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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921757

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to explore the effect and mechanism of Jiawei Baitouweng Decoction(JWBTW) against ulcerative colitis(UC) from the perspective of intestinal mucosal tight junction proteins. From 60 SPF-grade male SD rats, 10 were randomly selected as the blank control, and the remaining 50 were treated with 3% dextran sodium sulfate(DSS) solution to induce UC and then randomized into the model group, mesalazine group, and low-, medium-, and high-dose JWBTW( L-JWBTW, M-JWBTW and H-JWBTW) groups, with 10 rats in each group. After successive medication for 14 days, the rat general conditions like body weight and stool were observed and the disease activity index(DAI) was calculated. The pathological changes in colon tissue was observed under a microscope for injury severity scoring and histopathological scoring. The serum endotoxin content was determined by limulus assay, followed by the measurement of protein expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, claudin-1, p38 MAPK, MLCK, MLC2 and p-MLC in colon tissue by Western blot. The results showed that compared with the blank group, the model group exhibited significantly reduced body weight, elevated DAI, injury severity and histopathological scores and serum endotoxin content, up-regulated protein expression levels of p38 MAPK, MLCK, MLC2 and p-MLC, and down-regulated ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1. Compared with the model group,mesalazine and JWBTW at each dose obviously increased the body weight, lowered the DAI, injury severity and histopathological scores and serum endotoxin content, down-regulated the protein expression levels of p38 MAPK, MLCK, MLC2 and p-MLC, and up-regulated the ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1, with the most obvious changes noticed in the H-JWBTW group. All these have indicated that JWBTW exerts the therapeutic effect against UC by inhibiting the activation of p38 MAPK/MLCK pathway, reversing the protein expression levels of occludin, claudin-1 and ZO-1, decreasing the serum endotoxin content, promoting the repair of intestinal mucosal mechanical barrier, maintaining the integrity of tight junctions, and reducing the permeability of intestinal mucosa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Intestinal Mucosa , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Tight Junction Proteins/genetics , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921714

ABSTRACT

This study intended to explore the effect and mechanism of total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma in improving scopola-mine-induced learning and memory impairments in model mice. Ninety four-month-old Kunming(KM) mice were randomly divided into six groups. The ones in the model group and blank group were treated with intragastric administration of normal saline, while those in the medication groups separately received the total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma, Kangnaoshuai Capsules, donepezil, as well as total flavonoids of Rhizoma Drynariae plus estrogen receptor(ER) blocker by gavage. The mouse model of learning and memory impairments was established via intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine. Following the measurement of mouse learning and memory abilities in Morris water maze test, the hippocampal ERβ expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the expression levels of ERβ and phosphorylated p38(p-p38) in the hippocampus and B-cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated death promoter(Bad), and cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-3(caspase-3) in the apoptotic system were assayed by Western blot. The contents of malondia-ldehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), and nitric oxide(NO) in the hippocampus were then determined using corresponding kits. Compared with the control group, the model group exhibited significantly prolonged incubation period, reduced frequency of cros-sing the platform, shortened residence time in the target quadrant, lowered ERβ, Bcl-2 and SOD activity in the hippocampus, and increased p-p38/p38, Bad, caspase-3, MDA, and NO. Compared with the model group, the total flavonoids of Rhizoma Drynariae increased the expression of ERβ and SOD in the hippocampus, down-regulated the expression of neuronal pro-apoptotic proteins, up-re-gulated the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, and reduced p-p38/p38, MDA, and NO. The effects of total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma on the above indexes were reversed by ER blocker. It has been proved that the total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma obviously alleviate scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in mice, which may be achieved by regulating the neuronal apoptotic system and oxidative stress via the ER-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(ER-p38 MAPK) signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Flavonoids , Hippocampus , Maze Learning , Mice , Polypodiaceae , Receptors, Estrogen , Scopolamine/toxicity , Signal Transduction , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921649

