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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(2): 135-145, maio-ago. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372966

ABSTRACT

A meningite bacteriana é uma inflamação das leptomeninges que envolvem o Sistema Nervoso Central. Essa patologia, que possui diversos agentes etiológicos, apresenta-se na forma de síndrome, com quadro clínico grave. Entre as principais bactérias que causam a meningite, estão a Neisseria meningitis e Streptococcus pneumoniae. A transmissão ocorre através das vias aéreas por meio de gotículas, sendo a corrente sanguínea a principal rota para as bactérias chegarem à barreira hematoencefálica e, a partir dessa, até as meninges. Atualmente existem vários métodos de diagnóstico precisos, onde a cultura de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) é o método padrão ouro. Ademais, a melhora na qualidade do tratamento com beta-lactâmicos e a maior possibilidade de prevenção, devido à elevação do número e da eficácia de vacinas, vem contribuindo para redução dos casos da doença e de sua gravidade. Porém, apesar desses avanços, ainda há um elevado número de mortalidades e sequelas causadas por essa síndrome.


Bacterial meningitis is an inflammation of the leptomeninges that surround the Central Nervous System. This pathology, which has several etiological agents, is presented as a syndrome with a severe clinical scenario. The main bacteria causing meningitis include Neisseria meningitis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. It can be transmitted by droplets through the airways, with the bacteria using the bloodstream as the main route to reach the blood-brain barrier, and from there to the meninges. There are currently several accurate diagnostic methods, with CSF culture being the gold standard. In addition, the improvement in the quality of beta-lactam treatment and the greater possibility of prevention due to the increased number and effectiveness of vaccines have contributed to reducing the number of cases and severity of the disease. Nevertheless, despite these advances, this syndrome still presents a high number of mortalities and sequelae.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Child, Preschool , Child , Aged , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Meningitis, Bacterial/therapy , Streptococcus pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Syndrome , Bacteria/classification , Meningitis, Bacterial/drug therapy , beta-Lactams/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/drug therapy , Neisseria/pathogenicity
2.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(4): 371-384, out.dez.2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399791

ABSTRACT

Os betalactâmicos são a classe de drogas que mais causam reações de hipersensibilidade envolvendo um mecanismo imunológico específico, e são os principais desencadeantes entre os antimicrobianos. São representados pelas penicilinas, cefalosporinas, carbapenêmicos, monobactâmicos e inibidores da betalactamase. A estrutura química básica destes fármacos consiste na presença dos seguintes componentes: anel betalactâmico, anel adjacente e cadeias laterais, sendo todos potenciais epítopos. Os anticorpos da classe IgE e linfócitos T estão frequentemente envolvidos no reconhecimento desses epítopos. A reatividade cruzada depende da estabilidade dos produtos intermediários (determinantes antigênicos) derivados da degradação dos anéis betalactâmicos, anéis adicionais e da semelhança estrutural das cadeias laterais entre as drogas. Classicamente acreditava-se num grande potencial de reatividade cruzada dentro de cada classe e até entre as classes, mas estudos da última década mostraram que indivíduos alérgicos à penicilina (com testes cutâneos positivos) reagiam às cefalosporinas em aproximadamente 3% dos casos, aos carbapenêmicos em cerca de 1%, e praticamente não reagiam aos monobactâmicos. Essa reatividade ou tolerância parece estar vinculada ao grau de similaridade entre as cadeias laterais desses antibióticos. Nesta revisão, ressaltamos a importância da investigação sistematizada na confirmação ou exclusão de alergia aos betalactâmicos, descrevemos a prevalência da reatividade cruzada entre estes fármacos e sugerimos um algoritmo de abordagem desses pacientes baseados em sua estrutura química e nos dados publicados na literatura.


Beta-lactams are the drugs most commonly involved in hypersensitivity reactions mediated by a specific immune mechanism and are the main triggers among antibiotics. They include penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams and beta-lactam inhibitors. The basic chemical structure of these drugs consist on the presence of the following components: betalactam ring, an adjacent ring and side chains, all of which are potential epitopes. IgE antibodies and T lymphocytes are often involved in recognizing those epitopes. Cross-reactivity depends on the stability of intermediate products (antigenic determinants) derived from the degradation of the beta-lactam ring, on the adjacent rings, and on the structural similarity of the side chains between drugs. Classically, it was believed that there was a great potential for cross-reactivity within each class and even between classes, but studies from the last decade showed that individuals allergic to penicillin (with positive skin tests) reacted to cephalosporins in approximately 3% of cases, to carbapenems in about 1%, and rarely reacted to monobactams. This reactivity or tolerance seems to be linked to the degree of similarity between the side chains of these antibiotics. In this review, we emphasize the importance of systematic investigation to confirm or exclude allergy to beta-lactams, we describe the prevalence of crossreactivity between these drugs and we suggest an algorithm for approaching these patients based on their chemical structure and on data published in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Penicillins , Monobactams , Immunoglobulin E , T-Lymphocytes , Carbapenems , Cephalosporins , beta-Lactams , Hypersensitivity , Patients , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Prevalence
3.
Med. U.P.B ; 40(1): 55-64, 03/03/2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1177499

ABSTRACT

Las reacciones adversas a medicamentos son una de las principales causas de muerte en el mundo, producen muchos ingresos hospitalarios y aumentan los costos de atención. Dentro de los medicamentos que más se asocian con estas reacciones están los antibióticos y de estos los más comunes son los betalactámicos, ampliamente utilizados en las instituciones de salud. Las manifestaciones más frecuentes de las reacciones adversas a betalactámicos son alérgicas, dermatológicas, gastrointestinales, renales, hepáticas y neurológicas. Se realiza una revisión general de las reacciones adversas de estos medicamentos, se mencionan los distintos antibióticos betalactámicos con su clasificación y espectro de acción y más precisamente se explican las distintas reacciones adversas por uso de betalactámicos según el sistema comprometido.


Adverse drug reactions are one of the leading causes of death in the world. They are also responsible for an increase in hospital admissions and higher care costs. Among the most associated drugs with these reactions are antibiotics and of these the most common are beta-lactams, which are widely used in health institutions. The most fre-quent manifestations of adverse reactions to beta-lactams are allergic, dermatological, gastrointestinal, renal, hepatic and neurological reactions. A general review of the adverse reactions to these drugs is carried out. Also, the different beta-lactam antibiotics are described along with their classification and spectrum of action, and an accurate explanation of the different adverse reactions due to the use of beta-lactams according to the compromised system is made.


