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1.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.2): 180-187, oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355769

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. La aparición de enterobacterias multirresistentes y productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en pacientes de consulta externa con infecciones urinarias, representa un problema de salud pública en Perú. Objetivos. Caracterizar molecularmente enterobacterias multirresistentes aisladas de pacientes con diagnóstico de infección urinaria y procedentes de dos departamentos de la selva peruana. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo, observacional y retrospectivo de 61 aislamientos de urocultivo procedentes de la selva peruana durante 2017 y 2018. Los perfiles de resistencia se identificaron utilizando el sistema automatizado MicroScan™ y para la detección de los genes blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaSHV se empleó una reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) convencional. Resultados. Las enterobacterias positivas para BLEE más frecuentes por departamento fueron Escherichia coli en Madre de Dios (25 %, 10/40) y Ucayali (76,2 %, 16/21). En ambos departamentos, el gen blaCTX-Mfue el más frecuente (25/61; 41 %), seguido por blaTEM(15/61; 24,6 %) y blaSHV (10/61; 16,4 %). En el perfil de sensibilidad antimicrobiana, se detectó 72,6 % de resistencia contra ampicilina, 82,3 % contra cefalotina y 88,7 % contra nitrofurantoína. Conclusiones. El porcentaje de cepas de enterobacterias multirresistentes productoras de BLEE en ambos departamentos fue del 57,4 % y el gen bla CTX-M fue el más frecuente.


Abstract | Introduction. The emergence of multiresistant enterobacteria producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) in outpatients with urinary tract infections represents a public health problem in Perú. Objectives. To characterize multiresistant enterobacteria isolated from patients diagnosed with urinary tract infection in two Peruvian jungle departments using molecular techniques. Materials and methods. We conducted a descriptive, observational, and retrospective study of 61 urine culture isolates from two departments in the Peruvian jungle during 2017-2018. Resistance profiles were identified using the MicroScan™ automated system and a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of blaCTX-M, blaTEMand blaSHV genes. Results. The most common positive ESBL enterobacteria for each department were Escherichia coli in Madre de Dios (10/40; 25%) and Ucayali (16/21; 76.2%). Gene blaCTX-Mwas the most prevalent in both departments (25/61; 41%), followed by blaTEM (15/61; 24.6%), and blaSHV (10/61; 16.4%). As for the antimicrobial susceptibility profile, we detected resistance levels of 72.6% for ampicillin, 82.3% for cephalothin, and 88.7% for nitrofurantoin. Conclusions. BLEE-producing multi-resistant enterobacteria strains in both departments were 57.4% and blaCTX-M was the most common gene.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Microbial , Enterobacteriaceae , beta-Lactam Resistance , Genes
2.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(2): e503, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347482

ABSTRACT

Introdución: Las ß-lactamasas AmpC son enzimas con capacidad hidrolítica, pueden ser de tipo constitutivo o inducible. No existe un método estandarizado para su determinación fenotípica por normas internacionales; la detección de estas mediante el uso de la biología molecular podría ser una alternativa útil para vigilancia y control de la diseminación de clones circulantes en el entorno hospitalario. Objetivo: Determinar el fenotipo de resistencia y genes expresados en la producción de ß-lactamasas AmpC en bacilos gramnegativos de aislados clínicos en un centro hospitalario. Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y de corte transversal. Se seleccionaron 78 cepas bacterianas como portadoras de ß- lactamasas AmpC. Se les realizó prueba de aproximación de disco; a las cepas con resultado positivo se seleccionaron para extracción de ADN y PCR multiplex para detección de 6 familias genes AmpC. Se determinó la frecuencia por tipo de muestra, servicio y comparación con el perfil de susceptibilidad. Resultados: De las cepas seleccionadas con fenotipo AmpC, el 57,6 por ciento (45/78) se consideró caso confirmado ß-lactamasas AmpC por su positividad para la prueba confirmatoria. La técnica molecular utilizada confirmó en el 40 por ciento (18/45) la presencia de genes AmpC. Se obtuvo con mayor frecuencia el gen MIR n= 9 (20 por ciento), seguido de DHA n= 7 (15 por ciento). Conclusiones: La detección oportuna de genes que codifican para ß-lactamasas AmpC permite establecer estrategias para evitar la circulación mediada por plásmidos en hospitales, así como utilizar mejores opciones terapéuticas que no induzcan a otros mecanismos de resistencia(AU)


Introduction: AmpC ß--lactamases are enzymes with hydrolytic activity. They may be either constitutive or inducible. No standardized method is available for their phenotypical determination by international standards. Their detection by molecular biology could be a useful alternative for the surveillance and control of the spread of clones circulating in hospital environments. Objective: Determine the resistance phenotype and genes expressed in the production of AmpC ß-lactamases in Gram-negative bacilli from clinical isolates in a hospital. Methods: An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. A total 78 bacterial strains were selected as carriers of AmpC ß-lactamases. Disc approximation tests were performed. The strains testing positive were selected for DNA extraction and multiplex PCR for detection of six AmpC gene families. Determination was made of the frequency per sample type, service and comparison with the susceptibility profile. Results: Of the strains selected with AmpC phenotype, 57.6 percent (45/78) were considered to be AmpC β-lactamase confirmed cases, due to their positive confirmatory test. The molecular technique used confirmed the presence of AmpC genes in 40 percent (18/45) of the cases. The gene most commonly obtained was MIR n= 9 (20 percent), followed by DHA n= 7 (15 percent). Conclusions: Timely detection of genes encoding for AmpC ß-lactamases makes it possible to set up strategies to prevent plasmid-mediated circulation in hospitals, as well as apply better therapeutic options that do not induce other resistance mechanisms(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , beta-Lactam Resistance/drug effects , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Molecular Biology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genes/physiology
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 302-310, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248934