ABSTRACT

The present study observed the effect of Guanxin Zhitong Capsules(GXZT) on the lipotoxicity of vascular endothelial cells and investigated the mechanism of GXZT in atherosclerosis treatment. The lipotoxicity model in human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs) was induced by palmitic acid(PA) stimulation. These cells were divided into a normal control group(NC, 15% normal serum), a model group(PA, 0.6 mmol·L~(-1) PA+15% normal serum), a high-dose GXZT group(GXZT-H, 0.6 mmol·L~(-1) PA+15% GXZT-medicated serum), a medium-dose GXZT group(GXZT-M, 0.6 mmol·L~(-1) PA+10% GXZT-medicated serum+5% normal serum) and a low-dose GXZT group(GXZT-L, 0.6 mmol·L~(-1) PA+5% GXZT-medicated serum+10% normal serum). HUVECs were detected for cell viability by cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) assay, apoptosis by flow cytometry, mitochondrial membrane potential(MMP) by JC-1 labeled laser scanning confocal microscopy, and total and phosphorylated proteins of p38, ERK1/2, and JNK1/2 in the mitogen-activated protein kinases(MAPK) signaling pathway by Western blot. The phosphorylated level was calcula-ted. Compared with the NC group, the PA group showed decreased cell viability and MMP(P<0.01, P<0.01), elevated apoptosis(P<0.01), and up-regulated phosphorylated levels of p38, ERK1/2, and JNK1/2(P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.01). Compared with the PA group, the GXZT-H, GXZT-M, and GXZT-L groups showed increased cell viability and MMP(P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.01), reduced apoptosis(P<0.01), and down-regulated protein expression and phosphorylated levels of p38, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 in the MAPK signaling pathway(P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.01). In conclusion, the results suggest that GXZT functions via blocking MAPK signaling pathway to relieve the damage of HUVECs induced by PA.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Capsules , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Palmitic Acid/toxicity , Signal Transduction , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879959

ABSTRACT

: To assess the () recombinant gingivalis gingipain R2 (rRgpB)-induced Ca mobilization in human gingival fibroblast (HGF) mediated by protease-activated receptor (PAR) and its downstream signal transduction pathways. : Flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of PAR in HGF. The proliferation of HGF was measured by CCK-8. The dynamic changes of intracellular Ca concentration in HGF induced by rRgpB and the blocking effect of PAR-1 antagonist were observed by laser confocal microscopy. Western blot was performed to determine the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and p65 in HGF. : PAR-1 and PAR-3 were expressed in HGF, and the rRgpB could promote the proliferation of HGF. rRgpB caused a transient increase in [Ca], which could be completely suppressed by vorapaxar, a PAR-1 antagonist. The phosphorylation levels of JNK, ERK1/2 and p65 were significantly up-regulated after the induction of rRgpB for and (all <0.05), which was completely inhibited by vorapaxar. However, the phosphorylation level of p38 MAPK had no significant change after rRgpB stimulation. : rRgpB causes an increase in [Ca] in HGF mediated by PAR-1. JNK, ERK1/2 and nuclear factor-κB may be involved in intracellular signal transduction after PAR-1 activation.


Subject(s)
Fibroblasts , Humans , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Phosphorylation , Signal Transduction , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(4): 630-636, out. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131353

