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1.
Coluna/Columna ; 20(3): 185-188, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339741

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the results of the use of dexmedetomidine (D) in the treatment of patients with degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine using puncture techniques. Methods The study included 77 patients who underwent surgical puncture for degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine with the use of alpha-2-adrenomimetic D: percutaneous laser denervation of the facet joints (n = 46) and posterolateral transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (n = 31). We assessed: the level of sedation using the Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS) and the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS); intraoperative dynamics of the cardiovascular and respiratory system parameters; the level of pain syndrome according to VAS. Results A high intraoperative level of sedation was determined, with RASS -2, -3 and Ramsay III, IV; when transferring a patient to a department (in 90 minutes) this parameter was RASS 0 and Ramsay II. There were no significant changes in central hemodynamics and respiratory depression. The minimum level of pain was determined immediately after surgery, at 30 and 60 minutes after surgery, and before transfer to the department (90 minutes): 6 (4;9); 10 (8;12); 12 (9;13); 16 (13;19) respectively. The absence of the need for additional analgesia on the first postoperative day was verified. Conclusion The use of D significantly reduces the level of pain, while maintaining the necessary verbal contact with the patient, and provides the necessary neurovegetative protection without respiratory depression or lowered hemodynamic parameters during the perioperative period. Level of evidence II; Prognostic Studies - Investigating the Effect of a Patient Characteristic on Disease Outcome. Case series, retrospective study.


RESUMO Objetivo Analisar os resultados do uso de dexmedetomidina (D) no tratamento de pacientes com doenças degenerativas da coluna lombar com técnicas de punção. Métodos O estudo incluiu 77 pacientes submetidos à punção cirúrgica em doenças degenerativas da coluna lombar com o uso de um agonista alfa-2 adrenérgico: denervação percutânea das articulações facetárias com laser (n = 46) e discectomia endoscópica transforaminal posterolateral (n = 31). Foram avaliados o nível de sedação usando a Escala de Sedação de Ramsay (RSS) e a Escala de Sedação e Agitação de Richmond (RASS); a dinâmica intraoperatória dos parâmetros dos sistemas cardiovascular e respiratório; o nível de síndrome de dor de acordo com a EVA. Resultados Determinou-se um alto nível intraoperatório de sedação pela RASS (-2, -3) e pela Ramsay (III, IV). Ao transferir um paciente para outro setor (depois de 90 minutos), esse parâmetro era 0 em RASS e II em Ramsay. Não houve alterações significativas na hemodinâmica central e na depressão respiratória. O nível mínimo de dor foi determinado imediatamente após a cirurgia, 30 e 60 minutos depois da cirurgia e antes da transferência para o outro setor (90 minutos depois): 6 (4; 9); 10 (8; 12); 12 (9; 13); 16 (13; 19), respectivamente. Constatou-se que não era necessária analgesia adicional no primeiro dia pós-operatório. Conclusões O uso de D reduz significativamente o nível de dor mantendo a comunicação verbal necessária com o paciente e fornece a proteção neurovegetativa necessária sem depressão respiratória e os parâmetros hemodinâmicos reduzidos durante o período perioperatório. Nível de evidência II; Estudos prognósticos - Investigação do efeito de característica de um paciente sobre o desfecho da doença. Série de casos, Estudo retrospectivo.


RESUMEN Objetivo Analizar los resultados del uso de dexmedetomidina (D) en el tratamiento de pacientes con enfermedades degenerativas de la columna lumbar con técnicas de punción. Métodos El estudio incluyó a 77 pacientes con enfermedades degenerativas de la columna lumbar que se sometieron a punción quirúrgica mediante el uso de un agonista adrenérgico alfa-2: denervación percutánea de las articulaciones facetarias con láser (n = 46) y discectomía endoscópica transforaminal posterolateral (n = 31). Fueron evaluados el nivel de sedación mediante la Escala de Sedación de Ramsay (RSS) y la Escala de Sedación y Agitación de Richmond (RASS); la dinámica intraoperatoria de los parámetros de los sistemas cardiovascular y respiratorio; el nivel del síndrome de dolor según la EVA. Resultados Se determinó un alto nivel de sedación intraoperatoria en RASS (-2, -3) y por Ramsay (III, IV)Al transferir un paciente a otro sector (después de 90 minutos), este parámetro fue 0 en RASS y II en Ramsay. No hubo cambios significativos en la hemodinámica central y la depresión respiratoria.El nivel mínimo de dolor se determinó después de la cirugía, 30 y 60 minutos después de la cirugía y antes del traslado al otro sector (90 minutos después): 6 (4; 9); 10 (8; 12); 12 (9; 13); 16 (13; 19), respectivamente. Se verificó que no era necesaria analgesia adicional el primer día postoperatorio. Conclusiones El uso de D reduce significativamente el nivel de dolor al mismo tiempo que se mantiene la necesaria comunicación verbal con el paciente y brinda la protección neurovegetativa necesaria sin depresión respiratoria y parámetros hemodinámico reducidos durante el período perioperatorio. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios de pronóstico: Investigación del efecto de la característica de un paciente sobre el desenlace de la enfermedad. Serie de casos, Estudio retrospectivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spine , Low Back Pain , Diskectomy , Dexmedetomidine , Zygapophyseal Joint , Hemodynamic Monitoring , Enhanced Recovery After Surgery
2.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(5): 642-648, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144215

