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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): 52-56, 2020-02-00. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS (Américas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1095588

RESUMO

El amplio espectro de aberraciones cromosómicas observable en los trastornos del neurodesarrollo no siempre puede ser caracterizado por análisis cromosómico. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la etiología genética de estos trastornos en pacientes con afecciones neurológicas congénitas y sospecha clínica de un síndrome genético, aplicando un algoritmo de estudio clínico-molecular. En 71 de 111 niños analizados, se hallaron aberraciones submicroscópicas asociadas a síndromes de microdeleción-microduplicación: DiGeorge (22 casos), Prader-Willi (26 casos), Angelman (2 casos), Williams-Beuren (17 casos), Smith-Magenis (1 caso), Miller-Dieker (1 caso) y síndrome cri du chat (1 caso). Adicionalmente, se detectó una inserción desbalanceada de novo de la región 17p12p11.2, en el punto 5p13.1, en un niño de tres años. La utilización del método clínico unido a técnicas moleculares, como hibridación fluorescente in situ, ha permitido, en la mayoría de los casos, el diagnóstico certero de pacientes y/o familias con trastornos del neurodesarrollo.


The wide range of chromosome aberrations seen in neurodevelopmental disorders may not always be characterized by means of a chromosome analysis. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic etiology of these disorders in patients with congenital neurological conditions and clinical suspicion of a genetic disorder using a clinical and molecular testing algorithm. Among 111 studied children, 71 showed submicroscopic chromosome aberrations associated with microdeletion/microduplication syndromes: DiGeorge (22 cases), Prader-Willi (26 cases), Angelman (2 cases), Williams-Beuren (17 cases), Smith-Magenis (1 case), Miller-Dieker (1 case), and cri du chat syndrome (1 case). Additionally, a de novo trisomy 17p12p11.2 due to an unbalanced insertion into 5p13.1 was identified in a 3-year-old child. In most cases, the use of a clinical method together with molecular techniques, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization, has allowed to make an accurate diagnosis in patients and/or families with neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Síndrome , Algoritmos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Procedimentos Clínicos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Aconselhamento Genético
2.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-785396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic counseling (GC) provides many benefits, including the identification of patients appropriate for testing, patient education, and medical management. We evaluated the current status of and challenges faced by GC practitioners in Korean hospitals.METHODS: An electronic survey was designed and conducted in 52 certified laboratory physicians belonging to the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine, from August to September 2018. The questionnaires addressed three main categories of information: (1) current status of GC in hospitals; (2) essential qualifications of GC practitioners; and (3) challenges and perspectives for GC. Fisher's exact test was applied to analyze categorical data.RESULTS: Among a total of 52 participants who initially responded, 12 (23.1%) were performing GC either by direct or indirect care. GC clinics were opened regularly for one (33.3%) or more than three sessions (25.0%) per week; most respondents spent more time for pre-visit activities than in-person visits, both for a initial visit patient and for a follow-up visit patient. All laboratory physicians provided genetic information to their patients. Most recommended family genetic testing when indicated (91.7%), discussed disease management (75.0%), and/or ordered additional genetic testing (58.3%), and some referred patients to other specialists (8.3%).CONCLUSIONS: Both patients and laboratory physicians concede the advantage of GC performed by clinical geneticists; however, the practice of GC involves several challenges and raises some concerns. The cost and support required to implement GC need to be addressed in order to provide qualified GC in Korea.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Seguimentos , Aconselhamento Genético , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Coreia (Geográfico) , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Especialização , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(1)20200129.
Artigo em Português | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1095276

