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2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(4): 433-441, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042659

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las infecciones causadas por enterobacterias productoras de β-talactamasas de espectro extendido (EP-BLEE) tienen implicaciones sobre la morbilidad y mortalidad neonatal. Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia de EP-BLEE en sepsis neonatal y los factores asociados. Métodos: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo, desde agosto del 2016 a agosto del 2017. Se incluyeron recién nacidos (RNs) ingresados en el Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca". Mediante prueba de difusión de doble disco se indagó la presencia de EP-BLEE y su asociación con características clínicas y demográficas de los RNs. Resultados: Se estudiaron 1.501 RNs hospitalizados, con edad gestacional promedio de 36,3 semanas. Se diagnosticaron 196 eventos de sepsis neonatal, la etiología más frecuente fueron enterobacterias (45,5%); 88,8% demostraron resistencia a ampicilina y más de 42% a cefalosporinas de amplio espectro. El 22,9% presentó fenotipo BLEE positivo. Tener Apgar ≤ 7 a los cinco minutos de vida (OR 4,6; IC 95% 1,47-14,6) y edad gestacional < 37 semanas (OR 5,4; IC 95%1,04-27,7) incrementaron el riesgo. Conclusión: En las enterobacterias causantes de sepsis neonatal, 22,9% son EP-BLEE; la infección es más probable en pacientes con Apgar ≤ 7 a los cinco minutos de vida y en prematuros.


Background: Infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases enterobacteria (ESBL-EP) have implications for neonatal morbidity and mortality. Aim: To describe the prevalence of ESBL-EP in neonatal sepsis and associated factors. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted from August 2016 to August 2017; newborn babies (NB) hospitalized in the Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca" were included. The ESBL-EP were investigated by double-disk synergy test and its association with clinical and demographic characteristics of the NB. Results. A total of 1,501 hospitalized NB were studied, with an average gestational age of 36.3 weeks. They were diagnosed 196 neonatal sepsis events, the most frequent etiologies were enterobacteria (45.5%). Resistance to ampicilin was found in 88.8% and to broad spectrum cephalosporins in more than 42% of the strains; 22.9% of them were ESBL phenotype. Apgar ≤ 7 at five minutes of life (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.47-14.6) and gestational age < 37 weeks (OR 5.4; 95% CI 1.04-27.) increase the risk. Conclusion: In enterobacteria that cause neonatal sepsis, 22.9% were EP-ESBL; infection was more likely in patients with Apgar ≤ 7 at five minutes of age and in preterm infants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Cross Infection/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Neonatal Sepsis/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Enterobacteriaceae/classification
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190243, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020442

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION In recent decades, the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter isolates has increased, and the production of oxacillinase (OXA)-type carbapenemases is the main mechanism underlying resistance. We evaluated OXA production from 114 Acinetobacter isolates collected between March and December 2013 from different clinical specimens of patients in two hospitals (Hospital 1 [n = 61] and Hospital 2 [n = 53]) located in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also evaluated the genetic diversity of OXA-producing isolates. METHODS All the isolates were identified through the automated system Vitek II and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF MS as belonging to the A. baumannii-A. calcoaceticuscomplex. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were verified through agar diffusion tests. The presence of OXA-encoding genes was confirmed by PCR. The genetic diversity of isolates positive for carbapenemase production was analyzed through pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. RESULTS There was a high rate of resistance to carbapenems in the isolates (imipenem: 96%; meropenem: 92%) from both hospitals. Moreover, a high percentage (95.6%) of OXA-23-positive isolates was observed for both hospitals, indicating that this was the main mechanism of carbapenem-resistance among the studied population. In addition, most isolates (96.5%) were positive for bla OXA-51. A high genetic diversity and a few major genotypes were found among the OXA-23-positive isolates analyzed. Only intra-hospital dissemination was observed. CONCLUSIONS The elevated dissemination of bla OXA-23-like observed among Acinetobacter isolates from both the studied hospitals highlights the need for continuous epidemiological surveillance in these institutions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinetobacter/enzymology , beta-Lactamases/drug effects , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter/drug effects , Acinetobacter/genetics , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Hospitals, General , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
West Indian med. j ; 67(4): 344-349, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045862