As reações adversas a medicamentos são uma das principais causas de morte no mundo, resultam em muitas admissões hospitalares e aumentam os custos do atendimento. Entre os medicamentos que mais se associam a essas reações estão os antibióticos e, destes, os mais comuns são os beta-lactâmicos, amplamente utilizados em instituições de saúde. As manifestações mais frequentes de reações adversas aos beta-lactâmicos são alérgicas, dermatológicas, gastrointestinais, renais, hepáticas e neurológicas. Faz-se uma revisão geral das reações adversas desses medicamentos, são mencionados os diferentes antibióticos beta-lactâmicos com sua classificação e espectro de ação, e mais precisamente explicam as diferentes reações adversas devidas ao uso de beta-lactâmicos de acordo com o sistema comprometido


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cause of Death , beta-Lactams , Anti-Bacterial Agents
4.
Med. infant ; 28(1): 38-42, Marzo 2021. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1283476

ABSTRACT

Últimamente, se están detectando mutaciones en las proteínas ligadoras de penicilina (PBP) de los estreptococos beta-hemolíticos que corresponden a sitios que en Streptococcus pneumoniae han determinado sensibilidad disminuida a los antibióticos beta-lactámicos. Primero, se describieron cepas con sensibilidad intermedia a penicilina en Streptococcus agalactiae (estreptococos del grupo B), luego en Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (mayormente grupos C y G) y, más recientemente, cepas con sensibilidad disminuida a aminopenicilinas y cefalosporinas de tercera generación en Streptococcus pyogenes (grupo A). El costo biológico de estas modificaciones nos permite pensar que los niveles de resistencia no han de ser tan elevados como para comprometer por ahora la efectividad clínica de los beta-lactámicos (AU)


Recently, mutations in penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of beta-hemolytic streptococci have been detected corresponding to sites that in Streptococcus pneumoniae have been determined to have decreased sensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics. First, strains with intermediate sensitivity to penicillin were described in Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci), subsequently in Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (mainly groups C and G) and, more recently, strains with decreased sensitivity to third-generation aminopenicillins and cephalosporins were found in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A). The biological cost of these modifications suggests that, for now, resistance levels are not high enough to compromise the clinical effectiveness of beta-lactams (AU)


Subject(s)
Streptococcus agalactiae/drug effects , Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects , Penicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , beta-Lactam Resistance , beta-Lactams/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eMD5703, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249746

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Betalactams are the most frequent cause of hypersensitivity reactions to drugs mediated by a specific immune mechanism. Immediate reactions occur within 1 to 6 hours after betalactam administration, and are generally IgE-mediated. They clinically translate into urticaria, angioedema and anaphylaxis. Non-immediate or delayed reactions occur after 1 hour of administration. These are the most common reactions and are usually mediated by T cells. The most frequent type is the maculopapular or morbilliform exanthematous eruption. Most individuals who report allergies to penicillin and betalactams can tolerate this group of antibiotics. To make diagnosis, a detailed medical history is essential to verify whether it was an immediate or non-immediate reaction. Thereafter, in vivo and/or in vitro tests for investigation may be performed. The challenging test is considered the gold standard method for diagnosis of betalactam hypersensitivity. The first approach when suspecting a reaction to betalactam is to discontinue exposure to the drug, and the only specific treatment is desensitization, which has very precise indications. The misdiagnosis of penicillin allergy affects the health system, since the "penicillin allergy" label is associated with increased bacterial resistance, higher rate of therapeutic failure, prolonged hospitalizations, readmissions, and increased costs. Thus, it is essential to develop strategies to assist the prescription of antibiotics in patients identified with a label of "betalactam allergy" at hospitals, and to enhance education of patients and their caregivers, as well as of non-specialist physicians.


RESUMO Os beta-lactâmicos constituem a causa mais frequente de reações de hipersensibilidade a fármacos mediadas por mecanismo imunológico específico. As reações imediatas ocorrem em 1 até 6 horas após a administração do beta-lactâmico, sendo geralmente IgE-mediadas. Elas se traduzem clinicamente por urticária, angioedema e anafilaxia. As reações não imediatas ou tardias ocorrem após 1 hora da administração. São as reações mais comuns, sendo geralmente mediadas por células T. O tipo mais frequente é o exantema maculopapular ou morbiliforme. A maioria dos indivíduos que refere alergia aos beta-lactâmicos pode tolerar esse grupo de antibióticos. No diagnóstico, uma história clínica detalhada é fundamental para verificar se a reação foi do tipo imediato ou não imediato. A partir daí, podem ser realizados testes in vivo e/ou in vitro para investigação. O teste de provocação é considerado o método padrão-ouro no diagnóstico de hipersensibilidade aos beta-lactâmicos. A primeira conduta diante da suspeita de uma reação ao beta-lactâmico é suspender a exposição ao medicamento, e o único tratamento específico é a dessensibilização, que possui indicações bem precisas. O diagnóstico equivocado de alergia à penicilina afeta o sistema de saúde, pois o rótulo de "alergia à penicilina" está associado a aumento da resistência bacteriana, maior índice de falha terapêutica, hospitalizações prolongadas, readmissões e aumento dos custos. Assim, torna-se fundamental elaborar estratégias com o objetivo de auxiliar na prescrição de antibióticos em pacientes com rótulo de "alergia aos beta-lactâmicos" nos hospitais e melhorar a educação dos pacientes e seus responsáveis, além de médicos não especialistas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Anaphylaxis , Penicillins/adverse effects , beta-Lactams/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06129, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1180876

