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Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(2): 449-459, Feb. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055835


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é identificar padrões alimentares de crianças com 6, 9 e 12 meses e sua associação com variáveis socioeconômicas, comportamentais, de nascimento e nutrição. Estudo transversal com crianças de uma coorte em Viçosa-MG, sendo 112 crianças com 6 meses, 149 com 9 meses e 117 com 12 meses. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por um recordatório de 24 horas e os padrões extraídos por análise de agrupamentos. O leite materno foi identificado em pelo menos um padrão alimentar em todos os meses. Houve baixa participação de alimentos ultraprocessados nos padrões alimentares identificados. No 6º mês, crianças com menor renda familiar tiveram menos chance de pertencer ao padrão alimentar composto por fórmulas lácteas. Já o sobrepeso/obesidade foi 3,69 vezes maior em crianças que compunham o padrão 2 (fórmulas lácteas, verduras, legumes, carne bovina e pera). Aos 12 meses o déficit de estatura (RP = 3,28) e o uso de mamadeira (RP = 4,51) estiveram associados ao padrão alimentar composto por fórmulas lácteas e leite de vaca. Os padrões alimentares identificados refletiram a importante participação do leite materno na alimentação das crianças. Padrões alimentares com a presença de outros tipos de leite, foram associados a desvios nutricionais e uso de mamadeiras.

Abstract The aim of this paper is to identify eating patterns of children aged 6, 9 and 12 months and their association with socioeconomic, behavioral, birth and nutrition variables. Cross-sectional study with children from a cohort in Viçosa-MG, with 112 children at 6 months, 149 at 9 months and 117 at 12 months. Food intake was assessed by a 24-hour recall and patterns extracted by cluster analysis. Breast milk was identified in at least one dietary pattern every month. There was a low participation of ultra-processed foods in the identified dietary patterns. At month 6, children with lower family income were less likely to belong to the dietary pattern composed of milk formulas. Already overweight/obesity was 3.69 times higher in children who made up the pattern 2 (dairy formulas, vegetables, vegetables, beef and pear). At 12 months height deficit (PR = 3.28) and bottle use (PR = 4.51) were associated with the dietary pattern composed of milk formulas and cow's milk. The dietary patterns identified reflected the important participation of breast milk in children's diets. Dietary patterns with the presence of other types of milk were associated with nutritional deviations and bottle feeding.

Humans , Animals , Infant , Bottle Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Milk , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1395-1402, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1038629


The effect of four nitrogen levels (0, 40, 80 and 120kg N ha-1), applied before deferment on the beef cattle production and structural variables on Urochloa decumbens (signal grass) were assessed from January to October 2012 and from January to September 2013. A randomized block design with three replicates was adopted, in an arrangement of repeated measures in time (grazing period). An interaction effect between nitrogen level and grazing period was observed on extended-plant height and herbage mass. As the nitrogen levels were increased, extended-plant height, herbage mass, total herbage allowance, and efficiency of conversion of fertilizer into herbage were increased. Throughout the grazing period, pasture height, extended-plant height, percentage of leaves, herbage and morphological components allowance, and percentages of leaves and stems in the herbage apparently selected by the animal decreased. Nitrogen levels had no effect on average daily gain or gain per area in the first year. A fixed deferment period with increasing levels of nitrogen fertilization on signal grass pastures does not influence the average daily gain per animal, reduces the efficiency of the nitrogen fertilizer and negatively changes the structural characteristics of the pasture.(AU)

Foi avaliado o efeito de quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 40, 80 e 120kg N ha -1 ), aplicadas antes do diferimento, sobre o desempenho de bovinos e as características estruturais de Urochloa decumbens (capim-braquiária), de janeiro a outubro de 2012 e de janeiro a setembro de 2013. Um delineamento de blocos ao acaso foi utilizado em arranjo de medidas repetidas no tempo (período de pastejo). Foi observada interação entre doses de nitrogênio e período de pastejo na altura da planta estendida e na massa de forragem. As doses de nitrogênio incrementaram a altura da planta estendida, a massa de forragem, a oferta de forragem e a eficiência de conversão do nitrogênio em forragem. No decorrer do período de pastejo, a altura do pasto, a altura da planta estendida, a porcentagem de lâminas foliares, a oferta de forragem e dos seus componentes morfológicos e a porcentagem de lâminas e colmos da forragem aparentemente selecionada pelos animais diminuíram. As doses de nitrogênio não exerceram efeito sobre o ganho diário e o ganho diário por área no primeiro ano. O período de diferimento fixo com aumento das doses de nitrogênio em pastos de capim-braquiária não influencia o ganho diário por animal, reduz a eficiência da adubação nitrogenada e afeta negativamente a estrutura do pasto.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Brachiaria/growth & development , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Nitrogen/administration & dosage , Pasture/methods , Fertilizers
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(3): 199-207, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011160


ABSTRACT Objective Determine the milk quality effect during lactation on the metabolic and thyroid programming of hypothyroid offspring. Materials and methods Ten-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into two groups: euthyroid and thyroidectomy-caused hypothyroidism. The rats were matted and, one day after birth, the pups were divided into three groups: euthyroid offspring (EO), hypothyroid offspring (HO) and hypothyroid with a euthyroid replacement wet nurse (HRO). During lactation, the milk quality and offspring body length were evaluated. The body weight and energy intake were determined on a weekly basis, as well as the metabolic profile at the prepubertal (P35-36) and postpubertal (P55-56) ages. At P56, the animals were sacrificed, the adipose tissues were weighed and the thyroid glands were dissected for histological processing. Results The milk of the hypothyroid wet nurse decreases proteins (16-26%), lipids (22-29%) and lactate (22-37%) with respect to euthyroid. The HO has a lower body weight gain (23-33%), length (11-13%) and energy intake (15-21%). In addition, HO presents impaired fasting glucose and dyslipidemia, as well as a reduction in seric thyroid hormone (18-34%), adipose reserves (26-68%) and thyroid gland weight (25-34%). The HO present thyroid gland cytoarchitecture alteration. The HRO develop the same metabolic alterations as the HO. However, the thyroid gland dysfunction was partially prevented because the HRO improved under about 10% of the serum thyroid hormone concentration, the thyroid gland weight although histological glandular changes presented. Conclusions The replacement of hypothyroid offspring with a euthyroid wet nurse during lactation can improve the thyroid programming without modifying metabolic programming.