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A taxa de falha de enxerto de veia safena um ano após a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio varia de 10% a 25%. O objetivo deste estudo foi de investigar se a atorvastatina pode reduzir o acúmulo de células musculares lisas vasculares para inibir a hiperplasia intimal por meio da inibição da via p38 MAPK. Métodos: Quarenta e cinco ratos Sprague-Dawley foram randomizados em três grupos. Trinta ratos foram submetidos à cirurgia de enxerto de veia e randomizados para tratamento com veículo ou atorvastatina; quinze ratos foram submetidos à cirurgia sham. Detectamos a hiperplasia intimal por meio de coloração com hematoxilina-eosina e a expressão de proteínas relacionadas por meio de análise imuno-histoquímica e Western blot. Foram realizadas as comparações por análise de variância de fator único e pelo teste da diferença mínima significativa de Fisher, com p < 0,05 considerado significativo. Resultados: A íntima analisada pela coloração com hematoxilina-eosina era dramaticamente mais espessa no grupo controle que no grupo atorvastatina e no grupo sham (p < 0,01). Os resultados da coloração imuno-histoquímica de α-SMA demonstraram que a porcentagem de células positivas para α-SMA no grupo controle era mais alta que no grupo atorvastatina (p < 0,01). Nós também avaliamos α-SMA, PCNA, p38 MAPK e fosforilação de p38 MAPK após o tratamento com estatina por meio de análise de Western blot e os resultados indicaram que a atorvastatina não levou à redução de p38 MAPK (p < 0,05); no entanto, resultou na inibição da fosforilação de p38 MAPK (p < 0,01) e reduziu significativamente os níveis de α-SMA e PCNA, em comparação com o grupo controle (p < 0,01). Conclusão: Nós demonstramos que a atorvastatina pode inibir o acúmulo de células musculares lisas vasculares por meio da inibição da via p38 MAPK e é capaz de inibir a hiperplasia intimal em modelos de enxerto de veia em ratos.


Abstract Background: The rate of saphenous vein graft failure one year after coronary artery bypass grafting ranges from 10% to 25%. The aim of this study was to explore whether atorvastatin can reduce accumulation of vascular smooth muscle cells to inhibit intimal hyperplasia via p38 MAPK pathway inhibition. Methods: Forty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to three groups. Thirty rats received a vein graft operation, and they were randomized to be treated with vehicle or atorvastatin; fifteen rats received a sham operation. We detected intimal hyperplasia by hematoxylin-eosin staining and related protein expression by immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis. Comparisons were analyzed by single-factor analysis of variance and Fisher's least significant difference test, with p < 0.05 considered significant. Results: The intima analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining was dramatically thicker in the control group than in the atorvastatin group and sham group (p < 0.01). The outcomes of immunohistochemical staining of α-SMA demonstrated that the percentage of α-SMA-positive cells in the control group was higher than in the atorvastatin group (p < 0.01). We also evaluated α-SMA, PCNA, p38 MAPK, and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK after statin treatment by Western blot analysis, and the results indicated that atorvastatin did not lead to p38 MAPK reduction (p < 0.05); it did, however, result in inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation (p < 0.01), and it significantly reduced α-SMA and PCNA levels, in comparison with the control group (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We have demonstrated that atorvastatin can inhibit accumulation of vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibiting the p38 MAPK pathway, and it is capable of inhibiting intimal hyperplasia in a rat vein graft model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Transplants , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Veins , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use , Atorvastatin/pharmacology , Hyperplasia/prevention & control , Hyperplasia/drug therapy , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(1): e9085, Jan. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055483

ABSTRACT

Total Panax notoginseng saponin (TPNS) is the main bioactivity compound derived from the roots and rhizomes of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of TPNS in treating vascular neointimal hyperplasia in rats and its mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups, sham (control), injury, and low, medium, and high dose TPNS (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg). An in vivo 2F Fogarty balloon-induced carotid artery injury model was established in rats. TPNS significantly and dose-dependently reduced balloon injury-induced neointimal area (NIA) (P<0.001, for all doses) and NIA/media area (MA) (P<0.030, for all doses) in the carotid artery of rats, and PCNA expression (P<0.001, all). The mRNA expression of smooth muscle (SM) α-actin was significantly increased in all TPNS groups (P<0.005, for all doses) and the protein expression was significantly increased in the medium (P=0.006) and high dose TPNS (P=0.002) groups compared to the injury group. All the TPNS doses significantly decreased the mRNA expression of c-fos (P<0.001). The medium and high dose TPNS groups significantly suppressed the upregulation of pERK1/2 protein in the NIA (P<0.025) and MA (P<0.004). TPNS dose-dependently inhibited balloon injury-induced activation of pERK/p38MAPK signaling in the carotid artery. TPNS could be a promising agent in inhibiting cell proliferation following vascular injuries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Saponins/pharmacology , Carotid Artery Injuries/prevention & control , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Panax notoginseng/drug effects , Neointima/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Signal Transduction , Up-Regulation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Carotid Artery Injuries/etiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hyperplasia
8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e006, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055522