RESUMO

Introdução: O desenvolvimento da medicina com a descoberta do genoma humano revolucionou o conhecimento, o acompanhamento e o tratamento do câncer, proporcionando a utilização de novos métodos de diagnóstico e tratamento para diversos tipos de neoplasias e permitindo o aconselhamento genético. O aconselhamento genético, embora de difícil acesso, pode vir a permitir aos pacientes com suspeita de câncer hereditário a diminuição dos índices de morbidade e mortalidade por essa doença e proporcionar uma melhora na qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Objetivo: Demonstrar o estado da arte do aconselhamento genético em oncologia, utilizando a ferramenta digital da telemedicina. Método: Foi realizada uma revisão integrativa de literatura, entre dezembro de 2018 e março de 2019, a partir das bases de dados PubMed, SciELO e BIREME, por meio das palavras cadastradas no MeSH e nos Descritores em Ciências da Saúde (DeCS), respectivamente, em inglês, Genetic Counseling AND Telemedicine OR eHealth AND Oncology. Resultados: Foram encontrados 16 artigos; destes, oito foram excluídos. Restaram sete artigos que atendiam aos critérios de inclusão, demonstrando dados sobre a satisfação do paciente para com os serviços de aconselhamento genético voltados para o câncer, assim como suas vantagens e desvantagens. Conclusão: Embora ainda haja poucos estudos relatando experiências da prática do aconselhamento genético em oncologia, essa prática tem se demonstrado eficiente, de baixo custo e de boa aceitação do paciente e do profissional, suprindo necessidades principalmente nos locais de difícil acesso.


Introduction: The development of medicine and the discovery of the human genome revolutionized the knowledge, monitoring and treatment of cancer that favored the utilization of new methods of diagnosis, treatment for several types of neoplasms and genetic counseling. Although difficult to access, genetic counseling may allow the patients with suspected hereditary cancer, to reduce the rates of morbidity and mortality by this disease and ensure improvement in their quality of life. Objective: Demonstrate the state of the art of genetic counseling in oncology using the digital telemedicine tool. Method: An integrative literature review conducted between December 2018 and March 2019, using the PubMed, SciELO and BIREME databases, utilizing the words registered in the MeSH and Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS), respectively, in English, Genetic Counseling AND Telemedicine OR eHealth AND Oncology. Results: 16 articles were found and of these, eight were excluded. Thus, seven articles that met the inclusion criteria showing data about patient satisfaction with cancer-oriented counseling services, its advantages and disadvantages remained. Conclusion: Although there are few studies addressing the experience of genetic counseling in oncology, this low cost practice has been shown to be efficient and well accepted by the patient and the professional, providing proper responses mainly in places of difficult access.


Introducción: El desarrollo de la medicina con el descubrimiento del genoma humano revolucionó el conocimiento, seguimiento y terapia del cáncer, permitiendo la utilización de nuevas técnicas de diagnóstico y terapias para diferentes tipos de neoplasias, además del asesoramiento genético. El asesoramiento genético, aunque de acceso difícil, puede permitir a los pacientes con sospechas de cáncer hereditario la disminución de los índices de morbilidad y mortalidad para esa enfermedad y proporcionar una mejora en su calidad de vida. Objetivo: Demostrar el estado del arte del asesoramiento genético en oncología utilizando la herramienta digital de la telemedicina. Método: Se realizó una revisión integrativa de literatura entre diciembre de 2018 y marzo de 2019, a partir de las bases de datos PubMed, SciELO y BIREME, por medio de las palabras catastradas en el MeSH y en el Descriptores de Ciencia de la Salud (DeCS), respectivamente, en inglés Genetic Counseling AND Telemedicine OR eHealth AND Oncology. Resultados: Se han encontrado 16 artículos; de estos, 8 fueron excluidos. Así, quedaron siete artículos que atendían a los criterios de inclusión demostrando datos sobre la satisfacción del paciente hacia con los servicios de asesoramiento genético dirigidos al cáncer, así como sus ventajas y desventajas. Conclusión: Aunque todavía hay pocos estudios relatando experiencias de la práctica del asesoramiento genético en oncología, esta práctica se ha demostrado eficiente, de bajo costo y de buena aceptación del paciente y del profesional, supliendo necesidades principalmente en los lugares de difícil acceso.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Telemedicina , Consulta Remota , Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Neoplasias/genética , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/tendências , Comunicação por Videoconferência , Aconselhamento à Distância
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(5): 473-476, oct. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS (Américas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1054965