ABSTRACT

Mastitis occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy herds due to economic problems and public health. Staphylococcus spp. are infectious agents more involved in the etiology of caprine mastites, especially coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Nineteen isolates of Staphylococcus spp. were obtained from subclinical caprine mastitis. All isolates were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS, being 47.36% (9/19) identified for S. epidermidis, 15.78% (3/19) for S. warneri, 10.52% (2/19) for S. aureus and S. caprae and 5.26% (1/19) for S. lugdunensis, S. simulans, and S. cohnii. All isolates characterized by MALDI-TOF were subjected a to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the 16S rRNA gene of Staphylococcus spp. to confirm the gender. After determining the species, tests for phenotypic detection of resistance to beta-lactams were carried out simple disk diffusion oxacillin, cefoxitin, penicillin G and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, agar "screen" oxacillin and microdilution (MIC) cefoxitin. The disk diffusion test showed a strength of 58% (11/19) for penicillin G, 26.31% (5/19) for cefoxitin and 26.31% (5/19) for oxacillin. All strains were susceptible to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and agar "screen" oxacillin. In the MIC, 63.15% (12/19) of the samples were cefoxitin resistant (MIC >4.0μg/ml). Then isolates were subjected to detection of the mecA resistance genes and regulators (mecl and mecRI), mecC and blaZ. Two samples of Staphylococcus epidermidis had the mecA gene. All isolates were negative for the mecA gene variant, mecl, mecRI, mecC and blaZ. These findings reinforce the importance of this group of microorganisms in the etiology of subclinical mastitis in goats and open perspectives for future research to investigate the epidemiology of the disease.(AU)


A mastite ocupa lugar de destaque entre as doenças que acometem o rebanho leiteiro, em virtude de problemas econômicos e de saúde pública. Staphylococcus spp. são os agentes infecciosos mais envolvidos na etiologia das mastites caprinas, principalmente Staphylococcus coagulase negativo. Dezenove isolados de Staphylococcus spp. foram obtidos a partir de mastite caprina subclínica. Todos os isolados foram caracterizados por MALDI-TOF MS, sendo 47,36% (9/19) identificadas como S. epidermidis, 15,78%(3/19) como S. warneri, 10,52% (2/19) como S. caprae e S. aureus e 5,26% (1/19) tanto para S. lugdunensis, como para S. simulans e S. cohnii. Todos os isolados caracterizados pelo MALDI-TOF foram submetidos a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para o gene 16rRNA de Staphylococcus spp. para a confirmação do gênero. Após a determinação da espécie, foram realizadas as provas para a detecção fenotípica de resistência aos beta-lactâmicos: difusão em disco simples de oxacilina, cefoxitina, penicilina G e amoxacilina +ácido clavulânico, ágar "screen" de oxacilina e microdiluição em caldo (MIC) de cefoxitina. O teste de difusão em disco demonstrou resistência de 58% (11/19) para penicilina G, 26,31% (5/19) para cefoxitina e 26,31% (5/19) para oxacilina. Todas as amostras foram sensíveis a amoxicilina + ácido clavulânico e ao ágar "screen" de oxacilina. Pelo MIC, 63,15% (12/19) das amostras foram resistentes a cefoxitina (MIC >4,0μg/ml). Em seguida os isolados foram submetidos a detecção dos genes de resistência mecA e seus reguladores (mecl e mecRI), mecC e blaZ. Duas amostras de S. epidermidis apresentaram o gene mecA. Todos os isolados foram negativos para a variante do gene mecA, mecl, mecRI, mecC e blaZ. Tais achados reforçam a importância deste grupo de microrganismos na etiologia da mastite subclínica em caprinos e abre perspectivas para futuras pesquisas para a investigação da epidemiologia da doença.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Penicillin G , Staphylococcus , Ruminants , Goats , Proteomics , beta-Lactams , Mastitis , Polymerase Chain Reaction
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): 47-51, 2020-02-00. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1095576

ABSTRACT

La amoxicilina es un antibiótico betalactámico comúnmente indicado en pediatría y es la causa más frecuente de alergia a medicamentos.Objetivos. Determinar la proporción de alergia confirmada a amoxicilina en niños con sospecha diagnóstica, atendidos en una sección de alergia pediátrica.Población y métodos. Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo entre enero de 2009 y enero de 2017, en menores de 18 años con sospecha diagnóstica de alergia a amoxicilina. Se realizó el diagnóstico según interrogatorio y pruebas específicas.Resultados. Fueron incluidos 234 pacientes; se diagnosticó alergia a la amoxicilina en el 10,7 % (intervalo de confianza del 95 %: 7-15). Estos pacientes tenían mayor prevalencia de síntomas inmediatos (el 40 % vs. el 22 %, p = 0,048) y de exposición previa a betalactámicos (el 84 % vs. el 56 %, p = 0,007).Conclusión. La confirmación de alergia a la amoxicilina en niños derivados a especialistas fue del 10,7 %.


Amoxicillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic commonly indicated in pediatrics and the most frequent cause of drug allergies.Objectives. To determine the proportion of confirmed amoxicillin allergy in children with diagnostic suspicion seen at the Division of Pediatric Allergy.Population and methods. This descriptive, retrospective study was done between January 2009 and January 2017 in children younger than 18 years with diagnostic suspicion of amoxicillin allergy. The diagnosis was based on questions and specific tests.Results. A total of 234 patients were included; amoxicillin allergy was diagnosed in 10.7 % (95 % confidence interval: 7-15). These patients had a higher prevalence of immediate symptoms (40 % vs. 22 %, p = 0.048) and prior exposure to beta-lactams (84 % vs. 56 %, p = 0.007).Conclusion. Amoxicillin allergy in children referred to specialists was confirmed in 10.7 %.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Hypersensitivity , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , beta-Lactams , Amoxicillin
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(1): 29-38, Jan. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1091660