ABSTRACT

Abstract Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells could be induced into ameloblast-like cells by ameloblasts serum-free conditioned medium (ASF-CM), and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) might be essential during the regulation of this process. The present study investigates the signal transduction that regulates the ameloblastic differentiation of iPS cells induced by ASF-CM. Mouse iPS cells were characterized and then cultured for 14 days in epithelial cell medium (control) or ASF-CM. Bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR-II) siRNA, inhibitor of Smad1/5 phosphorylation activated by activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) receptors, and inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation were used to treat the iPS cells in combination with ASF-CM. Real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescent staining were used to evaluate the expressions of ameloblast markers ameloblastin, enamelin, and cytokeratin-14. BMPR-II gene and protein levels increased markedly in ASF-CM-treated iPS cells compared with the controls, while the mRNA levels of Bmpr-Ia and Bmpr-Ib were similar between the ASF-CM and control groups. ASF-CM stimulation significantly increased the gene and protein expression of ameloblastin, enamelin and cytokeratin-14, and phosphorylated SMAD1/5, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 MAPK compared with the controls. Knockdown of BMPR-II and inhibition of Smad1/5 phosphorylation both could significantly reverse the increased expression of ameloblastin, enamelin, and cytokeratin-14 induced by ASF-CM, while neither inhibition of p38 nor ERK1/2 phosphorylation had significant reversing effects. We conclude that smad1/5 signaling transduction, activated by ALK receptors, regulates the ameloblastic differentiation of iPS cells induced by ameloblast-conditioned medium.


Subject(s)
Signal Transduction/physiology , Smad1 Protein/physiology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Ameloblasts/cytology , Phosphorylation , Time Factors , Gene Expression , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Culture Media, Serum-Free , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology , Activin Receptors/analysis , Activin Receptors/physiology , RNA Interference , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/analysis , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/physiology , Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II/analysis , Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II/physiology , Smad1 Protein/analysis
9.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e006, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089380

ABSTRACT

Abstract Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells could be induced into ameloblast-like cells by ameloblasts serum-free conditioned medium (ASF-CM), and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) might be essential during the regulation of this process. The present study investigates the signal transduction that regulates the ameloblastic differentiation of iPS cells induced by ASF-CM. Mouse iPS cells were characterized and then cultured for 14 days in epithelial cell medium (control) or ASF-CM. Bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR-II) siRNA, inhibitor of Smad1/5 phosphorylation activated by activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) receptors, and inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation were used to treat the iPS cells in combination with ASF-CM. Real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescent staining were used to evaluate the expressions of ameloblast markers ameloblastin, enamelin, and cytokeratin-14. BMPR-II gene and protein levels increased markedly in ASF-CM-treated iPS cells compared with the controls, while the mRNA levels of Bmpr-Ia and Bmpr-Ib were similar between the ASF-CM and control groups. ASF-CM stimulation significantly increased the gene and protein expression of ameloblastin, enamelin and cytokeratin-14, and phosphorylated SMAD1/5, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 MAPK compared with the controls. Knockdown of BMPR-II and inhibition of Smad1/5 phosphorylation both could significantly reverse the increased expression of ameloblastin, enamelin, and cytokeratin-14 induced by ASF-CM, while neither inhibition of p38 nor ERK1/2 phosphorylation had significant reversing effects. We conclude that smad1/5 signaling transduction, activated by ALK receptors, regulates the ameloblastic differentiation of iPS cells induced by ameloblast-conditioned medium.