ABSTRACT

Bovine clinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus spp. is a serious and widespread disease in the world of dairy farming. Antimicrobial therapy is of fundamental importance in the prevention and treatment of infectious mastitis, but the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials acts as a determining factor for the spread of the disease. The present study evaluated the resistance profiles of 57 Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine clinical mastitis to beta-lactams and gentamicin, relating characteristics of phenotype (in vitro susceptibility tests) and genotype (detection and expression of genes encoding resistance - mecA, mecALGA251, blaZ, femA, femB, and aacA-aphD - using PCR and RT-PCR, respectively). One or more genes coding for resistance to different antimicrobials were detected in 50 Staphylococcus spp. isolates. The femA and femB genes were the most frequent (75.4% for both). The observed expression of the genes was as follows: blaZ (60%), femA (39.5%), aacA-aphD (50%), femB (32.6%), mecA (8.3%), and mecALGA251 (0%). Considering the relevance of the genus Staphylococcus to bovine mastitis, this study aimed to elucidate aspects regarding the genotypic and phenotypic profiles of these microorganisms so as to contribute to the development of effective strategies for mastitis control.(AU)


A mastite clínica bovina causada por Staphylococcus spp. é uma doença grave e generalizada no mundo da pecuária leiteira. A terapia antimicrobiana é de fundamental importância na prevenção e no tratamento da mastite infecciosa, mas o uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos atua como fator determinante para a disseminação da doença. O presente estudo avaliou os perfis de resistência de 57 Staphylococcus spp. isolados de mastite clínica bovina em relação ao uso de betalactâmicos e gentamicina, relacionando características do fenótipo (testes de suscetibilidade in vitro) e genótipo (detecção e expressão de genes que codificam resistência - mecA, mecALGA251, blaZ, femA, femB, e aacA-aphD - usando PCR e RT-PCR, respectivamente). Um ou mais genes que codificam resistência a diferentes antimicrobianos foram detectados em 50 Staphylococcus spp. isolados. Os genes femA e femB foram os mais frequentes (75,4% para ambos). A expressão observada dos genes foi a seguinte: blaZ (60%), femA (39,5%), aacA-aphD (50%), femB (32,6%), mecA (8,3%) e mecALGA251 (0%). Considerando-se a relevância do gênero Staphylococcus para a mastite bovina, este estudo teve como objetivo elucidar aspectos referentes aos perfis genotípico e fenotípico desses microrganismos, a fim de contribuir para o desenvolvimento de estratégias eficazes para o controle da mastite.(AU)


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Gene Expression/genetics , beta-Lactam Resistance/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Gentamicins , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
4.
Med. infant ; 28(1): 38-42, Marzo 2021. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1283476

ABSTRACT

Últimamente, se están detectando mutaciones en las proteínas ligadoras de penicilina (PBP) de los estreptococos beta-hemolíticos que corresponden a sitios que en Streptococcus pneumoniae han determinado sensibilidad disminuida a los antibióticos beta-lactámicos. Primero, se describieron cepas con sensibilidad intermedia a penicilina en Streptococcus agalactiae (estreptococos del grupo B), luego en Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (mayormente grupos C y G) y, más recientemente, cepas con sensibilidad disminuida a aminopenicilinas y cefalosporinas de tercera generación en Streptococcus pyogenes (grupo A). El costo biológico de estas modificaciones nos permite pensar que los niveles de resistencia no han de ser tan elevados como para comprometer por ahora la efectividad clínica de los beta-lactámicos (AU)


Recently, mutations in penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of beta-hemolytic streptococci have been detected corresponding to sites that in Streptococcus pneumoniae have been determined to have decreased sensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics. First, strains with intermediate sensitivity to penicillin were described in Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci), subsequently in Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (mainly groups C and G) and, more recently, strains with decreased sensitivity to third-generation aminopenicillins and cephalosporins were found in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A). The biological cost of these modifications suggests that, for now, resistance levels are not high enough to compromise the clinical effectiveness of beta-lactams (AU)


Subject(s)
Streptococcus agalactiae/drug effects , Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects , Penicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , beta-Lactam Resistance , beta-Lactams/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e76, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289870