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the role of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from south-western Nigeria. Methods: Twenty-seven carbapenem-resistant isolates that were found to be non-carbapenemase producers (15 Escherichia coli, 9 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 3 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were further studied. These isolates were subjected to analysis including phenotypic and genotypic detection of various β-lactamases, efflux activity, outer membrane protein, plasmids replicon typing, detection of transferable genes and resistances and typing using random amplified polymorphic DNA tests. Results: No isolates demonstrated de-repression of efflux, but all showed either complete loss or reduced production of outer membrane proteins. Transconjugants from these strains contained various genes including plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. All the transconjugants carried the blaCTX-M-15 gene. The transconjugants had varying minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems ranging from 0.03 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml. Varying resistances to other antimicrobial agents were also transferred with the plasmids. The donor isolates were not clonally related by molecular typing. Conclusion: Resistance to carbapenem antibiotics in this sample was not mediated only by carbapenemases but also by production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (largely CTX-M-15), accompanied by protein loss. This was an important mechanism underpinning carbapenem resistance in these clinical isolates of various species.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Determinar el papel de las betalactamasas de espectro extendido en la resistencia al carbapenem en las bacterias gramnegativas en Nigeria. Métodos: Veintisiete aislados resistentes al carbapenem que fueron hallados productores de no carbapenemasas (15 Escherichia coli, 9 Klebsiella pneumoniae, y 3 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) fueron estudiados con mayor profundidad. Estos aislados fueron sometidos a análisis incluyendo la detección fenotípica y genotípica de varias betalactamasas, la actividad de eflujo, las porinas de la membrana externa, la tipificación del replicón plasmídico, la detección de genes transferibles y resistencias y tipificación usando pruebas de ADN polimórficas amplificadas aleatorias. Resultados: Ninguno de los aislamientos mostró desrepresión de eflujo, pero todos demostraron la pérdida completa o la producción reducida de porinas externas de la membrana. Los transconjugantes de estas cepas contenían varios genes incluyendo resistencia a la quinolona mediada por plásmidos y betalactamasas de espectro extendido. Todos los transconjugantes portaban el gen blaCTX-M-15. Los transconjugantes tenían diversas concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas de carbapenemas que oscilaban entre 0.03 μg/ml y 8 μg/ml. Varias resistencias a otros agentes antimicrobianos fueron también transferidas con los plásmidos. Los aislamientos del donante no estuvieron relacionados clonalmente por tipificación molecular. Conclusión: La resistencia al antibiótico carbapenem en esta muestra no fue mediada solamente por las carbapenemasas, sino también por la producción de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (en gran parte CTX-M-15), acompañado por pérdida de porina. Éste era un mecanismo importante que sustentaba la resistencia al carbapenem en estos aislados clínicos de varias especies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phenotype , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Genotype , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzymology , Nigeria
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 88-93, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041448

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Here, we determined the genes encoding antibiotic resistance enzymes and virulence factors and evaluated the genetic relationship between Enterobacter spp. isolated from different clinical samples. METHODS: A total of 57 clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. were tested for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), carbapenemase, and AmpC using phenotypic and genotypic methods. RESULTS: The most common ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamases were bla TEM (63.3%) and bla EBC (57.7%), respectively. The most prevalent virulence gene was rpos (87.7%). The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns of strains were genetically unrelated. CONCLUSIONS: RAPD polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed high genetic diversity among isolates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/biosynthesis , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Feces/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phenotype , Bacterial Proteins/drug effects , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Clone Cells , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , beta-Lactams/adverse effects , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Genotype , Iran
7.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 82(6): 621-625, Dec. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899953