Subject(s)
Signal Transduction/physiology , Smad1 Protein/physiology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Ameloblasts/cytology , Phosphorylation , Time Factors , Gene Expression , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Culture Media, Serum-Free , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology , Activin Receptors/analysis , Activin Receptors/physiology , RNA Interference , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/analysis , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/physiology , Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II/analysis , Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II/physiology , Smad1 Protein/analysis
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828932

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of periostin on hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts and the molecular mechanism involved.@*METHODS@# cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were placed in an anaerobic gas-producing bag for hypoxia treatment for 48 h followed by treatment with periostin at low (25 ng/mL), moderate (50 ng/mL) or high (100 ng/mL) doses. MTT assay was used to measure the cell viability, and the cell apoptosis rate was determined using flow cytometry. The contents of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the cells were determined with ELISA, and ROS levels were measured using a fluorescent plate reader. The intracellular SOD activity was detected using ELISA. The expressions of HIF-1α, P21, cyclin D1, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2, P38MAPK and p-p38 MAPK proteins in the cells were detected with Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Hypoxia treatment significantly reduced the cell viability ( < 0.05), increased P21, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 protein levels ( < 0.05), promoted cell apoptosis ( < 0.05), and decreased cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 protein levels ( < 0.05) in the cells. Compared with the hypoxic group, the cells treated with periostin at different concentrations showed significantly increased cell viability ( < 0.05) with significantly lowered apoptotic rates ( < 0.05) and decreased expression levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 ( < 0.05) but significantly increased expression levels of cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 ( < 0.05). Hypoxic exposure of the cells resulted in significantly increased expression levels of HIF-1α and p-p38 MAPK ( < 0.05) and increased levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and ROS ( < 0.05) but decreased SOD activity ( < 0.05). Periostin treatment at different concentrations significantly lowered the expression levels of HIF-1α and p-p38 MAPK ( < 0.05) and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and ROS ( < 0.05) and significantly increased SOD activity in the hypoxic cells ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Periostin promotes the proliferation, inhibits apoptosis, enhances cellular antioxidant capacity, and reduces inflammatory damage in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts exposed to hypoxia possibly by inhibiting the activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Fibroblasts , Humans , Hypoxia , Oxidative Stress , Periodontal Ligament , Signal Transduction , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878793

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the immunosuppressive effects of dihydroartemisinin and Huobahua compatibility in mice with delayed hypersensitivity and explore its possible mechanism. The delayed-type hypersensitivity(DTH) model in mice was established to observe the immunosuppressive effects of dihydroartemisinin and Huobahua compatibility in DTH mice. ELISA assay was used to detect the contents of interferon(IFN-γ); histopathological changes and degree of mononuclear infiltration of right ear tissues were examined by HE staining; the expression level of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) in the right ear of mice was detected by immunohistochemistry; the protein expression levels of p38 phospho mitogen activated protein kinase(p-p38 MAPK) was detected by Western blot analysis. As compared with the control group, the degree of ear swelling, thymus/spleen index, serum IFN-γ as well as the number and degree of infiltration of monocytes were significantly increased in the model group. As compared with the model group, the degree of ear swelling and thymus/spleen index of the mice in the combination group were significantly reduced; the number and degree of infiltration of monocytes were significantly relieved; the serum levels of IFN-γ and the expression levels of p-p38 MAPK and ICAM-1 proteins in the right ear were also significantly reduced. The combination of dihydroartemisinin and Huobahua can significantly inhibit the DTH response, and it may regulate the production and secretion of related inflammatory factor IFN-γ by inhibiting the phosphorylation activity of p38 MAPK, thereby further reducing the expression of ICAM-1 and thus exerting the immunosuppressive effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Artemisinins , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/genetics , Mice , Monocytes , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880772

