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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 1-9, sept. 2020. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) bypasses the TCA cycle via GABA shunt, suggesting a relationship with respiration. However, little is known about its role in seed germination under salt conditions. RESULTS: In this study, exogenous GABA was shown to have almost no influence on mungbean seed germination, except 0.1 mM at 10 h, while it completely alleviated the inhibition of germination by salt treatment. Seed respiration was significantly inhibited by 0.1 and 0.5 mM GABA, but was evidently enhanced under salt treatment, whereas both were promoted by 1 mM GABA alone or with salt treatment. Mitochondrial respiration also showed a similar trend at 0.1 mM GABA. Moreover, proteomic analysis further showed that 43 annotated proteins were affected by exogenous GABA, even 0.1 mM under salt treatment, including complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new evidence that GABA may act as a signal molecule in regulating respiration of mungbean seed germination in response to salt stress.


Subject(s)
Seeds/growth & development , Vigna , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Respiration , Stress, Physiological , Proteins , Germination , Proteomics , Salt Tolerance , Salt Stress
2.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 263-273, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827060

ABSTRACT

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult central nervous system (CNS), however, it causes excitation in the immature CNS neurons. The shift from GABA-induced depolarization to hyperpolarization in postnatal brain is primarily due to progressive decrease in the expression of the Na-K-2Cl symporter 1 (NKCC1) and increased expression of the K-Cl cotransporter 2 (KCC2). Unlike CNS neurons, both immature and mature neurons in the enteric nervous system (ENS) are depolarized by GABA. Molecular mechanisms by which GABA excites ENS neurons are unclear. It is understood, however, that the excitatory action depends on elevated intraneuronal Cl. We aimed to test a hypothesis that high intracellular Cl in ENS neurons is maintained by activity of the NKCCs. We found that NKCC2 immunoreactivity (IR) was expressed in the ENS of the rat colon on postnatal day 1 (P1). The expression level of NKCC2 continuously increased and reached a steady high level on P14 and maintained at that level in adulthood. NKCC1 IR appeared in ENS on P14 and maintained through adulthood. KCC2 IR was not detectable in the ENS in any of the developmental stages. Both NKCC1 IR and NKCC2 IR were co-expressed with GABA receptors in ENS neurons. Exogenous GABA (1 mmol/L) caused membrane depolarization in the ENS neurons. The reversal potential of GABA-induced depolarization was about -16 mV. Blockade of NKCC by bumetanide (50 μmol/L) or furosemide (300 μmol/L) suppressed the depolarizing responses to GABA. Bumetanide (50 μmol/L) shifted the reversal potential of GABA-induced depolarization in the hyperpolarizing direction. Neither the KCC blocker DIOA (20 μmol/L) nor the Cl/HCO exchanger inhibitor DIDS (200 μmol/L) suppressed GABA-evoked depolarization. The results suggest that ENS neurons continuously express NKCC2 since P1 and NKCC1 since P14, which contribute to the accumulation of Cl in ENS neurons and GABA-evoked depolarization in neonate and adult ENS neurons. These results provide the first direct evidence for the contribution of both NKCC2 and NKCC1 to the GABA-mediated depolarization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bumetanide , Neurons , Rats , Receptors, GABA-A , Symporters , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773098