ABSTRACT

Se comunica el caso de un recién nacido producto de un parto prematuro con rotura prematura de membranas, que desarrolló precozmente meningitis neonatal por Escherichia coli productora de beta-lactamasa de espectro extendido. Los cultivos en líquido céfalo raquídeo y sangre neonatal fueron tempranamente positivos para esta bacteria. No obstante no aislarse este microorganismo en la madre, los hallazgos de la biopsia placentaria y la precocidad de la infección neonatal son determinantes en señalar que se trató de infección intraamniótica con transmisión vertical al neonato. La meningitis neonatal fue tratada con meropenem y el niño se dio de alta en buenas condiciones después de 41 días de hospitalización. Las guías perinatales actuales, preconizan el tamizaje de muestras vaginales para la prevención del parto prematuro y de los resultados adversos asociados a infección bacteriana ascendente durante el embarazo.


We report the case of a newborn resultant of premature delivery with premature rupture of membranes, which developed early-onset neonatal meningitis caused by transmission of Escherichia coli producer of betalactamasa of spectrum extended. Cultures in cerebrospinal fluid and neonatal blood were early positive for this bacterium. Although this microorganism is not isolated in the mother, the findings of the placenta biopsy and the precocity of the neonatal infection are determinant in indicating that it was an intraamniotic infection with vertical transmission to the neonate. Neonatal meningitis was treated with meropenem and the child was discharged in good condition after 41 days of hospitalization. The current perinatal guidelines support the screening of vaginal samples for the prevention of preterm birth and the adverse outcomes associated with ascending bacterial infection during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Meningitis, Escherichia coli/diagnosis , Meningitis, Escherichia coli/transmission , Obstetric Labor, Premature , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Escherichia coli Infections/diagnosis , Escherichia coli Infections/transmission
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(5): 476-484, oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899745

ABSTRACT

Resumen En la actualidad, la diseminación de enterobacterias productoras de carbapenemasas se considera un grave problema en clínica debido al fracaso en el tratamiento de las infecciones que ellas producen. Entre las carbapenemasas, la enzima KPC se ha diseminado mundialmente y ha sido identificada en las principales especies de enterobacterias relacionadas con infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud, con claro predominio de Klebsiella pneumoniae a nivel mundial. El gen blaKPC es transportado, principalmente, por el transposón Tn4401, detectado en diversas especies de enterobacterias con distintos secuencio-tipo (ST) y diferente origen geográfico. Adicionalmente, se han descrito nuevas plataformas genéticas que se distinguen del Tn4401 original debido a inserciones y deleciones de otros genes. Los plásmidos que albergan el gen blaKPC pueden ser del tipo conjugativo y no conjugativo movilizable, y además contener otros determinantes genéticos de resistencia. Las cepas productoras de KPC pueden presentar diversos niveles de resistencia a los carbapenémicos, debido a la participación de mecanismos adicionales como diferente grado de expresión de porinas y bombas de expulsión asociados con la producción de β-lactamasas de espectro extendido y/o AmpC. Sin embargo, las carbapenemasas, con KPC como la enzima más frecuente, otorgan grados de resistencia más elevados.


The dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is currently considered a serious clinical problem due to the failure in the treatment of infections produced by them. Among the carbapenemases, the enzyme KPC has spread worldwide and has been identified in the main enterobacterial species related with healthcareassociated infections, although Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant specie. The blaKPC gene is transported, mainly by the transposon Tn4401, detected in various enterobacterial species of different sequence types (ST) and geographical origin. In addition, new genetic platforms that are distinguished, from Tn4401 because of insertions or deletions of other genes have been described. Plasmids containing the blaKPC gene can be conjugative and mobilizable non-conjugative plasmids, and can carry other genetic determinants of resistance. The KPC-producing strains may have different levels of resistance to carbapenems, due to the involvement of additional mechanisms such as different expression levels of porins and efflux pumps associated with the production of extended spectrum β-lactamases and/or AmpC. However, the carbapenemases, with KPC as the most common enzyme, provide higher levels of resistance.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/biosynthesis , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzymology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(4): 326-332, ago. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899719