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To verify whether, regardless of the screw placement technique, there is a safe distance or angle in relation to the facets that can prevent violation of the facet joint when the screws are placed. Methods Retrospective, single, comparative, non-randomized center. We evaluated by axial computed tomography: the angle of the screw/rod in relation to the midline, the angle of the center of the facets in relation to the midline, the distance between the head of the screw/rod to the midline, and the distance from the center of the facets to the midline; the violation of the facet joint will be evaluated in a gradation of 0 to 2. Also will be measured the difference between the angle os the facets and the angle of the screws (Δ Angle) and, the difference between the facet distance and the screw distance (Δ Distance). Results A total of 212 patients and 397 facets were analyzed (196 on the left and 201 on the right). Of these, 303 were not violated (grade 0), corresponding to 76,32%, and 94 suffered some type of violation (grade 1 and 2), corresponding to 23,68%. The mean of Δ angle was 9.87° +/− 4.66° (grade 0), and of 3.77° +/− 4.93° in facets (grade 1 and 2) (p< 0.001), and the Δ mean distance in cases in which there was no violation was 0.94 arbitrary units (a.u.) +/− 0.39 a.u., while the Δ distance in G1 and G2 cases was 0.56 a.u. +/− 0.25 a.u. (p< 0.001). Conclusion The measurements of angle and distance between facet and screw can help in the placement of screws. These parameters can be used as safety measures with the most frequent use of surgical navigation techniques.


Resumo Objetivo Verificar se, independente da técnica de colocação do parafuso, há uma distância ou angulação segura em relação as facetas para que os parafusos sejam colocados de modo a evitar a violação da articulação facetária. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo, comparativo, não randomizado, em centro único. Foram avaliados em tomografia computadorizada axial: o ângulo do parafuso/barra em relação a linha média, o ângulo do centro das facetas em relação a linha média, a distância entre a cabeça do parafuso/barra até a linha média, e a distância do centro das facetas até a linha média; a violação da articulação facetária será avaliada em uma gradação de 0 a 2. Serão também calculados a diferença entre o ângulo do parafuso e ângulo da faceta (Δ Ångulo) e também a diferença entre a distância da faceta e a distância do parafuso (Δ Distância). Resultados Um total de 212 pacientes e 397 facetas foram analisados (196 do lado esquerdo e 201 do lado direito). Destes, 303 foram não violados (grau 0), correspondendo a 76,32%, e 94 sofreram algum tipo de violação (grau 1 e 2), correspondendo a 23,68%. A média do Δ ângulo foi de 9,87° +/− 4,66° (grau 0) e de 3,77° +/− 4,93° em facetas (grau 1 e 2) (p< 0.001), e o Δ distância médio nos casos em que não houve violação foi de 0,94 unidades aleatórias (u.a.) +/− 0,39 u.a., enquanto o Δ distância de casos G1 e G2 foi de 0,56 u.a. +/− 0,25 u.a. (p< 0.001). Conclusão As medidas de ângulo e distância entre faceta e parafuso, podem auxiliar na colocação de parafusos. Esses parâmetros podem ser utilizados como medidas de segurança com o uso mais frequentes das técnicas de navegação cirúrgica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spinal Fusion/methods , Zygapophyseal Joint/surgery , Pedicle Screws , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Zygapophyseal Joint/diagnostic imaging , Pedicle Screws/adverse effects
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827406

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging has been successfully applied to assess the status of cartilage biochemical components. This study aimed to investigate the performance of 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging T mapping combined with texture analysis for evaluating the early degeneration of lumbar facet joints.@*METHODS@#A total of 38 patients (20 in the asymptomatic group and 18 in the symptomatic group) were enrolled. All patients underwent 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging conventional sequences, water excitation three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo sequence (3D-WATSc), and T mapping scans. The bilateral L and L/S lumbar facet joints were morphological graded using the Weishaupt criteria, T values, and texture parameters derived from T mapping of cartilage. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the differences of parameters among different groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to obtain the independent predictive factors for evaluating the early degeneration of lumbar facet joints. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed and the area under curve (AUC) was calculated. Spearman correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation of the independent predictors of cartilage T value and texture parameters with the subjects' Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score or Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score.@*RESULTS@#A total of 148 facet joints were selected, including 70 in Weishaupt 0 (normal) group, 58 in Weishaupt 1 group, and 20 in Weishaupt 2-3 group. T value, entropy, and contrast increased significantly as the exacerbation of facet joint degeneration (all <0.05), while the inverse difference moment, energy, and correlation decreased (all <0.05). Entropy among different groups was significantly different (all <0.05), and the differences of T value, contrast, inverse difference moment, and energy between Weishaupt 0 and Weishaupt 1 groups, or Weishaupt 0 and Weishaupt 2-3 groups were statistically significant (all <0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that T value and inverse difference moment were the independent predictors for evaluating early degeneration of facet joints. The combination of T value with inverse difference moment achieved the best performance in distinguishing Weishaupt 0 from Weishaupt 1 (AUC=0.85), with sensitivity and specificity at 92.7% and 76.5%, respectively. In the symptom group, the cartilage T value combined inverse difference moment was positively correlated with JOA score (=0.475, <0.05) and VAS score (=0.452, <0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#3.0T magnetic resonance imaging T mapping combined with texture analysis is helpful to quantitatively evaluate the early degeneration of lumbar facet joints, in which the T value and inverse difference moment show an indicative significance..


