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1.
Brasília; s.n; 2 jul. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PIE, LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1117621

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 17 artigos e 9 protocolos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Zinc/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Abatacept/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
2.
s.l; s.n; 29 maio 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PIE, LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1099466

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 13 artigos e 13 protocolos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Zinc/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Wharton Jelly , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Interferon alpha-2/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
3.
Brasília; s.n; 21 maio 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PIE, LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1097387

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 21 artigos.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Mercaptopurine/therapeutic use
5.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 36(3): 0-0, set. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-960467

ABSTRACT

La tiroides es una glándula situada en el cuello, encargada de producir dos hormonas que son esenciales para el metabolismo y el crecimiento de las personas: la triyodotironina (T3) y la tiroxina (T4). La producción en exceso o la falta de estas hormonas provoca hipertiroidismo en el primer caso e hipotiriodismo en el segundo. Ambas disfunciones de la tiroides se tratan con fármacos. En este trabajo de revisión se mostrarán los efectos del ejercicio físico en las personas que sufren bien de hipertiroidismo o de hipotiroidismo, siendo un complemento al tratamiento médico(AU)


The thyroid is a gland located in the neck, responsible for producing two hormones that are essential for the metabolism and growth of people: triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). The excess production or the lack of these hormones causes hyperthyroidism in the first case and hypothyroidism in the second. Both thyroid dysfunctions are treated with drugs. This review will show the effects of physical activity in people who suffer from hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, being a complement to medical treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Thyroid Diseases/prevention & control , Complement System Proteins , Exercise/physiology , High-Intensity Interval Training/methods , Thyroid Hormones/standards , Zinc/therapeutic use , Environment
6.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(1): 24-28, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840301

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effects of oral zinc supplementation on fatigue intensity and quality of life of patients during chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 24 patients on chemotherapy for colorectal adenocarcinoma in a tertiary care public hospital. The study patients received zinc capsules 35mg (Zinc Group, n=10) or placebo (Placebo Group, n=14) orally, twice daily (70mg/day), for 16 weeks, from the immediate postoperative period to the fourth chemotherapy cycle. Approximately 45 days after surgical resection of the tumor, all patients received a chemotherapeutic regimen. Before each of the four cycles of chemotherapy, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale was completed. We used a linear mixed model for longitudinal data for statistical analysis. Results The scores of quality of life and fatigue questionnaires were similar between the groups during the chemotherapy cycles. The Placebo Group presented worsening of quality of life and increased fatigue between the first and fourth cycles of chemotherapy, but there were no changes in the scores of quality of life or fatigue in the Zinc Group. Conclusion Zinc supplementation prevented fatigue and maintained quality of life of patients with colorectal cancer on chemotherapy.


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar os efeitos da suplementação oral de zinco sobre a intensidade da fadiga e a qualidade de vida de pacientes durante a quimioterapia para neoplasia colorretal. Métodos Estudo prospectivo, randomizado, controlado e duplo-cego conduzido em um hospital universitário público terciário, com 24 pacientes em regime quimioterápico para adenocarcinoma colorretal. Os pacientes receberam cápsulas de zinco 35mg (Grupo Zinco, n=10) ou placebo (Grupo Placebo, n=14) por via oral, duas vezes ao dia (70mg/dia), durante 16 semanas, desde o período pós-operatório imediato até o quarto ciclo de quimioterapia. Todos os pacientes receberam quimioterapia por aproximadamente 45 dias após a ressecção cirúrgica do tumor. A escala Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue foi preenchida antes de cada um dos quatro ciclos de quimioterapia. Utilizou-se o modelo de regressão linear misto para dados longitudinais para análise estatística. Resultados Os escores de qualidade de vida e de fadiga foram semelhantes entre os grupos de estudo durante os ciclos de quimioterapia. O Grupo Placebo apresentou piora da qualidade de vida e da fadiga entre o primeiro e o quarto ciclos de quimioterapia, mas não houve mudança nos escores de qualidade de vida e fadiga no Grupo Zinco. Conclusão A suplementação com zinco previne a fadiga e preserva a qualidade de vida de pacientes em quimioterapia para neoplasia colorretal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life , Zinc/therapeutic use , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Fatigue/prevention & control , Time Factors , Zinc/blood , Colorectal Neoplasms/physiopathology , Adenocarcinoma/physiopathology , Linear Models , Placebo Effect , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Fatigue/physiopathology
8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e21, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839522