ABSTRACT

Salmonella Infantis is frequently associated with human infections worldwide and is transmitted by consumption of contaminated foods, particularly those of animal origin, especially the chicken meat. We aimed to evaluate virulence characteristics, antimicrobial resistance and the genetic similarity of 51 strains of S. Infantis isolated from samples of poultry origin. The strains were isolated from 2009 to 2010 in a company with full cycle of broiler's production in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed and, by PCR, we evaluated the presence of the genes lpfA (hem-adhesion), agfA (hem-biofilm) and sefA (hem-adhesion) and resistance genes to beta-lactams (blaTEM, blaSHV, bla CTX-M and blaAmpC ). The phylogenetic relationship was determined by RAPD-PCR method. Among the drugs tested, the highest percentages of resistance were to amoxicillin (35.3%) and to sulfonamide (15.7%). Eleven antimicrobial resistance patterns were identified (A1 to A11), none of them presented a multiresistance profile (> 3 antimicrobials classes). There was 100% of positivity for the agfA gene, 92.2% for the lpfA gene, and no strain presented the sefA gene. Most of the isolates showed similarities in virulence potential, since they were simultaneously positive for two studied genes, agfA and lpfA (92.2%, 47/51). Of the 18 (35.3%) strains resistant to antimicrobials of the β-lactam class, 10 (55.5%) were positive to blaAmpC gene, five (27.8%) for blaCTX-M , two (11.1%) to blaSHV and no strain presented the blaTEM gene. The phylogenetic evaluation has shown the presence of five clusters (A, B, C, D and E) with similarity greatSalmonella Infantis is frequently associated with human infections worldwide and is transmitted by consumption of contaminated foods, particularly those of animal origin, especially the chicken meat. We aimed to evaluate virulence characteristics, antimicrobial resistance and the genetic similarity of 51 strains of S. Infantis isolated from samples of poultry origin. The strains were isolated from 2009 to 2010 in a company with full cycle of broiler's production in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed and, by PCR, we evaluated the presence of the genes lpfA (hem-adhesion), agfA (hem-biofilm) and sefA (hem-adhesion) and resistance genes to beta-lactams (blaTEM, blaSHV, bla CTX-M and blaAmpC ). The phylogenetic relationship was determined by RAPD-PCR method. Among the drugs tested, the highest percentages of resistance were to amoxicillin (35.3%) and to sulfonamide (15.7%). Eleven antimicrobial resistance patterns were identified (A1 to A11), none of them presented a multiresistance profile (> 3 antimicrobials classes). There was 100% of positivity for the agfA gene, 92.2% for the lpfA gene, and no strain presented the sefA gene. Most of the isolates showed similarities in virulence potential, since they were simultaneously positive for two studied genes, agfA and lpfA (92.2%, 47/51). Of the 18 (35.3%) strains resistant to antimicrobials of the ß-lactam class, 10 (55.5%) were positive to blaAmpC gene, five (27.8%) for blaCTX-M , two (11.1%) to blaSHV and no strain presented the blaTEM gene. The phylogenetic evaluation has shown the presence of five clusters (A, B, C, D and E) with similarity greater than 80%, and three distinct strains which were not grouped in any cluster. Cluster B grouped 33 strains, all positive for lpfA and agfA genes, from both, the broiler farming facility and the slaughterhouse, persistent throughout all the study period. This cluster also grouped 18 strains clones with genetic similarity greater than 99%, all isolated in the slaughterhouse. The presence of virulence genes associated with persistent strains clones for a long period, warns to the possibility of S. Infantis to form biofilm, and should be constantly monitored in broilers' production chain, in order to know the profile of the strains that may contaminate the final product and evaluate the hazards that represents to public health.er than 80%, and three distinct strains which were not grouped in any cluster. Cluster B grouped 33 strains, all positive for lpfA and agfA genes, from both, the broiler farming facility and the slaughterhouse, persistent throughout all the study period. This cluster also grouped 18 strains clones with genetic similarity greater than 99%, all isolated in the slaughterhouse. The presence of virulence genes associated with persistent strains clones for a long period, warns to the possibility of S. Infantis to form biofilm, and should be constantly monitored in broilers' production chain, in order to know the profile of the strains that may contaminate the final product and evaluate the hazards that represents to public health.(AU)


Salmonella Infantis é frequentemente associada a infecções humanas no mundo todo sendo transmitida pelo consumo de alimentos contaminados, principalmente aqueles de origem animal, com destaque para a carne de frango. Objetivou-se avaliar características de virulência, resistência antimicrobiana e a similaridade genética de 51 estirpes de S. Infantis isoladas em amostras de origem avícola. As estirpes foram isoladas no período de 2009 a 2010 em uma empresa com ciclo completo de produção de frango de corte, localizada no estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foi realizado o teste de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e pela técnica de PCR, foi avaliada a presença dos genes lpfA (fímbria-adesão), agfA (fímbria-biofilme) e sefA (fímbria-adesão) e os genes de resistência aos beta-lactâmicos (bla TEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M e blaAmpC ). A relação filogenética foi determinada pelo método de RAPD-PCR. Dentre as drogas testadas, os maiores percentuais de resistência foram para amoxacilina com 35,3% e sulfonamida com 15,7%. Onze perfis de resistência aos antimicrobianos foram identificados (A1 a A11), sendo que nenhum deles apresentou perfil de multirresistência (>3 classes de antimicrobianos). Houve 100% de positividade para o gene agfA, 92,2% para o gene lpfA e nenhuma estirpe apresentou o gene sefA. A maioria dos isolados apresentaram semelhanças no potencial de virulência, pois foram positivos simultaneamente para dois genes estudados, agfA e lpfA (92,2% - 47/51). Das 18 (35,3%) estirpes resistentes aos antimicrobianos da classe dos ß-lactâmicos, 10 (55,5%) foram positivas para o gene blaAmpC , cinco (27,8%) para blaCTX-M , duas (11,1%) para blaSHV e nenhuma estirpe apresentou o gene bla TEM . A avaliação filogenética demonstrou a presença de cinco clusters (A, B, C, D e E) com similaridade superior a 80%, e três estirpes distintas que não foram agrupadas em nenhum dos clusters. O cluster B agrupou 33 estirpes, todas positivas para os genes lpfA e agfA, provenientes tanto do aviário quanto do matadouro frigorífico, persistentes durante todo o período do estudo. Este cluster ainda agrupou 18 estirpes clones com similaridade genética superior a 99%, todas isoladas no matadouro frigorífico. A presença dos genes de virulência, associada à persistência das estirpes clones durante um longo período do estudo, alertam para a possibilidade de S. Infantis em formar biofilme, devendo ser constantemente monitorada na cadeia de produção avícola, especialmente no ambiente de abate, de forma a conhecer o perfil das estirpes que podem contaminar o produto final e assim avaliar os perigos que representam para a saúde pública.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Salmonella/genetics , Salmonella/pathogenicity , Salmonella Infections, Animal , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Chickens/microbiology , beta-Lactams , Amoxicillin , Salmonella Infections
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200413, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136893

