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1.
Brasília; s.n; 20 jun. 2020.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS (Américas), BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1102288

RESUMO

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 13 artigos e 9 protocolos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Vacinas/isolamento & purificação , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Clozapina/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico
3.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-760321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The current study covers a secondary revision of the guidelines for the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia issued by the Korean Medication Algorithm for Schizophrenia (KMAP-SCZ) 2001, specifically for co-existing symptoms and antipsychotics-related side-effects in schizophrenia patients. METHODS: An expert consensus regarding the strategies of pharmacotherapy for positive symptoms of schizophrenia, co-existing symptoms of schizophrenia, and side-effect of antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia was retrieved by responses obtained using a 30-item questionnaire. RESULTS: For the co-existing symptoms, agitation could be treated with oral or intramuscular injection of benzodiazepine or antipsychotics; depressive symptoms with atypical antipsychotics and adjunctive use of antidepressant; obsessive-compulsive symptoms with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotics other than clozapine and olanzapine; negative symptoms with atypical antipsychotics or antidepressants; higher risk of suicide with clozapine; comorbid substance abuse with use of naltrexone or bupropion/ varenicline, respectively. For the antipsychotics-related side effects, anticholinergics (extrapyramidal symptom), propranolol and benzodiazepine (akathisia), topiramate or metformin (weight gain), change of antipsychotics to aripiprazole (hyperprolactinemia and prolonged QTc) or clozapine (tardive dyskinesia) could be used. CONCLUSION: Updated pharmacotherapy strategies for co-existing symptoms and antipsychotics-related side effects in schizophrenia patients as presented in KMAP-SCZ 2019 could help effective clinical decision making of psychiatrists as a preferable option.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos , Antipsicóticos , Aripiprazol , Benzodiazepinas , Antagonistas Colinérgicos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Clozapina , Consenso , Depressão , Di-Hidroergotamina , Tratamento Farmacológico , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Metformina , Naltrexona , Propranolol , Psiquiatria , Esquizofrenia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Suicídio , Vareniclina
4.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-738914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Clozapine is the drug of choice in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, its use is often delayed and a significant proportion of clozapine treated patients fails to respond and experience potentially dangerous side-effects. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the clinical characteristics of patients started on clozapine and the rate and reason of discontinuation of clozapine. METHODS: Medical records of 83 patients started on clozapine during the period of 2012–2016 were reviewed. RESULTS: Clozapine started on patients in chronic phase; the mean age of start was 38.1 years old and the mean number of psychiatric admission was 6.5. A majority (80.7%) of the patients had been subjected to antipsychotic polypharmacy prior to clozapine and most (61.5%) of them were being treated with polypharmacy including clozapine. Overall, 39 (47.0%) subjects had continued clozapine whereas 15 (18.1%) discontinued it; 29 (34.9%) were lost to follow-up. The most common reason for discontinuation was side-effects (n=13) including six life-threatening cases, most of which occurred within 6 months of its start. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that there is some evidence of delays to clozapine use, high rates of polypharmacy and significant rate of discontinuation during the early phase of clozapine treatment.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Clozapina , Humanos , Perda de Seguimento , Registros Médicos , Polimedicação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquizofrenia
5.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-738608

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report a case of corneal and lenticular pigmentation after prolonged clozapine therapy. CASE SUMMARY: A 56-year-old male visited our hospital with a progressive decline in vision that affected both eyes. He had a history of schizophrenia. He was being treated with 200 mg clozapine and 1 mg lorazepam daily, and had been treated with clozapine for 5 years. At the first visit, his best-corrected-visual acuity was 20/32 in both eyes. Slit lamp examination of the corneas showed bright, fine, grayish-brown deposits on the endothelium, and on dilation, bilateral central stellate opacity of the anterior portion of the lens capsule was revealed. CONCLUSIONS: Clozapine may induce corneal and lenticular pigmentation and thus may lead to a decline in vision. Patients on long-term clozapine therapy should be considered for regular ophthalmic review.