Animals , Female , Rats , Thyroid Hormones/metabolism , Lactation/metabolism , Congenital Hypothyroidism/metabolism , Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(6): 371-375, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1012760


This study aimed to describe and discuss the results of an experiment carried out in two stages with pregnant cows fed 25kg/apple pomace/day. The first stage involved 16 pregnant Holstein Friesian cows divided into four groups: Group 0 - Control (5 cows); Group I - 1 month-gestation (4 cows); Group II - 3 month-gestation (4 cows); Group III - 6 month-gestation (3 cows) and was performed from September to December 2015. The second stage comprised 12 pregnant Holstein Friesian cows divided into three groups: Group 0 - Control (6 cows), Group I - 1 month-gestation (3 cows), and Group II - 3 month-gestation (3 cows) and was conducted from April 2016 to February 2017. All study animals received apple pomace at a dose of 25kg/day. As for the first experiment stage, a cow in Group III bred a calf with complete absence of the coccygeal vertebrae and tail, slight bending of the hind limbs, scoliosis in the thoracic spine, and limited mobility. At 30 days, it presented with diarrhea and underdevelopment, and was euthanized for necropsy. At gross examination, malformations were observed in the thoracic spine, coxofemural joint, and genitourinary tract. Regarding the second experiment stage, a cow in Group I gave birth to a calf with curved pelvic and thoracic limbs with thick joints and flattening hooves. Microscopic examination of the femur showed disorganized, irregular hypertrophic zone and scarce growth zone, in addition to primary spongy zone with short, slightly mineralized trabeculae. Samples of the apple pomace used in this study were frozen and sent for laboratory evaluation of pesticide residues, which showed a positive result for the fungicide carbendazim.(AU)

O presente trabalho tem por finalidade descrever e discutir os resultados do experimento realizado em vacas prenhes que foram alimentadas com 25kg/dia de bagaço de maçã. Experimentos foram conduzidos em duas etapas, a primeira no ano de 2015, de setembro a dezembro onde foram utilizadas 16 vacas prenhes da raça holandês. Estas foram divididas em quatro grupos: Grupo 0, Controle (5 vacas); Grupo I, 1 mês gestação (4 vacas); Grupo II, 3 meses gestação (4 vacas); Grupo III, 6 meses gestação (3 vacas). A segunda etapa foi realizada em abril de 2016 a fevereiro de 2017. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas prenhes da raça holandês, divididas em três grupos: Grupo 0, Controle (6 vacas); Grupo I, 1 mês gestação (3 vacas); Grupo II, 3 meses gestação (3 vacas). Todas as vacas receberam bagaço de maçã na dose de 25kg/dia/vaca. Para o primeiro experimento, uma vaca do Grupo III pariu uma bezerra, com ausência completa das vértebras coccígeas e cauda, encurvamento leve dos membros posteriores, escoliose na coluna torácica e dificuldade de locomoção. Decorridos 30 dias do nascimento, manifestou diarreia e pouco desenvolvimento, sendo eutanasiada para necropsia. Na macroscopia, havia malformações na coluna torácica, articulação coxofemoral e no aparelho urogenital. Em relação ao segundo experimento uma vaca do Grupo I pariu uma bezerra com membros pélvicos e torácicos, curvos e com articulações consideravelmente grossas e "achinelamento" de cascos. Na microscopia do fêmur foi observado na placa epifisária, zona hipertrófica desorganizada, irregular e zona de crescimento escassa. Na zona esponjosa primária observou-se trabéculas curtas e pouco mineralizadas. Amostras do bagaço de maçã utilizado na experimentação foram congeladas e enviadas para avaliação de resíduos agrotóxicos, onde foi encontrado resultado positivo para o fungicida carbendazim.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cattle , Congenital Abnormalities/veterinary , Pregnancy, Animal/genetics , Cattle/genetics , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/genetics
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 1058-1066, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1011297


A suplementação proteico-energética (SPE) é uma estratégia adequada à bovinocultura de corte no período seco do ano, embora sua adoção equivocada possa comprometer seu benefício/custo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho de novilhas Nelore em pastagem diferida de Urochloa decumbens sob dois períodos de SPE, e realizar análise econômica desses sistemas de produção. O experimento foi conduzido sob delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com 147 e 55 dias de SPE (sistemas 1 e 2, respectivamente), de 21/06 a 15/11/2016, com 16 e 20 novilhas nos sistemas 1 e 2, respectivamente. Os dados de desempenho foram analisados utilizando-se o PROC MIXED do SAS®, e as médias comparadas por PDIFF (P<0,05). Os pesos médios foram semelhantes (P>0,05) entre os sistemas de produção nas pesagens de 21/06, 12/07, 02/08, 23/08 e 15/11/2016. Os valores presentes líquidos foram positivos sob a taxa anual de desconto de 4%, sendo viáveis financeiramente. Por apresentarem taxa interna de retorno superior à taxa mínima de atratividade, os sistemas foram atrativos para investimento. Foi obtido balanço econômico positivo de R$ 25,26/animal para substituição do sistema 1 pelo sistema 2. A redução de 92 dias na SPE proporciona desempenho semelhante entre novilhas e maior eficiência econômica do sistema de produção.(AU)

Protein-energy supplementation (SPE) is an adequate strategy for beef cattle during drought season of the year, although the wrong adoption might compromise its cost/benefit ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate Nellore heifers' performance under SPE periods and to draw economic analysis of production systems. The experiment was conducted under a completely randomized design, with two systems: 147 and 55 days of SPE (Systems 1 and 2), from 06/21/2016 to 11/15/2016, with 16 and 20 heifers to Systems 1 and 2, respectively. Performance data were analyzed by SAS® PROC MIXED and means compared by PDIFF (P< 0.05). The weight means were similar between the production systems (P> 0.05) at weighing of 06/21, 07/12, 08/02, 08/23 and 11/15/2016. The net present values were positive under annual discount rate of 4%, being financially viable. By presenting internal return rate higher than the minimum attractiveness rate, the systems were attractive for investment. Positive economic balance was obtained of R$ 25.26/animal to replace System 1 by 2. The reduction of 92 days in SPE provides similar performance between Nellore heifers and greater economic efficiency of the production system.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cattle , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Pasture/analysis , Diet/veterinary , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 220-232, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989460


Abstract Introduction Understanding associations between food preferences and maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation could inform efforts to understanding the obesity mechanisms and provide insight to prevent it. Objective: To identify studies that investigated the effects of nutritional interventions during the pregnancy and lactation on the food preferences of offspring. Method: The review was conducted with search for articles in the databases: Scopus, Pubmed, Medline, LILACS, Scielo and Science Direct. Exclusion criteria were used: reviews, human studies, studies with drugs or other substances not related to food. Results: At the end of the search in the databases, 176 references were found. After use the exclusion criteria, reading the titles, abstracts and full articles, were selected 11 articles to compose the review. Conclusion: The selected studies suggested that unbalanced nutrition in early life alters the food preference and neural components related to the consumption of fatty and sugary foods in offspring rodents.