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of zoledronate (ZOL) on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption under high glucose, and the regulation mechanism of p38 mitogen activated kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway in this process.@*METHODS@#RAW264.7 cells were divided into four groups: low group, high group, low+ZOL group and high+ZOL group after induced into osteoclasts. Cell proliferation activity was determined by MTT assay. The migration of RAW264.7 cells were examined Optical microscopy. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to observe the cytoskeleton and sealing zones of osteoclasts. After adding group 5: high + ZOL + SB203580 group, trap staining was used to identify the number of positive osteoclasts in each group. The number and area of resorption lacunae were observed by SEM. The mRNA and protein expression of osteoclast related factors were detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The cells in the 5 groups showed similar proliferative activity. High glucose promoted the migration of RAW264.7 cells (@*CONCLUSIONS@#High glucose inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. ZOL inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in high-glucose conditions by regulating p38 MAPK pathway, which can be a new pathway for ZOL to regulate diabetic osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Resorption , Cell Differentiation , Glucose , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mice , NFATC Transcription Factors , Osteoclasts , RANK Ligand , Zoledronic Acid/pharmacology , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828646

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the regulatory mechanism of MS275, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in rats with convulsion in the developmental stage.@*METHODS@#Thirty-two male rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), PTZ+3 mg/kg MS275, and PTZ+6 mg/kg MS275 (n=8 each). A rat model of convulsion in the developmental stage was prepared by an intraperitoneal injection of PTZ. The rats in the control group were given an injection of normal saline alone. MS275 was given by an intraperitoneal injection at 2 hours before PTZ injection. At 24 hours after successful modeling, 6 rats were taken from each group. Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to measure the protein and mRNA expression of p38, MK2, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the hippocampus. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe brain pathological changes. Western blot was used to measure the expression of CD11b as a marker for the activation of microglial cells.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the PTZ group had significant increases in the mRNA and protein expression of p38, MK2, CREB, and IL-6 (P<0.05). MS275 significantly inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of the above markers in the rats with convulsion in the developmental stage (P<0.05), and 6 mg/kg MS275 had a significantly better inhibitory effect on the mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 and CREB than 3 mg/kg MS275 (P<0.05). HE staining showed that the PTZ group had marked neuron apoptosis, cellular edema, and inflammatory cell infiltration, while MS275 intervention alleviated neuron apoptosis and cellular edema and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in the rats with convulsion. The PTZ group had a significant increase in the activation of microglial cells, while MS275 significantly inhibited the activation of microglial cells in the rats with convulsion (P<0.05); 6 mg/kg MS275 had a significantly better inhibitory effect than 3 mg/kg MS275 (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In rats with convulsion in the developmental stage, the histone deacetylase inhibitor MS275 can inhibit the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons, and the activation of microglial cells and thus reduce inflammatory response and convulsion-induced brain injury in a dose-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pentylenetetrazole , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Seizures , Signal Transduction , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828513

