowered movement speed (P < 0.05) in response to all the stimulation conditions. Compared with treatment with 1.5% ethanol alone, which obviously upregulated notch1a, her8a and NICD mRNA expressions in zebrafish embryos (P < 0.05), the combined treatment with ethanol and DAPT significantly increased neurogenin1 and huc mRNA expression, decreased sox2 mRNA expression (P < 0.01), and increased the moving distance and moving speed of zebrafish embryos in response to strong light stimulation (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Ethanol exposure causes upregulation of the Notch signaling pathway and impairs neuronal differentiation and sensorimotor ability of zebrafish embryos, and these detrimental effects can be lessened by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zebrafish , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases , Dimethyl Sulfoxide , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Antineoplastic Agents , Ethanol/adverse effects , Signal Transduction
7.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 742-749, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986204

ABSTRACT

Objective: To detect the therapeutic efficacy of FGF21 analogues on the zebrafish model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods: A zebrafish model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was established by providing the normal diet fed to wild-type zebrafish three times daily. PF-05231023 was administered exogenously at a final concentration of 0.5 μmol/L. Body length, body weight, triglycerides, and other indexes were measured after 20 days. Pathological changes were evaluated in liver tissue sections by HE staining. Quantitative PCR was used to identify expressional changes in genes related to lipid metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and inflammation. Results: QPCR and immunofluorescence staining results showed that FGF21 was highly expressed in the zebrafish model group. The addition of the FGF21 analogue PF-05231023 significantly reduced the body length and body weight (P < 0.01), and the triglyceride content (P < 0.05) in the zebrafish model group. The liver HE staining results showed that PF-05231023 had alleviated the large and tiny bullae fat, lesions, and others in the zebrafish model group. The quantitative PCR results demonstrated that PF-05231023 reduced the expression of lipogenic factors (P < 0.01), inflammatory-related factors (P < 0.001), and genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress (P < 0.05), but raised lipid-oxidation-related factors (P < 0.05) in the zebrafish model group. The addition of PF-05231023 reduced oleic acid-induced lipid and triglyceride levels in HepG2 cells. Conclusion: FGF21 analogue addition can improve indexes in the zebrafish disease model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Diet, High-Fat , Lipids , Liver/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Triglycerides/metabolism , Zebrafish/metabolism , Zebrafish Proteins
8.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 693-700, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985460

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the toxicity of tris (2-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tributyl phosphate (TnBP) on the growth and development of zebrafish embryos, as well as to explore the underlying mechanisms at the transcriptional level. Methods: With zebrafish as a model, two hpf zebrafish embryos were exposed to TCIPP and TnBP (0.1, 1, 10, 100, 500, and 1 000 μmol/L) using the semi-static method, and their rates of lethality and hatchability were determined. The transcriptome changes of 120 hpf juvenile zebrafish exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of 0.1 and 1 μmol/L were measured. Results: The 50% lethal concentrations (LC50) of TCIPP and TnBP for zebrafish embryos were 155.30 and 27.62 μmol/L (96 hpf), 156.5 and 26.05 μmol/L (120 hpf), respectively. The 72 hpf hatching rates of TCIPP (100 μmol/L) and TnBP (10 μmol/L) were (23.33±7.72)% and (91.67±2.97)%, which were significantly decreased compared with the control group (P<0.05). Transcriptome analysis showed that TnBP had more differential genes (DEGs) than TCIPP, with a dose-response relationship. These DEGs were enriched in 32 pathways in total, including those involved in oxidative stress, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, and nuclear receptor-related pathways, using the IPA pathway analysis. Among them, three enriched pathways overlapped between TCIPP and TnBP, including TR/RXR activation and CAR/RXR activation. Additionally, DEGs were also mapped onto pathways of LXR/RXR activation and oxidative stress for TnBP exposure only. Conclusion: Both TCIPP and TnBP have growth and developmental toxicities in zebrafish embryos, with distinct biomolecular mechanisms, and TnBP has a stronger effect than TCIPP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zebrafish/metabolism , Embryo, Nonmammalian/metabolism , Transcriptome , Oxidative Stress , Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism
9.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 350-368, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982548