Resumo Introdução O entendimento das associações entre as preferências alimentares e nutrição materna durante a gravidez e lactação poderia colaborar para a compreensão dos mecanismos da obesidade e fornecer informações para prevenir essa infermidade. Objetivo: Identificar estudos que investigaram os efeitos das intervenções nutricionais durante a gravidez e lactação em preferências alimentares dos descendentes. Método: A revisão foi conduzida com busca de artigos nas bases de dados: Scopus, Pubmed, Medline, Lilacs, Scielo e Science Direct. Os critérios de exclusão utilizados: revisões, estudos em humanos, estudos com drogas ou outras substâncias não-alimentares. Resultados: No final da pesquisa nas bases de dados, 176 referências foram encontradas. Depois de usar os critérios de exclusão, lendo os títulos, resumos e artigos completos, 11 artigos foram selecionados para compor a revisão. Conclusão: Os estudos selecionados sugeriram que a nutrição desequilibrada no início da vida altera a preferência alimentar e componentes neurais relacionadas com o consumo de alimentos gordurosos e açucarados em prole de roedores.

Animals , Female , Rats , Lactation/physiology , Pregnancy/physiology , Models, Animal , Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology , Food Preferences
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 677-686, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1011282


Objetivou-se avaliar o perfil lipídico da carne de frangos de diferentes genótipos. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso (DIC), disposto em esquema fatorial (5x2), sendo cinco genótipos (New Hampshire ˗ NHS; Gigante Negra de Jersey ˗ GNJ; Índio Gigante ˗ IG; cruzamento entre as raças IG e NHS ˗ IG x NHS; e entre as raças IG e GNJ ˗ IG x GNJ) e dois sexos, com cinco repetições, sendo cada uma representada por três aves, totalizando 150 aves, abatidas aos 105 dias. As análises de perfil lipídico foram realizadas no peito e na coxa. Foram calculadas as estimativas das atividades enzimáticas, os índices de aterogenicidade e de trombogenicidade. Os genótipos IG e IG x NHS apresentaram maiores teores de ácido araquidônico e DHA. Foram observados maiores teores de ácidos graxos saturados e monoinsaturados no peito para os genótipos IG x NHS e NHS, respectivamente. Maiores médias de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados e ômega 3 foram observadas para os genótipos IG e IG x NHS. O genótipo IG x NHS e as fêmeas apresentaram melhores características de qualidade de carne, por oferecerem uma maior fonte de ômega 3.(AU)

The objective was to evaluate the lipid profile of chickens from different genotypes. The design was completely randomized arranged in factorial scheme (5x2), being 5 genotypes (New Hampshire - NHS, Gigante Negra de Jersey - GNJ, Índio Gigante - IG; poultry from the cross between IG and NHS breeds - IG x NHS and between IG and GNJ breeds - IG x GNJ) and two genders, with five replicates and three poultry per replicate, totaling 150 birds, slaughtered at 105 days. Lipid profile analyzes were performed on the breast and thigh. Estimates of the enzymatic activities related to lipid metabolism were calculated, in addition to the atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes. The IG and IG x NHS genotypes showed higher levels of arachidonic acid and DHA. Higher levels of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were observed in the breast for IG x NHS and NHS genotypes, respectively. Higher averages of polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 were observed for the IG and IG x NHS genotypes. The genotype IG x NHS and the females presented better characteristics of meat quality, for offering a greater source of omega 3.(AU)

Animals , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Meat , Chickens , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 323-330, jan.-fev. 2019. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-989385


In fish farming, the use of alternative ingredients has been studied, so that alternative sources can be used to minimize feed costs. This study evaluated the incorporation of grape, orange, guava, and fig residues in diets for silver catfish and its effects on growth, digestive enzymes and body composition. A total of 180 fish (initial mean weight = 22.93±0.75 g) were reared in a recirculation aquaculture system. There was no difference (P>0.05) in the parameters of growth, dry matter, mineral matter, plasma protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipase, and trypsin of fish. Glucose levels were higher in fish fed diets containing fig, orange, and grape residue (P<0.05). Lipase activity was higher in fish fed orange residue, compared to guava (P<0.05). Diets containing guava and fig provided more body protein in silver catfish. The fish fed with diet containing orange residue had a higher content of body lipids. It can be concluded that the tested fruit residues can be used in silver catfish feeding.(AU)

Na piscicultura, o uso de ingredientes alternativos vem sendo estudado, de modo que seja possível utilizar fontes alternativas para minimizar custos com a alimentação. Neste estudo, foi avaliada a incorporação de resíduos de uva, laranja, goiaba e figo em rações para jundiá e seus efeitos no crescimento, em enzimas digestivas e na composição corporal. Foram utilizados 180 peixes (peso médio inicial = 22,93±0,75 g), criados em sistema de recirculação. Não houve diferença (P>0,05) nos parâmetros de crescimento, matéria seca, matéria mineral, proteína plasmática, colesterol, triglicerídeos, lipase e tripsina dos peixes. Os níveis de glicose foram maiores nos peixes alimentados com dietas contendo figo, laranja e uva (P<0,05). A atividade de lipase foi maior nos peixes alimentados com resíduo de laranja, comparado com o de goiaba (P<0,05). As dietas contendo goiaba e figo proporcionaram mais proteína corporal nos jundiás. Os jundiás alimentados com dieta contendo resíduo de laranja apresentaram maior teor de lipídeos corporal. Conclui-se que os resíduos de frutas testados podem ser usados na alimentação do jundiá.(AU)

Animals , Diet/veterinary , Enzymes , Fishes/growth & development , Fisheries/analysis , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(2): 123-128, Feb. 2019. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-990251