Assuntos
Clozapina , Córnea , Endotélio , Humanos , Lorazepam , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pigmentação , Esquizofrenia , Lâmpada de Fenda
6.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-787412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study is to investigate inflammatory markers and associated clinical factors between treatment resistant schizophrenia and non-treatment resistant schizophrenia.METHODS: Of the 116 schizophrenia subjects who were hospitalized for ac ute symptomatic treatment, 19 patients (16%) were treated with clozapine as a treatment resistant schizophrenia(TRS) and 97 patients(84%) were treated with other atypical antipsychotics as a non-treatment resistant schizophrenia(Non-TRS). Various inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein(CRP) and clinical factors were retrospectively evaluated with electrical medical records.RESULTS: There were significant differences between two groups in disease duration(p =0.015), number of admission (p =0.003), Clinical Global Impression(p <0.001) but other demographic and clinical variables including previous antipsychotics use did not show significant differences. In terms of hematologic profiles, TRS group demonstrated higher CRP level(p =0.006), lower neutrophil count(p =0.012), and lower hemoglobin level(p =0.003) compared with non-TRS group. Body mass index was significantly correlated with CRP(r=0.318, p =0.001).CONCLUSION: The elevated level of serum CRP in TRS suggests that treatment resistance in schizophrenia may be associated with inflammatory response. However, retrospective study design and small number of subjects could limit this interpretation.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa , Clozapina , Humanos , Registros Médicos , Neutrófilos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquizofrenia
7.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-759574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Thyroid hormone deficiency during the neurodevelopmental period can impair brain development and induce psychiatric symptoms. This study examined the association between thyroid dysfunction and the severity of symptoms in schizophrenia patients, and the treatment response of patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Three hundred thirty-eight schizophrenia patients, with no prior history of thyroid disease or taking medication associated with it, were studied. We assessed the blood thyroid hormone level, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores on the day of admission and discharge, admission period, dose of administered antipsychotics, and the number of antipsychotic combinations. The collected data were subsequently analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson's chi-square test. RESULTS: The percentage of schizophrenia patients who presented with abnormal thyroid hormone level was 24.6%. High total triiodothyronine (TT3) (p = 0.003), low TT3 (p = 0.001), and high free thyroxine (fT4) (p < 0.001) groups showed a higher BPRS score on admission than did the normal thyroid hormone group, while thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were not significantly correlated with the severity of symptoms. Furthermore, thyroid hormone was not associated with the treatment response assessed by the rate of BPRS score reduction, admission days, use of clozapine, and dose of antipsychotics. CONCLUSIONS: The TT3 and fT4 hormone levels were significantly associated with the severity of symptoms in schizophrenia patients. These relations suggested that thyroid dysfunction may be associated with the severity of schizophrenia. And hence, further analysis of the results of the thyroid function test, which is commonly used in cases of psychiatric admission, is required.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Encéfalo , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Clozapina , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Esquizofrenia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Glândula Tireoide , Hormônios Tireóideos , Tireotropina , Tiroxina , Tri-Iodotironina
8.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 602-611, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-763786

RESUMO

Synaptic dopamine (DA) is mainly regulated by the presynaptic DA transporter (DAT). Single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) with the DAT radiotracer [¹²³I]FP-CIT assesses changes in synaptic DA availability when endogenous DA displaces [¹²³I]FP-CIT or competes for DAT. Here, we investigated the effects of haloperidol (HAL) and clozapine (CLZ) on [¹²³I]FP-CIT binding in the rat striatum and midbrain to assess the utility of [¹²³I]FP-CIT SPECT to quantify changes in synaptic DA availability. Rats underwent [¹²³I]FP-CIT SPECT after intraperitoneal administration of normal saline (vehicle), HAL (1 and 7 mg/kg), CLZ (10 and 54 mg/kg) and bupropion (BUP, a DAT blocker, 20 and 100 mg/kg). In the striatum and midbrain, percent differences in the nondisplaceable binding potential (BP(ND)) of [¹²³I]FP-CIT compared to the vehicle were calculated for the various drugs and doses. In another experiment, changes in endogenous striatal DA concentration were measured by in vivo microdialysis under the conditions used in the SPECT study. BUP dose-dependently occupied DAT at considerable levels. Compared to the vehicle, HAL decreased [¹²³I]FP-CIT BP(ND) in the striatum (−25.29% and −2.27% for 1 and 7 mg/kg, respectively) and to a greater degree in the midbrain (−58.74% and −49.64% for 1 and 7 mg/kg, respectively), whereas the CLZ-treated group showed a decrease in the midbrain (−38.60% and −40.38% for 10 and 54 mg/kg, respectively) but an increase in the striatum (18.85% and 38.64% for 10 and 54 mg/kg, respectively). Antipsychotic-induced changes in endogenous striatal DA concentrations varied across drugs and doses. The data demonstrate that [¹²³I]FP-CIT SPECT may be a useful preclinical technique for detecting increases in synaptic DA availability in the midbrain and striatum in response to HAL, with results comparable to those of in vivo microdialysis.