ABSTRACT

Mammals exhibit limited heart regeneration ability, which can lead to heart failure after myocardial infarction. In contrast, zebrafish exhibit remarkable cardiac regeneration capacity. Several cell types and signaling pathways have been reported to participate in this process. However, a comprehensive analysis of how different cells and signals interact and coordinate to regulate cardiac regeneration is unavailable. We collected major cardiac cell types from zebrafish and performed high-precision single-cell transcriptome analyses during both development and post-injury regeneration. We revealed the cellular heterogeneity as well as the molecular progress of cardiomyocytes during these processes, and identified a subtype of atrial cardiomyocyte exhibiting a stem-like state which may transdifferentiate into ventricular cardiomyocytes during regeneration. Furthermore, we identified a regeneration-induced cell (RIC) population in the epicardium-derived cells (EPDC), and demonstrated Angiopoietin 4 (Angpt4) as a specific regulator of heart regeneration. angpt4 expression is specifically and transiently activated in RIC, which initiates a signaling cascade from EPDC to endocardium through the Tie2-MAPK pathway, and further induces activation of cathepsin K in cardiomyocytes through RA signaling. Loss of angpt4 leads to defects in scar tissue resolution and cardiomyocyte proliferation, while overexpression of angpt4 accelerates regeneration. Furthermore, we found that ANGPT4 could enhance proliferation of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, and promote cardiac repair in mice after myocardial infarction, indicating that the function of Angpt4 is conserved in mammals. Our study provides a mechanistic understanding of heart regeneration at single-cell precision, identifies Angpt4 as a key regulator of cardiomyocyte proliferation and regeneration, and offers a novel therapeutic target for improved recovery after human heart injuries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mice , Rats , Cell Proliferation , Heart/physiology , Mammals , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Pericardium/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis , Zebrafish/metabolism
10.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 817-831, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982451

ABSTRACT

Predatory hunting is an important type of innate behavior evolutionarily conserved across the animal kingdom. It is typically composed of a set of sequential actions, including prey search, pursuit, attack, and consumption. This behavior is subject to control by the nervous system. Early studies used toads as a model to probe the neuroethology of hunting, which led to the proposal of a sensory-triggered release mechanism for hunting actions. More recent studies have used genetically-trackable zebrafish and rodents and have made breakthrough discoveries in the neuroethology and neurocircuits underlying this behavior. Here, we review the sophisticated neurocircuitry involved in hunting and summarize the detailed mechanism for the circuitry to encode various aspects of hunting neuroethology, including sensory processing, sensorimotor transformation, motivation, and sequential encoding of hunting actions. We also discuss the overlapping brain circuits for hunting and feeding and point out the limitations of current studies. We propose that hunting is an ideal behavioral paradigm in which to study the neuroethology of motivated behaviors, which may shed new light on epidemic disorders, including binge-eating, obesity, and obsessive-compulsive disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zebrafish , Hunting , Predatory Behavior/physiology , Neurons/physiology , Motivation
11.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 994-1008, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982450

ABSTRACT

Evading or escaping from predators is one of the most crucial issues for survival across the animal kingdom. The timely detection of predators and the initiation of appropriate fight-or-flight responses are innate capabilities of the nervous system. Here we review recent progress in our understanding of innate visually-triggered defensive behaviors and the underlying neural circuit mechanisms, and a comparison among vinegar flies, zebrafish, and mice is included. This overview covers the anatomical and functional aspects of the neural circuits involved in this process, including visual threat processing and identification, the selection of appropriate behavioral responses, and the initiation of these innate defensive behaviors. The emphasis of this review is on the early stages of this pathway, namely, threat identification from complex visual inputs and how behavioral choices are influenced by differences in visual threats. We also briefly cover how the innate defensive response is processed centrally. Based on these summaries, we discuss coding strategies for visual threats and propose a common prototypical pathway for rapid innate defensive responses.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Zebrafish , Neurons/physiology , Visual Perception/physiology
12.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 893-910, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982439