ABSTRACT

Abstract Consumption of carbapenem has increased due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria spreading. Ertapenem has been suggested as a not carbapenem-resistance inducer. We performed a scoping review of carbapenem-sparing stewardship with ertapenem and its impact on the antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative bacilli. We searched PubMed for studies that used ertapenem as a strategy to reduce resistance to carbapenems and included epidemiologic studies with this strategy to evaluate susceptibility patterns to cephalosporins, quinolones, and carbapenems in Gram-negative-bacilli. The search period included only studies in English, up to February 2018. From 1294 articles, 12 studies were included, mostly from the Americas. Enterobacteriaceae resistance to quinolones and cephalosporins was evaluated in 6 studies and carbapenem resistance in 4 studies. Group 2 carbapenem (imipenem/meropenem/doripenem) resistance on A. baumannii was evaluated in 6 studies. All studies evaluated P. aeruginosa resistance to Group 2 carbapenem. Resistance profiles of Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa to Group 2 carbapenems were not associated with ertapenem consumption. The resistance rate of A. baumannii to Group 2 carbapenems after ertapenem introduction was not clear due to a lack of studies without bias. In summary, ertapenem as a strategy to spare use of Group 2 carbapenems may be an option to stewardship programs without increasing resistance of Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa. More studies are needed to evaluate the influence of ertapenem on A. baumannii.


Subject(s)
Carbapenems/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , beta-Lactams/pharmacology , Ertapenem
10.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 345-353, dic. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057399

ABSTRACT

Abstract A novel microbiological system in microtiter plates consisting of five bioassays is presented for the detection and classification of antibiotic residues in milk. The bioassays were optimized for the detection of beta-lactams (Bioassay B: Geobacillus stearothermophilus), macrolides (Bioassay M: Bacillus megaterium with fusidic acid), tetracyclines (Bioassay T: B. megaterium with chloramphenicol), quinolones (Bioassay Q: Bacillus licheniformis) and sulfamides (Bioassay QS: B. licheniformis with trimethoprim) at levels near the maximum residue limits (MRL). The response of each bioassay was interpreted visually (positive or negative) after 4-5.5h of incubation. The system detects and classifies beta-lactams (5 pg/l of amoxicillin, 4 pg/l of ampicillin, 36 pg/l of cloxacillin, 22 pg/l of amoxicillin, 3 pg/l of penicillin, 114 pg/l of cephalexin, 89pg/l of cefoperazone and 116 pg/l of ceftiofur), tetracyclines (98 pg/l of chlortetracycline, 92 pg/l of oxytetracycline and 88 pg/l of tetracycline), macrolides (33 pg/l of erythromycin, 44 pg/l of tilmicosin and 50 pg/l of tylosin), sulfonamides (76 pg/l of sulfadiazine, 85 pg/l of sulfadimethoxine, 77 pg/l of sulfamethoxazole and 87pg/l of sulfathiazole) and quinolones (94 pg/l of ciprofloxacin, 98 pg/l of enrofloxacin and 79 pg/l marbofloxacin). In addition, the specificity values were high for B, T, Q (99.4%), M (98.8%) and QS (98.1%) bioassays. The control of antibiotics through this system can contribute to improving the quality and safety of dairy products.


Resumen Se presenta un novedoso sistema microbiológico en placas de microtitulación compuesto por 5 bioensayos para la detección y clasificación de residuos de antibióticos en leche. Los bioensayos fueron optimizados para la detección de betalactámicos (bioensayo B: Geobacillus stearothermophilus), macrólidos (bioensayo M: Bacillus megaterium con ácido fusídico), tetraciclinas (bioensayo T: Bacillus megaterium con cloranfenicol), quinolonas (bioensayo Q: Bacillus licheniformis) y sulfamidas (bioensayo QS: Bacillus licheniformis con trimetoprima), a niveles cercanos a los límites máximos de residuos (LMR). La respuesta de cada bioensayo se interpretó visualmente (positiva o negativa) después de 4 a 5,5 h de incubación. El sistema detecta y clasifica betalactámicos (5 pg/l de amoxicilina, 4 pg/l de ampicilina, 36 pg/l de cloxacilina, 22 pg/l de amoxicilina, 3 pg/l de penicilina, 114 pg/l de cefalexina, 89 pg/l de cefoperazona y 116 pg/l de ceftiofur), tetraciclinas (98 pg/l de clortetraciclina, 92 pg/l de oxitetraciclina y 88 pg/l de tetraciclina), macrólidos (33 pg/l de eritromicina, 44 pg/l de tilmi-cosina y 50 pg/l de tilosina), sulfamidas (76 pg/l de sulfadiacina, 85 pg/l de sulfadimetoxina, 77 pg/l de sulfametoxazol y 87 pg/l de sulfatiazol) y quinolonas (94 pg/l de ciprofloxacina, 98 pg/l de enrofloxacina y 79pg/l de marbofloxacina). Además, los valores de especificidad fueron altos para los bioensayos B, T, Q (99,4%), M (98,8%) y QS (98,1%). El control de residuos de antibióticos mediante este sistema puede contribuir a mejorar la calidad e inocuidad de los productos lácteos.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay/methods , Food Microbiology/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Sulfonamides/analysis , Tetracycline/analysis , Quinolones/analysis , Macrolides/analysis , Dairy Products , beta-Lactams/analysis
11.
Cambios rev. méd ; 18(2): 52-57, 2019/12/27. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099651

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La resistencia de Klebsiella pneumoniae a carbapenémicos ha aumentado con los años, reduciendo opciones terapéuticas. Puede deberse a dos mecanismos principales, como: la producción de carbapenemasas y alteración de la permeabilidad de la membrana. OBJETIVO. Analizar la frecuencia de Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente a carbapenémicos, junto al mecanismo de resistencia informado por el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia y la sensibilidad a antibióticos usados para uso terapéutico. MATERIA-LES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio retrospectivo, de población y muestra conocida. Se determinó la sensibilidad/resistencia de Klebsiella pneumoniae: todos los datos aislados de Klebsiella pneumoniae. Se reportaron 11 809 bacilos gram negativos pertenecientes a la familia Enterobacteriaceae. Se utilizó el sistema Whonet 5.6 2017 y BacLink2, así como la revisión de los resultados enviados al Centro Nacional de Referencia para la Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos del Instituto Nacional de Investigación de Salud Pública Izquieta Pérez para investigación de carbapenemasas en el Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín,en el período abril 2016 a mayo 2018. RESULTADOS. El 20,5% (2 421; 11 809) correspondieron a Klebsiella pneumoniae y de estos, 32,9% (797; 2 421) mostraron resistencia a Meropenem. Existió mayor frecuencia en muestra de orina, secreción, sangre y aspirado traqueal. Predominó en varones de más de 61 años. Se clasificó en 15 grupos fenotípicos según los perfiles de resistencia a los antibióticos utilizados como alternativa terapéutica. CONCLUSIÓN. La presencia de Klebsiella pneumoniae produjo una carbapenemasa resistente a los medi-camentos utilizados como tratamiento, llevó a pensar en el uso de otros medicamentos como: fosfomicina o ceftazidima/viabactam; sin embargo, se desarrolló medidas de control y prevención de infecciones, así como programas para el uso de antibióticos.