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. To describe bacterial resistance and antimicrobial consumption ratio at the subnational level in Argentina during 2018, considering beta-lactams group as a case-study. Methods. Antimicrobial consumption was expressed as defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 inhabitants. Resistance of Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus to beta-lactams was recorded. Resistance/consumption ratio was estimated calculating "R" for each region of Argentina, and this data was compared with other countries. Results. The most widely consumed beta-lactams in Argentina were amoxicillin (3.64) for the penicillin sub-group, cephalexin (0.786) for first generation cephalosporins, cefuroxime (0.022) for second generation; cefixime (0.043) for third generation and cefepime (0.0001) for the fourth generation group. Comparison between beta-lactams consumption and bacterial resistance demonstrated great disparities between the six regions of the country. Conclusions. The case-study of Argentina shows that antimicrobial consumption and resistance of the most common pathogens differed among regions, reflecting different realities within the same country. Because this situation might also be occurring in other countries, this data should be taken into account to target local efforts towards better antimicrobial use, to improve antimicrobial stewardship programs and to propose more suitable sales strategies in order to prevent and control antimicrobial resistance.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Determinar la razón entre la resistencia bacteriana y el consumo de antimicrobianos a nivel subnacional en Argentina en el 2018, considerando el grupo de los betalactámicos como estudio de caso. Métodos. El consumo de antimicrobianos se expresó como una dosis diaria determinada (DDD) por 1000 habitantes. Se registró la resistencia de Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae y Staphylococcus aureus a los betalactámicos. Se determinó la razón entre la resistencia y el consumo calculando "R" para cada región de Argentina, y estos datos se compararon con los de otros países. Resultados. Los betalactámicos más consumidos en Argentina fueron la amoxicilina (3,64) para el subgrupo de la penicilina; la cefalexina (0,786) para las cefalosporinas de primera generación; la cefuroxima (0.022) para las de segunda generación; la cefixima (0.043) para las de tercera generación, y la cefepima (0.0001) para el grupo de la cuarta generación. La comparación entre el consumo de betalactámicos y la resistencia bacteriana demostró que había grandes disparidades entre las seis regiones del país. Conclusiones. El estudio de caso en Argentina indica que el consumo de antimicrobianos y la resistencia a los patógenos más comunes difería entre las regiones; esto demuestra que hay distintas realidades dentro del mismo país. Como esta situación también se puede dar en otros países, estos datos se deben tener en cuenta para definir las actividades locales destinadas a fomentar un mejor uso de los antimicrobianos, para mejorar los programas de manejo de los antimicrobianos y para proponer estrategias de venta más adecuadas con el fin de prevenir y controlar la resistencia a los antimicrobianos.


RESUMO Objetivo. Descrever a relação entre o consumo de antimicrobianos e a resistência bacteriana no nível subnacional na Argentina em 2018, considerando o grupo dos betalactâmicos no estudo de caso. Métodos. O consumo de antimicrobianos foi representado por doses diárias definidas (DDD) por 1.000 habitantes. Foi registrada a resistência de Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Staphylococcus aureus aos betalactâmicos. A relação entre consumo e resistência foi calculada com base no "R" para cada região do país e os dados da Argentina foram comparados aos de outros países. Resultados. Os betalactâmicos de maior consumo na Argentina foram amoxicilina (3,64) no grupo das penicilinas, cefalexina (0,786) no grupo das cefalosporinas de primeira geração, cefuroxima (0.022) no grupo das cefalosporinas de segunda geração, cefixima (0.043) no grupo das cefalosporinas de terceira geração e cefepima (0.0001) no grupo das cefalosporinas de quarta geração. Ao se comparar o consumo de betalactâmicos e a resistência bacteriana, observou-se grande disparidade entre as seis regiões do país. Conclusões. O estudo de caso revela diferenças no consumo de antimicrobianos e na resistência dos patógenos mais comuns entre as regiões da Argentina, refletindo realidades distintas dentro do mesmo país. Como esta mesma situação pode estar ocorrendo em outros países, estes achados devem servir para direcionar os esforços locais a uma melhor utilização dos antimicrobianos, aperfeiçoar os programas de gestão do uso destes medicamentos e propor estratégias de venda mais apropriadas, visando a prevenir e controlar a resistência aos antimicrobianos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , beta-Lactam Resistance , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Argentina , Retrospective Studies
6.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(3): e605, sept.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156539

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Escherichia coli extraintestinal constituye uno de los principales patógenos causantes de infecciones asociadas a la asistencia sanitaria con un alto impacto en la salud por su morbilidad y mortalidad. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento clínico de E. coli extraintestinal en hospitales cubanos, así como determinar la resistencia antimicrobiana y la producción de betalactamasas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, durante el período de mayo 2017 a junio 2018, en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Microbiología del Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí que incluyó 119 aislados de Escherichia coli causantes de infecciones extraintestinales en 30 hospitales de diferentes áreas geográficas del país. Se llevó a cabo la identificación mediante el sistema API 20E y la determinación de la susceptibilidad in vitro a 16 antimicrobianos por el sistema automatizado VITEK-2 y el método de difusión por disco, excepto para la colistina que se empleó el método de elución de disco. Se realizó, además, la detección fenotípica de betalactamasa de espectro extendido, de tipo AmpC y metalobetalactamasa. Resultados: E. coli extraintestinal causó con mayor frecuencia infección de herida quirúrgica (23,5 por ciento), infección del torrente sanguíneo (20,7 por ciento), infecciones respiratorias (17,6 por ciento), infecciones de piel (16,8 por ciento) e infección del tracto urinario (12,6 por ciento). Predominó la resistencia a betalactámicos que osciló entre 61,3 por ciento y 89,1 por ciento, mientras que 79,8 por ciento y 80,5 por ciento de los aislados fueron resistentes a trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol y tetraciclina, respectivamente. La amikacina, la fosfomicina, la colistina y los carbapenémicos mostraron mayor actividad in vitro. El 43,7 por ciento produjo betalactamasas de espectro extendido, 7,6 por ciento AmpC plasmídica y 0,8 por ciento metalobetalactamasa. Conclusiones: La escasa sensibilidad en los aislados de E. coli extraintestinal a los antimicrobianos de primera línea, así como la detección de un aislado productor de metalobetalactamasa evidencia la necesidad de mantener un monitoreo continuo de este patógeno para el cual las alternativas de tratamiento son cada vez más restringidas(AU)