RESUMO

La trisomía del 9p se caracteriza por la duplicación de todo o de algún segmento del brazo corto del cromosoma 9. Es una de las anomalías autosómicas estructurales más frecuentes en recién nacidos. Esta región es relativamente pobre en genes, por lo que puede ser más compatible con la supervivencia. Se caracteriza por presentar retraso del crecimiento, psicomotor y mental, dismorfias cráneo-faciales, alteraciones esqueléticas, así como anomalías en el sistema nervioso central, cardiopatías congénitas y alteraciones renales en menor frecuencia. Para realizar el diagnóstico, debe desarrollarse el estudio citogenético mediante la técnica de banda G, y, si está disponible, se recomienda la hibridación por fluorescencia in situ, complementada por la hibridación genómica comparativa, para la mejor comprensión de la correlación genotipo-fenotipo. La evaluación debe ser interdisciplinaria, en la que se incluya un oportuno asesoramiento genético familiar y, con ello, las opciones terapéuticas disponibles y de forma precoz.


Trisomy 9p is characterized by the partial or complete duplication of the short arm of chromosome 9. It is one of the most common autosomal structural abnormalities in newborn infants. This is a relatively poor gene region, so it may be more compatible with survival. It is characterized by delayed mental and psychomotor growth, craniofacial dysmorphisms, skeletal alterations, central nervous system abnormalities, congenital heart disease, and, to a lesser extent, kidney disorders. To establish a diagnosis, it is necessary to perform a cytogenetic study with G bands and, if available, fluorescence in situ hybridization complemented with comparative genomic hybridization for a better understanding of the genotype-phenotype correlation. Assessment should be interdisciplinary and encompassing a timely family genetic counseling, together with available therapeutic options in an early manner.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Terapêutica , Trissomia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Diagnóstico , Aconselhamento Genético
6.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(4): 1035-1041, jul.-ago. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas), CUMED | ID: biblio-1094108

RESUMO

RESUMEN Las displasias ectodérmicas constituyen alteraciones de los derivados embriológicos del ectodermo. Paciente adulta, con hipoparatiroidismo, llamó la atención por su fenotipo y fue remitida de la consulta de Neurología a la consulta Genética. Se diagnosticó una displasia ectodérmica hipohidrótica, de origen genético con herencia autosómica dominante, poco común para esta entidad. Se presenta este caso con el objetivo de describir las manifestaciones clínicas de esta alteración genética, las cuales nunca fueron objeto de interés médico resultando inadvertidas para su estudio y diagnóstico. Esta alteración se asocia a una condición patológica como el hipoparatiroidismo, en la literatura revisada no se encontraron reportes de la misma. La evaluación clínica de la paciente permitió hacer el diagnóstico y explicar muchos de los problemas para los cuales no existían respuestas, así como ofrecer un asesoramiento genético adecuado para ella y para sus familiares con riesgo de padecer una condición genética similar.


ABSTRACT Ectodermic dysplasias are alterations of the ectoderm embryologic derivatives. This is a case of an adult female patient with hypoparathyroidism, drawing attention due to her phenotype; she was remitted by the consultation of Neurology to the Genetic one. She was diagnosed a hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, of genetic origin with autosomal dominant inheritance, what is very rare for this entity. The case is presented with the aim of describing the clinical manifestation of this genetic alteration that never drew medical interest and nobody diagnosed or studied. It is associated to a pathologic condition like hypothyroidism and was not reported in medical literature before. The clinical evaluation of the patient allowed arriving to the diagnostic and explaining many problems that were unexplained, and also offering the adequate genetic advice to her and her relatives likewise at risk of suffering a similar genetic condition.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Displasia Ectodérmica/diagnóstico , Displasia Ectodérmica/etiologia , Displasia Ectodérmica/genética , Displasia Ectodérmica/tratamento farmacológico , Displasia Ectodérmica/epidemiologia , Aconselhamento Genético , Hipoparatireoidismo/diagnóstico , Hipoparatireoidismo/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ceratodermia Palmar e Plantar/diagnóstico , Ceratodermia Palmar e Plantar/etiologia
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(4): 406-412, ago. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1054946