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La detección de bacilos gramnegativos productores de carbapenemasas es compleja, existiendo actualmente varios test disponibles. La confirmación mediante la caracterización molecular de la enzima no está disponible en todos los laboratorios del país. Objetivo: Plantear una estrategia rápida, eficiente y sencilla para la detección y confirmación de carbapenemasas en cepas de bacilos gramnegativos. Material y Métodos: Se utilizaron 39 aislados productores y ocho no productores de carbapenemasas para evaluar los test fenotípicos Carba NP, CarbAcineto NP, Blue-Carba y validar el test molecular Xpert® Carba-R directo de la colonia en comparación con RPC convencional. Resultados: La sensibilidad para Carba NP, CarbAcineto NP y Blue-Carba fue de 79,5; 87,2 y 84,6%, respectivamente; mientras que la especificidad fue de 100; 100 y 87,5%, respectivamente. La concordancia entre RPC convencional y Xpert® Carba-R fue de 100%. El límite de detección para Xpert® Carba-R fue diferente según el tipo de carbapenemasa: 40,8 ufc/reacción par KPC y NDM y 30,6 ufc/reacción para VIM. Discusión: En aislados con susceptibilidad disminuida a carbapenémicos se propone realizar un tamizaje con CarbAcineto NP, para luego caracterizar la carbapenemasa con Xpert® Carba-R y adoptar las medidas de contención específica: para cada caso.


Introduction: The detection of carbapenemase-producing gram negative bacilli is complicated, because there are available multiple options of test. The confirmation of the enzyme by molecular characterization is not available in all laboratories in our country. Objective: To propose a fast, efficient and simple strategy to detect and confirm CPB. Materials and Methods: 39 CPB isolates and 8 non-producing were used to evaluate the phenotypic test Carba NP, CarbAcineto NP and Blue-Carba, validating the test Xpert® Carba-R, to be used directly with bacterial colonies with conventional PCR. Results: The sensitivity of Carba NP, CarbAcineto NP and Blue-Carba was 79,5; 87,2 y 84,6%, respectively; and specificity was 79.5; 87.2 and 84.6%, respectively. The limit of detection of Xpert® Carba-R was different for each carbapenemasa: 40.8 ufc/reaction to KPC and NDM and 30.6 ufc/reaction to VIM. Discussion: On isolates with decreased susceptibility to carbapenems we propose to use as screening the test CarbAcineto NP, follow by Xpert®Carba-R to characterize the carbapenemase and adopt specific infection control measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/biosynthesis , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria/enzymology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phenotype , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Bacteriological Techniques , Sensitivity and Specificity , Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria/drug effects
10.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 93(3): 260-266, May.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841345

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by resistant strains of bacteria is increasingly prevalent in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors for UTI caused by community-acquired extended-spectrum β-lactamase (CA-ESBL)-producing bacteria in infants. Methods: This was a retrospective study performed over 5 years in a single Korean center. Hospitalized infants with febrile UTI were enrolled and divided into two groups (CA-ESBL vs. CA non-ESBL UTI). The yearly prevalence was calculated. Baseline characteristics and clinical course such as fever duration, laboratory and radiological findings were compared between the two groups. Risk factors associated with the CA-ESBL UTI were investigated. Results: Among the enrolled infants (n = 185), 31 (17%) had CA-ESBL UTI. The yearly prevalence of ESBL of CA-ESBL UTI increased during the study (0% in 2010, 22.2% in 2015). Infants with CA-ESBL UTI had a longer duration of fever after initiating antibiotics (2.0 ± 1.1 vs. 1.5 ± 0.6 days, p = 0.020). Cortical defects on renal scan and early treatment failure were more frequent in CA-ESBL (64.5 vs. 42.2%, p = 0.023; 22.6 vs. 4.5%, p = 0.001). A logistic regression analysis revealed that urinary tract abnormalities and previous UTI were independent risk factors for CA-EBSL UTI (odds ratio, 2.7; p = 0.025; 10.3; p = 0.022). Conclusion: The incidence of UTI caused by ESBL-producing bacteria has increased in Korean infants. Recognition of the clinical course and risk factors for ESLB-producing UTI may help to determine appropriate guidelines for its management.