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Humans , Lumbar Vertebrae , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spondylosis , Zygapophyseal Joint
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786141

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The microRNA (miR)-10b is the T helper (Th) 17 cell specific in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The interleukin (IL)-22, which is closely related to Th17 cells, has been implicated in the regulation of new bone formation in experimental models. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether miR-10b affects bone formation via the IL-22 pathway in AS.METHODS: Primary CD4+ T cells from AS were purified and transfected with miR-10b, anti-miR-10b, or scramble. Cell-surface markers and cytokine expression were analyzed by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Primary bone-derived cells (BdCs) from the facet joints of the spine were isolated, then osteogenic differentiation of primary BdCs was performed. We assessed alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and staining of BdCs at early time points. Alizarin red S staining of BdCs was performed at late time points.RESULTS: Overexpression of miR-10b reduced both IL-22 producing cell frequencies and cytokine production in T cells from the patients with AS. The IL-22 significantly increased ALP staining and bone mineralization. The ALP promotor activity of AS-BdCs was notably higher for the IL-22 concentration. The supernatants of the miR-10b overexpression group suppressed ALP activity on osteogenic progenitor cells from the facet joints of the spine in patients with AS.CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that miR-10b suppresses IL-22 production, which was involved in osteogenic proliferation in AS. Therefore, miR-10b might be a potential therapeutic candidate for regulation of new bone formation in patients with AS.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Calcification, Physiologic , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Interleukins , MicroRNAs , Models, Theoretical , Osteogenesis , Spine , Spondylitis, Ankylosing , Stem Cells , T-Lymphocytes , Th17 Cells , Zygapophyseal Joint
5.
Clinical Pain ; (2): 59-64, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811494

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the feasibility of ultrasound-guided lumbar nerve root block (LNRB) and S1 nerve root block by identifying spread patterns via fluoroscopy in cadavers.METHOD: A total of 48 ultrasound-guided injections were performed in 4 fresh cadavers from L1 to S1 roots. The target point of LNRB was the midpoint between the lower border of the transverse process and the facet joint at each level. The target point of S1 nerve root block was the S1 foramen, which can be visualized between the median sacral crest and the posterior superior iliac spine, below the L5-S1 facet joint. The injection was performed via an in-plane approach under real-time axial view ultrasound guidance. Fluoroscopic validation was performed after the injection of 2 cc of contrast agent.RESULTS: The needle placements were correct in all injections. Fluoroscopy confirmed an intra-foraminal contrast spreading pattern following 41 of the 48 injections (85.4%). The other 7 injections (14.6%) yielded typical neurograms, but also resulted in extra-foraminal patterns that occurred evenly in each nerve root, including S1.CONCLUSION: Ultrasound-guided injection may be an option for the delivery of injectate into the S1 nerve root, as well as lumbar nerve root area.


Subject(s)
Cadaver , Fluoroscopy , Injections, Spinal , Lumbosacral Region , Methods , Needles , Spinal Nerve Roots , Spine , Ultrasonography , Zygapophyseal Joint
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biportal endoscopic spine surgery (BESS) is a recent addition to minimally invasive spine surgery treatments. It boasts excellent magnification and fine discrimination of neural structures. Selective decompression with preservation of facet joints for structural stability is also feasible owing to access to the spinal canal and foramen deeper inside. This study has a purpose to investigate clinical benefits of BESS for spinal stenosis in comparison to the other common surgical treatments such as microscopic decompression-only (DO) and fusion and instrumentation (FI). METHODS: From December 2013 to March 2015, 30 cases of DO, 48 cases of FI, and 66 consecutive cases of BESS for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) were enrolled to evaluate the relative clinical efficacy of BESS. Visual analog scale (VAS) for back pain and leg pain, postoperative hemoglobin, C-reactive protein (CRP) changes, transfusion, and postoperative complications were examined. RESULTS: All the patients were followed up until 6 months, and 98 patients (86.7%) for 2 years. At the 6-month follow-up, VAS for back pain improved from 6.8 to 2.8, 6.8 to 3.2, and 6.8 to 2.8 (p = 0.078) for BESS, DO, and FI, respectively; VAS for leg pain improved from 6.3 to 2.2, 7.0 to 2.5, and 7.2 to 2.5 (p = 0.291), respectively. Two cases in the BESS group underwent additional foraminal decompression, but no fusion surgery was performed. Postoperative hemoglobin changes for BESS, DO, and FI were −2.5, −2.4, and −1.3 mL, respectively. The BESS group had no transfusion cases, whereas 10 cases (33.3%) in DO and 41 cases (85.4%) in FI had transfusion (p = 0.000). CRP changes for BESS, DO, and FI were 0.32, 6.53, and 6.00, respectively, at day 2 postoperatively (p = 0.000); the complication rate for each group was 8.6% (two dural tears and one root injury), 6.7% (two dural tears), and 8.3% (two dural tears and two wound infections), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: BESS for LSS showed clinical results not inferior to those of the other open surgery methods in the short-term. Stable hemodynamic changes with no need for blood transfusion and minimal changes in CRP were thought to cause less injury to the back muscles with minimal bleeding. Foraminal stenosis decompression should be simultaneously conducted with central decompression to avoid an additional surgery.


Subject(s)
Back Muscles , Back Pain , Blood Transfusion , C-Reactive Protein , Constriction, Pathologic , Decompression , Discrimination, Psychological , Endoscopy , Follow-Up Studies , Hemodynamics , Hemorrhage , Humans , Leg , Lumbar Vertebrae , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Pain, Postoperative , Postoperative Complications , Spinal Canal , Spinal Stenosis , Spine , Tears , Treatment Outcome , Visual Analog Scale , Wounds and Injuries , Zygapophyseal Joint
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739476