RESUMO

El síndrome de Wolf-Hirschhorn es una entidad polimalformativa debida a la microdeleción en la región distal del brazo corto del cromosoma 4 (4p16.3), el cual produce una serie de manifestaciones clínicas, que pueden variar dependiendo del tipo y tamaño del defecto genético en este síndrome de genes contiguos. Se presentan cinco pacientes, tres de ellos de sexo femenino, todos con los hallazgos clínicos primordiales, con rasgo facial característico de "apariencia en casco de guerrero griego", retraso en el crecimiento y del desarrollo psicomotor. Además de la deleción parcial en la región distal del brazo corto del cromosoma 4, en dos pacientes, se encontraron alteraciones genéticas adicionales, mediante el uso de microarrays de polimorfismos de nucleótido único. Se resaltan las características clínicas del síndrome de Wolf-Hirschhorn con la finalidad de orientar el diagnóstico, brindar una atención médica interdisciplinaria y, a través de su confirmación, brindar un adecuado asesoramiento genético familiar.


Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is a polymalformative entity due to the microdeletion in the distal region of the short arm of chromosome 4 (4p16.3), which produces a series of clinical manifestations that can vary depending on the type and size of the genetic defect in this contiguous gene syndrome. Five patients are presented, three of them female, all with the primary clinical findings, characterized by "Greek warrior helmet appearance" facial feature, growth retardation and psychomotor development delay. In addition to the partial deletion in the distal region of the short arm of chromosome 4, two additional genetic alterations were found in two patients, through the use of single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. The clinical characteristics of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome are highlighted in order to guide the diagnosis, provide interdisciplinary medical care and, through its confirmation, provide adequate family genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Síndrome de Wolf-Hirschhorn , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Anormalidades Múltiplas , Análise em Microsséries , Aconselhamento Genético
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(3): 288-291, jun. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1001204

RESUMO

La acidemia propiónica es un trastorno infrecuente con patrón de herencia autosómico recesivo causado por la deficiencia de la enzima mitocondrial propionil-CoA carboxilasa, que convierte el propionil-CoA a D-metilmalonil-CoA. Se expone el caso de un recién nacido masculino con signos de dificultad respiratoria, vómitos y cansancio durante la alimentación. Presentó acidosis metabólica, cuerpos cetónicos en el suero y la orina positivos, hiperamonemia, anemia, trombocitopenia e hipoproteinemia. El estudio bioquímico por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas en la muestra de orina fue sugestivo de acidemia propiónica. El estudio molecular en el gen PCCA encontró las mutaciones c.893A>G (p.K298R) en el padre y c.937C>T (p.R313X) en la madre. Existe la necesidad de establecer el diagnóstico de esta entidad infrecuente para implementar las medidas terapéuticas disponibles y aportar el oportuno asesoramiento genético.


Propionic acidemia is an infrequent disorder with an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern caused by the deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme propionyl-CoA carboxylase that converts propionyl-CoA to D-methylmalonyl-CoA. We present the case of a male newborn who showed signs of respiratory distress, vomiting and tiredness during feeding. He presented metabolic acidosis, positive serum and urine ketone bodies, hyperammonemia, anemia, thrombocytopenia and hypoproteinemia. The biochemical study by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in a urine sample was suggestive of propionic acidemia. The molecular study in the PCCA gene found the mutations c.893A>G (p.K298R) in the father and c.937C> T (p.R313X) in the mother. There is a need to establish the diagnosis of this infrequent entity to implement the therapeutic measures available and provide the appropriate genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Padrões de Herança , Metilmalonil-CoA Descarboxilase , Acidemia Propiônica , Aconselhamento Genético
10.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-763185

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the clinical relevance and spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutations in Korean ovarian cancer (KoOC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred seventy-nine KoOC patients were enrolled from three university hospitals between 2012 and 2017. Their peripheral blood samples were obtained for BRCA1/2 mutation analysis by direct sequencing. Clinicopathological characteristics were retrospectively reviewed, and spectrum analyses of BRCA1/2 mutation were assessed by systematic literature review. RESULTS: Frequency of BRCA1/2 mutations was 16.5% in KoOC patients. BRCA1/2 mutations were significantly associated with family history of breast/ovarian cancer (pT of BRCA2 in KoBC). CONCLUSION: The clinical relevance of BRCA1/2 mutations in KoOC patients was confirmed but that of early age-of-onset was not. Possible inconsistency in the ratio of BRCA1-to-BRCA2 mutations and the most common mutation between KoOC and KoBC may probably suggest presence of mutation sequence-associated penetrance tendency in hereditary Korean breast and ovarian cancer. These data may provide insights for optimal genetic counseling and prophylactic treatment for at-risk relatives of KoOC patients.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Mama , Neoplasias da Mama , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Aconselhamento Genético , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Ginecologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Obstetrícia , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Penetrância , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-762596