The aim of this study was to report the clinical and pathological aspects of an outbreak of poisoning by the ingestion of Ricinus communis leaves in a herd of goats at Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Within 3-5 hours after ingesting the sprouts and young shrubs of the plant, twenty Toggenburg female goats and two adults crossbred wethers presented acute neurological clinical signs, which were initially characterized by decreased locomotor activity that later evolved to severe ataxia, depression, incoordination and staggering gait. Four goat that died spontaneously were necropsied. Gross lesions were unspecific and consisted in focal areas of lungs edema, petechial hemorrhages in the epicardium and congestion and enlargement of liver. The contents of the rumen, reticulum and omasum were dry and contained leaves of the plant. Histologically there were no lesions in the CNS. In the liver, the main lesion consisted in cytoplasmic vacuolization and necrosis of hepatocytes. Eighteen goats recovered after a supportive therapy with activated charcoal, glycated isotonic solution, dexamethasone and vitamin B12. There is no specific therapy for poisoning by R. communis, however supportive and symptomatic treatments are recommended and should be based on the clinical signs.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar os aspectos clínicos e patológicos de um surto de intoxicação pelas folhas de Ricinus communis em um rebanho de caprinos em Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. Três a cinco horas após a ingestão dos brotos e arbustos jovens da planta, vinte cabras da raça Toggenburg e dois machos mestiços apresentaram quadro clínico neurológico agudo caracterizado principalmente pela diminuição da atividade locomotora, grave ataxia, depressão, incoordenação e marcha cambaleante. Quatro caprinos morreram espontaneamente e foram necropsiados. Macroscopicamente, as lesões eram inespecíficas e consistiam em áreas focais de edema pulmonar, hemorragias petequiais epicárdicas e aumento do volume e congestão do fígado. Os conteúdos do rumem, retículo e omaso eram ressecados e continham folhas da planta. Histologicamente, não foram observadas lesões no SNC. No fígado, havia vacuolização citoplasmática e necrose de hepatócitos. Dezoito caprinos se recuperaram após receberem terapia de suporte com carvão ativado, soro glicosado, dexametasona e vitamina B12. Não existe terapêutica especifica para a intoxicação pelas folhas de R. Communis. Os tratamentos sintomáticos e de suporte são recomendados e devem basear-se nos sinais clínicos.(AU)

Animals , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Ricin/poisoning , Ricinus/poisoning , Ruminants , Ataxia/veterinary , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(11): 2133-2138, Nov. 2018. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-976395


Calcium is a macroelement that is part of the mineral composition of the diet of companion animals, and is considered a cation of strong alkalizing power, increasing urinary pH. Calcium salts have different solubilities and depending on the anion to which calcium is associated with, it can be more or less absorbed, modifying the pH of the urine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of calcium sources on alkalinization of urinary pH, as well as excretion of urinary electrolytes and acid-base balance of adult cats. An extruded diet for cats was selected, and had 160mEq/kg of calcium from the sources of either calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcium gluconate (C12H22CaO14) added. In the control treatment there was no addition of calcium sources, resulting in three treatments. Nine adult cats were used, mixed breed, in two experimental periods, with six replicates per treatment. Animal average age was 4±1.3 years old and average weight was 3.96±0.71kg. The cats remained in metabolic cages for an adaptation period of seven days, followed by six days of urine total collection, with volume, density, pH and calcium concentration (g/d) measurements. The acid-base balance was studied by blood gas analysis of venous blood. The two sources of calcium alkalinized the urine (P<0.001). However, calcium gluconate had less alkalinization power compared to the calcium carbonate (P<0.05). Urinary calcium was not affected by treatments, and represented less than 0.5% of calcium intake. The experiment showed that calcium, although an alkaline cation and considered strong influencer of the EB of the diet, cannot be evaluated individually, because depending on its associated anion it may have greater or lesser influence on cats urine pH.(AU)

O cálcio (Ca) é um macroelemento que faz parte da composição mineral da dieta de animais de companhia. Este macroelemento é considerado um cátion de forte capacidade alcalinizante e, de acordo com a fonte e quantidade inclusa, pode aumentar o pH urinário. Os sais de cálcio têm diferentes solubilidades e dependendo do ânion ao qual o cálcio está associado, pode ser mais ou menos absorvido e assim, alterar o pH da urina. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de duas fontes de cálcio na alcalinização do pH urinário, bem como a excreção de eletrólitos urinários e o equilíbrio ácido-básico de felinos. Foi selecionada uma dieta extrusada para gatos e adicionados 160mEq/kg de cálcio das fontes carbonato de cálcio (CaCO3) ou gluconato de cálcio (C12H22CaO14). No tratamento controle, não houve adição de fontes de cálcio. Foram utilizados nove gatos adultos, de raças mistas, em dois períodos experimentais, com seis repetições por tratamento. Os animais apresentavam idade média de 4,0±1,3 anos e peso corporal médio de 3,96±0,71kg. Estes permaneceram em gaiolas metabólicas em período de adaptação durante sete dias, seguido de coleta total de urina durante seis dias. Nestas amostras foram aferidos o volume, densidade, pH e concentração de cálcio (g/d). O equilíbrio ácido-básico foi avaliado por hemogasometria em amostras de sangue venoso. As duas fontes de cálcio alcalinizaram a urina (P<0,001). No entanto, o gluconato de cálcio apresentou menor potencial de alcalinização em comparação ao carbonato de cálcio (P<0,05). O cálcio urinário não foi afetado pelos tratamentos e representou menos de 0,5% da ingestão de Ca. O experimento demonstrou que o cálcio, apesar de ser um cátion alcalinizante e influenciador do EB da dieta, não pode ser avaliado individualmente, porque dependendo do ânion associado, pode apresentar maior ou menor influência no pH da urina de gatos.(AU)

Animals , Cats , Acid-Base Equilibrium , Calcium, Dietary/adverse effects , Calcium, Dietary/urine , Cats/metabolism , Cats/urine , Urolithiasis/veterinary , Animal Feed , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Calcium Carbonate , Calcium Gluconate
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(10): 1923-1928, out. 2018. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-976379