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Buttock pain is common, and there are no fixed guidelines for its diagnosis and treatment. This study compared a selective nerve root block and a facet joint block for patients with degenerative spinal disease and buttock pain. METHODS: Patients with degenerative spinal disease who presented with buttock pain, received a selective nerve root block (group A) or a facet joint block (group B) from June 2017 to September 2017, and were able to be followed up for more than 3 months were prospectively enrolled. Clinical results were assessed using a visual analog scale for comparative analysis. RESULTS: One day after the procedure, an excellent response was found in 7% and 6% of groups A and B, respectively; a good response was found in 41% and 13% of groups A and B, respectively. Two weeks later, an excellent response was found in 11% and 4% of groups A and B, respectively; a good response was found in 41% and 20% of groups A and B, respectively. Six weeks later, an excellent response was found in 11% and 7% of groups A and B, respectively, and a good response was found in 41% and 20% of groups A and B, respectively. At the final follow-up, more than 47% and 46% of patients showed a good response in groups A and B, respectively. In group A, the visual analog scale score improved compared to the pre-procedure value of 5.01 to 2.74 on day 1, 2.51 at week 2, 2.38 at week 6, and 2.39 at week 12. In group B, the visual analog scale score improved compared to the preprocedure value of 5.24 to 3.94 on day 1, 3.99 at week 2, 3.24 at week 6, and 2.59 at week 12. On day 1 and at weeks 2 and 6, group A showed a significantly better outcome than group B (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The selective nerve root block showed superior results up to 6 weeks post-procedure. Considering that the selective nerve root block is effective for treating radiculopathy, the primary cause of buttock pain can be thought to be radiculopathy rather than degenerative changes of the facet joint.


Subject(s)
Buttocks , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Nerve Block , Pain, Referred , Prospective Studies , Radiculopathy , Spinal Diseases , Spinal Stenosis , Visual Analog Scale , Zygapophyseal Joint
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of Kambin’s safe zone to calculate maximum cannula diameter permissible for safe percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy. METHODS: Fifty 3D MRIs of 19 males and 31 females (mean, 47 years) were analysed. Oblique, axial and sagittal views were used for image analysis. Three authors calculated the inscribed circle (cannula diameter) individually, within the neural (original) and bony Kambin’s triangle in oblique views, disc heights on sagittal views and root to facet distances at upper and lower end plate levels on axial views and their averages were taken. RESULTS: The mean root to facet distances at upper end plate level measured on axial sections increased from 3.42±3.01 mm at L12 level to 4.57±2.49 mm at L5S1 level. The mean root to facet distances at lower end plate level measured on axial sections also increased from 6.07±1.13 mm at L12 level to 12.9±2.83 mm at L5S1 level. Mean maximum cannula diameter permissible through the neural Kambin’s triangle increased from 5.67±1.38 mm at L12 level to 9.7±3.82 mm at L5S1 level. The mean maximum cannula diameter permissible through the bony Kambin’s triangle also increased from 4.03±1.08 mm at L12 level to 6.11±1 mm at L5S1 level. Only 2% of the 427 bony Kambin’s triangles could accommodate a cannula diameter of 8mm. The base of the bony Kambin’s triangle taken in oblique view (3D MRI) was significantly higher than the root to facet distance at lower end plate level taken in axial view. CONCLUSION: The largest mean diameter of endoscopic cannula passable through “bony” Kambin’s triangle was distinctively smaller than the largest mean diameter of endoscopic cannula passable through “neural” Kambin’s triangle at all levels. Although proximity of exiting root to the facet joint is always taken into consideration before PELD procedure, our 3D MRI based anatomical study is the first to provide actual maximum cannula dimensions permissible in this region.


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Regional , Catheters , Diskectomy , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , Intervertebral Disc , Lumbosacral Region , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Zygapophyseal Joint
12.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 672-681, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762959

ABSTRACT

The lumbar foramen is affected by different degenerative diseases, including extraforaminal disc herniation, foraminal stenosis (FS), and degenerative or spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. The purpose of this study was to describe percutaneous stenoscopic lumbar decompression with a paramedian approach (para-PSLD) for foraminal/extraforaminal lesions. All operative procedures were performed using a complete uniportal endoscopic instrument system. The para-PSLD can be easily applied to patients with FS and narrow disc space or facet joint hypertrophy. The anatomical view of a para-PSLD is similar to that of a conventional open surgery and allows for good visualization of the foraminal/extraforaminal areas. We suggest that para-PSLD is an alternative and minimally invasive procedure to treat degenerative lumbar foraminal/extraforaminal stenoses.


Subject(s)
Constriction, Pathologic , Decompression , Humans , Hypertrophy , Ion Transport , Spinal Stenosis , Spondylolisthesis , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Zygapophyseal Joint
13.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 368-376, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762956

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Experimental human study. PURPOSE: To determine whether angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) is highly expressed in the hyperplastic facet joint (FJ) synovium and whether it activates interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in FJ synoviocytes. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Mechanical stress-induced synovitis is partially, but significantly, responsible for degenerative and subsequently osteoarthritic changes in the FJ tissues in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. IL-6 is highly expressed in degenerative FJ synovial tissue and is responsible for local chronic inflammation. ANGPTL2, an inflammatory and mechanically induced mediator, promotes the expression of IL-6 in many cells. METHODS: FJ tissues were harvested from five patients who had undergone lumbar surgery. Immunohistochemistry for ANGPTL2, IL-6, and cell markers was performed in the FJ tissue samples. After cultured synoviocytes from the FJ tissues were subjected to mechanical stress, ANGPTL2 expression and secretion were measured quantitatively using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription–polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Following ANGPTL2 administration in the FJ synoviocytes, anti-nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation was investigated using immunocytochemistry, and IL-6 expression and secretion were assayed quantitatively with or without NF-κB inhibitor. Moreover, we assessed whether ANGPTL2-induced IL-6 modulates leucocyte recruitment in the degenerative process by focusing on the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression. RESULTS: ANGPTL2 and IL-6 were highly expressed in the hyperplastic FJ synovium samples. ANGPTL2 was co-expressed in both, fibroblast-like and macrophage-like synoviocytes. Further, the expression and secretion of ANGPTL2 in the FJ synoviocytes increased in response to stimulation by mechanical stretching. ANGPTL2 protein promoted the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and induced IL-6 expression and secretion in the FJ synoviocytes. This effect was reversed following treatment with NF-κB inhibitor. Furthermore, ANGPTL2-induced IL-6 upregulated the MCP-1 expression in the FJ synoviocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanical stress-induced ANGPTL2 promotes chronic inflammation in the FJ synovium by activating IL-6 secretion, leading to FJ degeneration and subsequent LSS.


