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1.
Biol. Res ; 53: 12, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mast cells (MCs) have been found to play a critical role during development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that characterized by dysregulation of inflammation and impaired intestinal barrier function. However, the function of MCs in IBD remains to be fully elucidated. RESULTS: In our study, we used exosomes isolated from human mast cells-1 (HMCs-1) to culture with NCM460, HT-29 or CaCO2 of intestinal epithelial cells (lECs) to investigate the communication between MCs and lECs. We found that MCs-derived exosomes significantly increased intestinal epithelial permeability and destroyed intestinal barrier function, which is attributed to exosome-mediated functional miRNAs were transferred from HMCs-1 into lECs, leading to inhibit tight junction-related proteins expression, including tight junction proteins 1 (TJP1, ZO-1), Occludin (OCLN), Claudin 8 (CLDN8). Microarray and bioinformatic analysis have further revealed that a panel of miRNAs target different tight junction-related proteins. Interestingly, miR-223 is enriched in mast cell-derived exosome, which inhibit CLDN8 expression in IECs, while treatment with miR-223 inhibitor in HT-29 cells significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of HMCs-1-derived exosomes on CLDN 8 expression. Most importantly, enrichment of MCs accumulation in intestinal mucosa of patients with IBD compared with those healthy control. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that enrichment of exosomal miR-223 from HMCs-1 inhibited CLDN8 expression, leading to destroy intestinal barrier function. These finding provided a novel insight of MCs as a new target for therapeutic treatment of IBD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Mast Cells/metabolism , Permeability , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Caco-2 Cells/cytology , Computational Biology , Tissue Array Analysis , Exosomes/metabolism , Claudins/metabolism , Occludin/metabolism , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein/metabolism
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(11): e201901107, Nov. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054678

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To establish a hypotensive brain death pig model and observe the effects of hypotension on small bowel donors. Methods: The hypotensive brain death model was produced using the modified intracranial water sac inflation method in ten domestic crossbred pigs. Effects of hypotensive brain death on small bowel tissue morphology were evaluated through changes in intestinal tissue pathology, tight junction protein of the intestinal mucosa and plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (i-FABP) levels. The pathophysiological mechanism was examined based on changes in superior mesenteric artery (SMA) blood flow and systemic hemodynamics. Results: After model establishment, SMA blood flow, and the mean arterial pressure (MAP) significantly decreased, while heart rate increased rapidly and fluctuated significantly. Small bowel tissue morphology and levels of tight junction protein of the intestinal mucosa showed that after model establishment, small bowel tissue injury was gradually aggravated over time (P<0.05). Plasma i-FABP levels significantly increased after brain death (P<0.05). Conclusions: A hypotensive brain death pig model was successfully established using an improved intracranial water sac inflation method. This method offers a possibility of describing the injury mechanisms more clearly during and after brain death.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Brain Death/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Hypotension/physiopathology , Intestine, Small/pathology , Intestine, Small/transplantation , Swine , Time Factors , Biopsy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/blood , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein/analysis , Hemodynamics , Intestine, Small/blood supply
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776894

ABSTRACT

Houttuynia cordata polysaccharide (HCP) is extracted from Houttuynia cordata, a key traditional Chinese medicine. The study was to investigate the effects of HCP on intestinal barrier and microbiota in H1N1 virus infected mice. Mice were infected with H1N1 virus and orally administrated HCP at a dosage of 40 mg(kg(d. H1N1 infection caused pulmonary and intestinal injury and gut microbiota imbalance. HCP significantly suppressed the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and decreased mucosubstances in goblet cells, but restored the level of zonula occludens-1 in intestine. HCP also reversed the composition change of intestinal microbiota caused by H1N1 infection, with significantly reduced relative abundances of Vibrio and Bacillus, the pathogenic bacterial genera. Furthermore, HCP rebalanced the gut microbiota and restored the intestinal homeostasis to some degree. The inhibition of inflammation was associated with the reduced level of Toll-like receptors and interleukin-1β in intestine, as well as the increased production of interleukin-10. Oral administration of HCP alleviated lung injury and intestinal dysfunction caused by H1N1 infection. HCP may gain systemic treatment by local acting on intestine and microbiota. This study proved the high-value application of HCP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytokines , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Houttuynia , Chemistry , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit , Metabolism , Inflammation , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Virulence , Intestinal Mucosa , Metabolism , Microbiology , Pathology , Lung , Metabolism , Pathology , Male , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Polysaccharides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Toll-Like Receptors , Metabolism , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776003