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this randomized, single blinded clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of a pre-procedural mouthwash containing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), zinc lactate (Zn) and sodium fluoride (F) in the reduction of viable bacteria in oral aerosol after a dental prophylaxis with ultrasonic scaler. Sixty systemically healthy volunteers receiving dental prophylaxis were randomly assigned to one of the following experimental groups (15 per group): (i) rinsing with 0.075% CPC, 0.28% Zn and 0.05% F (CPC+Zn+F), (ii) water or (iii) 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), and (iv) no rinsing. Viable bacteria were collected from different locations in the dental office on enriched TSA plates and anaerobically incubated for 72 hours. The colonies were counted and species were then identified by Checkerboard DNA–DNA Hybridization. The total number of colony-forming units (CFUs) detected in the aerosols from volunteers who rinsed with CPC+Zn+F or CHX was statistically significantly (p<0.05) lower than of those subjects who did not rinse or who rinsed with water. When all locations were considered together, the aerosols from the CPC+Zn+F and CHX groups showed, respectively, 70% and 77% fewer CFUs than those from the No Rinsing group and 61% and 70% than those from the Water group. The mean proportions of bacterial species from the orange complex were statistically significantly (p<0.05) lower in aerosols from the CPC+Zn+F and CHX groups compared with the others two groups. In conclusion, the mouthwash containing CPC+Zn+F, is effective in reducing viable bacteria in oral aerosol after a dental prophylaxis with ultrasonic scaler.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Aerosols , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Bacteria/drug effects , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Mouth/microbiology , Cetylpyridinium/therapeutic use , Colony Count, Microbial , DNA Probes , DNA, Bacterial , Lactates/therapeutic use , Mouthwashes/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Single-Blind Method , Sodium Fluoride/therapeutic use , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Zinc/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 41: e8, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-845713

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Diarrhea remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for children in low- and middle-income countries throughout the Americas. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed guidelines on incorporating zinc supplementation (ZS) with traditional oral rehydration therapy (ORT) in order to shorten the duration of diarrheal episodes and to reduce poor health outcomes. Guatemala adopted these guidelines in 2011, but they have not yet been fully implemented at the community level. The objectives of this study were: (1) to co-design an ORT/ZS training program for community members with local health promoters that is appropriate to the local context and (2) to understand how attitudes and behaviors of community members changed after receiving training from the study promoters. Methods In an observational study, community health promoters in rural Guatemala were trained according to WHO guidelines, and they worked collaboratively with the study team to develop a training curriculum to implement in their community. Community-based surveys, interviews, and focus group discussions were used to assess acceptability, accessibility, and availability of oral rehydration therapy and zinc supplementation. Results Use of ORT increased from 63% to 95% among community members following training by local health promoters. Satisfaction with the service offered by health promoters increased from 63% to 90% amongst community members trained by the study promoters. However, knowledge and use of zinc supplementation remained low, which was attributable to unavailability of zinc in the study community. Conclusions Use of trained community health promoters is an effective way to translate WHO guidelines to local contexts and overcome sociocultural barriers to care. However, the health system’s structure must support availability of essential medicines in order to effectively implement those guidelines.