INTRODUCTION. The resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae to carbapenems has increased over the years, reducing therapeutic options. It can be due to two main mechanisms, such as: the production of carbapene-mases and alteration of membrane permeability. OBJECTIVE. Analyse the frequency of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, along with the resistance mechanism reported by the National Reference Laboratory and sensitivity to antibiotics used for therapeutic use. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Retrospective study, po-pulation and known sample. The sensitivity / resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae was determined: all isolated were Klebsiella pneumoniae. 11 809 gram negative bacillus belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family were reported. The Whonet 5.6 2017 and BacLink2 system was used, as well as the review of the results sent to the National Reference Center for the Antimicrobial Resistance of the National Institute of Public Health Research Izquieta Pérez for carbapenemases research at the Carlos Andrade Marín Speciality Hospital, in the period april 2016 to may 2018. RESULTS. 20,5% (2 421; 11 809) were Klebsiella pneumoniae and of these, 32,9% (797; 2 421) showed resistance to Meropenem. There was a higher frequency in urine sample, secretion, blood and tracheal aspiration. Predominance in males over 61 years old. It was classified into 15 phenotypic groups according to antibiotic resistance profiles used as a therapeutic alternative. CONCLUSION. The pre-sence of Klebsiella pneumoniae produced a carbapenemase drug-resistance used as treatment, leading to thought on the use of other medicines such as phosphomycin or ceftazidima/avibactam; however, infection control and prevention measures were developed, as well as programs for the use of antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Phenotype , Carbapenems , beta-Lactams , Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutics , R Factors , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Intensive Care Units , Microbiology
12.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 16(3): 33-40, oct. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046287

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analizar el uso de beta-lactámicos en sepsis neonatal tardía, en comparación con el tratamiento empírico actual con vancomicina, mediante la revisión de artículos científicos. METODOLOGÍA: Revisión temática en Bases LILACS y PubMed. La selección de los artículos se realizó mediante la lectura de título, abstract y texto completo. Criterios de búsqueda: Estudios en humanos, artículos por abstract y texto completo, en inglés y español, y de no más de 10 años. RESULTADOS: No hay relación en la duración ni en la mortalidad de la sepsis al utilizar un betalactámico, o al utilizar vancomicina. Además, cepas resistentes a beta-lactámico, respondieron bien al usar un beta-lactámico como terapia empírica inicial, sin la necesidad de recurrir a vancomicina, excepto en casos de no mejoría clínica. CONCLUSIONES: Beta-lactámicos pueden ser utilizados como terapia empírica inicial en sepsis neonatal tardía como alternativa al tratamiento actual con vancomicina, restringiendo el uso de vancomicina a casos de resistencia, o cuando no haya mejoría clínica del recién nacido que está utilizando un beta-lactámico como tratamiento.


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the use of beta-lactams in late- onset neonatal sepsis, compared with empirical treatment with vancomycin used currently, through the revision of scientific articles. METHODOLOGY: Thematic review in LILACS and PubMed. The articles were selected by reading the title, abstract and full text. Searching criteria: Human studies, articles by abstract and full text, in English and Spanish, and no more than 10 years since published. RESULTS: There is no relationship in duration or mortality in Sepsis when using beta-lactam, or using vancomycin. In addition, resistant strains to beta-lactam responded well in using betalactam as initial empirical therapy, without the need to resort to vancomycin, except in cases of non-clinical improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Beta-lactams may be used as initial empirical therapy in late-onset neonatal sepsis as an alternative to current vancomycin therapy, restricting the use of vancomycin to resistance cases, or when there is no clinical improvement in the neonate, who is using a beta-lactam as a treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , beta-Lactams/therapeutic use , Neonatal Sepsis/drug therapy , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 27(100): 52-60, 20190000. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1354093

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los pacientes críticamente enfermos presentan cambios fisiopatológicos que alteran las concentraciones de antibióticos betalactámicos. El objetivo fue determinar si las dosis de uso habitual en pacientes críticos alcanzan las concentraciones asociadas con mayor actividad y establecer las variables de PK/PD que se asocian con concentraciones subóptimas de antibiótico.Métodos: Estudio prospectivo realizado en una terapia intensiva de adultos en un periodo de 13 meses. Se incluyeron pacientes que recibieron cefazolina, ceftriaxona, ceftazidima o meropenem. Se realizó dosaje de concentración de antibiótico en plasma en el 50% del intervalo de dosis. Se calculó la concentración de antibiótico libre y se comparó con el objetivo 50% fT>CIM y el objetivo 50% fT>CIM x 4 para los microorganismos susceptibles definidos, según criterios del CLSI. Se comparó el grupo de pacientes que cumplió el objetivo 50% fT>CIM x 4 con el que no, en términos de variables de PK/PD.Resultados: Se incluyeron 29 determinaciones y 55 comparaciones. En el 92,7% de los casos se alcanzó el objetivo 50% fT>CIM y en el 61,8% el objetivo 50% fT>CIM x 4. En el peor escenario, es decir considerando el germen susceptible con CIM más alta, solo el 48,3% de los pacientes cumplieron el objetivo 50% fT>CIM x 4. Los pacientes que no llegaron al objetivo 50% fT>CIM x 4 tuvieron mayor RESUMENARTÍCULO ORIGINALaclaramiento renal que los que sí lo hicieron (160 vs 108,5 ml/min/1,73m2, p= 0,01). Conclusiones: un gran porcentaje de pacientes críticos que recibe betalactámicos no alcanza las metas de PK/PD recomendadas en la actualidad