ABSTRACT

To investigate the expressions of mucosal barrier proteins in colon cell line DLD-1 under hypoxic environment and its mechanism. Methods After DLD-1 cells were treated separately with hypoxia(l% O),vitamin D(100 nmol/L),or vitamin D plus hypoxia for 48 hours,the expressions of vitamin D receptor(VDR),tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1(ZO-1),occludin,Claudin-1,and adherent junction protein(E-cadherin)were determined by Western blot.Stable VDR knock-down(Sh-VDR)DLD-1 cell line and control DLD-1 cell line were established by lentivirus package technology and the protein expressions after hypoxia treatment were detected. Results Compared with control group,the expressions of occludin,Claudin-1,and VDR increased significantly after hypoxia treatment(all <0.001).In addition to the protein expressions of occludin,Claudin-1 and VDR,the expressions of ZO-1 and E-cadherin were also obviously higher in vitamin D plus hypoxia group than in single vitamin D treatment group(all <0.001).After hypoxia treatment,Sh-VDR cell line showed significantly decreased expressions of ZO-1(<0.001),occludin(<0.05),Claudin-1(<0.01)and E-cadherin(<0.001)when compared with untreated Sh-VDR cell line. Conclusion VDR acts as a regulator for the expressions of intestinal mucosal barrier proteins under hypoxia environment in DLD-1 colon cell line,indicating that VDR pathway may be another important protective mechanism for gut barrier in low-oxygen environment.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD , Metabolism , Cadherins , Metabolism , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Line , Claudin-1 , Metabolism , Colon , Cell Biology , Humans , Occludin , Metabolism , Receptors, Calcitriol , Metabolism , Tight Junctions , Vitamin D , Pharmacology , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689633

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of ceftriaxone on the intestinal epithelium and microbiota in mice in the early-life stage, as well as the recovery of the intestinal epithelium and reconstruction of intestinal microbiota in adult mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 36 BALB/C neonatal mice were randomly divided into control group and experimental group, with 18 mice in each group. The mice in the experimental group were given ceftriaxone 100 mg/kg every day by gavage within 21 days after birth. Those in the control group were given an equal volume of normal saline by gavage. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expression of Ki67, Muc2, and ZO-1 in the intestinal epithelium. qPCR and next-generation sequencing were used to analyze the overall concentration and composition of fecal bacteria.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After 21 days of ceftriaxone intervention, the experimental group had a significant reduction in body weight, a significant reduction in the expression of Ki67 and ZO-1 and a significant increase in the expression of Muc2 in intestinal epithelial cells, a significant reduction in the overall concentration of fecal bacteria, and a significant increase in the diversity of fecal bacteria compared with the control group (P<0.05). Firmicutes was the most common type of fecal bacteria in the experimental group, and there were large amounts of Staphylococcus and Enterococcus. The experimental group had a certain degree of recovery of the intestinal epithelium, but there were still significant differences in body weight and the structure of intestinal microbiota between the two groups at 56 days after birth (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Early ceftriaxone intervention significantly affects the development of the intestinal epithelium and the construction of intestinal microbiota in the early-life stage. The injury of the intestinal microbiota in the early-life stage may continue to the adult stage and affect growth and development and physiological metabolism.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Ceftriaxone , Pharmacology , Female , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Intestinal Mucosa , Ki-67 Antigen , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mucin-2 , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775369

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to observe the protective effect of catalpol on the high glucose induced destruction of tight junctions of rat primary brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). Catalpol co-administrated with high glucose increased BMECs survival, decreased its ET-1 secretion, and improved transmembrane electrical resistance in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy was used to observe catalpol's protective effect on tight junction. Fluorescence staining displayed that catalpol reversed the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton protein F-actin and up-regulated the tight junction proteins claudin-5 and ZO-1, which were further demonstrated by the mRNA expression levels of claudin-5, occludin, ZO-1, ZO-2, ZO-3, -actintin, vinculin and cateinins. This study indicated that catalpol reverses the disaggregation of cytoskeleton actin in BMECs and up-regulates the expression of tight junction proteins, such as claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1, and finally alleviates the increase in high glucose-induced BMECs injury.