RESUMO

Linear growth occurs at the growth plate. Therefore, genetic defects that interfere with the normal function of the growth plate can cause linear growth disorders. Many genetic causes of growth disorders have already been identified in humans. However, recent genome-wide approaches have broadened our knowledge of the mechanisms of linear growth, not only providing novel monogenic causes of growth disorders but also revealing single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that affect height in the general population. The genes identified as causative of linear growth disorders are heterogeneous, playing a role in various growth-regulating mechanisms including those involving the extracellular matrix, intracellular signaling, paracrine signaling, endocrine signaling, and epigenetic regulation. Understanding the underlying genetic defects in linear growth is important for clinicians and researchers in order to provide proper diagnoses, management, and genetic counseling, as well as to develop better treatment approaches for children with growth disorders.


Assuntos
Criança , Diagnóstico , Epigenômica , Matriz Extracelular , Aconselhamento Genético , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transtornos do Crescimento , Lâmina de Crescimento , Humanos , Comunicação Parácrina , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-786382

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The awareness of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) and BRCA testing is increasing in Korea. Compared to the sizable research on HBOC knowledge among breast cancer women, studies in the ovarian cancer population are limited. This paper aimed to investigate the level of knowledge of hereditary ovarian cancer and anxiety in women diagnosed with serous ovarian cancer in Korea and determine differences in the knowledge and anxiety according to whether genetic testing was undertaken and whether BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were present.METHODS: Using a descriptive research design, a cross-sectional survey was conducted on 100 women diagnosed with serous ovarian cancer at N hospital in Gyeonggi-do, Korea, from July to November 2018. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, and Pearson's correlation coefficient using the SPSS 21.0 program.RESULTS: The hereditary ovarian cancer-related knowledge score was mid-level (mean score 8.90±3.29 out of a total of 17), as was the state anxiety level was mid-level (mean score 47.96±3.26 out of possible score range of 20–80). Genetic knowledge of hereditary ovarian cancer was associated with age, education, occupation, genetic counseling, and BRCA mutations. There were no statistically significant factors related to anxiety and there were no statistically significant correlations between knowledge level and anxiety.CONCLUSION: More comprehensive education on gene-related cancer is needed for ovarian cancer patients, especially for items with low knowledge scores. A genetic counseling protocol should be developed to allow more patients to alleviate their anxiety through genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Mama , Neoplasias da Mama , Estudos Transversais , Educação , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético , Testes Genéticos , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário , Humanos , Coreia (Geográfico) , Ocupações , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Projetos de Pesquisa
13.
Artigo | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-785404