Introduction: Extraintestinal Escherichia coli is one of the main pathogens causing infections associated to health care, with a high impact on health, due to its morbidity and mortality. Objective: Describe the clinical behavior of extraintestinal E. coli in Cuban hospitals, and determine antimicrobial resistance and betalactamase production. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Microbiology National Reference Laboratory of Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute from May 2017 to June 2018. The study included 119 Escherichia coli isolates causing extraintestinal infections in 30 hospitals from various geographic areas in the country. Identification was based on the API 20E system, and determination of in vitro susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials on the automated system VITEK-2 and the disk diffusion method, except for colistin, for which the disk elution method was used. Phenotypical detection was also performed of AmpC extended-spectrum betalactamase and metallobetalactamase. Results: The most common disorders caused by extraintestinal E. coli were surgical wound infection (23.5 percent), bloodstream infection (20.7 percent), respiratory infections (17.6 percent), skin infections (16.8 percent) and urinary tract infection (12.6 percent). A predominance was found of resistance to betalactams, which ranged between 61.3 percent y 89.1 percent, whereas 79.8 percent and 80.5 percent of the isolates were resistant to trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline, respectively. Amikacin, fosfomycin, colistin and carbapenemics displayed greater in vitro activity. 43.7 percent produced extended spectrum betalactamases, 7.6 percent plasmid AmpC and 0.8 percent metallobetalactamase. Conclusions: The low sensitivity of extraintestinal E. coli isolates to first-line antimicrobials and the detection of a metallobetalactamase producing isolate are evidence of the need to maintain continuous surveillance of this pathogen, for which the treatment options are ever more restricted.


Subject(s)
Humans , beta-Lactam Resistance/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli/pathogenicity
7.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(3): 235-237, 20200930. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1255089

ABSTRACT

Objective: Characterize isolates of enterobacterias and pseudomonas based on their resistance to the antibiotics. Methods: This study was conducted with 44 samples from various species from the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae family and they were submitted to the Modified Hodge Test and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) test. Results: From the 44 analyzed samples nine produced ESBL and ten produced some kind of carbapenemase. Conclusion: In total, 38,6% of the samples showed an increased in the incidence of this resistance in the last few years given that before 2001 there was not a single carbapenemase described. This fact alarms patients immunosuppressed or hospitalized since they colonize our digestive tract and can cause an infection given the opportunity.


Objetivo: Caracterizar isolados de enterobactérias e pseudomonas em relação a sua resistência aos antimicrobianos. Métodos: O estudo foi realizado com 44 amostras de várias espécies das famílias Enterobacteriaceae e Pseudomonaceae, as quais foram submetidas aos testes de Hodge Modificado e Beta-Lactamase de Espectro Estendido (ESBL). Resultados: Das 44 amostras analisadas nove são produtoras de ESBL e dez são produtoras de carbapenemase. Conclusão: No total, 38,6% das amostras apresentaram algum tipo de resistência às ESBL e carbapenemases, e esse número mostra um aumento na incidência dessas resistências nos últimos anos já que, antes de 2001, não haviam sido descritas as enzimas car­­­ba­­­penemases. Esse fato é alarmante para pacientes imunossuprimidos ou hospitalizados uma vez que as enterobactérias colonizam nosso trato digestivo e podem causar uma infecção se dada a oportunidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas , beta-Lactam Resistance , Enterobacteriaceae , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae
9.
Oncol. (Guayaquil) ; 29(3): 165-178, 31 de diciembre del 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140775

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los programas de optimización del uso de antimicrobianos (PROA) surgen ante la necesidad de disminuir el porcentaje de infecciones por microorganismos resistentes a los antimicrobianos, lo cual beneficiaria con mejores resultados clínicos, disminuyendo efectos adversos y reduciendo el gasto que involucra el uso de los mismos. Este programa se implementó en la unidad de cuidados intensivos del hospital oncológico SOLCA Guayaquil, durante un año. Es objetivo del presente estudiofueestablecer la tasa de uso de antimicrobianos en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos(UCI) el porcentaje de descalamiento y la epidemiología de las infecciones en UCI. Métodos: En este estudio observacional prospectivo, con muestra no probabilística se incluyeron todos los casos ingresados en la UCIdel Instituto Oncológico Nacional Dr. Juan Tanca Marengo de la ciudad de Guayaquil, en el período julio 2018 a junio 2019. Las variablesfueron prevalencia del uso de antibióticos, tipo de antibiótico usado, descalamiento de antibioterapia, adherencia del personal a las guías clínicas y dosis diarias definidas (DDD) y el índice días-paciente mes por área de internación. Resultados: Se incluyeron 246 pacientes; el 81% se encontraba recibiendo antibióticos, con un máximo de dos antibióticos por paciente; la profilaxis quirúrgica se mantuvo dentro de las primeras 24 horas en el 50% de la veces y el 25.66% la recibió por un periodo mayor a 24 horas; 57.25% tuvo un decalamiento mantenido, en el 20.75% de tipo escalado y el13.66% de tipo descalado. Entre los patógenos aislados están las enterobacterias productoras de beta lactamasas de espectro extendido positivas (BLEE+) con un 57% y las enterobacterias resistentes a los carbapenémicos con un 32%. El mayor consumo fue de carbapenémicos con 625.24g. seguidos de los inhibidores de betalactamasas con 402.94 g. La tasa de tratamientos empíricos del 49.58% vs el 26.41% de tratamientos dirigidos; y mortalidad bruta del 22.76%. Conclusión:La tasa de uso de antibióticos en UCI es alta, el porcentaje de descalamiento fue aceptable comparada con las tasas reportadas regionalmente, la epidemiología de gérmenes reportados más frecuentes son las enterobacterias productoras de beta lactamasa espectro extendido.