Assuntos
Animais , Bupropiona , Clozapina , Dopamina , Haloperidol , Mesencéfalo , Microdiálise , Ratos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
9.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-763575

RESUMO

Although the majority of patients with schizophrenia are not actually violent, an increased tendency toward violent behaviors is known to be associated with schizophrenia. There are several factors to consider when identifying the subgroup of patients with schizophrenia who may commit violent or aggressive acts. Comorbidity with substance abuse is the most important clinical indicator of increased aggressive behaviors and crime rates in patients with schizophrenia. Genetic studies have proposed that polymorphisms in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene and in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene are related to aggression. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that fronto-limbic dysfunction may be related to aggression or violence. By identifying specific risk factors, a more efficient treatment plan to prevent violent behavior in schizophrenia will be possible. Management of comorbid substance use disorder may help prevent violent events and overall aggression. Currently, clozapine may be the only effective antipsychotic medication to repress aggressive behavior. With the current medical field moving toward tailored medicine, it is important to identify vulnerable schizophrenia populations and provide efficient treatment.


Assuntos
Agressão , Antipsicóticos , Catecol O-Metiltransferase , Clozapina , Comorbidade , Crime , Humanos , Neuroimagem , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Violência
10.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-763562

RESUMO

Schizophrenic patients resistant to antipsychotics are diagnosed as having treatment-refractory schizophrenia, and they are treated with clozapine. However, clozapine is sometimes combined with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) if clozapine monotherapy fails. In this report, a severe treatment-refractory schizophrenic patient who did not respond to clozapine even with ECT, but who recovered with asenapine monotherapy, is presented. Asenapine, considered a serotonin spectrum dopamine modulator, is a new atypical antipsychotic with unique pharmacological features that is used not only for schizophrenia, but also for bipolar disorder. The unique features of asenapine may be effective for some treatment-refractory schizophrenic patients.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Transtorno Bipolar , Clozapina , Dopamina , Eletroconvulsoterapia , Humanos , Recidiva , Esquizofrenia , Serotonina , Suicídio
11.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-761817

RESUMO

Exposure to lead during pregnancy is a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders in the offspring. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to low levels of lead acetate (0.2%) in drinking water during pregnancy and lactation causes behavioral impairment and affects the expression of proteins associated with neurodevelopment. Lead exposure altered several parameters in rat offspring compared with those unexposed in open-field, social interaction, and pre-pulse inhibition tests. These parameters were restored to normal levels after clozapine treatment. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of the hippocampus revealed that several neurodevelopmental proteins were downregulated in lead-exposed rats. The expression was normalized after clozapine treatment (5 mg/kg/day, postnatal day 35–56). These findings demonstrate that downregulation of several proteins in lead-exposed rats affected subsequent behavioral changes. Our results suggest that lead exposure in early life may induce psychiatric disorders and treatment with antipsychotics such as clozapine may reduce their incidence.


Assuntos
Animais , Antipsicóticos , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Western Blotting , Clozapina , Regulação para Baixo , Água Potável , Feminino , Hipocampo , Incidência , Relações Interpessoais , Lactação , Intoxicação por Chumbo , Modelos Animais , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Gravidez , Ratos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 403-406, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-760932

RESUMO

This study explored long-term changes in self-report auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) among patients with schizophrenia taking clozapine. Forty-four patients who were evaluated more than twice and were above the mild severity category on the Hamilton Program for Schizophrenia Voices Questionnaire (HPSVQ) were enrolled. The mean observation period was 492.5±350.1 days (median, 452 days). The mean total, physical, and emotional factor scores on the HPSVQ were significantly reduced from baseline to the final observations except for one item “interference with life,” which was not significantly reduced. Regarding the time-dependent longitudinal changes modeled using linear mixed-effect regression, the total and physical factor scores showed significant changes during the first year, but the emotional factor score did not satisfy a more stringent level of significance. Female gender was negatively associated with the reduction in total and physical factor scores. The duration of treatment with clozapine also had a negative relationship with the reductions in all three scores.