Resumo Objetivo: A infecção do trato urinário (ITU) causada por cepas de bactérias resistentes está cada vez mais prevalente em crianças. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as características clínicas e os fatores de risco de ITU causada por bactérias produtoras de β-lactamases de espectro ampliado adquiridas na comunidade (ESBL CA) em neonatos. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo feito por mais de cinco anos em um único centro sul-coreano. Neonatos internados com ITU febril foram inscritos e divididos em dois grupos (ITU por ESBL CA em comparação com não ESBL CA). A prevalência anual foi calculada. As características básicas e o curso clínico, como duração da febre e achados laboratoriais e radiológicos, foram comparados entre os dois grupos. Os fatores de risco associados à ITU por ESBL CA foram investigados. Resultados: Entre os neonatos inscritos (n = 185), 31 (17%) apresentaram ITU por ESBL CA. A prevalência anual de ESBL em ITU por ESBL CA aumentou durante o estudo (0% em 2010, 22,2% em 2015). Os neonatos com ITU por ESBL CA apresentaram maior duração de febre após o início dos antibióticos (2 ± 1,1 em comparação com 1,5 ± 0,6 dias, p = 0,020). Os defeitos corticais no exame renal e a falha precoce no tratamento foram mais frequentes em ESBL CA (64,5 em comparação com 42,2%, p = 0,023; 22,6 em comparação com 4,5%, p = 0,001). Uma análise de regressão logística revelou que as anomalias do trato urinário e a ITU anterior eram fatores de risco independentes de ITU por ESBL CA (razão de chance: 2,7; p = 0,025; 10,3; p = 0,022). Conclusão: A incidência de ITU causada por bactérias produtoras de ESBL aumentou em neonatos sul-coreanos. O reconhecimento do curso clínico e dos fatores de risco de ITU por ESBL poderá ajudar a determinar as diretrizes adequadas de manejo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Drug Resistance , Epidemiologic Methods , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Klebsiella , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(2): 105-110, Apr. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894441

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio de vigilancia en un Hospital Universitario de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires con el fin de determinar la prevalencia de colonización por cepas de Klebsiella pneumoniae productora de carbapenemasa, bacterias de gran importancia epidemiológica. A tal fin, se investigó su presencia en cultivos de hisopados rectales de todos los pacientes internados. Se realizaron dos cortes de prevalencia en los cuales se encontraron tasas de hasta 25%. Además, se analizaron las siguientes variables en toda la población estudiada: procedencia (domicilio u otro centro de cuidados crónicos), edad, internación prolongada, uso de antibióticos por al menos 72 horas previas al hisopado, internación en unidad de terapia intensiva, requerimientos de hemodiálisis, necesidad de cirugía, alimentación enteral mediante sonda nasogástrica, asistencia respiratoria mecánica por más de 4 días y evaluación funcional según escala de Karnofsky. La variable asociada a la colonización con mayor significación estadística fue el uso de sonda nasogástrica para alimentación enteral. Además, se observó que el tiempo de internación fue significativamente mayor y la clase funcional fue peor en los pacientes colonizados. En cuanto al uso previo de antibióticos se obtuvieron valores cercanos a la significación estadística, aunque sin alcanzarla. Con base en las variables evaluadas se implementaron medidas de contingencia con el fin de controlar la diseminación del microorganismo. Finalmente, se realizó un tercer corte de prevalencia durante la implementación de dichas medidas, el cual mostró una disminución en la transmisión horizontal del microorganismo.