Ricinus communis is a shrub of the family Euphorbiaceae popularly known in Brazil as "mamona" or "carrapateira". It is an oleaginous plant whose seeds have been used mainly in biodiesel production. Plant seed oil can be extracted mechanically or using solvents, generating castor bean cake and castor bean meal as by-products, respectively. Accidental ingestion of these by-products can cause poisoning in animals and humans, characterized by digestive signs resulting from the presence of a toxalbumin called ricin. Seed toxicity varies among animal species; in horses, the lethal dose of seeds is 0.1 g/kg of body weight. The literature presents plenty of studies addressing poisoning by R. communis in different animal species and in humans; however, reports are scarce and little information is available on the pathological aspects of poisoning regarding equines. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects observed in an outbreak of accidental poisoning with castor bean cake in horses. The equines were supplemented with palm kernel (Elaeis guianeesis) cake; however, in the purchase of a new batch, there was an error in the order, and castor bean cake was requested instead. Four horses that received castor bean cake presented clinical signs indicative of colic, which started about 21 hours after administration. Three of these horses died, with clinical evolution from 2 to 4.5 hours; the other animal was treated with intravenous fluid and antibiotic therapy and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and recovered after five days. In the necropsy of two of these horses, the main lesions were found in the small intestine, where mucosae with pronounced redness and covered with a thin layer of yellow fibrous material were observed. In the intestinal lumen, there was a large amount of bloody liquid. The stomach was full, and dark lumps similar to crushed castor bean seeds were observed in the contents. The adrenal glands of both horses presented congestion and hemorrhage in the cortex. In microscopy, the main lesion was an acute, diffuse and accentuated fibrin-necrotic enteropathy affecting the jejunum. The diagnosis of castor bean cake poisoning was based on the circumstantial evidence of by-product consumption supported by clinical and pathological aspects. The results indicate that castor bean cake commercially available as fertilizer is extremely toxic when ingested, and there is a need for appropriate detoxification or labeling informing of its toxicity.(AU)

Ricinus communis é um arbusto da família Euphorbiaceae conhecido popularmente como "mamona" ou "carrapateira". A planta é considerada oleaginosa e suas sementes têm sido utilizadas, principalmente, na produção de biodiesel. A extração do óleo pode ser mecânica ou com solventes, gerando, como subprodutos, a torta de mamona e a farinha de mamona, respectivamente. A ingestão acidental desses subprodutos pode causar intoxicação em animais e humanos, caracterizada por sinais digestivos devido a toxalbumina ricina. A toxidez das sementes varia entre as espécies animais, em equinos a dose letal de sementes é de 0,1g/kg de peso vivo. Há vasta literatura sobre a intoxicação por R. communis em diferentes espécies animais e humanos. Em relação aos equinos os relatos são escassos e com poucas informações sobre os aspectos patológicos da intoxicação. Assim, os objetivos do presente estudo foram descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos observados em um surto de intoxicação acidental por torta de mamona em equinos. Os equinos eram suplementados com torta de dendê (Elaeis guianeesis), no entanto, na compra de uma nova partida, houve um erro no pedido sendo solicitada torta de mamona. Os quatro equinos que receberam a torta de mamona apresentaram sinais clínicos indicativos de cólica, que iniciaram cerca de 21 horas após administração. Três destes morreram, com evolução clínica 2 a 4,5 horas, o outro animal foi tratado com fluidoterapia intravenosa, antibioticoterapia e anti-inflamatório não esteroidal, recuperando-se em 5 dias. Na necropsia de dois destes equinos, as principais lesões foram encontradas no intestino delgado, sendo observadas mucosas com avermelhamento acentuado e recobertas por fina camada de material amarelado fibrinoso. No lúmen intestinal, havia grande quantidade de líquido sanguinolento. O estômago estava repleto de grumos escuros semelhantes às sementes trituradas da mamona em meio ao conteúdo. As adrenais de ambos equinos apresentavam congestão e hemorragias corticais. Na microscopia, a principal lesão foi uma enteropatia fibrino-necrótica, aguda, difusa e acentuada, afetando com maior intensidade o jejuno. O diagnóstico de intoxicação por torta de mamona foi baseado na evidência circunstancial de consumo do subproduto, sendo corroborado pelos aspectos clínicos e patológicos. Os resultados indicam que a torta de mamona vendida para fertilização do solo é extremamente tóxica quando ingerida, havendo a necessidade de detoxicação ou rotulagem adequada informando sobre a sua toxicidade.(AU)

Animals , Ricinus/poisoning , Ricinus/toxicity , Foodborne Diseases/veterinary , Horse Diseases , Horses , Animal Feed/poisoning , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(10): 1929-1934, out. 2018. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-976380


An outbreak of pulmonary edema and emphysema with acute and chronic cases is reported in a farm in Uruguay. In a herd of 40 Hereford steers, 20 died. The deaths began four days after a change of paddock, from an old pasture of Avena sativa to a lush growing pasture of the same grass. Acutely affected animals showed severe dyspnea, sialorrhea, cough, and subcutaneous edema, and died within 72 hours. Chronically affected steers showed dyspnea, respiratory noises, weight loss, and intolerance to exercise. The deaths began four days after the change of paddock. Ten days after the first death, the steers were withdrawn from the pasture, but continued dying throughout the following 40 days. Twenty animals died and six were necropsied. Grossly, the lungs were diffusely armed and glistening, with reddish and crepitant cut surface, and presented alveolar septae sharply distended by edema and emphysema. There was subpleural emphysema with air blebs distributed across the pleural surface. Presence of Dictyocaulus viviparus was observed in three steers. In some animals, the trachea was diffusely reddish with presence of pink foam; in some others, there was bloody liquid in the tracheal lumen. Histologic examination showed severe diffuse alveolar and interstitial emphysema, hyaline membranes adhered to the alveolar wall, thickening of the interlobular septae with proliferation of type II pneumocytes, and moderate-to-severe multifocal histiocytic, neutrophilic and eosinophilic infiltrate. In the trachea, there was submucosal hemorrhage and moderate multifocal eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltrate. The steers with chronic signs presented similar lung lesions, but multifocal pulmonary fibrosis and cardiac dilatation were also observed. The diagnosis of acute bovine pulmonary emphysema and edema (ABPE) was based on the occurrence of the disease after introduction of the herd in a lush green pasture, on the characteristic gross and histologic lesions, and on the absence of other toxic or infectious agents causing similar lesions. Cattle raisers should be alert to the risks of occurrence of this disease after the introduction of the herds into paddocks with green and lush pastures.(AU)