Subject(s)
Actin Cytoskeleton , Actins , Metabolism , Animals , Brain , Cell Biology , Cells, Cultured , Claudin-5 , Metabolism , Endothelial Cells , Glucose , Iridoid Glucosides , Pharmacology , Phosphoproteins , Rats , Tight Junctions , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Metabolism
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(2): e6950, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889028

ABSTRACT

Alveolar epithelia play an essential role in maintaining the integrity and homeostasis of lungs, in which alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECII) are a cell type with stem cell potential for epithelial injury repair and regeneration. However, mechanisms behind the physiological and pathological roles of alveolar epithelia in human lungs remain largely unknown, partially owing to the difficulty of isolation and culture of primary human AECII cells. In the present study, we aimed to characterize alveolar epithelia generated from A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells that were cultured in an air-liquid interface (ALI) state. Morphological analysis demonstrated that A549 cells could reconstitute epithelial layers in ALI cultures as evaluated by histochemistry staining and electronic microscopy. Immunofluorescent staining further revealed an expression of alveolar epithelial type I cell (AECI) markers aquaporin-5 protein (AQP-5), and AECII cell marker surfactant protein C (SPC) in subpopulations of ALI cultured cells. Importantly, molecular analysis further revealed the expression of AQP-5, SPC, thyroid transcription factor-1, zonula occludens-1 and Mucin 5B in A549 ALI cultures as determined by both immunoblotting and quantitative RT-PCR assay. These results suggest that the ALI culture of A549 cells can partially mimic the property of alveolar epithelia, which may be a feasible and alternative model for investigating roles and mechanisms of alveolar epithelia in vitro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Culture Media, Conditioned , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/physiology , A549 Cells/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Immunoblotting , Cell Count , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein C/analysis , Aquaporin 5/analysis , Mucin-5B/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein/analysis , Thyroid Nuclear Factor 1/analysis
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(7): e6201, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889119

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) in the expression of tight junction proteins and permeability alterations in rat glomerular endothelial cells (rGENCs) under hypoxia conditions. The expression level of HIF-2α and tight junction proteins (occludin and ZO-1) in rGENCs were examined following 5% oxygen density exposure at different treatment times. HIF-2α lentivirus transfection was used to knockdown HIF-2α expression. Cells were divided into four groups: 1) control group (rGENCs were cultured under normal oxygen conditions), 2) hypoxia group (rGENCs were cultured under hypoxic conditions), 3) negative control group (rGENCs were infected with HIF-2α lentivirus negative control vectors and cultured under hypoxic conditions), and 4) Len group (rGENCs were transfected with HIF-2α lentivirus and cultured under hypoxic conditions). The hypoxia, negative control, and Len groups were kept in a hypoxic chamber (5% O2, 5% CO2, and 90% N2) for 24 h and the total content of occludin and ZO-1, and the permeability of rGENCs were assessed. With increasing hypoxia time, the expression of HIF-2α gradually increased, while the expression of occludin decreased, with a significant difference between groups. ZO-1 expression gradually decreased under hypoxia conditions, but the difference between the 24 and 48 h groups was not significant. The permeability of cells increased following 24-h exposure to hypoxia compared to the control group (P<0.01). The knockdown of HIF-2α expression significantly increased occludin and ZO-1 content compared with hypoxia and negative control groups (P<0.01), while permeability was reduced (P<0.01). Hypoxia increased HIF-2α content, inducing permeability of rGENCs through the reduced expression of occludin and ZO-1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Endothelial Cells/chemistry , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/metabolism , Occludin/metabolism , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein/metabolism , Kidney Glomerulus/cytology , Permeability , Time Factors , Cell Hypoxia/physiology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Cell Proliferation
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297224