RESUMEN Objetivo La diarrea sigue siendo una de las causas principales de morbilidad y mortalidad en los niños de países de ingresos bajos y medianos en toda la Región de las Américas. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) ha formulado directrices relativas a la incorporación de los suplementos de cinc al tratamiento tradicional de rehidratación oral (TRO) para acortar la duración de los episodios diarreicos y disminuir los resultados deficientes en materia de salud. Guatemala adoptó estas directrices en el 2011, pero todavía no se las aplica plenamente a nivel de la comunidad. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: 1) codiseñar un programa de capacitación sobre el TRO y los suplementos de cinc dirigido a los miembros de la comunidad por intermedio de promotores locales de salud que sea apropiado para el contexto local y 2) comprender cómo las actitudes y los comportamientos de los miembros de la comunidad cambiaron después de recibir la capacitación de los promotores que formaban parte del estudio. Métodos Como parte de un estudio de observación, se capacitó a un grupo de promotores comunitarios de salud en zonas rurales de Guatemala sobre las directrices de la OMS, quienes trabajaron conjuntamente con el equipo del estudio para elaborar un programa de capacitación que se ejecutaría en su comunidad. Se usaron encuestas, entrevistas y debates con grupos de sondeo en las comunidades para evaluar la aceptabilidad, accesibilidad y disponibilidad del tratamiento de rehidratación oral y la administración de suplementos de cinc. Resultados El uso de la TRO aumentó de 63% a 95% entre los miembros de la comunidad después de la capacitación a cargo de los promotores locales de salud. La satisfacción con el servicio ofrecido por los promotores de salud aumentó de 63% a 90% entre los miembros de la comunidad capacitados por los promotores del estudio. Sin embargo, el conocimiento y uso de los suplementos de cinc siguieron siendo bajos, lo que se atribuyó a la falta de disponibilidad de cinc en la comunidad del estudio. Conclusiones El uso de promotores comunitarios de salud capacitados es una manera eficaz de traducir las directrices de la OMS a los contextos locales y superar los obstáculos socioculturales a la atención. Sin embargo, la estructura del sistema de salud debe apoyar la disponibilidad de los medicamentos esenciales para aplicar eficazmente estas directrices.


Subject(s)
Zinc/therapeutic use , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Dietary Supplements , Diarrhea/therapy , Fluid Therapy/trends , Guatemala
10.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(5): 649-651, Sept.-Oct. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827745

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Necrolytic acral erythema is a rare skin disease associated with hepatitis C virus infection. We report a case of a 31-year-old woman with hepatitis C virus infection and decreased zinc serum level. Physical examination revealed scaly, lichenified plaques, well-demarcated with an erythematous peripheral rim located on the lower limbs. After blood transfusion and oral zinc supplementation the patient presented an improvement of lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Hepatitis C/complications , Erythema/etiology , Leg Dermatoses/etiology , Zinc/deficiency , Zinc/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/pathology , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Lichenoid Eruptions/pathology , Erythema/pathology , Erythema/drug therapy , Leg Dermatoses/pathology , Leg Dermatoses/drug therapy
11.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 29(1): 11-16, jan.-mar.2016. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-777617

ABSTRACT

A cintilografia miocárdica de perfusão (CMP) é um dos métodos mais utilizados na avaliação de pacientes com suspeita de coronariopatia por seu valor diagnóstico e prognóstico. Duas de suas maiores limitações são o uso de radiação e a duração prolongada dosexames. Entretanto, novas Gamacâmaras de CZT (GC-CZT) têm permitido reduzir as doses dos radiotraçadores empregadas e o tempo de aquisição. O valor prognóstico desses novos protocolos não é conhecido.Objetivo: Determinar o valor prognóstico de um novo protocolo de CMP ultrarrápido e de baixa radiação numa GC-CZT. População: Pacientes com suspeita de coronariopatia consecutivamente submetidos a CMP numa GC-CZT no período de novembro de 2011 a junho de 2012.Metodologia: Foi utilizado protocolo de mesmo dia, iniciado pela fase de repouso com dose de 5 mCi e posterior estresse com dose de 15 mCi de Tc-99m sestamibi. Os tempos de aquisição foram de 6 e 3 minutos, respectivamente. Os exames foram classificados como normais ou anormais e escores de perfusão (SSS, SRS e SDS) foram calculados. Pacientes foram acompanhados mediante contato telefônico semestral. Os eventos avaliados foram morte, infarto não fatal e revascularização tardia (> 60 dias após CMP). Foi utilizado método de Coxpara identificar os preditores.Resultados: Setecentos e noventa e dois pacientes foram acompanhados por 21,3 ± 3,7 meses. A idade média foi de 65,2 ± 12,7 anos, sendo 50,3% do sexo masculino e o IMC médio de 26,9 ± 4,7. Hipertensão arterial foi o fator de risco mais frequente (59,5%), seguidode dislipidemia (51,9%) e diabetes (23,3%). Estresse físico foi empregado em 438 (55,3%) pacientes; 618 (78%) CMP foram normais. A dosimetria média dos exames foi 6 mSv e a duração média, de 48 ± 11 minutos. Durante o seguimentos ocorreram 12 óbitos, 4 infartos não fatais...


Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is one of the most used imaging methods for the evaluation of patients for coronary artery disease (CAD) due to its diagnostic and prognostic value. Two of its main limitations are radiation use and scan duration. However, CZT cameras (CZT-C) have allowed tracer dose and scan time reductions. However, the prognostic value of these new protocols is not known. Objective: To determine the prognostic value of a new, ultrafast, low dose protocol in a CZT-C. Population: Patients with suspect CAD undergoing MPS from 11/2011 to 6/2012 were studied. Methods: They had a 1-day Tc-99m sestamibi protocol starting with rest study (5 mCi dose) followed by stress (15 mCi). Acquisition times were 6 and 3 minutes respectively. MPS studied were classified as normal or abnormal and perfusion scores (SSS, SRS and SDS) were calculated. Patients were accompanied by 6-month phone calls. Events were defined as death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and late revascularization (> 60 days after MPS) and analyzed with the Cox method.Results: 792 patients were followed for 21.3 ± 3.7 months. Age was 65.2 ± 12.7 years, 50.3% were male and body mass index was 26.9 ± 4.7. Hypertension was the most frequent risk factor (59.5%), followed by hypercholesterolemia (51.9%) and diabetes (23.3%). Exercise was used in 438 (55.3%); 618 (78%) MPS studies were normal. Mean dosimetry was 6 mSv and mean scan time, 48 ± 11 minutes. During follow-up, there were 12 deaths...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Carotid Artery Diseases , Gamma Cameras , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Prognosis , Radiation Exposure Control , Semiconductors/trends , Cadmium/therapeutic use , Radiopharmaceuticals/administration & dosage , Risk Factors , Statistical Analysis , Tellurium , Treatment Outcome , Tellurium/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use
12.
Oman Medical Journal. 2016; 31 (2): 107-111
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-176354

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Dysmenorrhea is a common complaint in women. Primary dysmenorrhea is defined as painful menstruation in the absence of pelvic disease and is caused by uterine contractions caused by prostaglandins released from the endometrium. Conventional treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and oral contraceptives. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of zinc supplementation in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea


Methods: Two-hundred participants with primary dysmenorrhea were randomized into one of two groups. The intervention group received zinc and mefenamic acid, and the control group received mefenamic acid and a placebo drug. After three months of treatment, changes in the incidence of dysmenorrhea and the degree of pain were measured in both groups


Results: The mean pain score before administration of zinc and mefenamic acid in the intervention group was 5.3 +/- 1.8 and after treatment was 1.2 +/- 1.9 [p < 0.001]. In the control group, the mean pain score before administration of mefenamic acid and placebo was 5.8 +/- 2.1 and after treatment was 2.9 +/- 2.6 [p < 0.001]. The difference in pain levels before and after treatment in the intervention group was 4.1 +/- 2.8, and in the control group was 2.9 +/- 1.7 [p > 0.050]. We also found that 64% of case group and 33% of the control group did not experience dysmenorrhea after treatment [p < 0.001]


Conclusions: The use of a zinc supplement in combination with mefenamic acid was superior in reducing primary dysmenorrhea compared to mefenamic acid alone


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Zinc/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method
13.
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 40(3): 397-408, 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-881858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To highlight the main aspects related to the population diagnosis of zinc nutritional status, describe the estimates of zinc deficiency magnitude in Brazil and emphasize the main interventions for improving zinc nutritional status. Data source: Publications were selected in SciELO, LILACS and MEDLINE/PUBMED databases, using the search terms "zinc deficiency e Brazil" and "diet supplementation and zinc and Brazil". Data synthesis: The use of a set of three indicators has been recommended to obtain the best estimate of zinc deficiency risk: i) biochemical indicator (serum zinc deficiency), ii) dietary indicator (inadequate zinc intake), iii) functional indicator (height-for-age deficit in children). According to these indicators, Brazil is a country with moderate zinc deficiency risk. The main strategies that can be implemented to improve zinc nutritional state in populations or population subgroups in risk are diet supplementation, fortification and modification/diversification. CONCLUSIONS: It is estimated that zinc deficiency is a public health problem in Brazil. The planning of new research becomes important for a better understanding of the risk factors, the identification of population groups with more vulnerability and the selection of appropriate intervention strategies