Descreve-se um surto de edema e enfisema pulmonar com casos agudos e crônicos em bovinos em uma criação semi-intensiva no Uruguai. De um lote de 40 novilhos da raça Hereford morreram 20. As mortes começaram quatro dias após uma mudança de alimentação, de uma pastagem mais velha de Avena sativa, para uma pastagem recentemente plantada de aveia que estava em brotação. Os animais afetados apresentaram sinais clínicos agudos de dispneia, sialorreia, tosse e alguns desenvolveram edema subcutâneo, morrendo em até 72 horas. Outros novilhos mais cronicamente afetados apresentaram dispneia, ruídos respiratórios, perda de peso e intolerância ao exercício. As mortes começaram quatro dias após a mudança de pastagens. Dez dias após a primeira morte, os novilhos foram retirados do pasto, mas morreram ainda durante 40 dias mais. Ao total, morreram vinte animais e seis foram necropsiados. Nas necropsias dos animais mortos na fase aguda os pulmões estavam difusamente armados e brilhosos e ao corte de coloração avermelhada e crepitante, com os septos alveolares acentuadamente distendidos por edema e enfisema. Havia enfisema subpleural caracterizado por bolhas de ar distribuídas pela superfície pleural. Em três bovinos havia ainda presença de Dictyocaulus viviparus. Alguns animais apresentaram a traqueia difusamente avermelhada com espuma de coloração rósea ou liquido sanguinolento livre na luz traqueal. Histologicamente havia edema e enfisema alveolar e intersticial difuso severo, membranas hialinas espessas aderidas à parede alveolar, espessamento dos septos interlobulares com proliferação de pneumócitos tipo II e infiltrado inflamatório histiocítico, neutrofílico e eosinofílico multifocal moderado a severo. Na traqueia havia hemorragias na submucosa e infiltrado eosinofílico e linfocítico multifocal. Os novilhos com sinais crônicos apresentaram lesões pulmonares semelhantes, entretanto, foram observadas também, fibrose pulmonar multifocal e dilatação cardíaca. O diagnóstico de EEPAB baseou-se na ocorrência da doença após a introdução do rebanho em uma pastagem viçosa em brotação, nas características macroscópicas e histológicas e na ausência de outros agentes tóxicos ou infecciosos que causam lesões semelhantes. Se alerta para os riscos da ocorrência desta enfermidade, quando houver mudanças de pastagens.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Pneumonia, Atypical Interstitial, of Cattle/pathology , Pulmonary Edema/pathology , Uruguay , Diet/mortality , Diet/veterinary , Foodborne Diseases/mortality , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Cattle Diseases
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(10): 1885-1889, out. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-976381


Brachiaria spp. are important sources of forage for ruminants in Brazil, due to the easy cultivation, good resistance to drought, good adaptation to different soils and low maintenance cost. However, the ingestion of this grass has been related to photosensitization outbreaks in cattle and sheep with significant economic losses. The hepatotoxic effects related to the ingestion of grass are the formation of crystals and foamy macrophages due to the accumulation of toxic metabolites. The use of cattle and sheep in experiments involving the plant presents several obstacles in the ethical, economic and animal management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of rabbits as an experimental model for B. decumbens poisoning. Two experiments were carried out. In Experiment 1 four rabbits received the fresh plant in daily doses of 10, 20, 40 and 80g/kg body weight for 120 days. In Experiment 2 three rabbits received the fresh plant in amounts of 500g daily with duration of 210 days. The animals of Experiment 1 showed no clinical signs and no macroscopic and microscopic changes characteristic of B. decumbens poisoning. In Experiment 2 the animals also showed no clinical signs or significant macroscopic alterations. Histological analysis showed isolated foamy macrophages or present in random groups of cells in the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes. Samples of liver and mesenteric lymph nodes of the rabbits of Experiment 2 were submitted to the lectin-histochemistry technique. The WGA, sWGA and RCA lectins showed reactivity in foamy macrophages in both organs. This is the first study of our knowledge that demonstrates histopathological lesions caused expetimentally by Brachiaria spp. in rabbits, demonstrating its potential as an animal model.(AU)

Brachiaria ssp. são importantes fontes de forragem para ruminantes no Brasil, devido ao fácil cultivo, boa resistência a seca, boa adaptação a diferentes solos e baixo custo de manutenção. Entretanto, a ingestão desta gramínea está relacionada a surtos de fotossensibilização, em bovinos e ovinos, principalmente, ocasionando prejuízos econômicos significativos. Os efeitos hepatotóxicos relacionados à ingestão da gramínea são a formação de cristais e macrófagos espumosos causados pelo acúmulo de metabólitos tóxicos. A utilização de bovinos e ovinos em experimentos envolvendo a planta apresenta vários empecilhos, tanto no âmbito ético, econômico e no manejo dos animais. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade de coelhos como modelo experimental para intoxicação por B. decumbens. No presente estudo foram realizados dois experimentos. O Experimento 1 utilizou quatro coelhos que receberam a planta fresca em doses diárias de 10, 20, 40 e 80 g/Kg de peso vivo durante 120 dias. O Experimento 2 utilizou três coelhos recebendo a planta fresca em quantidades de 500g diárias por animal com duração de 210 dias. No Experimento 1, os animais não apresentaram sinais clínicos e nem alterações macroscópicas e microscópicas características de intoxicação por B. decumbens. No Experimento 2 os animais também não apresentaram sinais clínicos e alterações macroscópicas significativas. Na análise histológica observou-se presença de macrófagos espumosos isolados ou em grupos aleatórios de células no fígado e nos linfonodos mesentéricos. Amostras de fígado e linfonodos mesentéricos dos animais do Experimento 2 foram submetidos à técnica de lectino-histoquímica. As lectinas WGA, sWGA e RCA apresentaram reatividade em macrófagos espumosos nos dois órgãos. Este é o primeiro trabalho de nosso conhecimento que demonstra lesões histopatológicas por Brachiaria spp conduzido de forma experimental em coelhos, demonstrando seu potencial como modelo animal nesse campo de estudo.(AU)

Animals , Rabbits , Brachiaria/poisoning , Diet/veterinary , Foodborne Diseases/veterinary , Liver/pathology , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Rabbits , Models, Animal
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 1108-1117, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954238


Unbalanced nutrition during perinatal period causes varying degrees of perturbations in the metabolism and cognitive functions of offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of maternal and postweaning high-fat diet (HFD) exposure on the growth parameters, hippocampal functions and morphology of offspring in a sex-dependent manner. Spraque-Dawley rats were fed either standard (10 % fat) or saturated-fat (65 % fat) diet during their gestation and lactation period. After weaning, pups were sustained in same diet for 6 more weeks. Body mass index (BMI) of pups were monitored weekly, then spontaneous locomotor activities were recorded. Spatial learning and memory functions were analyzed by Morris Water Maze (MWM) test. Total volumetric changes of hippocampal subfields were estimated by Cavalieri method. HFD exposure produced sex-dependent alterations in BMI, serum lipid and activity levels. MWM results showed no significant difference among groups. However, retrieval indexes were higher in HFD-fed males. Total volumetric analysis of the dentate gyrus was comparable, but the pyramidal cell layer volume of HFD-fed males was lower than those of SD-fed males. Despite alterations in some growth and lipid parameters, maternal and perinatal exposure to HFD did not markedly affect cognitive functions and hippocampal morphology of offspring.