ABSTRACT

Accurate and efficient methods for identifying and tracking each animal in a group are needed to study complex behaviors and social interactions. Traditional tracking methods (e.g., marking each animal with dye or surgically implanting microchips) can be invasive and may have an impact on the social behavior being measured. To overcome these shortcomings, video-based methods for tracking unmarked animals, such as fruit flies and zebrafish, have been developed. However, tracking individual mice in a group remains a challenging problem because of their flexible body and complicated interaction patterns. In this study, we report the development of a multi-object tracker for mice that uses the Faster region-based convolutional neural network (R-CNN) deep learning algorithm with geometric transformations in combination with multi-camera/multi-image fusion technology. The system successfully tracked every individual in groups of unmarked mice and was applied to investigate chasing behavior. The proposed system constitutes a step forward in the noninvasive tracking of individual mice engaged in social behavior.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Deep Learning , Zebrafish , Algorithms , Neural Networks, Computer , Social Behavior
13.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 333-340, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982273

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate toxicity of raw extract of Panax notoginseng (rPN) and decocted extract of PN (dPN) by a toxicological assay using zebrafish larvae, and explore the mechanism by RNA sequencing assay.@*METHODS@#Zebrafish larvae was used to evaluate acute toxicity of PN in two forms: rPN and dPN. Three doses (0.5, 1.5, and 5.0 µ g/mL) of dPN were used to treat zebrafishes for evaluating the developmental toxicity. Behavior abnormalities, body weight, body length and number of vertebral roots were used as specific phenotypic endpoints. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) assay was applied to clarify the mechanism of acute toxicity, followed by real time PCR (qPCR) for verification. High performance liquid chromatography analysis was performed to determine the chemoprofile of this herb.@*RESULTS@#The acute toxicity result showed that rPN exerted higher acute toxicity than dPN in inducing death of larval zebrafishes (P<0.01). After daily oral intake for 21 days, dPN at doses of 0.5, 1.5 and 5.0 µ g/mL decreased the body weight, body length, and vertebral number of larval zebrafishes, indicating developmental toxicity of dPN. No other adverse outcome was observed during the experimental period. RNA-seq data revealed 38 genes differentially expressed in dPN-treated zebrafishes, of which carboxypeptidase A1 (cpa1) and opioid growth factor receptor-like 2 (ogfrl2) were identified as functional genes in regulating body development of zebrafishes. qPCR data showed that dPN significantly down-regulated the mRNA expressions of cpa1 and ogfrl2 (both P<0.01), verifying cpa1 and ogfrl2 as target genes for dPN.@*CONCLUSION@#This report uncovers the developmental toxicity of dPN, suggesting potential risk of its clinical application in children.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zebrafish/genetics , Saponins/pharmacology , Panax notoginseng/chemistry , Larva , Sequence Analysis, RNA
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1916-1926, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981411

ABSTRACT

The immunomodulatory effect of Saposhnikoviae Radix polysaccharide(SRP) was evaluated based on the zebrafish mo-del, and its mechanism was explored by transcriptome sequencing and real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR(RT-qPCR). The immune-compromised model was induced by navelbine in the immunofluorescence-labeled transgenic zebrafish Tg(lyz: DsRed), and the effect of SRP on the density and distribution of macrophages in zebrafish was evaluated. The effect of SRP on the numbers of macrophages and neutrophils in wild-type AB zebrafish was detected by neutral red and Sudan black B staining. The content of NO in zebrafish was detected by DAF-FM DA fluorescence probe. The content of IL-1β and IL-6 in zebrafish was detected by ELISA. The differentially expressed genes(DEGs) of zebrafish in the blank control group, the model group, and the SRP treatment group were analyzed by transcriptome sequencing. The immune regulation mechanism was analyzed by Gene Ontology(GO)and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG)enrichment, and the expression levels of key genes were verified by RT-qPCR. The results showed that SRP could significantly increase the density of immune cells in zebrafish, increase the number of macrophages and neutrophils, and reduce the content of NO, IL-1β, and IL-6 in immune-compromised zebrafish. The results of transcriptome sequencing analysis showed that SRP could affect the expression level of immune-related genes on Toll-like receptor pathway and herpes simplex infection pathway to affect the release of downstream cytokines and interferon, thereby completing the activation process of T cells and playing a role in regulating the immune activity of the body.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zebrafish/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Cytokines/genetics , Macrophages , Transcriptome
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1804-1814, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981171