Introduction: Antimicrobial use optimization programs (PROA) arise due to the need to decrease the percentage of infections by antimicrobial resistant microorganisms, which would benefit from better clinical results, reducing adverse effects and reducing the expense involved in the use of the same. This program was implemented in the intensive care unit of the SOLCA Guayaquil cancer hospital for one year. The objective of the present study was to establish the rate of use of antimicrobials in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), the percentage of descaling and the epidemiology of infections in the ICU. Methods:In this prospective observational study, with a non-probability sample, all the cases admitted to the ICU of the Dr. Juan Tanca Marengo National Oncological Institute in the city of Guayaquil, in the period July 2018 to June 2019 were included. The variables were prevalence of the antibiotic use, type of antibiotic used, antibiotics displacement, staff adherence to clinical guidelines and defined daily doses (DDD) and the patient-day-month index by hospitalization area. Results:246 patients were included; 81% were receiving antibiotics, with a maximum of two antibiotics per patient; Surgical prophylaxis was maintained within the first 24 hours 50% of the time and 25.66% received it for a period greater than 24 hours; 57.25% had a sustained offset, in 20.75% the scaled type and 13.66% the bare type. Isolated pathogens include 57% positive extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae (ESBL +) and 32% carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae. The highest consumption was of carbapenems with 625.24 g. followed by beta-lactamase inhibitors with 402.94 g. The empirical treatment rate of 49.58% vs. 26.41% of targeted treatments; and gross mortality of 22.76%. Conclusion:The rate of use of antibiotics in the ICU is high, the percentage of descaling was acceptable compared to the rates reported regionally, the epidemiology of the most frequent reported germs are the extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross Infection , beta-Lactam Resistance , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal , Antimicrobial Stewardship
10.
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 30(3): 231-237, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050987

ABSTRACT

Allergy to Betalactams is a widely suspected pathology, which is not regularly studied in Chile, leading to a misusage of antibiotics of other families. In this article a case report in a pediatric patient will be described, and a discussion about the studies needed for this pathology, and treatment will be made in accordance to the experiences and tools available in Chile, and specifically in University of Chile Clinical Hospital. In our Hospital we study these cases following international guidelines for the diagnosis of allergy to Betalactams. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , beta-Lactamases/adverse effects , beta-Lactam Resistance , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
11.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(4): 323-327, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974230

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study assessed the microbiology, clinical syndromes, and outcomes of oncologic patients with viridans group streptococci isolated from blood cultures between January 1st, 2013 and December 31st, 2016 in a referral hospital in Mexico using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper. Antimicrobial sensitivity was determined using BD Phoenix 100 according to CLSI M100 standards. Clinical information was obtained from medical records and descriptive analysis was performed.Forty-three patients were included, 22 females and 21 males, aged 42 ± 17 years. Twenty (46.5%) patients had hematological cancer and 23 (53.5%) a solid malignancy. The viridans group streptococci isolated were Streptococcus mitis, 20 (46.5%); Streptococcus anginosus, 14 (32.6%); Streptococcus sanguinis, 7 (16.3%); and Streptococcus salivarius, 2 (4.7%). The main risk factors were pyrimidine antagonist chemotherapy in 22 (51.2%) and neutropenia in 19 (44.2%) cases, respectively. Central line associated bloodstream infection was diagnosed in 18 (41.9%) cases. Septic shock occurred in 20.9% of patients, with an overall mortality of 18.6%. Only four S. mitis revealed penicillin-resistance.Our results are similar to those of other series, identifying these bacteria as emerging pathogens with significant morbidity and mortality in oncologic patients. The MALDI-TOF system increased the rate of viridans group streptococci isolation in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Streptococcal Infections/complications , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnosis , Neoplasms/microbiology , Penicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cohort Studies , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , beta-Lactam Resistance , Viridans Streptococci/isolation & purification , Viridans Streptococci/drug effects , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 270-276, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957426