A surveillance study was conducted at a University Hospital in Buenos Aires City aimed to assess the rates of colonization with carbapenemase-producing strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, which are bacteria of utmost epidemiological importance. To this end, rectal swabs collected from all inpatients were cultured for the presence of these bacteria. Two point prevalence surveys showed high prevalence rates (up to 25%). The following variables were evaluated in all inpatients: place of origin (home or other chronic care center), age, prolonged hospitalization, antibiotics for at least 72 hours prior to swabbing, intensive care unit requirements for at least 24 hours, mechanical ventilation assistance for more than 4 days, hemodialysis requirements, need for surgery, enteral feeding through a nasogastric tube, and functional evaluation according to the Karnofsky performance scale. The variable associated with the highest statistical significance was the use of nasogastric enteral feeding. Also, the length of stay was significantly higher and the functional status was significantly worse in colonized patients. As for the prior use of antibiotics, results were close to statistical significance but without reaching it. Measures were implemented in order to control the spread of the microorganism in the acute setting and beyond. Upon implementation of such measures, a third prevalence survey was performed that showed a decrease in the horizontal transmission of the microorganism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzymology , Argentina , Prevalence , Epidemiological Monitoring , Hospitals, University , Length of Stay
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(2): 243-247, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041402

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We compared the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB) isolated from clinical samples at a Brazilian tertiary care hospital in 2008 and 2013. METHODS: Collected data included patient's name, age, sex, inpatient unit, laboratory record number, type of biological material, culture test result, and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated strains. RESULTS: Out of 19,112 culture tests analyzed, 926 (4.8%) were positive for NFGNB. Among these, 45.2% were metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing strains. CONCLUSION: Between 2008 and 2013, the number of MBL-producing NFGNB isolates increased by 21.5%, which was accompanied by a consequent reduction in susceptibility to antimicrobials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Tertiary Care Centers , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/enzymology , Middle Aged
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(1): 135-137, Jan.-Feb. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842816

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Metallo-beta-lactamase production is an important mechanism for carbapenem resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , which represents an emerging public health challenge. We report the case of a patient admitted to an intensive care unit, with sepsis caused by multidrug-resistant São Paulo Metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing P. aeruginosa . This is the first case of infection by this pathogenic strain in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Thus, infection control measures are required for preventing future spread and outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Cross Infection/microbiology , beta-Lactam Resistance , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Brazil , Fatal Outcome , Middle Aged
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(6): 556-563, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828166

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) is an important cause of nosocomial infections especially in intensive care units. This study aimed to assess clinical aspects and the genetic background of CRAb among ICU patients at a Brazilian teaching hospital. Methods: 56 critically ill patients colonized or infected by CRAb, during ICU stay, were prospectively assessed. Based on imipenem MIC ≥ 4 µg/mL, 28 CRAB strains were screened for the presence of genes encoding metallo-β-lactamases and OXA-type β-lactamases. The blaOXA-type genes were characterized by PCR using primers targeting ISAba-1 or -3. Genetic diversity of blaOXA-positive strains was determined by ERIC-PCR analysis. Results: Patient's mean age (±SD) was 61 (±15.1), and 58.9% were male. Eighty-percent of the patients presented risk factors for CRAb colonization, mainly invasive devices (87.5%) and previous antibiotic therapy (77.6%). Thirty-three patients died during hospital stay (59.0%). Resistance to carbapenems was associated with a high prevalence of blaOXA-23 (51.2%) and/or blaOXA-143 (18.6%) genes. ERIC-PCR genotyping identified 10 clusters among OXA-producing CRAb. Three CRAb strains exhibited additional resistance to polymyxin B (MIC ≥ 4 µg/mL), whereas 10 CRAb strains showed tigecycline MICs > 2 µg/mL. Conclusions: In this study, clonally unrelated OXA-123- and OXA-143-producing A. baumannii strains in ICU patients were strongly correlated to colonization with infected patients being associated with a poor outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/enzymology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Hospitals, Teaching , Intensive Care Units
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(9): 551-558, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794722