Subject(s)
Chemokine CCL2 , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Spinal Stenosis , Stress, Mechanical , Synovial Membrane , Synovitis , Zygapophyseal Joint
14.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 417-422, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762950

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Case control study. PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and degree of asymptomatic cervical and lumbar facet joint arthritis. We retrospectively reviewed 500 computed tomography (CT) scans of cervical facet joints obtained from 50 subjects. Moreover, 500 lumbar facet joints obtained from an additional 50 subjects were reviewed. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Numerous reports in the literature indicate that joint arthritis is a major source of axial neck and low back pain. However, the diagnostic value of this condition, based on degenerative changes seen on radiological studies, remains controversial because significant imaging findings may not correlate with corresponding symptoms. The CT scan is a sensitive method for facet joint evaluation and may reveal degenerative abnormalities. Previous studies have described the prevalence of facet arthropathy in symptomatic patients, according to radiological findings; however, no study to date has assessed its prevalence in asymptomatic patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the neck and abdominal CT scans of patients had been examined for non-spinal pathologies (i.e., thyroid disease, rule out cancer, ascites). Electronic medical records were reviewed to exclude patients with histories of either neck or back pain. Arthritis severity was graded using a previously published four-point CT scale. RESULTS: The prevalence of asymptomatic cervical facet arthritis (grade 1–3) was 33% (grade 1, 19%; grade 2, 11%; and grade 3, 3%). Among asymptomatic patients, 37% had scalable lumbar facet join arthritis (grade 1, 24%; grade 2, 9%; and grade 3, 4%). There was a statistically significant difference (chi-square test, p<0.0001) in the number of older individuals with arthritic degeneration at the cervical and lumbar levels compared with that of younger individuals. The C6–C7 and L5–S1 levels were the most likely to show arthritic changes. CONCLUSIONS: Arthritic changes to the cervical and lumbar facet joints are prevalent among patients, and in some cases are asymptomatic. These findings were more common in older patients and at lower spinal levels.


Subject(s)
Arthritis , Back Pain , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic Imaging , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Joints , Low Back Pain , Methods , Neck , Pathology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Diseases , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Zygapophyseal Joint
15.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 115-119, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762222

ABSTRACT

Ossification of the mamillo-accessory ligament (MAL) is a misunderstood phenomenon; however, many have posited that it can result in nerve entrapment of the medial branch of the dorsal ramus causing zygapophyseal joint related low back pain. The MAL has been studied anatomically by few, yet the data indicate possible associations between ossification of this ligament and spondylosis. It has been proposed that mechanical stress upon the lumbar spine may also lead to progressive ossification of the MAL into a bony foramen.


Subject(s)
Ligaments , Low Back Pain , Nerve Compression Syndromes , Spine , Spondylosis , Stress, Mechanical , Zygapophyseal Joint
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788792

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of Kambin’s safe zone to calculate maximum cannula diameter permissible for safe percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy.METHODS: Fifty 3D MRIs of 19 males and 31 females (mean, 47 years) were analysed. Oblique, axial and sagittal views were used for image analysis. Three authors calculated the inscribed circle (cannula diameter) individually, within the neural (original) and bony Kambin’s triangle in oblique views, disc heights on sagittal views and root to facet distances at upper and lower end plate levels on axial views and their averages were taken.RESULTS: The mean root to facet distances at upper end plate level measured on axial sections increased from 3.42±3.01 mm at L12 level to 4.57±2.49 mm at L5S1 level. The mean root to facet distances at lower end plate level measured on axial sections also increased from 6.07±1.13 mm at L12 level to 12.9±2.83 mm at L5S1 level. Mean maximum cannula diameter permissible through the neural Kambin’s triangle increased from 5.67±1.38 mm at L12 level to 9.7±3.82 mm at L5S1 level. The mean maximum cannula diameter permissible through the bony Kambin’s triangle also increased from 4.03±1.08 mm at L12 level to 6.11±1 mm at L5S1 level. Only 2% of the 427 bony Kambin’s triangles could accommodate a cannula diameter of 8mm. The base of the bony Kambin’s triangle taken in oblique view (3D MRI) was significantly higher than the root to facet distance at lower end plate level taken in axial view.CONCLUSION: The largest mean diameter of endoscopic cannula passable through “bony” Kambin’s triangle was distinctively smaller than the largest mean diameter of endoscopic cannula passable through “neural” Kambin’s triangle at all levels. Although proximity of exiting root to the facet joint is always taken into consideration before PELD procedure, our 3D MRI based anatomical study is the first to provide actual maximum cannula dimensions permissible in this region.