ABSTRACT

Abstract Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) has been considered a major cause of infection and mortality in burn patients, especially in developing countries such as Iran. One of the most common mechanisms of carbapenem resistance is production of metallo-β-lactamases [(MBLs), including Verona Integron-encoded Metallo-beta-lactamase (VIM), imipenemase (IMP), São Paulo metalo-beta-lactamase (SPM), German imipenemase (GIM), New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM), Dutch imipenemase (DIM), Adelaide imipenemase (AIM), Seoul imipenemase (SIM), KHM, Serratia metallo-β-lactamase (SMB), Tripoli metallo-β-lactamase (TMB), and Florence imipenemase (FIM)]. Limited information is available on the prevalence of CRPA and MBLs in Iranian burn units. We performed a systematic search by using different electronic databases, including Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, and Iranian Database. Of 586 articles published from January 2000 to December 2016, 14 studies reporting the incidence of CRPA and MBLs as detected by molecular methods in burn patients were included in this review. The meta-analyses showed that the prevalence of CRPA, IMP, and VIM was 76.8% (95% CI 67.5-84.1), 13.1% (95% CI 4.7-31.5), and 21.4% (95% CI 14.6-30.1), respectively, in Iranian burn centers and remaining MBLs types have not yet been detected. There was a high prevalence of MBLs and CRPA in Iranian burn centers. Therefore, these measurements should be applied nationally and rigorous infection control measures and antimicrobial stewardship will be the major pillars to control multidrug resistant microorganisms, such as CRPA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Carbapenems , beta-Lactam Resistance/genetics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Iran
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(2): 147-154, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959424

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La resistencia de enterobacterias a quinolonas se ha difundido por el mundo, fenómeno presente también en Venezuela. El mecanismo de esta resistencia pudiera estar mediado por genes incluidos en el cromosoma bacteriano o transmitirse en el interior de plásmidos. Objetivo: Evaluar la resistencia a quino-lonas, codificada por genes qnr, presentes en cepas de enterobacterias, aisladas en el Hospital Universitario de Cumaná, Venezuela. Métodos: A las cepas obtenidas se les realizaron pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a quinolonas, β-lactámicos y aminoglucósidos. La presencia del gen qnr se determinó por RPC. Las enterobacterias portadoras del gen qnr fueron sometidas al proceso de conjugación bacteriana para comprobar su capacidad de transferencia. A las transconjugantes obtenidas se les realizó pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y RPC para comprobar la transferencia de los genes. Resultados: Se encontraron elevados porcentajes de resistencia antimicrobiana a quinolonas y betalactámicos. El 33,6% de las cepas eran portadoras del gen qnrB, y 0,9% del gen qnrA. Se obtuvieron 23 cepas transconjugantes; de éstas, 20 portaban el gen qnrB, no se observó la presencia de qnrA. Discusión: En conclusión, el elevado porcentaje de genes qnr encontrado en las enterobacterias aisladas, y comprobada la presencia de éstos en plásmidos transferibles, complica la aplicación de tratamientos basados en quinolonas y fluoroquinolonas, por lo que es recomendable el uso racional de estos antimicrobianos, y proponer la rotación de la terapia antimicrobiana, a fin de evitar la selección de cepas resistentes.


Background: Enterobacteria resistant to quinolones is increasing worldwide, including Venezuela. The mechanism for this resistance could be due to genes included in the chromosome or in transmissible plasmids. Aim: To evaluate the resistance to quinolones, coded by qnr genes present in enterobacteria species, isolated in the University Hospital of Cumana, Venezuela. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility tests to quinolones, beta-lactams and aminoglycosides were carried out to all the isolates. The presence of qnr genes were determined by PCR. The isolates carrying the qnr genes were used for bacterial conjugation tests to determine the presence of transferable plasmids. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests and PCR were carried out in the transconjugants to verify the transfer of the genes. Results: High levels of antimicrobial resistance to quinolones and beta-lactams were found among the isolates. We found that 33.6% of the isolates carry the qnrB gene and 0.9% qnr A gene. Of the 23 transconjugants, 20 showed to have qnrB gene, but none qnrA. Discussion: We concluded that the high frequency of qnr genes found in the enterobacteria isolates and their presence on transferable plasmids, complicate the use of quinolones for the treatment of bacterial infections, thus, a treatment plan should be designed with the rational use and the rotation of different types of antimicrobials, in order to avoid the selection of increasingly resistant strains.


Subject(s)
Plasmids , Quinolones/pharmacology , beta-Lactam Resistance/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/genetics , Gram-Negative Bacteria/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Venezuela , beta-Lactamases/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Escherichia coli Proteins , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Genes, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Hospitals, University
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(1): 51-54, Jan.-feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1039210

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A retrospective cohort study, were evaluated: polymyxin B plus aminoglycosides or polymyxin B plus other antibiotics. Any degree of acute kidney injury occurred in 26 (86.6%) patients. The median time to acute kidney injury was 6.0 (95% CI 3-14) days in the polymyxin-aminoglycoside containing regimen group, against 27.0 (95% CI 6-42) days in the polymyxin with other antimicrobial combinations group (p = 0.03). Polymyxin B with aminoglycosides group progressed faster to any degree of renal dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Polymyxin B/therapeutic use , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/drug therapy , Kidney/drug effects , Mediastinitis/microbiology , Mediastinitis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , beta-Lactam Resistance/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/mortality , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Aminoglycosides/therapeutic use , Mediastinitis/mortality
15.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170065, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893689