ABSTRACT

In order to develop a transgenic zebrafish line with green fluorescent protein (enhanced green fluorescent protein, EGFP) expressed specifically in muscle and heart, the recombinant expression vector constructed using the zebrafish ttn.2 gene promoter fragment and EGFP gene coding sequence and the capped mRNA of Tol2 transposase were co-injected into the zebrafish 1-cell stage embryos. The stable genetic Tg (ttn.2: EGFP) transgenic zebrafish line was successfully developed by fluorescence detection, followed by genetic hybridization screening and molecular identification. Fluorescence signals and whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that EGFP expression was located in muscle and heart, the specificity of which was consistent with the expression of ttn.2 mRNA. Inverse PCR showed that EGFP was integrated into chromosomes 4 and 11 of zebrafish in No. 33 transgenic line, while integrated into chromosome 1 in No. 34 transgenic line. The successful construction of this fluorescent transgenic zebrafish line, Tg (ttn.2: EGFP), laid a foundation for the research of muscle and heart development and related diseases. In addition, the transgenic zebrafish lines with strong green fluorescence can also be used as a new ornamental fish.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zebrafish/genetics , Animals, Genetically Modified/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , Zebrafish Proteins/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468849

ABSTRACT

Although propolis has been reported for having anti-inflammatory activities, its effects on complement system has not been much studied. This research was conducted to find out the effects of Indonesian propolis on the expression levels of C3, C1r/s, Bf, MBL, and C6 in zebrafish larvae which were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Counting of macrophages migrating to yolk sac and liver histology were carried out. Larvae were divided into four groups: CON (cultured in E3 medium only), LPS (cultured in a medium containing 0.5 μg/L LPS), LPSIBU (cultured in a medium containing LPS, and then treated with 100 μg/L ibuprofen for 24 hours), and LPSPRO (cultured in a medium containing LPS, and then immersed in 14,000 μg/L propolis for 24 hours) groups. The results showed that complement gene expression in larvae from the LPSIBU and LPSPRO groups were generally lower than in larvae from the LPS group. The number of macrophage migrations to the yolk in the LPSPRO group was also lower than in the LPS group. Histological structure of liver in all groups were considered normal. This study shows that Indonesian propolis has the potential to be used as an alternative to the substitution of NSAIDs.


Embora a própolis tenha sido relatada por ter atividade anti-inflamatória, seus efeitos no sistema complemento, uma parte do sistema imunológico inato, não foram muito estudados. Esta pesquisa foi conduzida para descobrir os efeitos da própolis da Indonésia nos níveis de expressão de C3, C1r/s, Bf, MBL e C6 em larvas de peixe-zebra induzidas por lipopolissacarídeo (LPS). Foram realizadas contagens de macrófagos que migram para o saco vitelino e histologia do fígado. As larvas foram divididas em quatro grupos: CON (cultivadas apenas em meio E3), LPS (cultivadas em meio contendo 0,5 μg/L de LPS), LPSIBU (cultivadas em meio contendo LPS e, em seguida, tratadas com 100 μg/L de ibuprofeno por 24 horas) e LPSPRO (cultivado em meio contendo LPS, e então imerso em própolis 14,000 μg/L por 24 horas). Os resultados mostraram que a expressão do gene do complemento em larvas dos grupos LPSIBU e LPSPRO foi geralmente menor que em larvas do grupo LPS. O número de migrações de macrófagos para a gema no grupo LPSPRO também foi menor que no grupo LPS. A estrutura histológica do fígado em todos os grupos foi considerada normal. Este estudo mostra que a própolis indonésia tem potencial para ser utilizada como alternativa na substituição dos AINEs (anti-inflamatórios não esteroides).