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of periostin on hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts and the molecular mechanism involved.@*METHODS@# cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were placed in an anaerobic gas-producing bag for hypoxia treatment for 48 h followed by treatment with periostin at low (25 ng/mL), moderate (50 ng/mL) or high (100 ng/mL) doses. MTT assay was used to measure the cell viability, and the cell apoptosis rate was determined using flow cytometry. The contents of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the cells were determined with ELISA, and ROS levels were measured using a fluorescent plate reader. The intracellular SOD activity was detected using ELISA. The expressions of HIF-1α, P21, cyclin D1, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2, P38MAPK and p-p38 MAPK proteins in the cells were detected with Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Hypoxia treatment significantly reduced the cell viability ( < 0.05), increased P21, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 protein levels ( < 0.05), promoted cell apoptosis ( < 0.05), and decreased cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 protein levels ( < 0.05) in the cells. Compared with the hypoxic group, the cells treated with periostin at different concentrations showed significantly increased cell viability ( < 0.05) with significantly lowered apoptotic rates ( < 0.05) and decreased expression levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 ( < 0.05) but significantly increased expression levels of cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 ( < 0.05). Hypoxic exposure of the cells resulted in significantly increased expression levels of HIF-1α and p-p38 MAPK ( < 0.05) and increased levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and ROS ( < 0.05) but decreased SOD activity ( < 0.05). Periostin treatment at different concentrations significantly lowered the expression levels of HIF-1α and p-p38 MAPK ( < 0.05) and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and ROS ( < 0.05) and significantly increased SOD activity in the hypoxic cells ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Periostin promotes the proliferation, inhibits apoptosis, enhances cellular antioxidant capacity, and reduces inflammatory damage in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts exposed to hypoxia possibly by inhibiting the activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Cell Hypoxia , Fibroblasts , Humans , Oxidative Stress , Periodontal Ligament , Cell Biology , Signal Transduction , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
16.
Clinics ; 74: e509, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011922

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening illness characterized by a complex pathophysiology, involving not only the respiratory system but also nonpulmonary distal organs. Although advances in the management of ARDS have led to a distinct improvement in ARDS-related mortality, ARDS is still a life-threatening respiratory condition with long-term consequences. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of this condition will allow us to create a personalized treatment strategy for improving clinical outcomes. In this article, we present a general overview p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and recent advances in understanding its functions. We consider the potential of the pharmacological targeting of p38MAPK pathways to treat ARDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/physiopathology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/drug therapy , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/therapeutic use , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism
17.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 615-626, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been suggested to accelerate vascular senescence, however the molecular mechanism(s) remain unknown. METHODS: We cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hCSMCs) and treated Ang II and/or fimasartan. Or we transfected adenoviral vectors expressing CYR61 (Ad-CYR61) or antisense CYR61 (Ad-As-CYR61). Cellular senescence was evaluated senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) assay. The molecular mechanisms were investigated real-time PCR and western blots. RESULTS: SA-β-gal-positive cells significantly increased in Ang II-treated hCSMCs (5.77±1.43-fold compared with the control). The effect of Ang II was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with the Ang II type 1 receptor blocker, fimasartan (2.00±0.92-fold). The expression of both p53 and p16 senescence regulators was significantly increased by Ang II (p53: 1.39±0.17, p16: 1.19±0.10-fold vs. the control), and inhibited by fimasartan. Cysteine-rich angiogenic protein 61 (CYR61) was rapidly induced by Ang II. Compared with the control, Ad-CYR61-transfected hCSMCs showed significantly increased SA-β-gal-positive cells (3.47±0.65-fold). Upon transfecting Ad-AS-CYR61, Ang II-induced senescence (3.74±0.23-fold) was significantly decreased (1.77±0.60-fold). p53 expression by Ang II was significantly attenuated by Ad-AS-CYR61, whereas p16 expression was not regulated. Ang II activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, which was significantly blocked by fimasartan. ERK and p38 inhibition both regulated Ang II-induced CYR61 expression. However, p53 expression was only regulated by ERK1/2, whereas p16 expression was only attenuated by p38 MAPK. CONCLUSIONS: Ang II induced vascular senescence by the ERK/p38 MAPK–CYR61 pathway and ARB, fimasartan, protected against Ang II-induced vascular senescence.