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the change in the expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 cells) and the protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) after adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (E.coli) LF82 infection.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The Caco-2 cell line was used to establish an in vitro model of tight junction of intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were divided into EPA treatment groups (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA) and EPA (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA)+E.coli LF82 treatment (0, 6, and 12 hours) groups. A microscope was used to observe the morphological characteristics of the cells. MTT assay was used to determine the cell growth curve. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at both sides of the cell membrane was compared to evaluate the Caco-2 cell model. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to investigate the effects of different concentrations of EPA on the survival rate and apoptosis rate of Caco-2 cells. RT-qPCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of ZO-1 in Caco-2 cells after EPA and/or E.coli LF82 treatment. ELISA was used to measure the change in the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in culture supernatant.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After EPA treatment (25 and 50 μmol/L), the proliferation of Caco-2 cells was induced in a dose-dependent manner. The survival rates of the cells were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). The EPA treatment (100 and 200 μmol/L) groups had a significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The survival rates of the cells were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). The EPA treatment (100 and 200 μmol/L) groups had a significant increase in cell apoptosis rate compared with the control group (P<0.05). The 6- and 12-hour E.coli LF82 treatment groups had decreasing mRNA expression of ZO-1 in Caco-2 cells over the time of treatment and had significantly lower mRNA expression of ZO-1 than the untreated group (P<0.05). The Caco-2 cells treated with E.coli LF82 and 25 or 50 μmol/L EPA for 6 or 12 hours showed an increase in the mRNA expression of ZO-1 with the increasing concentration of EPA, as well as significantly higher mRNA expression of ZO-1 than the Caco-2 cells treated with E.coli LF82 alone (P<0.05). The Caco-2 cells treated with E.coli LF82 alone for 6 or 12 hours had increasing secretion of TNF-α over the time of treatment and had significantly higher secretion than the untreated Caco-2 cells (P<0.05). The Caco-2 cells treated with E.coli LF82 and 25 or 50 μmol/L EPA for 6 or 12 hours showed a reduction in the secretion of TNF-α with the increasing concentration of EPA and had significantly lower secretion than the Caco-2 cells treated with E.coli LF82 alone (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>EPA can effectively prevent the destruction of tight junction of intestinal epithelial cells induced by E.coli LF82 infection and inhibit the secretion of inflammatory factors. Therefore, it has a certain protective effect on intestinal mucosal barrier.</p>


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Caco-2 Cells , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Pharmacology , Escherichia coli , Virulence , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa , Metabolism , Microbiology , RNA, Messenger , Tight Junctions , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Bodily Secretions , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Genetics
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1218-1225, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330640

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Leakage of the intestinal mucosal barrier may cause translocation of bacteria, then leading to multiorgan failure. This study hypothesized that rhubarb monomers might protect the gut mucosal barrier in sepsis through junction proteins.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 230-250 g) under anesthesia and sedation were subjected to cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). After surgical preparation, rats were randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 6 or 8 each group): sham group (Group A: normal saline gavage); sepsis group (Group B: normal saline gavage); Group C (intraperitoneally, dexamethasone 0.5 mg/kg) immediately after CLP surgery; and rhubarb monomer (100 mg/kg in normal saline)-treated groups (Group D: rhein; Group E: emodin; Group F: 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid; Group G: 1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxy-O-cinnamoyl)-D-glucose; and Group H: daucosterol linoleate). Animals were sacrificed after 24 h. Intestinal histology, lactulose, mannitol concentrations were measured, and zonula occludens (ZO)-1, occludin and claudin-5 transcription (polymerase chain reaction), translation (by Western blot analysis), and expression (by immunohistochemistry) were also measured.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Intestinal histology revealed injury to intestinal mucosal villi induced by sepsis in Group B, compared with Group A. Compared with Group A (0.17 ± 0.41), the pathological scores in Groups B (2.83 ± 0.41, P < 0.001), C (1.83 ± 0.41, P < 0.001), D (2.00 ± 0.63, P < 0.001), E (1.83 ± 0.41, P < 0.001), F (1.83 ± 0.75, P < 0.001), G (2.17 ± 0.41, P < 0.001),and H (1.83 ± 0.41, P < 0.001) were significantly increased. Lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio in Group B (0.046 ± 0.003) was significantly higher than in Group A (0.013 ± 0.001, P< 0.001) while L/M ratios in Groups C (0.028 ± 0.002, P< 0.001), D (0.029 ± 0.003, P< 0.001), E (0.026 ± 0.003, P< 0.001), F (0.027 ± 0.003, P< 0.001), G (0.030 ± 0.005, P< 0.001), and H (0.026 ± 0.002, P< 0.001) were significantly lower than that in Group B. ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5 transcription, translation, and expression in Group B were significantly lower than that in Group A (P < 0.001), but they were significantly higher in Groups C, D, E, F, G, and H than those in Group B (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Rhubarb monomer treatment ameliorated mucosal damage in sepsis via enhanced transcription, translation, and expression of junction proteins.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Claudin-5 , Metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa , Metabolism , Lactulose , Metabolism , Male , Mannitol , Metabolism , Occludin , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rheum , Chemistry , Sepsis , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Metabolism
11.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 510-516, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812733