Introduction: critically ill patients have physiopathological changes that upset the concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics. The aim was to determine if the doses of usual use in critically ill patients reach the concentrations associated with maximal activity and to establish the variables of PK/PD that are associated with suboptimal concentrations of antibiotic. Methods: prospective study conducted in an intensive therapy of adults in a period of 13 months. Patients who received cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime or meropenem were included. Dosage of antibiotic concentration in plasma was performed at 50% of the dose interval. The concentration of free antibiotic was calculated and compared with the objective 50% fT>MIC and the objective 50% fT>MIC x 4 for susceptible microorganisms, according to CLSI criteria. The group of patients who met the 50% objective fT>MIC x 4 was compared with the one who did not, in terms of PK/PD variables. Results: 29 determinations and 55 comparisons were included. The objective 50% fT>MIC was reached in 92.7% of the cases and the target 50% fT>MIC x 4 was achieved in 61.8%. In the worst scenario, that is, considering the germ susceptible with MIC higher, only 48.3% of patients met the objective 50% fT>MIC x 4. Patients who did not reach the goal 50% fT>MIC x 4 had greater renal clearance than those who reached the goal (160 vs 108.5 ml/min/1.73m2, p=0.01). Conclusions: a large percentage of critically ill patients receiving beta-lactams do not reach the PK/PD goals recommended nowadays


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pharmacokinetics , Data Collection , Prospective Studies , Critical Illness , Pharmacologic Actions , Critical Care , beta-Lactams/administration & dosage , beta-Lactams/adverse effects , Antimicrobial Stewardship
14.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.1): 35-49, mayo 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011453

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Las infecciones del tracto urinario son muy frecuentes en el ámbito hospitalario. Debido a la aparición de la resistencia antimicrobiana, la complejidad de los procesos de atención ha aumentado y, con ello, la demanda de recursos. Objetivo. Describir y comparar el exceso de los costos médicos directos de las infecciones del tracto urinario por Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae y Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistentes a betalactámicos. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio de cohorte en una institución de tercer nivel de Medellín, Colombia, entre octubre del 2014 y septiembre del 2015. Se incluyeron los pacientes con infección urinaria, unos por bacterias sensibles a los antibióticos betalactámicos, y otros por bacterias resistentes a las cefalosporinas de tercera y cuarta generación y a los antibióticos carbapenémicos. Los costos se analizaron desde la perspectiva del sistema de salud. La información clínico-epidemiológica se obtuvo de las historias clínicas y los costos se calcularon utilizando los manuales tarifarios estándar. El exceso de costos se estimó mediante análisis multivariados. Resultados. Se incluyeron 141 pacientes con infección urinaria: 55 (39 %) por bacterias sensibles a los betalactámicos, 54 (38,3 %) por bacterias resistentes a las cefalosporinas y 32 (22,7 %) por bacterias resistentes a los carbapenémicos. El exceso de costos totales ajustado de los 86 pacientes con infecciones del tracto urinario por bacterias resistentes a las cefalosporinas y a los carbapenémicos, fue de USD$ 193 (IC95% -347 a 734) y USD$ 633 (IC95% -50 a 1.316), respectivamente comparados con el grupo de 55 pacientes por bacterias sensibles a los betalactámicos. Las diferencias se presentaron principalmente en el uso de antibióticos de amplio espectro, como el meropenem, la colistina y la fosfomicina. Conclusión. Los resultados evidenciaron un incremento sustancial de los costos médicos directos de los pacientes con infecciones del tracto urinario por bacterias resistentes a las cefalosporinas o a los carbapenémicos. Esta situación genera especial preocupación en los países endémicos como Colombia, donde la alta frecuencia de infecciones del tracto urinario y de resistencia a los betalactámicos puede causar un mayor impacto económico en el sector de la salud.


Abstract Introduction: Urinary tract infections are very frequent in the hospital environment and given the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, they have made care processes more complex and have placed additional pressure on available healthcare resources. Objective: To describe and compare excess direct medical costs of urinary tract infections due to Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to beta-lactams. Materials and methods: A cohort study was conducted in a third level hospital in Medellín, Colombia, from October, 2014, to September, 2015. It included patients with urinary tract infections caused by beta-lactam-susceptible bacteria, third and fourth generation cephalosporin-resistant, as well as carbapenem-resistant. Costs were analyzed from the perspective of the health system. Clinical-epidemiological information was obtained from medical records and the costs were calculated using standard tariff manuals. Excess costs were estimated with multivariate analyses. Results: We included 141 patients: 55 (39%) were sensitive to beta-lactams, 54 (38.3%) were resistant to cephalosporins and 32 (22.7%) to carbapenems. The excess total adjusted costs of patients with urinary tract infections due to cephalosporin- and carbapenem-resistant bacteria were US$ 193 (95% confidence interval (CI): US$ -347-734) and US$ 633 (95% CI: US$ -50-1316), respectively, compared to the group of patients with beta-lactam sensitive urinary tract infections. The differences were mainly found in the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics such as meropenem, colistin, and fosfomycin. Conclusion: Our results show a substantial increase in the direct medical costs of patients with urinary tract infections caused by beta-lactam-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (cephalosporins and carbapenems). This situation is of particular concern in endemic countries such as Colombia, where the high frequencies of urinary tract infections and the resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics can generate a greater economic impact on the health sector.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Urinary Tract Infections/economics , Hospitals, Urban/economics , Cross Infection/economics , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , beta-Lactam Resistance , Tertiary Care Centers/economics , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Diagnostic Imaging/economics , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cohort Studies , Colombia , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , beta-Lactams/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Hospitalization/economics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/economics
15.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 50(4): 431-435, Dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977267

ABSTRACT

Group A (GAS), B (GBS), c (GCS) and G (GGS) β-hemolytic streptococci are important human pathogens. They cause infections of different severity and frequency. Nowadays, after 70 years of use, penicillin is still universally active against GAS, GCS and GGS. However, therapeutic failures have been recorded in 2-28% of pharyngitis cases (median: 12%) attributable to different causes. By contrast, some GBS with reduced susceptibility to penicillin have been described, especially in Japan. In this group of bacteria, it is important to highlight that confirmation by reference methods is mandatory when decreased susceptibility to penicillin is suspected as well as checked for the detection of the mechanisms involved.