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Regional , Catheters , Diskectomy , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , Intervertebral Disc , Lumbosacral Region , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Zygapophyseal Joint
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773501

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the role of lumbar facet joint degeneration in the development of degenerative lumbar scoliosis caused by asymmetric stress.@*METHODS@#Thirty-six New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=12): Group A with aspiration of the nucleus pulposus to induce disc degeneration; Group B with removal of the left capsule from the facet joints at L3/4 to L5/6 to induce degeneration; and Group C with both treatments. Springs were deployed on the left adjacent facets at L3/4, L5/6 and L5/6 to stress the facet joints. Serial radiographs were taken at 3 and 6 months, and the facet joint tissues were sampled at 6 months for Safranin O-fast green staining to assess the severity of cartilage degeneration based on the Mankin score.@*RESULTS@#The Cobb angle differed significantly among the 3 groups (=24.865, =0.000). In all the groups, the Cobb angles at 6 months increased significantly as compared with that at 3 months ( <0.05). The Cobb angles were significantly greater in group C than in the other 2 groups at both 3 and 6 months ( <0.05) but showed no significant difference between Groups A and B (>0.05). The severity of facet joint degeneration also differed significantly among the 3 groups (= 22.009, =0.000), and was the most severe in group C ( <0.05); facet joint degeneration was more severe in group B than in group A ( <0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Facet joint degeneration is an important factor that contributes to the development of degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Disc degeneration and facet joints degeneration can lead to lumbar scoliosis, which in turn aggravates disc degeneration, facet joints degeneration and asymmetric stress, thus forming a vicious circle to further exacerbate lumbar scoliosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Lumbar Vertebrae , Lumbosacral Region , Rabbits , Scoliosis , Stress, Physiological , Zygapophyseal Joint
18.
Coluna/Columna ; 17(4): 303-307, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975006

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Facet joints are true synovial joints, which derive their nerve supply from the sinuvertebral or recurrent nerve of Luschka as well as the posterior primary division of the corresponding spinal nerve. Diagnosis of low-back pain originating in the facet joints is difficult, and has traditionally relied upon invasive tests. To aid in the clinical diagnosis of this condition, the senior author described a new clinical sign. The following research project was designed to test the utility of this sign in the diagnosis of lumbar facet joint pain. Methods: We conducted a prospective evaluation of patients suspected of having low back pain secondary to facet joint involvement (Lumbar Facet joint Pain Syndrome - LFPS) during a twelve month observation period; candidate patients were evaluated clinically using the new diagnostic sign, which was then compared to findings on radionuclide bone scans and diagnostic medial branch blocks. Contingency table analysis was performed to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of the new clinical sign. Results: Contingency table analysis showed the following operating characteristics for the new diagnostic sign: Sensitivity: 70.37%, Specificity: 50%, Positive predictive value: 90.47%, Negative predictive value: 20% and accuracy 67.7%. Conclusions: Although the new clinical sign failed to show the same operating characteristics as the ones originally described, it has high sensitivity coupled with a good positive predictive value. We consider that although the sign by itself is not diagnostic of lumbar facet joint pain, its presence should alert the clinician to the diagnosis and the possibility of requiring additional testing. Level of Evidence III; Case control studyg.


RESUMO Objetivo: Articulações facetárias são verdadeiras articulações sinoviais, que inervação do Nervo sinuvertebral ou recorrente de Luschka, bem como a divisão principal posterior do nervo espinhal correspondente. O diagnóstico da dor lombar originário de articulações é difícil e tem tradicionalmente testes invasivos. Para auxiliar no diagnóstico clínico desta condição, o autor descreveu um novo sinal clínico. O seguinte projeto de pesquisa foi projetado para testar a utilidade do sinal descrito no diagnóstico da dor na articulação faceta lombar. Métodos: Foi realizada uma avaliação prospectiva de pacientes com suspeita de dor lombar secundária a faceta participação conjunta (Lombar Facet síndrome da articulação Dor - LFPs) durante um período de observação de 12 meses; pacientes candidatos foram avaliados clinicamente usando o novo sinal diagnóstico, comparados com as conclusões sobre cintilografia óssea de radionuclídeos e blocos de ramo medial diagnóstico. Análise de tabela de contingência foi realizada para calcular a sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivos e negativos e precisão do novo sinal clínico. Resultados: análise de tabela de contingência mostrou as seguintes características de funcionamento do novo sinal de diagnóstico: sensibilidade: 70,37%, especificidade: 50%, valor preditivo positivo: 90,47%, valor preditivo negativo: 20% e precisão de 67,7%. Conclusões: Apesar do novo sinal clínico não conseguir mostrar as mesmas características de operação como as inicialmente descritas, que tem uma sensibilidade elevada acoplada com um bom valor preditivo positivo, consideramos que, embora o sinal por si só - t diagnóstico da dor nas articulações faceta lombar - sua presença deve alertar o clínico do diagnóstico e a possibilidade de exigir testes adicionais. Nível de Evidência III; Estudo de caso-controleg.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Las articulaciones facetarias son verdaderas articulaciones sinoviales inervadas por el nervio sinuvertebral o recurrente de Luschka y por la división principal posterior del nervio espinal correspondiente. El diagnóstico del dolor lumbar originario de esas articulaciones es difícil y tradicionalmente las pruebas son invasivas. Para ayudar en el diagnóstico clínico de esta condición, el autor describió un nuevo signo clínico. El siguiente proyecto de investigación fue diseñado para probar la utilidad del signo descrito en el diagnóstico del dolor en las articulaciones facetarias lumbares. Métodos: Se realizó una evaluación prospectiva de pacientes con sospecha de dolor lumbar por inflamación de la articulación facetaria (síndrome facetario lumbar, SFL) durante un período de observación de 12 meses. Los pacientes candidatos fueron evaluados clínicamente usando el nuevo signo diagnóstico, que se comparó con las conclusiones de la gammagrafía ósea y los bloqueos de la rama medial. El análisis de tabla de contingencia se realizó para calcular sensibilidad, especificidad, valores predictivos positivos y negativos y precisión del nuevo signo clínico. Resultados: El análisis de tabla de contingencia mostró las siguientes características de desempeño del nuevo signo diagnóstico: sensibilidad de 70,37%; especificidad de 50%; valor predictivo positivo de 90,47%; valor predictivo negativo de 20% y precisión de 67,7%. Conclusiones: A pesar de que el nuevo signo clínico no pudo mostrar las mismas características de desempeño descritas inicialmente, tiene una sensibilidad elevada acoplada con un buen valor predictivo positivo. Consideramos que, aunque el signo por sí solo no es diagnóstico de dolor en las articulaciones facetarias lumbares, su presencia debe alertar al clínico sobre el diagnóstico y la posibilidad de exigir pruebas adicionales. Nivel de Evidencia III, Estudio de caso-controlg.