ABSTRACT

Abstract Considering oral diseases, antibiofilm compounds can decrease the accumulation of pathogenic species such as Streptococcus mutans at micro-areas of teeth, dental restorations or implant-supported prostheses. Objective To assess the effect of thirteen different novel lactam-based compounds on the inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation. Material and methods We synthesized compounds based on γ-lactones analogues from rubrolides by a mucochloric acid process and converted them into their corresponding γ-hydroxy-γ-lactams by a reaction with isobutylamine and propylamine. Compounds concentrations ranging from 0.17 up to 87.5 μg mL-1 were tested against S. mutans. We diluted the exponential cultures in TSB and incubated them (37°C) in the presence of different γ-lactones or γ-lactams dilutions. Afterwards, we measured the planktonic growth by optical density at 630 nm and therefore assessed the biofilm density by the crystal violet staining method. Results Twelve compounds were active against biofilm formation, showing no effect on bacterial viability. Only one compound was inactive against both planktonic and biofilm growth. The highest biofilm inhibition (inhibition rate above 60%) was obtained for two compounds while three other compounds revealed an inhibition rate above 40%. Conclusions Twelve of the thirteen compounds revealed effective inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation, with eight of them showing a specific antibiofilm effect.


Subject(s)
Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , beta-Lactams/pharmacology , Lactones/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Plankton/growth & development , Plankton/drug effects , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Colony Count, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Biofilms/growth & development , beta-Lactam Resistance/drug effects , beta-Lactams/chemical synthesis , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Gentian Violet , Lactones/chemical synthesis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemical synthesis
16.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 182-188, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772760

ABSTRACT

With the abuse of antimicrobial agents in developing countries, increasing number of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) attracted considerable public concern. A retrospective study was conducted based on 242 CRE strains from a tertiary hospital in Hangzhou, China to investigate prevalence and drug resistance characteristics of CRE in southeast China. Bacterial species were identified. Antimicrobial susceptibility was examined by broth microdilution method or epsilometer test. Resistant β-lactamase genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Genotypes were investigated by phylogenetic analysis. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were the most prevalent types of species, with occurrence in 71.9% and 21.9% of the strains, respectively. All strains exhibited high resistance (> 70%) against β-lactam antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and nitrofurantoin but exhibited low resistance against tigecycline (0.8%) and minocycline (8.3%). A total of 123 strains harbored more than two kinds of β-lactamase genes. bla, bla, bla, and bla were the predominant genotypes, with detection rates of 60.3%, 61.6%, 43.4%, and 16.5%, respectively, and were highly identical with reference sequences in different countries, indicating potential horizontal dissemination. IMP-4 was the most frequent class B metallo-lactamases in this study. In conclusion, continuous surveillance and effective prevention should be emphasized to reduce spread of CRE.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Genetics , China , Epidemiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Genotype , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , beta-Lactam Resistance , beta-Lactamases , Genetics
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(2): 368-374, mar.-abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-910363

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) species isolated from bovine mastitis, through phenotypic and PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-Polimerase Chain Reaction) methods and to compare both techniques to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique. Among them, the PCR-RFLP method, using a partially conserved sequence of the groEL gene, is a promising alternative, because of its reproducibility and reliability. On the other hand, the proteomic technique MALDI-TOF MS provides an accurate and much faster diagnosis and has been increasingly employed in microbiological identification. The pheno-genotypic profiles of beta-lactam resistance were also investigated, this characterization is important, considering that the use of antimicrobials is a key element for mastitis control in dairy farms. The concordance of the phenotypic, PCR-RFLP and MALDI-TOF MS assays to identify CoNS species was 77,5% (31/40). S. chromogenes was the species most frequently isolated. Antibiotic resistance rate was relatively low, registering values of 25.5% to penicillin, 9.6% to oxacillin and 6.2% to cefoxitin. Resistance to imipenem, cephalotin and amoxicillin+clavulanate was not observed. The mecA gene and its variant were detected in 7.6% and 4,1% of the isolates respectively. The blaZ gene was found in 43.2% of the strains resistant to penicillin.(AU)


Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar isolados de Staphylococcus coagulase-negativa (SCN) isolados de mastite bovina, por meio de métodos fenotípicos e PCR-RFLP (reação em cadeia de polimerase - polimorfismo nos fragmentos de restrição), e compará-los com a técnica de tempo de voo de ionização/desorção por laser assistida por matriz de espectrofotometria de massa (MALDI-TOF MS). O método de PCR-RFLP, que utiliza uma parte conservada da sequência do gene groEL, é uma alternativa promissora, por ser reprodutível e confiável. Por outro lado, a técnica proteômica MALDI-TOF MS permite uma acurácia e um diagnóstico muito mais rápidos e tem sido cada vez mais empregada na identificação microbiológica. Os perfis fenogenotípicos de resistência aos beta-lactâmicos também foram investigados. Essa caracterização é importante, considerando-se que os antimicrobianos são os elementos-chave para o controle da mastite na produção leiteira. A concordância entre os testes fenotípicos, PCR-RFLP E MALDI-TOF MS na identificação foi de 77,5% (31/40). S. chromogenes foi a espécie mais frequentemente isolada. A resistência antimicrobiana foi relativamente baixa, apresentando valores de 25,5% para penicilina, 9,6% para oxacilina e 6,2% para cefoxitina. Resistência ao imipenem, à cefalotina e à amoxacilina + ácido clavulâncico não foi observada. O gene mecA e sua variante foram detectados em 7,6% e 4,1% dos isolados, respectivamente. O gene blaZ foi encontrado em 43,2% dos isolados resistentes à penicilina.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , beta-Lactam Resistance/genetics , Cattle/abnormalities , Cattle/genetics , Staphylococcus/classification
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(1): 29-35, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899774