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Liver/anatomy & histology , Zebrafish/genetics , Zebrafish/metabolism , Propolis/analysis , Yolk Sac/drug effects , Immune System/drug effects
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245202, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285622

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although propolis has been reported for having anti-inflammatory activities, its effects on complement system has not been much studied. This research was conducted to find out the effects of Indonesian propolis on the expression levels of C3, C1r/s, Bf, MBL, and C6 in zebrafish larvae which were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Counting of macrophages migrating to yolk sac and liver histology were carried out. Larvae were divided into four groups: CON (cultured in E3 medium only), LPS (cultured in a medium containing 0.5 μg/L LPS), LPSIBU (cultured in a medium containing LPS, and then treated with 100 μg/L ibuprofen for 24 hours), and LPSPRO (cultured in a medium containing LPS, and then immersed in 14,000 μg/L propolis for 24 hours) groups. The results showed that complement gene expression in larvae from the LPSIBU and LPSPRO groups were generally lower than in larvae from the LPS group. The number of macrophage migrations to the yolk in the LPSPRO group was also lower than in the LPS group. Histological structure of liver in all groups were considered normal. This study shows that Indonesian propolis has the potential to be used as an alternative to the substitution of NSAIDs.


Resumo Embora a própolis tenha sido relatada por ter atividade anti-inflamatória, seus efeitos no sistema complemento, uma parte do sistema imunológico inato, não foram muito estudados. Esta pesquisa foi conduzida para descobrir os efeitos da própolis da Indonésia nos níveis de expressão de C3, C1r/s, Bf, MBL e C6 em larvas de peixe-zebra induzidas por lipopolissacarídeo (LPS). Foram realizadas contagens de macrófagos que migram para o saco vitelino e histologia do fígado. As larvas foram divididas em quatro grupos: CON (cultivadas apenas em meio E3), LPS (cultivadas em meio contendo 0,5 μg/L de LPS), LPSIBU (cultivadas em meio contendo LPS e, em seguida, tratadas com 100 μg/L de ibuprofeno por 24 horas) e LPSPRO (cultivado em meio contendo LPS, e então imerso em própolis 14,000 μg/L por 24 horas). Os resultados mostraram que a expressão do gene do complemento em larvas dos grupos LPSIBU e LPSPRO foi geralmente menor que em larvas do grupo LPS. O número de migrações de macrófagos para a gema no grupo LPSPRO também foi menor que no grupo LPS. A estrutura histológica do fígado em todos os grupos foi considerada normal. Este estudo mostra que a própolis indonésia tem potencial para ser utilizada como alternativa na substituição dos AINEs (anti-inflamatórios não esteroides).