ABSTRACT

A high-content GABA was found in Sojae Semen Praeparatum(SSP), which is a famous traditional Chinese medicine and officially listed in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. To screen out and identify GABA-producing microbes from samples at different time points during the fermenting process of SSP, traditional microbiological methods combined with molecular biological methods were used to study the predominant GABA-producing microorganisms existing in the fermenting process of SSP. This study would lay a foundation for further studying the processing mechanism of SSP. The fermenting process of SSP was based on Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2010 edition), and samples were taken at different time points during the fermenting process of SSP. The bacteria and fungi from samples at different time points in the fermenting process of SSP were cultured, isolated and purified by selective medium, and dominant strains were selected. The dominant bacteria were cultured in the designated liquid medium to prepare the fermentation broths, and GABA in the fermentation broth was qualitatively screened out by thin-layer chromatography. The microbial fermentation broth with GABA spots in the primary screening was quantitatively detected by online pre-column derivatization and high performance liquid chromatography established in our laboratory. GABA-producing microorganisms were screened out from predominant strains, and their GABA contents in fermentation broth were determined. The DNA sequences of GABA-producing bacteria and fungi were amplified using 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA sequences by PCR respectively. The amplified products were sequenced, and the sequencing results were identified through NCBI homology comparison. Molecular biological identification was made by phylogenetic tree constructed by MEGA 7.0 software. Through the homology comparison of NCBI and the construction of phylogenetic tree by MEGA 7.0 software, nine GABA-producing microorganisms were screened out and identified in this study. They were Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium, E. avium, Aspergillus tamarii, A. flavus, A. niger, Cladosporium tenuissimum, Penicillium citrinum and Phanerochaete sordida respectively. For the first time, nine GABA-producing microorganisms were screened out and identified in the samples at different time points during the fermenting process of SSP in this study. The results indicated that multiple predominant GABA-producing microorganisms exist in the fermenting process of SSP and may play an important role in the formation of GABA.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Classification , Metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Fermentation , Fungi , Classification , Metabolism , Phylogeny , Seeds , Microbiology , Soybeans , Microbiology , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
5.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 679-696, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785789

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes axonal damage and demyelination, neural cell death, and comprehensive tissue loss, resulting in devastating neurological dysfunction. Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPCs) transplantation provides therapeutic benefits for neural repair in SCI, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been uncovered to have capability of stimulating axonal regeneration and remyelination after SCI. In this study, to evaluate whether GDNF would augment therapeutic effects of NSPCs for SCI, GDNF-encoding or mock adenoviral vector-transduced human NSPCs (GDNF-or Mock-hNSPCs) were transplanted into the injured thoracic spinal cords of rats at 7 days after SCI. Grafted GDNF-hNSPCs showed robust engraftment, long-term survival, an extensive distribution, and increased differentiation into neurons and oligodendroglial cells. Compared with Mock-hNSPC- and vehicle-injected groups, transplantation of GDNF-hNSPCs significantly reduced lesion volume and glial scar formation, promoted neurite outgrowth, axonal regeneration and myelination, increased Schwann cell migration that contributed to the myelin repair, and improved locomotor recovery. In addition, tract tracing demonstrated that transplantation of GDNF-hNSPCs reduced significantly axonal dieback of the dorsal corticospinal tract (dCST), and increased the levels of dCST collaterals, propriospinal neurons (PSNs), and contacts between dCST collaterals and PSNs in the cervical enlargement over that of the controls. Finally grafted GDNF-hNSPCs substantially reversed the increased expression of voltage-gated sodium channels and neuropeptide Y, and elevated expression of GABA in the injured spinal cord, which are involved in the attenuation of neuropathic pain after SCI. These findings suggest that implantation of GDNF-hNSPCs enhances therapeutic efficiency of hNSPCs-based cell therapy for SCI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Axons , Cell Death , Cell Movement , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Cicatrix , Demyelinating Diseases , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Humans , Hyperalgesia , Myelin Sheath , Neuralgia , Neurites , Neuroglia , Neurons , Neuropeptide Y , Paraplegia , Pyramidal Tracts , Rats , Regeneration , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord , Therapeutic Uses , Transplants , Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759513