RESUMO

Tatton-Brown-Rahman Syndrome (TBRS), an overgrowth syndrome caused by heterozygous mutation of DNMT3A, first was described in 2014. Approximately 60 DNMT3A variants, including 32 missense variants, have been reported, with most missense mutations located on the DNMT3A functional domains. Autosomal dominant inheritance by germ-line mutation of DNMT3A has been reported, but vertical transmission within a family is extremely rare. Herein, we report the first Korean family with maternally inherited TBRS due to the novel heterozygous DNMT3A variant c.118G>C p.(Glu40Gln), located outside the main functional domain and identified by multigene panel sequencing. The patient and her mother had typical clinical features, including tall stature during childhood, macrocephaly, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial appearance. TBRS shows milder dysmorphic features than other overgrowth syndromes, potentially leading to underdiagnosis and underestimated prevalence; thus, targeted multigene panel sequencing including DNMT3A will be a useful tool in cases of overgrowth and unexplained mild intellectual disability for early diagnosis and genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Precoce , Aconselhamento Genético , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Transtornos do Crescimento , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual , Megalencefalia , Mães , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Testamentos
14.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-776811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE@#To detect potential mutations of the PKHD1 gene in two pedigrees affected with infantile polycystic kidney disease.@*METHODS@#Clinical data and peripheral venous blood samples were collected from the probands and their parents as well as fetal amniotic fluid cells. Genome DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood samples and amniotic fluid cells. Exons 32 and 61 of the PKHD1 gene were amplified with PCR and subjected to direct sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The proband of pedigree 1 was found to carry c.4274T>G (p.Leu1425Arg) mutation in exon 32 and c.10445G>C (p.Arg3482Pro) mutation in exon 61 of the PKHD1 gene, which were inherited from her father and mother, respectively. The fetus has carried the c.4274T>G (p.Leu1425Arg) mutation. In pedigree 2, the wife and her husband had respectively carried a heterozygous c.5979_5981delTGG mutation and a c.9455delA mutation of the PKHD1 gene. No chromosomal aberration was found in the umbilical blood sample, but the genetic testing of their fetus was failed. Based on software prediction, all of the 4 mutations were predicted to be pathogenic.@*CONCLUSION@#PKHD1 c.4274T>G (p.Leu1425Arg), c.10445G>C (p.Arg3482Pro), c.5979_5981delTGG and c.9455delA were likely to be pathogenic mutations. The results have facilitated genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for the two pedigrees.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético , Humanos , Mutação , Linhagem , Doenças Renais Policísticas , Diagnóstico , Genética , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Receptores de Superfície Celular
15.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-761870

RESUMO

Concomitant Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) and hematologic malignancies are exceptionally rare. This is the first report of a patient operated on for aortic root dilation who had been previously diagnosed with LDS and B-cell-lymphoma. After completion of chemotherapy and complete remission, an elective valve-sparing aortic root replacement (using the David-V method) was performed. Due to the positive family history, pre-operative genetic counseling was conducted, and revealed LDS with a TGFBR1 (transforming growth factor beta receptor type I) mutation in 6 probands of the family, albeit in 1 of them posthumously. This missense mutation has been previously described in relation to aortic dissection, but a causative relationship to malignancy has so far neither been proposed nor proven.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica , Tratamento Farmacológico , Aconselhamento Genético , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Humanos , Síndrome de Loeys-Dietz , Linfoma de Células B , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto
16.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-764523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare gynecological cancer risk management between women with BRCA variants of unknown significance (VUS) to women with negative genetic testing METHODS: Ninety-nine patients whose BRCA genetic testing yielded VUS were matched with 99 control patients with definitive negative BRCA results at a single institution. Demographics and risk management decisions were obtained through chart review. Primary outcome was the rate of risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO). Chi square tests, t-tests, and logistic regression were performed, with significance of p<0.05. RESULTS: VUS patients were more likely to be non-Caucasian (p=0.000) and of Ashkenazi-Jewish descent (p=0.000). There was no difference in gynecologic oncology referrals or recommendations to screen or undergo risk-reducing surgery for VUS vs. negative patients. Ultimately, 44 patients (22%) underwent RRBSO, with no significant difference in surgical rate based on the presence of VUS. Ashkenazi-Jewish descent was associated with a 4.5 times increased risk of RRBSO (OR=4.489; 95% CI=1.484–13.579) and family history of ovarian cancer was associated with a 2.6 times risk of RRBSO (OR=2.641; 95% CI=1.107–6.299). CONCLUSION: In our institution, patients with VUS were surgically managed similarly to those with negative BRCA testing. The numbers of patients with VUS are likely to increase with the implementation of multi-gene panel testing. Our findings underscore the importance of genetic counseling and individualized screening and prevention strategies in the management of genetic testing results.


