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Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics [The]. 2014; 15 (2): 187-192
em Inglês | IMEMR (Mediterrâneo Oriental) | ID: emr-154335


Glutaric acidemia type 1 [GA1] was thought to be a rare disorder in Arab countries. Recently, a relatively large number of patients with GA1 have been detected in Egypt. The aim of this work was to: [1] find out the commonest clinical characteristics of the disease among Egyptians presenting with GA1; [2] delineate the demographic factors that may lead to a high prevalence of GA1 among Egyptians; [3] Recommend the most suitable strategy to screen for the disease. The study included all patients with GA1 who presented at The Genetics Unit, Ain Shams University Hospital [GUASH] during the last three years. The information about patients with GA1 including the epidemiological and clinical data was obtained retrospectively from patients' files. The authors surveyed data of 26 patients in 23 families who were personally examined and the diagnosis was confirmed by laboratory data. The mean age of onset of symptoms was 5.8 +/- 2.2 months: the mean delay in establishing the diagnosis was 11.73 +/- 13.97 months. At the onset of symptoms, macrocephaly [85%] was the commonest feature of GAI followed by dystonia [69%], and persistent convulsions [50%]. Onset of symptoms occurred during an acute febrile illness in 68% of patients, which was associated with the worst forms of dystonia [X2 = 12.5, p =0.14]. The frequency of affected Christian families among all affected families was 43%, which is significantly higher than that expected of the Christian minority in Egypt [6-15%]. There has been no significant increase in consanguinity among those Christian families [F = 0.014204] pointing to a high gene frequency of GA1 in isolated areas in Upper Egypt. In the absence of mass newborn screening program, continuous Health Education program should be implemented to promote detection of early signs of GA1 such as macro-cephaly before the occurrence of acute crisis of encephalopathy especially in families with history of similar patients. We recommend that a nationwide program of extended tandem mass screening should cover all newborns in Egypt to promote early detection of patients with GA1 and to avoid the severe consequences of the delay in diagnosis

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Encefalopatias Metabólicas , Sinais e Sintomas , Consanguinidade , Triagem Neonatal , Recém-Nascido
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics [The]. 2014; 15 (1): 69-78
em Inglês | IMEMR (Mediterrâneo Oriental) | ID: emr-154350


Organic acid disorders are a heterogeneous group of inborn errors of metabolism, in which organic acids accumulate in the body. They have high prevalence in Egypt because of a high rate of consanguineous marriages. Here we report our experience with the diagnostic evaluation of patients with organic acidemias as well as several other inborn errors of metabolism [lEMs] by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry [LC/MS-MS], gas-chro-matography mass spectrometry [GC/MS] and by isocratic cation exchange [high-performance liquid-chromatography] [HPLC] to evaluate the use of HPLC method for disease-associated metabolite screening. In this study, we screened 86 suspected Egyptians patients with organic acid disorders by LC/MS-MS, GC/MS and by HPLC aged from 3 days to 12 years old. Data obtained from the three methods were statistically analyzed to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the HPLC method over the other two methods and to pursue its precision in the diagnosis of organic acid disorders. Moreover, 17 urine samples were collected from patients with several other lEMs to evaluate the efficiency of HPLC in detecting abnormal metabolites in urine samples. The screening results showed that diagnostic efficiencies were varied among the three methods, HPLC showing a higher sensitivity of detecting normal urine as well as a highly satisfactory extent for the detection of different metabolic disorders. In addition, some typical urinary HPLC chromatograms of different metabolic disorders were presented to help the investigator who is going to start an organic aciduria screening program by HPLC to be familiar with various patterns. This study has indicated that HPLC is an easy applicable and useful technique for the initial screening of organic acid disorders and many other disease associated metabolites

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Coleta de Urina , Criança , Lactente