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Autism is a challenging neurodevelopmental disorder. Previous clinical observations have suggested altered sedation requirements for children with autism. Our study aimed to test this observation experimentally in an animal model and to explore its possible mechanisms. METHODS: Eight adult pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups. Four were injected with intraperitoneal sodium valproate on gestational day 12 and four were injected with normal saline. On postnatal day 28, the newborn male rats were subjected to the open-field test to confirm autistic features. Each rat was injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of propofol (50 mg/kg) or dexmedetomidine (0.2 mg/kg). The times to loss of righting reflex (LORR) and to return of righting reflex (RORR) were recorded. On the following day, all rats were re-sedated and underwent electroencephalography (EEG). Thereafter, the rats were euthanized and their hippocampal gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) and glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor gene expressions were assessed. RESULTS: Autistic rats showed significantly longer LORR times and shorter RORR times than did the controls (median LORR times: 12.0 versus 5.0 min for dexmedetomidine and 22.0 versus 8.0 min for propofol; P < 0.05). EEG showed a low-frequency, high-amplitude wave pattern 2 min after LORR in the control rats. Autistic rats showed a high-frequency, low-amplitude awake pattern. Hippocampal GABA(A) receptor gene expression was significantly lower and NMDA gene expression was greater in autistic rats. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the clinical observations of increased anesthetic sedative requirements in children with autism and our biochemical analyses using and glutamate receptor gene expression highlight possible underlying mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Autistic Disorder , Child , Dexmedetomidine , Electroencephalography , Female , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Gene Expression , Glutamic Acid , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Models, Animal , N-Methylaspartate , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Propofol , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, GABA-A , Receptors, Glutamate , Reflex, Righting , Valproic Acid
7.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 529-536, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763775

ABSTRACT

Stress can induce a serious epileptic encephalopathy that occurs during early infancy. Recent studies have revealed that prenatal stress exposure is a risk factor for the development of infantile spasms. Our previous work demonstrates that prenatal stress with betamethasone-induced alterations to the expression of the K⁺/Cl⁻ co-transporter (KCC2) in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons lowers the seizure threshold in exposed animals. Here, we further investigated the mechanisms involved in this KCC2 dysfunction and explored possible treatment options. We stressed Sprague-Dawley rats prenatally and further treated dams with betamethasone on gestational day 15, which increases seizure susceptibility and NMDA (N-Methyl-D-aspartate)-triggered spasms on postnatal day 15. In this animal model, first, we evaluated baseline calpain activity. Second, we examined the cleavage and dephosphorylation of KCC2. Finally, we checked the effect of a calpain inhibitor on seizure occurrence. The phosphorylated-N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor 2B (NR2B):non-phosphorylated NR2B ratio was found to be higher in the cortex of the prenatally stressed beta-methasone model. We further found that the betamethasone model exhibited increased phosphorylation of calpain-2 and decreased phosphorylation of KCC2 and Glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67). After using a calpain inhibitor in prenatal-stress rats, the seizure frequency decreased, while latency increased. GABAergic depolarization was further normalized in prenatal-stress rats treated with the calpain inhibitor. Our study suggests that calpain-dependent cleavage and dephosphorylation of KCC2 decreased the seizure threshold of rats under prenatal stress. Calpain-2 functions might, thus, be targeted in the future for the development of treatments for epileptic spasms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Betamethasone , Brain Diseases , Calpain , Epilepsy , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Glutamate Decarboxylase , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interneurons , Models, Animal , N-Methylaspartate , Phosphorylation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Risk Factors , Seizures , Spasm , Spasms, Infantile
8.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 160-167, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pain is a complex mechanism which involves different systems, including the opioidergic and GABAergic systems. Due to the side effects of chemical analgesic agents, attention toward natural agents have been increased. Artemisinin is an herbal compound with widespread modern and traditional therapeutic indications, which its interaction with the GABAergic system and antinoniceptive effects on neuropathic pain have shown. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of artemisinin during inflammatory pain and interaction with the GABAergic and opioidergic systems by using a writhing response test. METHODS: On the whole, 198 adult male albino mice were used in 4 experiments, including 9 groups (n = 6) each with three replicates, by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of artemisinin (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg), naloxone (2 mg/kg), bicuculline (2 mg/kg), saclofen (2 mg/kg), indomethacin (5 mg/kg), and ethanol (10 mL/kg). Writhing test responses were induced by i.p. injection of 10 mL/kg of 0.6% acetic acid, and the percentage of writhing inhibition was recorded. RESULTS: Results showed significant dose dependent anti-nociceptive effects from artemisinin which, at a 10 mg/kg dose, was statistically similar to indomethacin. Neither saclofen nor naloxone had antinociceptive effects and did not antagonize antinociceptive effects of artemisinin, whereas bicuculline significantly inhibited the antinocicptive effect of artemisinin. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that antinocicptive effects of artemisinin are mediated by GABAA receptors.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Adult , Analgesics , Analgesics, Opioid , Animals , Bicuculline , Ethanol , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Humans , Indomethacin , Inflammation , Male , Mice , Naloxone , Neuralgia , Receptors, GABA
9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 615-620, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Black sticky rice with giant embryo (BSRGE) contains high GABA content and affects alcohol-related indices among social drinkers, and alcohol intake and anxiety-related behavior of mice. However, it is unknown whether the intake of BSRGE affects GABAergic activity of brain directly. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effect of oral administration of BSRGE on brain GABA concentrations compared with commercially available GABA compound and regular feeds. METHODS: Twenty-one male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to BSRGE, a regular feed (AIN-76) lacking GABA, and a regular feed containing GABA compound. After feeding freely for 48 h, the cortex and striatum were separated from the brain. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was conducted to measure GABA and glutamate concentrations in mouse brain. RESULTS: The GABA concentration of the BSRGE group was higher than that of regular feed and GABA compound group (p<0.001). However, the GABA compound group showed no significant difference from the regular feed group (p=0.50). CONCLUSION: Intake of BSRGE containing high GABA content increased GABA concentrations in mouse brain compared with regular feed unlike GABA compound. The results of this study constitute an important basis for further investigations into the clinical applications of BSRGE.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Brain , Embryonic Structures , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Glutamic Acid , Humans , Male , Mice
10.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 465-475, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777041