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the role of TGF-β1 in the proliferation and apoptosis of Sertoli cells and its effect on the expressions of tight junction-related proteins and genes in rats.@*METHODS@#Rat Sertoli cells were isolated in vitro, primarily cultured, and divided into groups A (blank control), B (TGF-β1 receptor blocker), C (TGF-β1), and D (TGF-β1 + receptor blocker). The proliferation and apoptosis of the cells were detected by CCK-8 and flow cytometry, respectively. After establishment of the dual-chamber model for the primary culture of Sertoli cells, the trans-epithelia electrical resistance (TER) value was measured and the relative expressions of Occludin, ZO-1 and Claudin Ⅱ determined by RT-PCR and Western blot.@*RESULTS@#The OD value of the proliferation of the Sertoli cells was markedly higher in group C than in groups A and D (0.79 ± 0.04 vs 0.66 ± 0.05 and 0.68 ± 0.02, P0.05). The TER value was dramatically decreased in group C as compared with groups A and D ([176.37 ± 16.61] vs [281.42 ± 9.83] and [254.37 ± 13.55] /cm2, P0.05) or their protein expressions (F = 0.28 and 1.31, P>0.05). Both the mRNA and protein expressions of Occludin were markedly lower in group C than in A and D (P<0.01 and P<0.05), with statistically significant differences among the four groups (F = 6.86 and 6.87, P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#TGF-β1 can promote the proliferation of Sertoli cells in rats and act on the tight junction of the cells by regulating the expression of Occludin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Claudin-2 , Metabolism , Male , Occludin , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Rats , Sertoli Cells , Cell Biology , Physiology , Tight Junction Proteins , Metabolism , Tight Junctions , Genetics , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Physiology , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Metabolism
12.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 823-833, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758016

ABSTRACT

The development of a cerebral organoid culture in vitro offers an opportunity to generate human brain-like organs to investigate mechanisms of human disease that are specific to the neurogenesis of radial glial (RG) and outer radial glial (oRG) cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) of the developing neocortex. Modeling neuronal progenitors and the organization that produces mature subcortical neuron subtypes during early stages of development is essential for studying human brain developmental diseases. Several previous efforts have shown to grow neural organoid in culture dishes successfully, however we demonstrate a new paradigm that recapitulates neocortical development process with VZ, OSVZ formation and the lamination organization of cortical layer structure. In addition, using patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with dysfunction of the Aspm gene from a primary microcephaly patient, we demonstrate neurogenesis defects result in defective neuronal activity in patient organoids, suggesting a new strategy to study human developmental diseases in central nerve system.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Physiology , Biomarkers , Metabolism , Cell Culture Techniques , Embryoid Bodies , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Lateral Ventricles , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Microcephaly , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , Models, Biological , Mutation , Neocortex , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Genetics , Neurogenesis , Genetics , Neurons , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Organoids , Cell Biology , Metabolism , PAX6 Transcription Factor , Genetics , Metabolism , Patch-Clamp Techniques , SOXB1 Transcription Factors , Genetics , Metabolism , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Genetics , Metabolism
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-265539