Subject(s)
Aging , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Blotting, Western , Cellular Senescence , Coronary Vessels , Humans , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776558

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of Shenmai injection(SM) on p38MAPK and the apoptosis-related genes in lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in rats and to investigate the protective mechanism of SM.@*METHODS@#Rat model of intestinal I/R injury was established with clamping of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 60 min and then clamping was relieved for 60 min. Twenty-four SD rats were randomly divided into three groups with eight rats in each: control group, intestinal ischemia/reperfusion group(I/R group), Shenmai injection treated group (SM+I/R group). Lung wet/dry weight ratio(W/D), the contents of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and total phospholipid(TPL) which are the major ingredients of pulmonary surfactant were measured, as well as the expression levels of p38MAPK, Bcl-2 and Bax proteins in lung tissue were examined by using immunohistochemical method.@*RESULTS@#Compared with control group, lung W/D was significantly increased, the contents of PC and TPL were significantly decreased, the protein expression levels of p38MAPK, Bcl-2 and Bax were significantly increased in I/R group (all P<0.01). But Bax protein expression was much greater than Bcl-2 protein expression, the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax were significantly decreased in I/R group than that in control group (P<0.01). Compared with I/R group, lung W/D was significantly decreased, while the contents of PC and TPL were significantly increased, the p38MAPK and Bax protein expression levels were significantly decreased in SM+I/R group (all P<0.01); both Bcl-2 protein expression and the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax were significantly increased in SM+I/R group than those in I/R group (P<0.01). The correlation analysis indicated that the expression level of p38MAPK protein in lung tissue was negatively correlated with the contents of PC and the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax (r is -0.787 and -0.731, all P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#SM can protect the lung injury induced by intestinal I/R injury, which may be mediated by inhibiting the activation of p38MAPK, improving the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax to inhibit lung apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Lung Injury , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776516

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of myeloid differentiation-2 (MD2) gene silencing on high glucose-induced proliferation inhibition, apoptosis and inflammation in rat cardiomyocytes.@*METHODS@#The immortalized rat cardiomyocyte cell line H9C2 were transfected with MD2 small interfering RNA (si-MD2) and negative control for 24 h, then stimulated with high glucose (HG) for 48 h. RT-qPCR was performed to detect the mRNA levels of MD2 and inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. MTS and flow cytometry were used to evaluate cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis rate. Western blot was used to detect protein expression levels and phosphorylation levels.@*RESULTS@#The mRNA and protein levels of MD2 in H9C2 cells were dramatically decreased after transfected with si-MD2 (P<0.01). After stimulation of high glucose, the mRNA levels of inflammatory factors, the cells in G0/G1 phase , the cell apoptosis rate and the protein level of cleaved Caspase-3 were significantly increased, while the cell proliferation ability was decreased (P<0.01). MD2 gene silencing antagonized the effects of high glucose on cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell apoptosis and the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β , IL-6(P<0.05). Western blot analysis showed that the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase(ERK1/2), P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(P38 MAPK) and C-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK) protein were increased significantly in H9C2 cells treated with high glucose, which could be reversed by silencing of MD2 (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#This study demonstrates that MD2 gene silencing reverses high glucose-induced myocardial inflammation, apoptosis and proliferation inhibition via the mechanisms involving suppression of ERK, P38 MAPK, JNK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines , Metabolism , Gene Silencing , Glucose , Inflammation , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism , Lymphocyte Antigen 96 , Genetics , Myocytes, Cardiac , Cell Biology , Rats , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776063

ABSTRACT

Mitogen-activated protein kinases(MAPKs)are Ser/Thr kinases consisting of extracellular regulated protein kinases(ERK)1/2,c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2/3,p38 isoforms(α,β,γ,and δ),and ERK5,which mediate a range of cellular activities including proliferation,differentiation,apoptosis,immunity,and inflammation. Pain sensitization is a remodeling mechanism of central and peripheral nociceptor. A growing number of evidences have indicated that MAPKs are extensively activated in the spinal dorsal cord and dorsal root ganglions in the animal models of diabetic neuropathic pain(DNP)and play an important role in the central and peripheral sensitization of DNP. In addition,some drugs can alleviate DNP by suppressing MAPKs activation of central and peripheral nervous system. This article summarizes the research progress of MAPKs in central and peripheral sensitization of DNP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetic Neuropathies , Ganglia, Spinal , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Neuralgia , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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