ABSTRACT

The visual system plays an important role in our daily life. In this study, we found that loss of dendritic cell factor 1 (DCF1) in the primary visual cortex (V1) caused a sight deficit in mice and induced an abnormal increase in glutamic acid decarboxylase 67, an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to gamma aminobutyric acid and CO, particularly in layer 5. In vivo electrophysiological recordings confirmed a decrease in delta, theta, and beta oscillation power in DCF1-knockout mice. This study presents a previously unknown function of DCF1 in V1, suggests an unknown contact between DCF1 and GABA systems, and provides insight into the mechanism and treatment of visual deficits.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Waves , Genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Electroencephalography , Gene Expression Regulation , Genetics , Geniculate Bodies , Metabolism , Ginkgolides , Therapeutic Uses , Glutamate Decarboxylase , Metabolism , Lactones , Therapeutic Uses , Membrane Proteins , Genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Genetics , Photic Stimulation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos , Metabolism , Vision Disorders , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Pathology , Visual Cortex , Metabolism , Pathology , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Metabolism
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776682

ABSTRACT

The etiology and pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not yet clear. Studies have shown that there are many neurotransmitter abnormalities in children with ASD, mainly involving in glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine, 5-HT and oxytocin. The imbalance of excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmitters and inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmitters is closely related to the pathogenesis of ASD. Both animal model studies and clinical studies on ASD suggest that GABA signaling pathway may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ASD. This article reviews the research on the association between GABA signaling pathway and the pathogenesis of ASD to further explore the pathogenesis of ASD and provide theoretical basis for the treatment of ASD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Disease Models, Animal , Glutamic Acid , Humans , Signal Transduction , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728031