Assuntos
Clozapina , Feminino , Alucinações , Humanos , Esquizofrenia , Voz
13.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 279-284, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-760927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the serum concentration of clozapine (C-CLZ), N-desmethylclozapine (N-CLZ) and the daily dose of CLZ (D-CLZ), and the relationships among CLZ and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients were recruited to this study, but 8 patients were excluded because clozapine was discontinued before the post-treatment measurement of EEG or C-CLZ. Ultimately, 20 patients (6 men, 14 women) with an average age of 36 years were enrolled. The subjects were divided into EEG normal and abnormal groups. C-CLZ and N-CLZ were measured at 4, 12, 26, and 52 weeks after initiating CLZ administration. RESULTS: All patients had normal baseline EEG signals, and 8 patients showed EEG abnormalities later. There were significant correlations between C-CLZ and D-CLZ, and between N-CLZ and D-CLZ. The C-CLZ/D-CLZ, N-CLZ/D-CLZ, and C-CLZ/N-CLZ ratio were not significantly different between the EEG normal and EEG abnormal groups. The EEG abnormal group had significant higher proportion of patients with high intra-individual variability in their C-CLZ/D-CLZ ratio. CONCLUSION: There is no relationship between C-CLZ and EEG abnormalities. However, patients with high intra-individual variability in their C-CLZ/D-CLZ ratio had greater possibility of exhibiting EEG abnormalities.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Clozapina , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Masculino , Esquizofrenia
15.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-738893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Clozapine is a widely prescribed antipsychotic drug for schizophrenia and is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease due to its metabolic side effects. However, little is known about the effect of clozapine on the platelet activation, another important factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we tried to investigate the effect of clozapine on platelet activity in patients with schizophrenia by comparing the mean platelet component (MPC) values before and after the clozapine administration. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records of patients with schizophrenia, who newly started clozapine treatment from September 1st, 2003 to April 30th, 2007 at the Department of Psychiatry, Konyang University Hospital in Republic of Korea was performed. The final statistical analysis included 14 participants. Bayer ADVIA 120® system was used to measure MPC. RESULTS: Among the 14 participants, five subjects were males (28.60%), and ten subjects were females (71.40%). The mean age of participants was 37.50±11.64 years. Average of duration of illness was 91.00±93.96 months, with the mean dosage of clozapine taken by participants at the time of the last blood test was 337.50±109.52 mg. The mean MPC measurement before and after receiving clozapine was 26.12±2.22 g/dL and 25.14±2.08 g/dL respectively. Wilcoxon signed rank test showed that there was a statistically significant decrease in MPC levels after clozapine administration (V=16, p=0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Decreased MPC levels after clozapine administration implies that clozapine may increase platelet activation which could have an adverse effect on the occurrence of thromboembolic disease. Our findings also suggest that careful monitoring of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, such as platelets activity, is necessary when administering clozapine.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Clozapina , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Ativação Plaquetária , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia
16.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 57-68, 2018.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-786883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Since the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was developed in 2002, the fourth revision of KMAP-BP was completed in 2018 in order to reflect the recent rapid research and development into bipolar disorder and psychopharmacology.METHODS: According to the methodology of previous versions, KMAP-BP 2018 was revised using a questionnaire consisting of 10 questions. Among eighty-four experts of the review committee, sixty-one completed the survey.RESULTS: The first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for acute bipolar depressive episode with moderate, non-psychotic severe and psychotic severe episode was mood stabilizer (MS) combined with atypical antipsychotic (AAP) or AAP with lamotrigine. Switching or adding AAP, lamotrigine, or MS as 2nd strategies and clozapine or augmentation of buspirone, stimulant, or thyroid hormone as 3rd strategies were recommended. Compared to the previous KMAP-BP series, preference of AAP and lamotrigine has increased in the treatment of bipolar depressive episode in KMAP-BP 2018. Among the AAPs, olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole were preferred.CONCLUSION: Compared with the previous versions, we found that more active pharmacological strategies using AAP and lamotrigine as initial and next treatment strategies, respectively, were preferred, although few drugs were approved for bipolar depression.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos , Aripiprazol , Transtorno Bipolar , Buspirona , Clozapina , Tratamento Farmacológico , Psicofarmacologia , Fumarato de Quetiapina , Glândula Tireoide
17.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-718208

RESUMO

Clozapine may be associated with cardiovascular adverse effects including QTc prolongation and, more rarely, with myocarditis and pericarditis. Although rare, these latter cardiovascular adverse effects may be life-threatening and must be immediately recognized and treated. Several cases of clozapine related-pericarditis have been described and often it has a subtle and insidious onset with symptoms that may be often misdiagnosed with psychiatric manifestations (e.g. anxiety, panic or somatization) leading to a delayed correct diagnosis with potential fatal consequences. In the present report we describe the case of a 27-year-old girl with schizoaffective disorder taking long acting aripiprazole and valproate who developed a sudden onset clozapine-related pericarditis during titration phase that resolved with immediate clozapine discontinuation and indomethacin administration. We underline the importance of an early diagnosis of clozapine-related pericarditis and the need to have monitoring protocols to prevent this potentially fatal adverse effect especially when polypharmacy is administered to patients taking clozapine.