OBJETIVOS: Destacar os principais aspectos relacionados ao diagnóstico populacional do estado nutricional relativo ao zinco; descrever as estimativas sobre a magnitude da deficiência de zinco no Brasil; e ressaltar as principais intervenções para a melhoria do estado nutricional relativo ao zinco. Fonte de dados: Foram selecionadas publicações nas bases de dados SciELO, LILACS e MEDLINE/PUBMED, utilizando-se os termos de busca "deficiência de zinco e Brasil" e "suplementação dietética e zinco e Brasil". Síntese dos dados: Recomenda-se a utilização de um conjunto de três indicadores para obter a melhor estimação do risco de deficiência de zinco: i) indicador bioquímico (deficiência de zinco sérico), ii) indicador dietético (ingestão dietética de zinco inadequada), iii) indicador funcional (déficit de estatura para idade em crianças). Segundo esses indicadores, o Brasil se mostra como um país com risco moderado de deficiência de zinco. As principais estratégias que podem ser implementadas para melhorar o estado nutricional de zinco nas populações ou subgrupos populacionais em risco são a suplementação, a fortificação e a modificação/diversificação da dieta. CONCLUSÕES: Estima-se a deficiência de zinco como problema de saúde pública no Brasil. O planejamento de novas pesquisas se faz importante para um melhor entendimento dos fatores de risco, para a identificação dos segmentos da população de maior vulnerabilidade e para a seleção de estratégias de intervenção apropriadas


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Deficiency Diseases , Nutrition Programs and Policies , Zinc/physiology , Zinc/therapeutic use
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157577

ABSTRACT

Zinc being a stronger electron acceptor than iron might replace iron from the critical thiol groups. So, Zinc supplementation in Tubercular Subjects might help the decompartmentalised state of iron in the body to revert back to normal compartmentalized state of iron. Again, Zinc inhibits the formation of superoxide radicals. Thus, Zinc supplementation might decrease the excess superoxide with simultaneous decrease in the formation of soluble oxygen made by dismutation reaction by the iron cofactored superoxide dismutase secreted extracellularly by the pathogenic M. tuberculosis. The study shows early and effective recovery with Zinc supplementation (50mgm. of elemental zinc orally / day for one month) along with anti - Tubercular drug therapy. This gets support by the significant changes in the serum level of three enzymes – Glutamine Synthetase, Superoxide Dismutase and Cholienesterase. Again, the dose of zinc supplementation instituted with a great benefit and without any toxic symptoms and signs, is below the Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) based on the superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes with zinc intake.


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Drug Tolerance , Cholinesterases/blood , Female , Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase/blood , Humans , Male , No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Zinc/administration & dosage , Zinc/therapeutic use
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(11): 1480-1483, nov. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-704575

ABSTRACT

Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an uncommon disease caused by hereditary or acquired zinc deficiency. It is characterized by a triad of alopecia, diarrhea and acraland periorificial dermatitis. It is treated with Zinc supplementation. We report a31-year-old indigent and drug addict female with a cutaneous-mucous syndromecharacteristic of acrodermatitis enteropathica. She had a positive clinical evolutionafter Zinc supplementation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Acrodermatitis/pathology , Dermis/pathology , Zinc/deficiency , Acrodermatitis/diagnosis , Acrodermatitis/drug therapy , Biopsy , Diagnosis, Differential , Zinc/metabolism , Zinc/therapeutic use
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157553

ABSTRACT

Serum Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) acts as marker of cellular immunity and its activity is found to be altered in various diseases in which there is a cell mediated immune response (CMI) including leprosy. The role of zinc is well established in the development and maintainence of immunocompetence and its supplementation activates the immune response in particular Tlymphocytes and monocytes in several ways. The aim of the study was planned to evaluate the effect of nutritional zinc supplementation on cell mediated immune response by investigating the pre and post intervention serum ADA levels after oral zinc sulphate supplementation in leprosy patients. A total of 49 cases, 30 Tuberculoid Leprosy (TT) and 19 Lepromatous Leprosy (LL) patients, within the age group of 25-60 years were enrolled in the study along with 30 age matched healthy controls. Serum ADA was estimated in all the subjects before and after (2 months and 4 months) oral zinc supplementation. Pre intervention serum ADA level was observed to be significantly increased in both the TT and LL (p<0.001) groups as compared to controls, revealing raised immunological activity in the patients. After oral zinc sulphate supplementation serum ADA re-evaluation was done in 38 cases. A highly significant (p < 0.001 ) rise in ADA level was registered in the post intervention period (4 months supplementation) in TT cases with a moderately significant (p< 0.05) increase in LL cases, indicating the ability of oral zinc therapy to affectively alter the cell mediated immune response in leprosy.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Deaminase/blood , /metabolism , Adult , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Leprosy/diet therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Zinc/administration & dosage , Zinc/therapeutic use , Zinc Sulfate/administration & dosage , Zinc Sulfate/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 33(5): 370-377, may. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676418