ABSTRACT

GABAergic control over dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra is crucial for determining firing rates and patterns. Although GABA activates both GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors distributed throughout the somatodendritic tree, it is currently unclear how regional GABA receptors in the soma and dendritic compartments regulate spontaneous firing. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine actions of regional GABA receptors on spontaneous firing in acutely dissociated DA neurons from the rat using patch-clamp and local GABA-uncaging techniques. Agonists and antagonists experiments showed that activation of either GABA(A) receptors or GABA(B) receptors in DA neurons is enough to completely abolish spontaneous firing. Local GABA-uncaging along the somatodendritic tree revealed that activation of regional GABA receptors limited within the soma, proximal, or distal dendritic region, can completely suppress spontaneous firing. However, activation of either GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptor equally suppressed spontaneous firing in the soma, whereas GABA(B) receptor inhibited spontaneous firing more strongly than GABA(A) receptor in the proximal and distal dendrites. These regional differences of GABA signals between the soma and dendritic compartments could contribute to our understanding of many diverse and complex actions of GABA in midbrain DA neurons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carisoprodol , Dendrites , Dopamine , Dopaminergic Neurons , Fires , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Mesencephalon , Neurons , Rats , Receptors, GABA , Receptors, GABA-A , Substantia Nigra , Trees
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the subjective and objective improvements in sleep quality after treatment with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA; 300 mg daily) extracted from unpolished rice germ. METHODS: This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. In total, 40 patients who complained of insomnia symptoms were enrolled and randomly assigned to the GABA treatment group (n=30) or the placebo group (n=10). Polysomnography was performed, and sleep questionnaires were administered before treatment and after 4 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: After 4 weeks of treatment the sleep latency had decreased [13.4±15.7 min at pretreatment vs. 5.7±6.2 min at posttreatment (mean±SD), p=0.001] and the sleep efficacy had increased (79.4±12.9% vs. 86.1±10.5%, p=0.018) only in the GABA treatment group. Adverse events occurred in four subjects (10%). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that treatment with unpolished-rice-germ-derived GABA improved not only the subjective sleep quality but also the objective sleep efficacy without severe adverse events.


Subject(s)
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Humans , Polysomnography , Prospective Studies , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological and sleep-promoting effects of combined γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) using caffeine-induced sleepless fruit flies, ICR mice, and Sprague-Dawley rats. MATERIALS/METHODS: Video-tracking analysis was applied to investigate behavioral changes of Drosophila melanogaster. Pentobarbital-induced sleep test and electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns were used for analysis of sleep latency, duration, and quantity and quality of sleep in vertebrate models. RESULTS: Administration of combined GABA/5-HTP could significantly reverse the caffeine induced total distance of flies (P < 0.001). Also, individually administered and combined GABA/5-HTP significantly increased the total sleeping time in the caffeine-induced sleepless ICR mice (P < 0.001). In the caffeine-induced sleepless SD-rats, combined GABA/5-HTP showed significant differences in sleep quality between individual amino acid administrations (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, we identified inhibitory effects of combined GABA/5-HTP in locomotor activity, sleep quantity and quality in caffeine-induced sleepless models, indicating that combined GABA/5-HTP may be effective in patients with insomnia by providing sufficient sleep.


Subject(s)
5-Hydroxytryptophan , Amino Acids , Animals , Caffeine , Diptera , Drosophila melanogaster , Electroencephalography , Fruit , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Motor Activity , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Vertebrates
15.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 155-170, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714912