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To detect the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) biomarkers in nasal polyposis (NP) and to determine the effect of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) on EMT in cultured nasal epithelial cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The specimens were obtained from sinus mucosa of 10 NP patients and inferior turbinate mucosa of 10 nasal septum deviation patients. The difference of mRNA expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin , zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in tissue and cultured nasal epithelial cells was detected by real-time PCR. The difference of protein exprssion of E-cadherin and vimentin in cultured nasal epithelial cells was detected by Western blot.SPSS 16.0 software was used to analyze the data.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The relative expression of E-cadherin and ZO-1 in NP tissues (0.012±0.007; 0.006±0.003) was higher than in normal nasal mucosa (0.041±0.024; 0.011±0.005), the difference was significant (t=3.675, P<0.01; t=2.956, P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the relative expression of β-catenin, vimentin and α-SMA between two groups (t value was 0.990, 0.429, 0.326, all P>0.05). In cultured nasal epithelial cells both from two groups, TGF-β1 induced the decreased E-cadherin, ZO-1 (tcontrol value was 3.639, 3.430, both P<0.05; tNP value was 3.279, 2.864, both P<0.05) and increased α-SMA, vimentin mRNA expression (tcontrol value was -6.393, -3.085, all P<0.05; tNP value was -2.981, -3.087, both P<0.05). Also, TGF-β1 induced the decreased E-cadherin and increased vimentin protein expression (tcontrol value was 3.583, -3.844, both P<0.05; tNP value was 5.113, -3.642, both P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>EMT is likely to contribute to nasal polyposis and TGF-β1 is involved in this process.</p>


Subject(s)
Actins , Metabolism , Cadherins , Metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Humans , Nasal Mucosa , Metabolism , Nasal Polyps , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Pharmacology , Vimentin , Metabolism , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Metabolism , beta Catenin , Metabolism
14.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 249-253, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327351

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of hypoxia on Slingshot protein expression in human intestinal epithelial cell and its relation with changes in barrier function of the cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 was used to reproduce monolayer-cells. One portion of the monolayer-cell specimens were divided into six parts according to the random number table, and they were respectively exposed to hypoxia for 0 (without hypoxia), 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was determined with an ohmmeter. Another portion of the monolayer-cell specimens were exposed to hypoxia as above. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expressions of zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), occludin, claudin-1, Slingshot-1, Slingshot-2, and Slingshot-3. The remaining portion of the monolayer-cell specimens were also exposed to hypoxia as above. The content of fibrous actin (F-actin) and globular actin (G-actin) was determined by fluorescence method. The sample number of above-mentioned 3 experiments was respectively 10, 10, and 18 at each time point. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and Dunnett test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) Compared with that of cells exposed to hypoxia for 0 h, TER of cells exposed to hypoxia for 1 to 24 h was significantly reduced (P values below 0.01). (2) Compared with those of cells exposed to hypoxia for 0 h (all were 1.00), the protein expressions of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 of cells exposed to hypoxia for 1 to 24 h were generally lower, especially those of cells exposed to hypoxia for 12 h or 24 h (respectively 0.69 ± 0.20, 0.47 ± 0.15, and 0.47 ± 0.22, P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with those of cells exposed to hypoxia for 0 h, the protein expressions of Slingshot-1 and Slingshot-3 of cells exposed to hypoxia for 1 to 24 h were not obviously changed (P values above 0.05). The protein expression of Slingshot-2 of cells was decreased at first and then gradually increased from hypoxia hour 1 to 24. The protein expression of Slingshot-2 of cells exposed to hypoxia for 24 h (1.54 ± 0.57) was significantly higher than that of cells exposed to hypoxia for 0 h (1.00, P<0.05). (3) Compared with those of cells exposed to hypoxia for 0 h, the content of F-actin of cells exposed to hypoxia for 1, 6, 12, and 24 h was significantly decreased, whereas the content of G-actin of cells exposed to hypoxia for 6-24 h was significantly increased, P<0.05 or P<0.01; the content of F-actin and G-actin of cells exposed to hypoxia for the other time points was not obviously changed (P values above 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Hypoxia may cause cofilin activation after dephosphorylation and the depolymerization of F-actin by inducing Slingshot-2 protein expression, which in turn affects the tight junction of human intestinal epithelial cells, thus leading to deterioration of barrier function of these cells.</p>


Subject(s)
Actins , Metabolism , Blotting, Western , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Hypoxia , Claudin-1 , Metabolism , Epithelial Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Humans , Intestines , Cell Biology , Occludin , Metabolism , Phosphoprotein Phosphatases , Metabolism , Tight Junctions , Metabolism , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Metabolism
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728541