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To update the available evidence about zinc use for treating diarrhea in children and to assess its effect on the malnourished population, a subgroup that has not been fully explored in previous analyses. METHODS: A systematic review was performed of randomized clinical trials that assessed children up to 5 years old with acute diarrhea who received zinc supplementation. Controls received a placebo or oral rehydration therapy. After searching the main databases, without language restrictions, two independent reviewers selected eligible studies, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Meta-analyses were calculated using Mantel-Haenszel or inverse variance random effects. RESULTS: Eighteen of 1 041 studies retrieved were included in the review (n = 7 314 children). Zinc was beneficial for reducing the duration of diarrhea in hours (mean difference [MD] = -20.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -29.15 to -11.09, I² = 91%). The effect was greater in malnourished children (MD = -33.17, 95% CI = -33.55 to -27.79, I² = 0%). Diarrhea prevalence on days 3, 5, and 7 was lower in the zinc group. The incidence of vomiting was significantly greater in the group that received zinc than in the control group. Included randomized controlled trials were of low risk of bias in most domains assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Oral zinc supplementation significantly decreases diarrhea duration and has a greater effect on malnourished children. Zinc supplementation seems to be an appropriate public health strategy, mainly in areas of endemic deficiencies.


OBJETIVO: Actualizar los datos probatorios disponibles acerca del uso del zinc en el tratamiento de la diarrea infantil y evaluar su efecto en la población malnutrida, un subgrupo no plenamente estudiado en análisis anteriores. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados que evaluaban a niños de hasta 5 años de edad con diarrea aguda y a los que se les había administrado suplementos de zinc. A los controles se les había administrado un placebo o terapia de rehidratación oral. Después de efectuar búsquedas en las principales bases de datos, sin restricciones en cuanto a idiomas, dos revisores independientes seleccionaron los estudios idóneos, extrajeron los datos y evaluaron el riesgo de sesgo de los estudios incluidos. El metanálisis se efectuó mediante el modelo de efectos aleatorios de Mantel-Haenszel o de la varizanza inversa. RESULTADOS: En la revisión se incluyeron 18 estudios de los 1 041 recuperados (n = 7 314 niños). El zinc tuvo un efecto beneficioso en la reducción de la duración de la diarrea en horas (diferencia media [DM] = -20,12, intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC] de -29,15 a -11,09, I² = 91%). Este efecto fue más intenso en niños malnutridos (DM = -33,17, IC del 95% = de -33,55 a -27,79, I² = 0%). La prevalencia de diarrea en los días 3, 5 y 7 fue inferior en el grupo tratado con zinc. La incidencia de vómitos fue significativamente mayor en el grupo tratado con zinc que en el grupo de referencia. Los ensayos aleatorizados controlados que fueron incluidos mostraron un bajo riesgo de sesgo en la mayoría de los dominios evaluados. CONCLUSIONES: La administración oral de suplementos de zinc reduce significativamente la duración de la diarrea y tiene un efecto aún mayor en niños malnutridos. La administración de suplementos de zinc parece ser una estrategia de salud pública apropiada, principalmente en las zonas afectadas por carencias endémicas.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Dietary Supplements , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Zinc/therapeutic use , Diarrhea, Infantile/drug therapy , Incidence , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
18.
Assiut Medical Journal. 2013; 37 (2 Supp.): 136-150
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-187335