ABSTRACT

Carbapenem-resistance mechanisms are a challenge in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. We investigated changes in P. aeruginosa carbapenem-resistance determinants over a time period of eight years after the emergence of São Paulo metallo-β-lactamase in a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were screened for P. aeruginosa colonisation and followed for the occurrence of infections from April 2007 to April 2008. The ICU environment was also sampled. Isolates were typed using random amplified polymorphic DNA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion and E-test, production of carbapenemases by a modified-CarbaNP test and presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes by polymerase chain reaction. Non-carbapenemase resistance mechanisms studied included efflux and AmpC overexpression by PAβN and cloxacillin susceptibility enhancement, respectively, as well as oprD mutations. From 472 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates (93 patients) and 17 isolates from the ICU environment, high genotypic diversity and several international clones were observed; one environment isolate belonged to the blaSPM-1 P. aeruginosa epidemic genotype. Among isolates from infections, 10 (29%) were carbapenem resistant: none produced carbapenemases, three exhibited all non-carbapenemase mechanisms studied, six presented a combination of two mechanisms, and one exclusively displayed oprD mutations. Carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa displayed a polyclonal profile after the SPM-1 epidemic genotype declined. This phenomenon is connected with blaSPM-1 P. aeruginosa replaced by other carbapenem-resistant pathogens.


Subject(s)
Humans , beta-Lactam Resistance/genetics , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , beta-Lactam Resistance/drug effects , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Genotype , Hospitals, University , Intensive Care Units , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prospective Studies , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(4): 441-445, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792801

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are bacterial enzymes capable of hydrolyzing beta-lactams. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of TEM- and SHV-type ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in Zahedan, Southeast Iran. METHODS: A total of 170 non-repetitive K. pneumoniae strains were collected from patients referred to three teaching hospitals of Zahedan. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined for 17 antibiotics using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The frequency of ESBL-producing strains was calculated, and minimum inhibitory concentrations of ESBL-producing strains were determined for cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and cefpodoxime. The presence of bla TEM and bla SHV genes was tested in all ESBL-producing strains using polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Among the 170 K. pneumoniae clinical isolates, 55 (32.4%) were ESBL producers; 92.7% (n=51) and 72.7% (n=40) of the isolates carried the bla SHV and bla TEM genes, respectively, and 67.3% (n=37) carried both genes. The sequencing results showed that all bla TEM types were bla TEM-1, except for two isolates that were bla TEM-104. The bla SHV types were bla SHV-1, bla SHV-11, bla SHV-12, bla SHV-99, bla SHV-108, and bla SHV-110. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of bla TEM and bla SHV among ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates from Zahedan is relatively high, indicating the need for further surveillance and consideration in antibiotic use. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of TEM-104-, SHV-99-, SHV-108-, and SHV-110-type ESBLs among clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae from Iran, and TEM-1, SHV-1, SHV-11, and SHV-12 appear to be the dominant ESBLs in this region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phenotype , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Genes, Bacterial , Genotype , Iran
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(2): 142-147, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779908