ABSTRACT

Present study aimed to investigate the eff ect of curcumin-pretreatment on intestinal I/R injury and on intestinal mucosa barrier. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into: sham, I/R, and curcumin groups (n=10). Animals in curcumin group were pretreated with curcumin by gastric gavage (200 mg/kg) for 2 days before I/R. Small intestine tissues were prepared for Haematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) staining. Serum diamine oxidase (DAO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels were measured. Expression of intestinal TNF-alpha and tight junction protein (ZO-1) proteins was detected by Western blot and/or immunohistochemistry. Serum DAO level and serum and intestinal TNF-alpha leves were signifi cantly increased after I/R, and the values were markedly reduced by curcumin pretreatment although still higher than that of sham group (p<0.05 or p<0.001). H&E staining showed the significant injury to intestinal mucosa following I/R, and curcumin pretreatment signifi cantly improved the histological structure of intestinal mucosa. I/R insult also induced significantly down-regulated expression of ZO-1, and the eff ect was dramatically attenuated by curcumin-pretreatment. Curcumin may protect the intestine from I/R injury through restoration of the epithelial structure, promotion of the recovery of intestinal permeability, as well as enhancement of ZO-1 protein expression, and this eff ect may be partly attributed to the TNF-alpha related pathway.


Subject(s)
Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing) , Animals , Blotting, Western , Curcumin , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Immunohistochemistry , Intestinal Mucosa , Intestine, Small , Intestines , Permeability , Rats, Wistar , Reperfusion Injury , Tight Junctions , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289880

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study on the expression patterns of proteins associated with cell junctions in the developing mouse testes.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The expression levels of reproductive related cell lines spermatogonia cell line GC1 spg, spermatocyte cell line GC2 spg, leydig cell line TM3, and sertoli cell line TM4, primary sertoli cells, and 1-6-week mouse testes were analyzed using Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The sertoli cell junction-associated membrane proteins adhesion molecule A, Occludin and Claudin, and the sertoli-germ cell junction-associated membrane proteins junctional adhesion molecule C, Nectin-3, and E-cadherin were stage-specific in the seminiferous tubules in the mouse testes. The adaptor proteins associated with cell juctions zonula occludens-1, zonula occludens-2, Afadin, Β-catenin, and CD2-associated protein were not stage-specific in the seminiferous tubules in the mouse testes.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>In the seminiferous tubules in the mouse testes, the membrane proteins associated with cell junctions are stage-specific. However, the expressions of adaptor proteins associated with cell junctions do not obviously change.</p>


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Metabolism , Animals , Cdh1 Proteins , Metabolism , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Metabolism , Cell Line , Cytoskeletal Proteins , Metabolism , Humans , Intercellular Junctions , Metabolism , Male , Membrane Proteins , Metabolism , Mice , Microfilament Proteins , Metabolism , Nectins , Seminiferous Tubules , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Sertoli Cells , Cell Biology , Testis , Cell Biology , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Metabolism , Zonula Occludens-2 Protein , Metabolism , beta Catenin , Metabolism
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-239219

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the differentiation capability of kidney stem cells (KSCs) into renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>KSCs isolated from the renal papilla of 4-week-old SD rats were co-cultured with hypoxia-exposed RTEC in induced medium (containing activin A, BMP-7, and retinoic acid) and renal epithelial cell growth medium (REGM) alternately. The KSCs cultured in MSC medium served as the control. The KSC differentiation rates in both groups were determined using flow cytometry, immunofluorescence assay and qRT-PCR.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Flow cytometry showed a CK-18 positive rate of 6.5Percnt; in the control KSC group and of 44.2% in the induced group. Immunofluorescence assay detected the positivity for mature epithelial cell markers CK-18, E-cadherin, and ZO-1 in the induced cells. The results of qRT-PCR showed significantly increased expression of E-cadherin and AQP-1 mRNAs in the induced cells compared with the control cells (P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Rat KSCs can be induced to differentiate into RTECs in vitro.</p>


Subject(s)
Activins , Chemistry , Animals , Aquaporin 1 , Metabolism , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 , Chemistry , Cadherins , Metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Coculture Techniques , Culture Media , Chemistry , Epithelial Cells , Cell Biology , Keratin-18 , Metabolism , Kidney Tubules , Cell Biology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Tretinoin , Chemistry , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Metabolism
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250328