ABSTRACT

Lead is an environmental pollutant which has received much attention, partly because of the particular sensitivity of children to this element. It is capable of impairing many elements of the systems, which results from its great affinity to tissues. Exposure of men to lead has been associated with adverse effects on male reproductive system. So antioxidant nutrients through exogenous supplementation might he associated with beneficial role. Antioxidant nutrients including vitamin E. vitamin C, vitamin B[6], beta-carotene and zinc. This study was designed to investigate the effects of lead following concomitant administration u/zinc on testis and epididymis and its beneficial role in lead-induced oxidative stress. 30 adult male nice were divided into three groups. Group I [control], group II [received lead as lead acetate, 8 mg/kg body weight,] injected to animals intraperitoneal once daily for six weeks while group III [received lead with the same dose as group II and zinc, 1mg/kg zinc sulphate] at the same mime for six weeks. Testes and epididymis were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin. Moreover, Semithin sections of the epididymis and ultrathin sections of the testes were done. The epithelial height in epididymal tubules and the interstitial tissue % in the testes were measured. The testes and epididyinis of lead treated mice showed degenerative changes. The seminiferous tubules Showed disorganization and reduced, germ cells populations which appeared apoptotic with diminished spermatogenesis and deeply stained interstitial cells of Leydig. The interstitial tissue % in the testes increased in lead treated group with high significant difference when compared with control groups. The epididymis appeared damaged with decrease in epididymal epithelial height, in addition to disappearance of apical stereocilia. The testes and epididymis of zinc and lead treated mice showed improvement in the seminiferous and epididymal tubules. In conclusion, zinc played a protective role against lead toxicity in mice testis and epididymis


Subject(s)
Male , Animals, Laboratory , Testis/pathology , Epididymis/pathology , Histology , Protective Agents , Zinc/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Rats
19.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 5(2): 76-81, abr. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-640618

ABSTRACT

Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for humans and other organisms. It participates in the activity of more than 300 enzymes and in important cellular processes such as cell division and apoptosis, as well as cellular signaling. The concentration of Zn in humans is highly regulated, and alterations in Zn homeostasis have been associated with several diseases including diabetes. Zn supplementation in humans and other mammals has been associated with improved glycemic control in both type 1 and t type 2 diabetes mellitus, however the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in this process have not yet been fully elucidated. Zn appears to have a key role in insulin biosynthesis and activity, mainly by decreasing the production of certain cytokines such as IL-1beta and IL-6, associated with pancreatic beta cell death during the inflammatory process characteristic of type 2 diabetes. It also improves insulin mediated signal transduction in target cells, improving metabolic control. Zn could play an important role in the development of diabetes mellitus, since a genetic polymorphism of the Zn transporter ZnT-8 may be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. In this article we analyze the available information supporting the therapeutic use of Zn as a coadjutant in the metabolic control of diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Humans , /prevention & control , /drug therapy , Zinc/therapeutic use
20.
Archives of Iranian Medicine. 2012; 15 (5): 306-311
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-163612

ABSTRACT

Background: Postpartum depression [PPD] affects approximately half of new mothers. Chronic exposure to progesterone during pregnancy and its withdrawal following delivery increases depression and anxiety. In addition, there are complex interactions between hormones, neurotransmitters, and trace elements. Zinc [Zn] and magnesium [Mg] in Auence the nervous system by impacting synaptic neurotransmis-sion in the brain. Thiamine [Vit B[1]] deficiency results in a high percentage of depressive behaviors. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species in pregnancy are implicated in the pathogenesis of major depression


Methods: We examined the effects of different combinations of Zn, Mg, and Vit B[1] in an animal model of PPD. ZnCl, MgCl, and thiamine-HCl were administered to PPD-induced mice. Depression, anxiety-related behavior, and total antioxidant capacity [TAC] were assessed. Depression and anxiety-like behavior were evaluated by the forced swimming test [FST] and elevated plus-maze, respectively


Results: The acute combined administration of Zn, Mg, and Vit B[1] significantly decreased immobility time in FST, increased the percentage of both time spent in-and entries to open arms in the elevated plus-maze, and augmented TAC


Conclusion: Our data suggest that acute administration of combined treatment with Zn, Mg, and Vit B[1] on postpartum day 3 improves depressive symptoms and anxiety-like behaviors. Our evaluation of TAC is in accordance with behavioral results


Subject(s)
Female , Animals, Laboratory , Zinc/therapeutic use , Thiamine/therapeutic use , Magnesium/therapeutic use , Mice , Anxiety
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