Subject(s)
Animals , Propolis/pharmacology , Zebrafish/genetics , Down-Regulation , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Indonesia , Larva/genetics
18.
Biol. Res ; 56: 7-7, 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The distinct arterial and venous cell fates are dictated by a combination of various genetic factors which form diverse types of blood vessels such as arteries, veins, and capillaries. We report here that YULINK protein is involved in vasculogenesis, especially venous formation. METHODS: In this manuscript, we employed gene knockdown, yeast two-hybrid, FLIM-FRET, immunoprecipitation, and various imaging technologies to investigate the role of YULINK gene in zebrafish and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). RESULTS: Knockdown of YULINK during the arterial-venous developmental stage of zebrafish embryos led to the defective venous formation and abnormal vascular plexus formation. Knockdown of YULINK in HUVECs impaired their ability to undergo cell migration and differentiation into a capillary-like tube formation. In addition, the phosphorylated EPHB4 was decreased in YULINK knockdown HUVECs. Yeast two-hybrid, FLIM-FRET, immunoprecipitation, as well as imaging technologies showed that YULINK colocalized with endosome related proteins (EPS15, RAB33B or TICAM2) and markers (Clathrin and RHOB). VEGF-induced VEGFR2 internalization was also compromised in YULINK knockdown HUVECs, demonstrating to the involvement of YULINK. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that YULINK regulates vasculogenesis, possibly through endocytosis in zebrafish and HUVECs. Key points Knockdown of YULINK with morpholino in embryos of double transgenic zebrafish exhibited abnormal venous formation. Tube formation and phosphorylated EPHB4 were decreased in YULINK knockdown HUVECs. FLIM-FRET, immunoprecipitation, as well as other imaging technologies showed that YULINK colocalized with endosome related proteins (EPS15, RAB33B and TICAM2) and endosome markers (Clathrin and RHOB). Knockdown of YULINK decreased the internalization of VEGF and VEGFR2 in HUVECs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Zebrafish/genetics , Cell Differentiation , Cell Movement , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
19.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 25-25, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396561

ABSTRACT

Mercury is used in various industrial. Part of Mercury's industrial waste is discharged into the environment, rivers and their tributaries, thus contaminating aquatic animals. Aim:to evaluate Mercury-induced behavioral changes in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) by the analysis of locomotor activity and parameters related to neurotoxicity and to verify whether ultra-diluted substances can decrease neurobehavioral effects and toxic. Methodology:The fishes were separated into 4 monitoring aquariums with 8 fishes each, with temperature, pH controlled, until the time of the toxicological experiments. 0.5 mL of Mercury 6cH, 30cH and distilled water (positive control) were added per liter of water in each aquarium containing 6 liters of water, then 3 mL of medication per aquarium, the white control received no medication and the toxic agent. After 1 hour the drugs were added, toxic mercury (200 µg/L), 4 mL per aquarium was added and remained so for 24 hours. All the experiment was run in blind, and the drugs identified by codes. The animals were subjected to behavioral tests (Open Field-locomotion; Vertical Open Field for neurotoxicity evaluation and Light and Dark Test), and each stage was recorded for later evaluation of movements and neurobehavioral changes. ANOVA was performed, followed by Tukey test, with p <0.05. Results: Mercury produced an anxiogenic effect in animals that were submitted to it without medication. In the vertical open field, there was an increase in erratic movements (1.25 ± 1.0) and tremors (0.87 ± 0.35) compared to the control (0.12 ± 0.35 and 0.25 ± 0.46 respectively), proving the toxic effect. Fishes which received the medication at 6 cH and 30 ch showed tremors and erratic movements similar to control. Conclusion:200 µg/L mercury in water can cause neurobehavioral disturbances in fishes, and animals receiving Mercurius6 cH and 30 cH ultra-diluted drug did not show neurotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Derived Preparations , Open Field Test , Zebrafish , Mercury
20.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 33-37, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935247

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the vascular toxicity of chemicals by a real-time observation approach using the transgenic zebrafish. Methods: The spatiotemporal vascular alterations of transgenic zebrafish after chemical exposure were assessed by laser confocal microscopy and high-content screening analysis, respectively. Results: The method using Laser Confocal Microscopy (LCM) is easier to operate and yields high-resolution images, while it is lower throughput and inefficient. In contrast, high-content analysis (HCA) analysis obtains high-quality data of vascular toxicity manifesting whole blood vasculature, whereas it requires delicate operation procedures and advanced experimental conditions. Conclusion: Two kinds of zebrafish imaging methods each have advantages and disadvantages. LCM is suitable for the evaluation of a small number of chemicals. HCA, a cutting-edge technology, has great potential for chemical safety assessment allowing high throughput vascular toxicity tests of a good number of chemicals at a time.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified , Cardiovascular System , Toxicity Tests , Zebrafish
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