ABSTRACT

Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the brain and they make close contacts with neurons and blood vessels. They respond dynamically to various environmental stimuli and change their morphological and functional properties. Both physiological and pathological stimuli can induce versatile changes in astrocytes, as this phenomenon is referred to as ‘astrocytic plasticity’. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of astrocytic plasticity in response to various stimuli remain elusive, except for the presence of hypertrophy, a conspicuous structural change which is frequently observed in activated or reactive astrocytes. Here, we investigated differential characteristics of astrocytic plasticity in a stimulus-dependent manner. Strikingly, a stab wound brain injury lead to hypertrophy of astrocytes accompanied by increased GABA expression and tonic GABA release in mouse CA1 hippocampus. In contrast, the mice experiencing enriched environment exhibited astrocytic hypertrophy with enhanced proBDNF immunoreactivity but without GABA signal. Based on the results, we define proBDNF-positive/GABA-negative hypertrophic astrocytes as ‘active’ astrocytes and GABA-positive hypertrophic astrocytes as ‘reactive’ astrocytes, respectively. We propose for the first time that astrocytic proBDNF can be a bona fide molecular marker of the active astrocytes, which are distinct from the reactive astrocytes which show hypertrophy but with aberrant GABA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astrocytes , Blood Vessels , Brain , Brain Injuries , Cell Plasticity , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Hippocampus , Hypertrophy , Mice , Neurons , Plastics , Wounds and Injuries , Wounds, Stab
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714566

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Infantile spasms, also known as West syndrome, is an age-specific epileptic seizure. Most patients with this condition also exhibit delayed development. This study aimed to determine the effect of long-term prenatal stress on susceptibility to infantile spasms. METHODS: We subjected pregnant rats to acute or chronic immobilization stress. Resulting offspring received N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) on postnatal day 15, and their behaviors were observed 75 minutes after injection. The expression of KCC2 and GAD67 was also determined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Exposure to long-term prenatal stress increased the frequency of spasms and decreased the latency to onset of spasms compared with offspring exposed to short-term prenatal stress. Expression of KCC2 and GAD67 also decreased in the group exposed to long-term prenatal stress compared with the group exposed to short-term prenatal stress. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that exposure to long-term prenatal stress results in increased susceptibility to seizures.


Subject(s)
Animals , Epilepsy , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Glutamate Decarboxylase , Humans , Immobilization , Immunohistochemistry , Infant , Infant, Newborn , N-Methylaspartate , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Rats , Seizures , Spasm , Spasms, Infantile
17.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 120-128, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714114

ABSTRACT

µ-opioid receptor (MOR) is a class of opioid receptors with a high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin. In hippocampus, activation of MOR is known to enhance the neuronal excitability of pyramidal neurons, which has been mainly attributed to a disinhibition of pyramidal neurons via activating Gαi subunit to suppress the presynaptic release of GABA in hippocampal interneurons. In contrast, the potential role of MOR in hippocampal astrocytes, the most abundant cell type in the brain, has remained unexplored. Here, we determine the cellular and subcellular distribution of MOR in different cell types of the hippocampus by utilizing MOR-mCherry mice and two different antibodies against MOR. Consistent with previous findings, we demonstrate that MOR expression in the CA1 pyramidal layer is co-localized with axon terminals from GABAergic inhibitory neurons but not with soma of pyramidal neurons. More importantly, we demonstrate that MOR is highly expressed in CA1 hippocampal astrocytes. The ultrastructural analysis further demonstrates that the astrocytic MOR is localized in soma and processes, but not in microdomains near synapses. Lastly, we demonstrate that astrocytes in ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens also express MOR. Our results provide the unprecedented evidence for the presence of MOR in astrocytes, implicating potential roles of astrocytic MOR in addictive behaviors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Astrocytes , Behavior, Addictive , beta-Endorphin , Brain , Carisoprodol , Enkephalins , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Hippocampus , Interneurons , Mice , Microscopy, Electron , Neurons , Nucleus Accumbens , Presynaptic Terminals , Pyramidal Cells , Receptors, Opioid , Synapses , Ventral Tegmental Area
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Curcumin is traditionally used as an herbal medicine. We explored the efficacy of intrathecal curcumin in relieving both postoperative and inflammatory pain and elucidated the mechanisms of action of curcumin interacting with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and opioid receptors at the spinal level. METHODS: Experimental pain was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats via paw incision or injection of intraplantar carrageenan. After examination of the effects of intrathecal curcumin on the pain, GABA and opioid receptor antagonists were intrathecally administered to explore the involvement of GABA or opioid receptors on the effect of curcumin. Additionally, the expression levels of the GABA and opioid receptors were assessed. RESULTS: Intrathecal curcumin reduced the withdrawal threshold of both incisional surgery- and carrageenan injection-induced nociception. Intrathecal GABA and opioid receptor antagonists reversed the curcumin-mediated antinociception. Incisional surgery decreased the levels of the GABA receptors mRNA, but little changed the levels of the opioid receptors mRNA. Carrageenan injection increased the levels of the opioid receptors mRNA, but not the GABA receptors mRNA levels. Intrathecal curcumin increased or decreased the levels of GABA receptors mRNA and opioid receptors mRNA in the spinal cords of incised or carrageenan-injected rats, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal curcumin was effective to postoperative and inflammatory pain and such antinociception of curcumin was antagonized by both GABA and opioid receptor antagonists. Also, intrathecal curcumin altered the levels of GABA and opioid receptors. Thus, spinal GABA and opioid receptors may, respectively, be directly or indirectly involved when curcumin alleviates postoperative and inflammatory pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carrageenan , Curcumin , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Male , Narcotic Antagonists , Nociception , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, GABA , Receptors, Opioid , RNA, Messenger , Spinal Cord
19.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 365-376, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717415