Assuntos
Demografia , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético , Testes Genéticos , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Programas de Rastreamento , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Medição de Risco , Gestão de Riscos
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 914-923, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-762041

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Few efforts have been made to integrate a next generation sequencing (NGS) panel into standard clinical treatment of ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical utility of NGS and to identify clinically impactful information beyond targetable alterations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 84 patients with ovarian cancer who underwent NGS between March 1, 2017, and July 31, 2018, at the Yonsei Cancer Hospital. We extracted DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of ovarian cancer. The TruSight Tumor 170 gene panel was used to prepare libraries, and the MiSeq instrument was used for NGS. RESULTS: Of the 84 patients, 55 (65.1%) had high-grade serous carcinomas. Seventy-three (86.7%) patients underwent NGS at the time of diagnosis, and 11 (13.3%) underwent NGS upon relapse. The most common genetic alterations were in TP53 (64%), PIK3CA (15%), and BRCA1/2 (13%), arising as single nucleotide variants and indels. MYC amplification (27%) was the most common copy number variation and fusion. Fifty-seven (67.9%) patients had more than one actionable alteration other than TP53. Seven (8.3%) cases received matched-target therapy based on the following sequencing results: BRCA1 or 2 mutation, poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor (n=5); PIK3CA mutation, AKT inhibitor (n=1); and MLH1 mutation, PD-1 inhibitor (n=1). Fifty-three (63.0%) patients had a possibility of treatment change, and 8 (9.5%) patients received genetic counseling. CONCLUSION: Implementation of NGS may help in identifying patients who might benefit from targeted treatment therapies and genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Institutos de Câncer , Diagnóstico , DNA , Aconselhamento Genético , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-764229

RESUMO

Diagnosis of pre-lingual hearing loss (HL) is difficult owing to the high number of genes responsible. The most frequent cause of HL is DFNB1 due to mutations in the GJB2 gene. It represents up to 40% of HL cases in some populations. In Iran, it has previously been shown that DFNB1 accounts for 16-18% of cases but varies among different ethnic groups. Here, we reviewed results from our three previous publications and data from other published mutation reports to provide a comprehensive collection of data for GJB2 mutations and HL in northern Iran. In total, 903 unrelated families from six different provinces, viz., Gilan, Mazandaran, Golestan, Ghazvin, Semnan, and Tehran, were included and analyzed for the type and prevalence of GJB2 mutations. A total of 23 different genetic variants were detected from which 18 GJB2 mutations were identified. GJB2 mutations were 20.7% in the studied northern provinces, which was significantly higher than that reported in southern populations of Iran. Moreover, a gradient in the frequency of GJB2 mutations from north to south Iran was observed. c.35delG was the most common mutation, accounting for 58.4% of the cases studied. This study suggests that c.35delG mutation in GJB2 is the most important cause of HL in northern Iran.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico , Grupos Étnicos , Aconselhamento Genético , Genética , Perda Auditiva , Audição , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Prevalência
19.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 18(2): 265-276, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1013085

RESUMO

Abstract Objectives: to describe the prevalence and types of chromosomal abnormalities in couples with recurrent miscarriage and products of conception. Methods: electronic searches were performed in the PubMed/Medline database and in the Portal Regional da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde/BVS (Regional Website of the Virtual Library in Health/BVS) using the descriptors "chromosomal abnormalities and abortions and prevalence". After applying the inclusion and exclusion criterias, 17 studies were selected. Results: 11 studies were conducted in couples with recurrent miscarriage and six in products of conception. The main results of the couples with recurrent miscarriage were: the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities which varied from 1.23% to 12% and there was a predominance alteration of the chromosomal structures (reciprocal translocations, followed by Robertsonian). In products of conception, the results observed were: the frequency of chromosomal abnormality was above 50% in approximately 70% of the studies; there was a predominance alteration of the numerical chromosomal (trisomy - chromosomes 16, 18, 21 and 22, followed by polyploidy and monosomy X). Conclusions: in summary, cytogenetic alterations represent an importante cause of pregnancy loss and its detection can help couples with genetic counseling. Therefore, the value of knowledge on the prevalence of cytogenetic abnormalities in miscarriage samples is unquestionable, once it is permitted a proper genetic counseling for the couple.