Subject(s)
Humans , Zygapophyseal Joint , Diagnostic Imaging , Radionuclide Imaging , Low Back Pain
19.
Coluna/Columna ; 17(3): 180-184, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952932

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The article presents an analysis of the clinical efficacy and causes of unsatisfactory outcomes of surgical treatment in patients with degenerative diseases of the lumbosacral junction of the spine. Methods: Patients were allocated to one of three groups, depending on the method of surgical intervention on the lumbosacral junction: 1) (n=352) - operated by the method of microsurgical discectomy; 2) (n=83) - operated with the use of artificial IVD prostheses; 3) (n = 183) - operated with the use of interbody fusion and posterior rigid stabilization. To investigate the causes of unsatisfactory outcomes, a correlation analysis was conducted of long-term clinical outcomes with preoperative instrumental parameters in the operated segment, surgical tactics used, and the development of complications. Results: It is determined that long-term "good" clinical outcomes are associated with individual preoperative parameters of the lumbosacral junction of the spine - linear displacement, sagittal angulation, height of the interbody space, degree of IVD degeneration by ADC. Conclusion: In degenerative diseases of the lumbosacral junction of the spine, the detailed analysis of long-term clinical outcomes enable the identification of the causes that affect the development of unsatisfactory outcomes, which are individual morphostructural changes in the lower lumbar segment: the amplitude of the segmental angle, the angle of the lumbar lordosis, the degree of linear displacement of the vertebrae, the height of the interbody space, and ADC. Complex clinical and instrumental analysis enabled us to determine possible surgical tactics. Level of Evidence II; Prognostic Studies— Investigating the Effect of a Patient Characteristic on the Disease Outcome.


RESUMO Objetivo: O artigo apresenta a análise da eficácia clínica e as causas dos resultados insatisfatórios no tratamento cirúrgico de pacientes com doenças degenerativas da articulação lombossacral da coluna vertebral. Métodos: Dependendo do método da intervenção cirúrgica na junção lombossacral, três grupos de pacientes foram alocados: 1) (n = 352) - operado pelo método de discectomia microcirúrgica; 2) (n = 83) - operado com a utilização de próteses artificiais IVD; 3) (n = 183) - operado com a utilização de fusão intercorporal e estabilização rígida posterior. Para investigar as causas de resultados insatisfatórios, foi realizada uma análise de correlação do desfecho clínico a longo prazo com parâmetros instrumentais pré-operatórios no segmento operado, táticas cirúrgicas e desenvolvimento de complicações. Resultados: Determinou-se que o resultado clínico "bom" a longo prazo está associado a parâmetros pré-operatórios individuais da junção lombossacral da coluna - deslocamento linear, angulação sagital, altura do espaço inter-corpo, grau de degeneração IVD por ADC. Conclusão: Nas doenças degenerativas da junção lombossacral da coluna vertebral, a análise detalhada do curso clínico a longo prazo, que é uma alteração morfoestrutural individual no segmento lombar inferior - a amplitude do ângulo segmentar, o ângulo de lordose lombar, o grau de deslocamento linear das vértebras, a altura do espaço de corpo intermédio, ADC, análise clínica e instrumental complexo - permitiu determinar possíveis táticas cirúrgicas. Nível de Evidência II; Estudos prognósticos - Investigação do efeito de característica de um paciente sobre o desfecho da doença.


RESUMEN Objetivo: El artículo presenta el análisis de la eficacia clínica y causas de los resultados insatisfactorios de tratamiento quirúrgico de los pacientes con enfermedades degenerativas de la unión lumbosacra de la columna vertebral. Métodos: Dependiendo del método de la intervención quirúrgica sobre la unión lumbosacra, se asignaron tres grupos de pacientes: 1) (n = 352) - operado por el método de la discectomía microquirúrgica; 2) (n = 83) - operado con el uso de prótesis IVD artificiales; 3) (n = 183) - operado con el uso de fusión intersomática y estabilización rígida posterior. Para investigar las causas de los resultados insatisfactorios, un análisis de correlación de los resultados clínicos a largo plazo con parámetros instrumentales preoperatorios en el segmento operado, tácticas y complicaciones quirúrgicas se llevó a cabo. Resultados: Se determina que a largo plazo "buenos" resultados clínicos están asociados con parámetros individuales preoperatorios de la unión lumbosacra de la columna vertebral - desplazamiento lineal, angulación sagital, altura del espacio intersomático, grado de degeneración IVD por ADC. Conclusión: En enfermedades degenerativas de la unión lumbosacra de la columna vertebral, el análisis detallado de los resultados clínicos a largo plazo hace posible la identificación de las causas que afectan al desarrollo de los resultados insatisfactorios, que son cambios individuales morfoestructurales en el segmento lumbar inferior - la amplitud del ángulo segmentario, el ángulo de la lordosis lumbar, el grado del desplazamiento lineal de las vértebras, la altura del espacio intersomático y ADC. El complejo análisis clínico e instrumental nos permitió determinar posibles tácticas quirúrgicas. Nivel de Evidencia II; Estudios pronósticos - Investigación del efecto de características de un paciente sobre el desenlace de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgical Procedures, Operative/adverse effects , Arthroplasty , Spine/surgery , Chronic Disease , Diskectomy , Zygapophyseal Joint
20.
Coluna/Columna ; 17(3): 221-226, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952937