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario adquiridas en la comunidad (ITUac) causadas por cepas de Escherichia coli productoras de β-lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE), principalmente por cepas que contienen el gen blaCTX-M-15, es un fenómeno creciente a nivel mundial. Objetivo Determinar el patrón de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de cepas de E. coli productoras de BLEE causantes de ITUac y conocer su patrón molecular. Materiales y Métodos Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en Oaxaca, México, donde se incluyeron 288 cepas de E. coli aisladas de pacientes adultos con posible ITUac. Para obtener los patrones de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se siguieron los criterios del CLSI y para obtener el análisis molecular se utilizó la técnica de RPC. Resultados Del total de cepas de E. coli aisladas, 31,3% fueron productoras de BLEE, presentando una menor susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos que las cepas no productoras de estas enzimas. El 95,6% de las cepas BLEE estudiadas fueron portadoras del gen blaCTX-M. Conclusiones Un tercio de las ITUac causadas por E. coli en nuestra población fueron causadas por cepas BLEE, mostrando un alto nivel de resistencia a los antimicrobianos comúnmente utilizados en su tratamiento y disminuyendo las opciones terapéuticas para tratamientos empíricos en esta población.


Background Community acquired urinary tract infections (CaUTI) caused by strains of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) - producing Escherichia coli, mainly by strains carrying the blaCTX-M-15 gene, is a growing phenomenon worldwide. Aim To determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of ESBL-producing E. coli as cause of CaUTI and to identify their molecular pattern. Methods A descriptive study was performed in the city of Oaxaca, Mexico, from where 288 strains of CaUTI-producing strains of E. coli in adults with possible UTI were isolated. The CLSI criteria was followed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and their molecular characterization was performed by using PCR. Results 31.3% of E. coli strains isolated in our population were ESBL producers, which presented higher levels of antibiotic resistance than those of non-producers of these enzymes. 95.6% of the studied strains were carriers of the blaCTX-M gene. Conclusions One-third of the Ca-UTI caused by E. coli in our population are caused by ESBL-producing strains, which present high levels of resistance to the antibiotics widely used in our community. This situation considerably decreases the number of antibiotics available for an empiric treatment against these infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , beta-Lactamases/drug effects , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , beta-Lactamases/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , beta-Lactam Resistance , Electrophoresis , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Genotype , Mexico
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(2): 211-217, April.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839365

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes frequently nosocomial infections, currently becoming more difficult to treat due to the various resistance mechanisms and different virulence factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors independently associated with the development of bacteremia by carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, the frequency of virulence genes in metallo-β-lactamases producers and to evaluate their ability to produce biofilm. We conducted a case–control study in the Uberlândia Federal University – Hospital Clinic, Brazil. Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed for metallo-β-lactamases and virulence genes. Adhesion and biofilm assays were done by quantitative tests. Among the 157 strains analyzed, 73.9% were multidrug-resistant, 43.9% were resistant to carbapenems, 16.1% were phenotypically positive for metallo-β-lactamases, and of these, 10.7% were positive for blaSPM gene and 5.3% positive for blaVIM. The multivariable analysis showed that mechanical ventilation, enteral/nasogastric tubes, primary bacteremia with unknown focus, and inappropriate therapy were independent risk factors associated with bacteremia. All tested strains were characterized as strongly biofilm producers. A higher mortality was found among patients with bacteremia by carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains, associated independently with extrinsic risk factors, however it was not evident the association with the presence of virulence and metallo-β-lactamases genes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Biofilms/growth & development , beta-Lactam Resistance , Virulence Factors/genetics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , beta-Lactamases/analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Survival Analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Bacteremia/microbiology
20.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 49(1): 36-40, jun.16, 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151747

ABSTRACT

O surgimento da enzima metalobetalactamase "New Delhi" (NDM-1) incrementou a possibilidade das bactérias se tornarem multirresistentes. Esta betalactamase foi relatada pela primeira vez em 2009, em isolados clínicos de Klebsiella pneumoniae e Escherichia coli oriundos de um paciente sueco hospitalizado na Índia. Tendo em vista a ampla resistência desenvolvida por bactérias portadoras do gene blaNDM e seu elevado índice de disseminação, o presente artigo buscou apresentar e discutir aspectos importantes sobre essa metaenzima, como mecanismo de ação, detecção laboratorial, controle de infecção e possibilidades de tratamento.


The emergence of metalobetalactamase enzyme "New Delhi" (NDM-1) increased the chance of bacteria becoming multiresistant. This betalactamase was first reported in 2009 in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli derived from a Swedish patient hospitalized in India. Given the widespread resistance developed by bacteria carrying the gene blaNDM and its high rate of spread, this paper aims to present and discuss important aspects of this metalobetalactamase as mechanism of action, laboratorial detection, infection control and treatment possibilities


Subject(s)
beta-Lactam Resistance , Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Carbapenems , Anti-Infective Agents
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