Resumo Objetivos: descrever a prevalência e os tipos de anormalidades cromossômicas em casais com aborto recorrente e em produtos de concepção. Métodos: foram realizadas buscas eletrônicas nas bases de dados PubMed/Medline e no Portal Regional da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde/BVS usando os descritores "chromosomal abnormalities and abortions and prevalence". Após a aplicação de critérios de inclusão e exclusão, 17 estudos foram selecionados. Resultados: 11 estudos foram realizados em casais com aborto recorrente e seis em produtos de concepção. Os principais resultados em casais com aborto recorrente foram: a frequência de anormalidades cromossômicas variou de 1,23% a 12% e houve predomínio de alterações cromossômicas estruturais (translocações recíprocas, seguidas por Robertsonianas). Nos produtos de concepção, os resultados observados foram: a frequência de anormalidade cromossômica foi acima de 50% em aproximadamente 70% dos estudos; houve predomínio de alterações cromossômicas numéricas (trissomia - cromossomos 16, 18, 21 e 22, seguido de poliploidia e monossomia X). Conclusões: em resumo, as alterações citogenéticas representam uma importante causa de perdas gestacionais e sua detecção auxilia no aconselhamento genético do casal. Portanto, o valor do conhecimento sobre a prevalência de anormalidades citogenéticas em amostras de aborto espontâneo é indiscutível, uma vez que permite o aconselhamento genético adequado ao casal.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Aborto Habitual/etiologia , Aborto Habitual/epidemiologia , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Transtornos Cromossômicos , Fertilização , Cariotipagem , Translocação Genética , Análise Citogenética , Aconselhamento Genético
20.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 44(2)abr.-jun. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas), CUMED | ID: biblio-901570

RESUMO

Introducción: Las nuevas tecnologías disponibles en el campo de la genética humana y médica pueden ser utilizadas, cada vez más, con fines médicos preventivos. Existe también el riesgo de su uso indebido que favorezca la discriminación y la eutanasia selectiva y minimice el papel de los condicionantes sociales en la salud de las poblaciones. Objetivo: Establecer normas éticas para garantizar que las pruebas presintomáticas en Cuba se realicen conforme a los principios éticos de respeto a la autonomía, justicia, beneficencia y no maleficencia. Métodos: Estas normas se elaboraron a partir de una propuesta discutida y consensuada en talleres nacionales con la participación de genetistas clínicos de todo el país y aprobadas por el Comité de Ética del Centro Nacional de Genética Médica y el Ministerio de Salud Pública. Resultados: Las normas aprobadas consideraron aspectos esenciales como el conocimiento sobre el alcance de la información que la prueba revelará y sus implicaciones a nivel personal y familiar, el consentimiento informado para su realización, las condiciones en que se realiza y la seguridad de sus resultados, las obligaciones médicas antes, durante y después de la realización de la prueba y lo concerniente a la privacidad y confidencialidad de la información. Conclusiones: La generalización y cumplimiento de las normas aprobadas asegura la protección a individuos y familias vulnerables, contribuye a mejorar su atención médica y a aminorar el impacto que sobre su salud, su reproducción y su vida en general, tienen las severas enfermedades para las que están en riesgo o padecen(AU)


Introduction: New technologies available in the field of human and medical genetics can increasingly be used for preventive medical purposes. There is also the risk of misuse that favors discrimination and selective euthanasia, and that minimizes the role of social determinants in the health of the populations. Objectives: To establish ethical norms to ensure that presymptomatic tests in Cuba are carried out in accordance with the principles of respect for autonomy, justice, beneficence and non-malice. Methods: These norms were elaborated from a proposal discussed and agreed upon in national workshops with the participation of clinical geneticists from all over the country and approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Center of Medical Genetics and the Ministry of Public Health. Results: The approved norms considered essential aspects such as: the knowledge about the scope of information that the test will reveal and its implications on a personal and family level, informed consent for its implementation, the conditions under which it is performed, and the safety of its results; medical obligations before, during and after the performance of the test; and all concerning to the privacy and confidentiality of the information. Conclusions: The generalization and compliance of these ethical norms ensure the protection of vulnerable individuals and families, contributes to improving their medical care and to reducing the impact on their health, their reproduction and life in general terms of the severe diseases they are at risk or suffering from(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ética Médica/educação , Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Genética Médica/métodos , Genética Médica/normas , Cuba
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