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this study was to identify β-lactamase-producing oral anaerobic bacteria and screen them for the presence of cfxA and BlaTEM genes that are responsible for β-lactamase production and resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Material and Methods Periodontal pocket debris samples were collected from 48 patients with chronic periodontitis and anaerobically cultured on blood agar plates with and without β-lactam antibiotics. Presumptive β-lactamase-producing isolates were evaluated for definite β-lactamase production using the nitrocefin slide method and identified using the API Rapid 32A system. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using disc diffusion and microbroth dilution tests as described by CLSI Methods. Isolates were screened for the presence of the β-lactamase-TEM (BlaTEM) and β-lactamase-cfxA genes using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Amplified PCR products were sequenced and the cfxA gene was characterized using Genbank databases. Results Seventy five percent of patients carried two species of β-lactamase-producing anaerobic bacteria that comprised 9.4% of the total number of cultivable bacteria. Fifty one percent of β-lactamase-producing strains mainly Prevotella, Porphyromonas, and Bacteroides carried the cfxA gene, whereas none of them carried blaTEM. Further characterization of the cfxA gene showed that 76.7% of these strains carried the cfxA2 gene, 14% carried cfxA3, and 9.3% carried cfxA6. The cfxA6 gene was present in three Prevotella spp. and in one Porphyromonas spp. Strains containing cfxA genes (56%) were resistant to the β-lactam antibiotics. Conclusion This study indicates that there is a high prevalence of the cfxA gene in β-lactamase-producing anaerobic oral bacteria, which may lead to drug resistance and treatment failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Periodontal Pocket/microbiology , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Bacteria, Anaerobic/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Reference Values , beta-Lactamases/isolation & purification , beta-Lactamases/genetics , DNA, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , beta-Lactam Resistance , Chronic Periodontitis/microbiology , Mouth/microbiology
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(1): 71-74, feb. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-776962

ABSTRACT

We present the case of a patient with endocarditis and arthritis caused by extended spectrum β-lactamase producing non-Typhi Salmonella, with incomplete response (defined as persistence of Salmonella in joint fluid) to initial instituted treatment (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) and posterior recovery with ertapenem. The disease was associated with implantable central venous catheter infection. Five percent of patients with non-Typhi Salmonella gastroenteritis develop bacteremia. Infective endocarditis and joint infection has been reported in 1,4% and less than 1% of cases, respectively.


Se presenta el caso de un paciente con endocarditis y artritis séptica por Salmonella no Typhi productora de β-lactamasas de espectro extendido que presentó una respuesta incompleta (definida como la persistencia de Salmonella en el líquido articular) al tratamiento inicial con cotrimoxazol y que posteriormente mejoró con ertapenem. La enfermedad se asoció al uso de un catéter venoso implantable. El 5% de los pacientes con gastroenteritis por Salmonella no Typhi desarrolla una bacteriemia. La endocarditis infecciosa y la artritis ha sido reportada en 1,4-5% de los casos y en menos de 1%; respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Arthritis/microbiology , Endocarditis/microbiology , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Salmonella/enzymology , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Fatal Outcome , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(6): 692-698, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767830

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial infections are closely associated with antimicrobial drug resistance. One of the most important mechanisms of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics is the production of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of ESBL-producing strains and to assess the evolution of antimicrobial drug resistance between 2007 and 2013 at the Hospital São Vicente de Paulo, Passo Fundo, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study. Bacterial culture was performed from January to December 2013. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of these cultures was determined using the disk diffusion method. Phenotypic screening for ESBL production was performed using the disk approximation method. RESULTS : We analyzed a total of 19,112 cultures, 11.5% of which were positive for Enterobacteriaceae. Of these, 30.3% of the isolates were positive for ESBL production, and the most prevalent species was Klebsiella sp. (37.5%). Over 95% of these isolates showed reduced susceptibility to all cephalosporins, aztreonam, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The isolates also showed high sensitivity to the following antimicrobials: amikacin, meropenem, and piperacillin/tazobactam. Overall, the resistance rates among ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae decreased from 2007 to 2013. CONCLUSIONS : In our hospital, the increased sensitivity to certain antimicrobial agents seems to be directly related to the implementation of improvements in the methods to prevent and control nosocomial infections in addition to the natural development of other resistance mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Brazil , Enterobacteriaceae/classification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Tertiary Care Centers
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