La nutrición desequilibrada durante el período perinatal causa diversos grados de perturbaciones en el metabolismo y las funciones cognitivas en neonatos. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los efectos de la exposición a una dieta alta en grasas (HFD) materna y posdestete en los parámetros de crecimiento, las funciones del hipocampo y la morfología de neonatos de una manera dependiente del sexo. Ratas SpragueDawley fueron alimentadas con dieta estándar (10 % grasa) o grasa saturada (65 % grasa) durante su período de gestación y lactancia. Después del destete, las crías se mantuvieron en la misma dieta durante 6 semanas. El índice de masa corporal (IMC) de las crías se controló semanalmente, luego se registraron las actividades locomotoras espontáneas. El aprendizaje espacial y las funciones de memoria se analizaron mediante la prueba Morris Water Maze (MWM). Los cambios volumétricos totales de los subcampos del hipocampo se estimaron mediante el método de Cavalieri. La exposición a HFD produjo alteraciones dependientes del sexo en el IMC, los niveles de lípidos séricos y los niveles de actividad. Los resultados de MWM no mostraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos. Sin embargo, los índices de recuperación fueron más altos en machos alimentados con HFD. El análisis volumétrico total del giro dentado fue comparable, pero el volumen de la capa de células piramidales de los machos alimentados con HFD fue menor que el de los machos alimentados con SD. A pesar de las alteraciones en algunos parámetros lipídicos y de crecimiento, la exposición materna y perinatal a HFD no afectó marcadamente las funciones cognitivas y la morfología del hipocampo de la descendencia.

Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Hippocampus/physiopathology , Hippocampus/pathology , Organ Size , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Maze Learning , Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Animals, Newborn
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(3): 400-409, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973754


Abstract Background: Caloric restriction is known to impair the cardiac function and morphology in hypertrophied hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR); however, the influence of fasting/refeeding (RF) is unknown. Objective: To investigate the fasting/refeeding approach on myocardial remodeling and function. In addition, the current study was designed to bring information regarding the mechanisms underlying the participation of Ca2+ handling and b-adrenergic system. Methods: Sixty-day-old male SHR rats were submitted to food ad libitum (C), 50% food restriction (R50) or RF cycles for 90 days. Cardiac remodeling was assessed by ultrastructure analysis and isolated papillary muscle function. The level of significance considered was 5% (a = 0.05). Results: The RF rats presented lower cardiac atrophy than R50 in relation to C rats. The C rats increased weight gain, R50 maintained their initial body weight and RF rats increased and decreased weight during RF. The RF did not cause functional impairment because the isotonic and isometric parameters showed similar behavior to those of C. The isotonic and isometric cardiac parameters were significantly elevated in RF rats compared to R50 rats. In addition, the R50 rats had cardiac damage in relation to C for isotonic and isometric variables. While the R50 rats showed focal changes in many muscle fibers, the RF rats displayed mild alterations, such as loss or disorganization of myofibrils. Conclusion: Fasting/refeeding promotes cardiac beneficial effects and attenuates myocardial injury caused by caloric restriction in SHR rats, contributing to reduce the cardiovascular risk profile and morphological injuries. Furthermore, RF promotes mild improvement in Ca2+ handling and b-adrenergic system.

Resumo Fundamento: A restrição calórica compromete a função e a morfologia cardíacas em corações hipertrofiados de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR). No entanto, a influência de ciclo de jejum/Realimentação é desconhecida. Objetivo: Investigar o efeito de ciclos de jejum/realimentação sobre a remodelação e função miocárdica. Além disso, o presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar os mecanismos subjacentes à participação do trânsito de cálcio (Ca+2) e sistema beta-adrenérgico. Métodos: Neste estudo, SHR machos de 60 dias de idade foram submetidos a alimento ad libitum (grupo C), 50% de restrição alimentar (grupo R50) ou ciclos de RF (grupo RF) por 90 dias. A remodelação cardíaca foi avaliada por meio da análise ultraestrutural e função do músculo papilar isolado. Adotou-se o nível de significância de 5% (a = 0,05). Resultados: Os ratos do grupo RF apresentaram menor atrofia cardíaca do que os do grupo R50 em relação aos do grupo C. Os ratos do grupo C aumentaram peso corporal, os ratos do grupo R50 mantiveram seu peso corporal inicial e os ratos do grupo RF aumentaram e reduziram seu peso durante o ciclo RF. O ciclo RF não causou comprometimento funcional, pois os parâmetros isotônicos e isométricos apresentaram comportamento similar aos dos ratos do grupo C. Os parâmetros cardíacos isotônicos e isométricos mostraram-se significativamente elevados nos ratos do grupo RF em comparação aos dos ratos do grupo R50. Além disso, os ratos do grupo R50 apresentaram dano cardíaco em comparação aos ratos do grupo C quanto às variáveis isotônicas e isométricas. Os ratos do grupo R50 apresentaram alterações focais em muitas fibras musculares, enquanto os ratos do grupo RF apresentaram leves alterações, como perda ou desorganização de miofibrilas. Conclusão: Ciclos de Jejum/Realimentação promovem efeitos benéficos cardíacos e atenuam o dano miocárdico causado por restrição calórica em SHR, contribuindo para reduzir o risco cardiovascular e os danos morfológicos. Além disso, o ciclo de jejum/realimentação promove leve melhora do trânsito do Ca2+ e do sistema beta-adrenérgico.