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the impact of the relationship between tropism and angulation of the lower lumbar facet joints on a remote clinical outcome after dynamic and rigid surgical interventions. Methods: Patients with degenerative diseases of the lower lumbar spine were subdivided into three groups, according to the method of surgical treatment: 1) (n=48) the use of an artificial prosthesis intervertebral disc (IVD); 2) (n=42) the use of interbody fusion combined with transpedicular and transfacet stabilization; 3) (n=51) the use of interbody fusion and bilateral transpedicular stabilization. Analysis was performed of the remote clinical parameters and neuroimaging characteristics before the operation was performed. Results: When analyzing clinical and instrumental parameters, a significant correlation was found between the long-term outcomes of surgical treatment on the VAS and Oswestry scales and the neuroimaging data on angulation and tropism of the facet joints (FJ). Conclusions: The data obtained testify to the importance of preoperative diagnosis of tropism and angulation of the lower lumbar facet joint, which enables differentiated surgical tactics to be selected, and remote clinical outcomes to be optimized. In the presence of neuroimaging parameters of Facet Joint angulation of less than 600, regardless of the presence of tropism, it is possible to perform total arthroplasty of IVD. When neuroimaging parameters of Facet Joint angulation of more than 600 are detected, rigid stabilization of the operated segment is recommended, while in the absence of tropism of Facet Joints, a contralateral transfacetal fixation is possible; in the presence of tropism, it is expedient to perform bilateral transpedicular stabilization. Level of Evidence II; Prognostic Studies—Investigating the Effect of a Patient Characteristic on the Outcome of Disease.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar o impacto da relação entre tropismo e angulação das articulações lombares inferiores em um resultado clínico remoto, após intervenções cirúrgicas dinâmicas e rígidas. Métodos: Dependendo do método de tratamento cirúrgico, os pacientes com doenças degenerativas da coluna vertebral lombar inferior foram subdivididos em três grupos: 1) (n = 48) com a utilização de uma prótese de disco intervertebral artificial (IVD); 2) (n = 42) com utilização de fusão intercorporal, combinado com transpedicular e estabilização transfacetal; 3) (n = 51) com a utilização de fusão intercorporal e estabilização transpedicular bilateral. A análise dos parâmetros clínicos remotas e características de neuroimagem antes da operação foi realizada. Resultados: Quanto a análise de parâmetros clínicos e instrumentais, uma correlação significativa foi encontrada entre os resultados a longo prazo do tratamento cirúrgico com as escalas VAS e Oswestry com dados de neuroimagiologia sobre angulação e tropismo de articulações (FJ). Conclusão: Os dados obtidos atestam a importância do diagnóstico pré-operatório de tropismo e angulação da articulação faceta lombar inferior, que permite escolher táticas cirúrgicas diferenciadas e otimizar os resultados clínicos remotos. Na presença de parâmetros de neuroimagiologia de angulação de FJs menor do que 600, independentemente da presença de tropismo, é possível realizar a artroplastia total da IVD. Quando a detecção de parâmetros de neuroimagens FJ, angulação mais do que 600, a estabilização rígida do segmento operado é recomendado, enquanto que na ausência do tropismo de FJs, uma fixação transfacetal contralateral é possível; na presença de tropismo, é conveniente realizar a estabilização transpedicular bilateral. Nível de Evidência II; Estudos prognósticos - Investigação do efeito de característica de um paciente sobre o desfecho da doença.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar el impacto de la relación entre el tropismo y la angulación de las articulaciones facetarias lumbares inferiores en un resultado clínico remoto después de intervenciones quirúrgicas dinámicas y rígidas. Métodos: Los pacientes con enfermedades degenerativas de la columna lumbar inferior se subdividieron en tres grupos de acuerdo con el método de tratamiento quirúrgico: 1) (n = 48) uso de una prótesis artificial de disco intervertebral (DIV); 2) (n = 42) uso de la fusión intersomática combinada con la estabilización transpedicular y transfacetaria; 3) (n = 51) fusión intersomática y estabilización transpedicular bilateral. Se realizó el análisis de los parámetros clínicos remotos y las características de neuroimagen antes de que se realizara la operación. Resultados: Al analizar los parámetros clínicos e instrumentales, se encontró una correlación significativa entre los resultados a largo plazo del tratamiento quirúrgico en las escalas EVA y Oswestry con datos de neuroimagen sobre la angulación y el tropismo de las articulaciones facetarias (AF). Conclusiones: Los datos obtenidos confirman la importancia del diagnóstico preoperatorio de tropismo y la angulación de la articulación facetaria lumbar inferior, lo que permite elegir tácticas quirúrgicas diferenciadas y optimizar los resultados clínicos remotos. En presencia de parámetros de neuroimagen de angulación de AF inferior a 600, independientemente de la presencia de tropismo, es posible realizar una artroplastia total de DIV Al detectar los parámetros de neuroimagen de la angulación de la articulación facetaria de más de 60°, se recomienda la estabilización rígida del segmento operado, mientras que en ausencia de tropismo de las articulaciones facetarias es posible una fijación transfacetaria contralateral; en presencia de tropismo, es conveniente realizar una estabilización transpedicular bilateral. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios pronósticos - Investigación del efecto de una característica del paciente sobre el desenlace de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Zygapophyseal Joint , Arthroplasty , Spinal Diseases , Chronic Disease
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