Los estreptococos β-hemolíticos de los grupos A (GAS), B (GBS), C (GCS) y G (GGS) son importantes patógenos humanos. Ellos producen infecciones de diversa gravedad y frecuencia. Aún después de más de 70 años de uso, la penicilina sigue siendo activa in vitro frente al 100% de los GAS, GCS y GGS. No obstante se han producido fallas terapéuticas entre el 2-28% de los casos de faringitis (media: 12%), atribuibles a diversas causas. En cambio se han descrito aislados de GBS con sensibilidad reducida a la penicilina, especialmente en Japón. Es importante que toda sospecha de sensibilidad disminuida a la penicilina en este grupo de bacterias sea confirmada por los métodos de referencia y comprobada mediante la detección de los mecanismos involucrados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptococcus/drug effects , beta-Lactams/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 569-574, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951794

ABSTRACT

Abstract Multidrug-resistant microorganisms are of great concern to public health. Genetic mobile elements, such as plasmids, are among the most relevant mechanisms by which bacteria achieve this resistance. We obtained an Escherichia coli strain CM6, isolated from cattle presenting severe diarrheic symptoms in the State of Querétaro, Mexico. It was found to contain a 70 kb plasmid (pMEX01) with a high similarity to the pHK01-like plasmids that were previously identified and described in Hong Kong. Analysis of the pMEX01 sequence revealed the presence of a blaCTX-M-14 gene, which is responsible for conferring resistance to multiple β-lactam antibiotics. Several genes putatively involved in the conjugative transfer were also identified on the plasmid. The strain CM6 is of high epidemiological concern because it not only displays resistance to multiple β-lactam antibiotics but also to other kinds of antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Plasmids/genetics , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , beta-Lactams/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Plasmids/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/genetics , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli Proteins/metabolism , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Mexico
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 88-93, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041448

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Here, we determined the genes encoding antibiotic resistance enzymes and virulence factors and evaluated the genetic relationship between Enterobacter spp. isolated from different clinical samples. METHODS: A total of 57 clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. were tested for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), carbapenemase, and AmpC using phenotypic and genotypic methods. RESULTS: The most common ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamases were bla TEM (63.3%) and bla EBC (57.7%), respectively. The most prevalent virulence gene was rpos (87.7%). The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns of strains were genetically unrelated. CONCLUSIONS: RAPD polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed high genetic diversity among isolates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/biosynthesis , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Feces/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phenotype , Bacterial Proteins/drug effects , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Clone Cells , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , beta-Lactams/adverse effects , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Genotype , Iran
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170065, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893689

ABSTRACT

Abstract Considering oral diseases, antibiofilm compounds can decrease the accumulation of pathogenic species such as Streptococcus mutans at micro-areas of teeth, dental restorations or implant-supported prostheses. Objective To assess the effect of thirteen different novel lactam-based compounds on the inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation. Material and methods We synthesized compounds based on γ-lactones analogues from rubrolides by a mucochloric acid process and converted them into their corresponding γ-hydroxy-γ-lactams by a reaction with isobutylamine and propylamine. Compounds concentrations ranging from 0.17 up to 87.5 μg mL-1 were tested against S. mutans. We diluted the exponential cultures in TSB and incubated them (37°C) in the presence of different γ-lactones or γ-lactams dilutions. Afterwards, we measured the planktonic growth by optical density at 630 nm and therefore assessed the biofilm density by the crystal violet staining method. Results Twelve compounds were active against biofilm formation, showing no effect on bacterial viability. Only one compound was inactive against both planktonic and biofilm growth. The highest biofilm inhibition (inhibition rate above 60%) was obtained for two compounds while three other compounds revealed an inhibition rate above 40%. Conclusions Twelve of the thirteen compounds revealed effective inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation, with eight of them showing a specific antibiofilm effect.


Subject(s)
Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , beta-Lactams/pharmacology , Lactones/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Plankton/growth & development , Plankton/drug effects , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Colony Count, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Biofilms/growth & development , beta-Lactam Resistance/drug effects , beta-Lactams/chemical synthesis , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Gentian Violet , Lactones/chemical synthesis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemical synthesis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690645

ABSTRACT

Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are the target of β-lactam antibiotics (the major treatment for Streptococcus pneumoniae infections), and mutations in PBPs are considered as a primary mechanism for the development of β-lactam resistance in S. pneumoniae. This study was conducted to investigate the mutations in the PBPs of clinical S. pneumoniae isolates in Hangzhou, China, in correlation with β-lactam resistance. Results showed that 19F was the predominant serotype (7/27) and 14 of the S. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to both penicillin G and cephalosporin. Genotyping results suggested that β-lactam-resistant isolates primarily exhibited single-site mutations in both the STMK and SRNVP motifs of pbp1a in combination with double-site mutations in the STMK motif of pbp2x, which might be the primary mechanisms underlying the β-lactam resistance of the isolates in this study.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , China , Epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Pneumococcal Infections , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Genetics , beta-Lactams , Pharmacology
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 509-514, July-Sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889143

ABSTRACT

Abstract The production of KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) is the major mechanism of resistance to carbapenem agents in enterobacterias. In this context, forty KPC-producing Enterobacter spp. clinical isolates were studied. It was evaluated the activity of antimicrobial agents: polymyxin B, tigecycline, ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem, and was performed a comparison of the methodologies used to determine the susceptibility: broth microdilution, Etest® (bioMérieux), Vitek 2® automated system (bioMérieux) and disc diffusion. It was calculated the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each antimicrobial and polymyxin B showed the lowest concentrations for broth microdilution. Errors also were calculated among the techniques, tigecycline and ertapenem were the antibiotics with the largest and the lower number of discrepancies, respectively. Moreover, Vitek 2® automated system was the method most similar compared to the broth microdilution. Therefore, is important to evaluate the performance of new methods in comparison to the reference method, broth microdilution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , beta-Lactams/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacter/drug effects , Enterobacter/genetics , Enterobacter/isolation & purification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/classification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Polymyxin B/pharmacology
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