Animals , Male , Papillary Muscles/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Fasting/physiology , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology , Cardiomyopathies/prevention & control , Papillary Muscles/pathology , Rats, Inbred SHR , Time Factors , Body Weight/physiology , Calcium/analysis , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Caloric Restriction/adverse effects , Isoproterenol/analysis , Isoproterenol/metabolism , Myocardial Contraction , Cardiomyopathies/pathology
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(4): 679-684, abr. 2018. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-955395


This study evaluated the effects of intramuscular alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) supplementation on meat quality characteristics of Santa Inês and Dorper crossbreed lambs. All animals were feed with a high concentrated diet in feedlot. Eight days before slaughter, the animals were distributed into four blocks according to weight gain. At the seventh and fourth days before slaughter, they were intramuscularly treated with 0, 10 or 20 IU of DL-alpha-tocopherol per kg of metabolic body weight. At slaughter they had 138 days of age and 43.6 kg of live weight, in average. Carcasses were stored for 24 hours under refrigeration at 2°C. Longissimus thoracis muscle pH (pH24h) and color (lightness, yellowness and redness) were analyzed and its samples were collected for evaluation of shear force (SF), cooking loss (WLC), fatty acid composition (FA) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances after one (TBARS1m) and after five months (TBARS5m) of freezing. Linearity deviation effect was observed for lightness (L*; P=0.0042) and yellowness (b*; P=0.0082). Intramuscular administration of 10 or 20 IU of alpha-tocopherol/kg of metabolic weight did not influence the conservation of fatty acid in the carcasses, but benefit L* and b* values.(AU)

O estudo avaliou os efeitos da suplementação pela via intramuscular de alfa-tocoferol (vitamina E) na qualidade da carne de cordeiros mestiços Santa Inês e Dorper. Os animais foram mantidos em confinamento, sendo alimentados com dieta contendo alto teor de concentrado energético. Oito dias antes do abate os cordeiros foram distribuídos em quatro blocos, de acordo com seu ganho de peso. No sétimo e quarto dias antes do abate eles foram tratados por via intramuscular com 0, 10 ou 20 UI de DL-alfa-tocoferol por kg de peso metabólico. No momento do abate os animais tinham, em média, 138 dias de idade e 43,6 kg de peso vivo. As carcaças foram armazenadas a 2°C por 24 horas. Foram determinados pH (pH24h) e cor (luminosidade, teor de vermelho e teor de amarelo) do músculo Longissimus thoracis, bem como força de cisalhamento, perda por cocção, composição dos ácidos graxos e quantidade de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico após um e cinco meses de congelamento. Observou-se efeito de desvio da linearidade para luminosidade (L*; P=0.0042) e para o croma amarelo (b*; P=0.0082). A administração intramuscular de 10 e 20 UI de alfa-tocoferol/kg de peso metabólico não influenciou a conservação de ácidos graxos das carcaças, mas melhorou os valores de L* e b*.(AU)

Animals , Vitamin E/analysis , Sheep , Meat/analysis , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 439-448, Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886884


ABSTRACT A total 120 piglets with an average live weight of 7.00 kg, weaned at 21 days, were used to evaluate the effect of neutral detergent fibre levels on the digestibility of nutrients and energy from the diets, productive performance, and the composition and rate of deposition of nutrients and energy in the bodies of piglets in the nursery phase. The animals were distributed according to a randomized-block design into five treatments, which consisted of neutral detergent fibre levels, with six replicates and four animals per plot. A quadratic effect was detected for the digestibility coefficients of nutrients and energy, feed intake and weight gain. The increase in fibre level promoted a linear increase in fat content in the carcass, blood, and body, whereas the energy in the carcass, organs, and body showed an inverse response. The results showed a quadratic effect on the nutrient deposition rate in the carcass, organs and body. In conclusion, the best digestibility of nutrients and energy from the diet is obtained with 10-11.5% neutral detergent fibre, as higher weight gain and greater protein deposition in the body are achieved at neutral detergent fibre levels of 10.6% and 10.3%, respectively.

Animals , Male , Swine/physiology , Dietary Fiber/pharmacology , Digestion/physiology , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology , Time Factors , Energy Intake/physiology , Weight Gain , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Age Factors , Diet , Animals, Newborn
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 325-332, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886914


ABSTRACT We aimed to evaluate the frequency of bee pollen production, its botanical origin and chemical composition when collected in different seasons. Our results indicate that higher proteins (22.80 ± 3.09%) and flavonoids (2789.87 ± 1396.00 μg 100g-1) levels were obtained in the winter season, which also showed greater pollen production (134.50 ± 35.70 grams) and predominance of the Myrtaceae family. As for spring we found high concentrations of lipids (4.62 ± 2.26%) and low ash content (2.22 ± 0.39%). Regarding the amino acid composition and vitamin C content, we found no differences between the averages throughout the seasons. Our results highlight the importance of understanding not only the botanical origin and the chemical composition of bee pollen, but also the harvesting frequency of this product by bees, so that it becomes possible to supplement the colonies in times of natural food resources shortage.

Animals , Pollen/physiology , Pollen/chemistry , Seasons , Bees/physiology , Magnoliopsida/physiology , Pollen/classification , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Reference Values , Flavonoids/analysis , Proteins/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Amino Acids/analysis , Lipids/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 529-539, Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886899


ABSTRACT The effects of increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of quails on the quality of eggs were evaluated over a period of 56 days. A completely randomized design with five treatment levels of soybean acid oil (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) as a replacer for soybean oil and eight replicates of two quails each were used. A total of 240 fresh eggs were used for quality analysis, and 400 eggs were stored at 23ºC over a period of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days for analysis of shelf-life. Polynomial regression and ANOVA with repeated measurements and Tukey´s tests were used. Soybean acid oil linearly increased the intensity of red (a* = -5.26 + 0.14 x, R2 = 0.89, P = 0.01) and yellow (b* = 42.32 + 0.44 x, R2 = 0.88 P = 0.01). All other variables of egg quality were not affected by the treatments, with the exception of sensory attributes, such as odor and aftertaste, which were more pronounced with soybean acid oil. In conclusion, soybean acid oil affects the intensity of yellow and red color of the yolk. Trained assessors detected differences in odor and aftertaste of eggs when soybean acid oil was included in the quail diet.

Animals , Soybean Oil/chemistry , Coturnix/physiology , Eggs , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Soybean Oil/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Diet , Egg Shell/anatomy & histology
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 219-229, Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886877


ABSTRACT This study was done to discover any beneficial effect of a medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis extract on the honey bee. Firstly, a laboratory experiment was conducted on 640 bees reared in 32 single-use plastic rearing cups. A. brasiliensis extract proved safe in all doses tested (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day) irrespective of feeding mode (sugar syrup or candy). Secondly, a three-year field experiment was conducted on 26 colonies treated with a single dose of A. brasiliensis extract (100 mg/kg/day) added to syrup. Each year the colonies were treated once in autumn and twice in spring. The treatments significantly increased colony strength parameters: brood rearing improvement and adult population growth were noticed more often than the increase in honey production and pollen reserves. These positive effects were mainly observed in April. In conclusion, A. brasiliensis extract is safe for the bees and helps maintaining strong colonies, especially in spring.

Animals , Bees/drug effects , Agaricus/chemistry , Honey , Pollen/physiology , Seasons , Time Factors , Bees/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Population Growth , Statistics, Nonparametric , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/drug effects