ABSTRACT

Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are mostly generated from dietary triglycerides and can penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Astrocytes in the brain use MCFAs as an alternative energy source. In addition, MCFAs have various regulatory and signaling functions in astrocytes. However, it is unclear how astrocytes sense and take up MCFAs. This study demonstrates that decanoic acid (DA; C10), a saturated MCFA and a ligand of G(αs) protein-coupled receptors (G(αs)-GPCRs), is a signaling molecule in energy metabolism in primary astrocytes. cAMP synthesis and lactate release were increased via a putative G(αs)-GPCR and transmembrane adenylyl cyclase upon short-term treatment with DA. By contrast, monoamine oxidase B-dependent gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis was increased in primary cortical and hypothalamic astrocytes upon long-term treatment with DA. Thus, astrocytes respond to DA by synthesizing cAMP and releasing lactate upon short-term treatment, and by synthesizing and releasing GABA upon long-term treatment, similar to reactive astrocytes. Our data suggest that astrocytes in the brain play crucial roles in lipid-sensing via GPCRs and modulate neuronal metabolism or activity by releasing lactate via astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle or GABA to influence neighboring neurons.


Subject(s)
Adenylyl Cyclases , Animals , Astrocytes , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , Energy Metabolism , Fatty Acids , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Lactic Acid , Metabolism , Mice , Monoamine Oxidase , Neurons , Triglycerides
20.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1029-1036, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775485

ABSTRACT

The ventral pallidum (VP) is a crucial component of the limbic loop of the basal ganglia and participates in the regulation of reward, motivation, and emotion. Although the VP receives afferent inputs from the central histaminergic system, little is known about the effect of histamine on the VP and the underlying receptor mechanism. Here, we showed that histamine, a hypothalamic-derived neuromodulator, directly depolarized and excited the GABAergic VP neurons which comprise a major cell type in the VP and are responsible for encoding cues of incentive salience and reward hedonics. Both postsynaptic histamine H1 and H2 receptors were found to be expressed in the GABAergic VP neurons and co-mediate the excitatory effect of histamine. These results suggested that the central histaminergic system may actively participate in VP-mediated motivational and emotional behaviors via direct modulation of the GABAergic VP neurons. Our findings also have implications for the role of histamine and the central histaminergic system in psychiatric disorders.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Basal Forebrain , Cell Biology , Dimaprit , Pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Electric Stimulation , Female , GABAergic Neurons , Histamine , Pharmacology , Histamine Agonists , Pharmacology , Lysine , Metabolism , Male , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Pyridines , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Histamine H1 , Metabolism , Receptors, Histamine H2 , Metabolism , Sodium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology , Tetrodotoxin , Pharmacology , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Metabolism
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