ABSTRACT

The severe local thermal trauma activates a number of systemic inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, NF-κB, resulting in a disruption of gut barrier. The gastrointestinal tight junction (TJ) is highly regulated by membrane-associated proteins including zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) and occludin, which can be modulated by inflammatory cytokines. As splenectomy has been shown to reduce secretion of cytokines, we hypothesized that (1) severe scald injury up-regulates TNF-α and NF-κB, meanwhile down-regulates expression of ZO-1 and occludin, leading to the increased intestinal permeability, and (2) splenectomy can prevent the burn-induced decrease in ZO-1 and occludin expression, resulting in improved intestinal barrier. Wistar rats undergoing a 30% total body surface area (TBSA) thermal trauma were randomized to receive an accessorial splenectomy meanwhile or not. Intestinal injury was assessed by histological morphological analysis, and serum endotoxin levels, TNF-α, NF-κB, ZO-1 and occludin levels were detected by Western blotting in the terminal ileum mucosal tissue. 30% TBSA burn caused a significant increase in serum endotoxin levels, but NF-κB, and TNF-α, and the average intestinal villus height and mucosal thickness were decreased significantly. Burn injury could also markedly decrease the levels of ZO-1 and occludin in terminal ileum mucosal tissue (all P<0.01). Splenectomy at 7th day after burn significantly reversed the burn-induced breakdown of ZO-1 and occludin (all P<0.01). The results of this study suggest that severe thermal injury damages the intestinal mucosal barrier. Splenectomy may provide a therapeutic benefit in restoring burn-induced intestinal barrier by decreasing the release of inflammatory cytokines and recovering TJ proteins.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Endotoxins , Blood , Female , Hot Temperature , Intestinal Mucosa , Male , NF-kappa B , Blood , Occludin , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Splenectomy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Blood , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Metabolism
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250326

ABSTRACT

Recently, several studies showed that gastrointestinal tract may be associated with pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Intestine tight junction protein zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1) is an important component of intestinal barrier which can be degraded by matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9). In our previous study, a significant decline in ZO-1 was observed along with enhanced MMP-9 activity in the duodenum and distal colon of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-intoxicated mice. In this study, the protective effect of simvastatin on ZO-1 was investigated using an MPTP mouse model of PD. Seven days after the end of MPTP application, the expression level of ZO-1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The protein expression levels of ZO-1 and MMP9 were detected by Western blotting. Meanwhile, MMP-9 activity was analyzed by gelatin zymography. MPTP treatment led to a decrease in the expression of ZO-1, which was accompanied by elevated MMP-9 activity. Treatment with simvastatin could partly reverse the MPTP-induced changes in ZO-1 expression and reduce MMP-9 protein and activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that simvastatin administration may partially reverse the impairment of ZO-1 induced by MPTP via inhibiting the activity of MMP9, fortify the impaired intestinal barrier and limit gut-derived toxins that pass across the intestinal barrier.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Mice , Parkinson Disease , Metabolism , Simvastatin , Pharmacology , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266718

ABSTRACT

This paper is aimed to investigate the effect of fluid shear stress on the tight junction of laryngeal squamous carcinoma (Hep2) cells and to explore the potential molecular mechanism. Hep2 cells were selected and subjected to the fluid shear stress of 1.4 dyn/cm2 for different time, respectively. The morphological changes of Hep2 cells under shear stress were observed using inverted microscope. The cell-cell junctions were examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The expressions of tight junction proteins (including Occludin, Claudin-5 and ZO-1) and the distribution of Claudin-5 were examined by Western blot assay and laser scanning confocal microscope, respectively. The results indicated that Hep2 cells turned to spindle-like shapes after exposed to shear stress, and showed the trend of the recovering to original shapes when the shear stress was cancelled. The cell-cell junctions were tight under the shear flow condition, and the permeability was reduced under the condition of 1.4 dyn/cm shear flow. The expressions of tight junction proteins were enhanced with increased duration of shear flow, but reduced after removing shear flow. The result of Claudin-5 expression by immufluorescence assay was consistent with that by Western blot. The Claudin-5 mainly distributed in the cytoplasm under static condition, while it located at the intercellular after shear flow stimulation, and it appeared intercellular and cytoplasm after stopping shear flow stimulation. Therefore, it can be concluded that shear stress changes the morphology of laryngeal squamous carcinoma Hep2 cells, and upregulates the tight junction.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Pathology , Claudin-5 , Metabolism , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Pathology , Occludin , Metabolism , Stress, Mechanical , Tight Junctions , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Metabolism
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