Assuntos
Adulto , Ansiedade , Aripiprazol , Clozapina , Diagnóstico , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Indometacina , Miocardite , Pânico , Pericardite , Polimedicação , Transtornos Psicóticos , Ácido Valproico
18.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-717146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the effect of metformin on weight loss was assessed to determine whether metformin should be recommended for the prevention or treatment of weight gain in patients receiving antipsychotic medication for the treatment of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for all published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from inception to June 2018. In addition, the references of relevant articles were also examined. Using Review Manager 5, the pooled estimates of the weighted mean difference (WMD) of the changes in body weight and body mass index (BMI) and the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 15 RCTs. The pooled analysis showed that compared with placebo, metformin led to significant reductions in body weight (WMD: −2.09, 95% CI: −2.59, −1.60; p<0.00001) and BMI (WMD: −0.90, 95% CI: −1.08, −0.72; p<0.00001). The effect of metformin on weight loss was greater in patients receiving olanzapine than in patients receiving clozapine (body weight, WMD: −2.39, 95% CI: −3.76, −1.02; p=0.0006 for olanzapine; −1.99, 95% C: −3.47, −0.51; p=0.009 for clozapine; BMI, WMD: −1.15, 95% CI: −1.74, −0.57, p=0.0001 for olanzapine; WMD: 0.76, 95% CI: −1.23, −0.28; p=0.002 for clozapine). CONCLUSION: Metformin can be recommended to manage olanzapine-induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The magnitude of the reductionss in body weight and BMI implieds that the use of metformin to attenuate olanzapine-induced weight gain can minimize the risk of coronary heart disease.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Clozapina , Doença das Coronárias , Humanos , Metformina , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso
19.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 829-835, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-716458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and tolerability of the combination of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients with clozapine-treated schizophrenia. METHODS: Patients with clozapine-treated schizophrenia during five years of pre-determined period were recruited from Electronic Medical Record. Clinical effects of acute ECT on psychotic symptoms were investigated. We also tried to identify predictive variables requiring maintenance treatment of ECT. RESULTS: Fourteen patients received ECT and clozapine and sixteen were treated with clozapine alone. In the ECT group, which could be refined as clozapine-resistance, PANSS total score was significantly reduced by 19.0±9.9 points, corresponding to a reduction rate of 18.5±8.3%. The clinical remission defined as 20% PANSS reduction criteria was achieved at 42.9%. The subscale factors were significantly reduced, among which the negative symptom was the least. There was no difference in demographic and clinical information between patients receiving and not receiving maintenance ECT, and not all patients seemed to need maintenance ECT if clozapine is continued. CONCLUSION: Combination of ECT and clozapine in patients with clozapine-resistant schizophrenia resulted in a rapid and substantial reduction of psychotic symptoms. Further studies are needed to improve the effectiveness and tolerability of ECT.


Assuntos
Clozapina , Eletroconvulsoterapia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Esquizofrenia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-716365

RESUMO

The management of clozapine (CLZ)-induced adverse events affects patient prognoses. Akathisia is a relatively rare adverse event related to CLZ administration and thus the management of this syndrome is not well established. Here, we report a case of treatment-resistant schizophrenia wherein CLZ-induced akathisia was successfully managed with gabapentin enacarbil (GE). The patient was a 39-year-old woman who had been treated with atypical antipsychotics other than CLZ for three years with poor tolerability. Initiation of CLZ (400 mg/day) attenuated her psychotic symptoms, but was followed by moderate akathisia. Neither benzodiazepines nor biperiden improved the akathisia; however, akathisia was finally diminished with co-administration of GE. GE facilitated a dosage increase in CLZ (450 mg/day) for the improved management of pyschotic symptoms, and thus indirectly contributed to treatment of the patient’s schizophrenia. We suggest that GE is a useful candidate for the management of CLZ-induced akathisia. The improved management of treatment-induced akathisia and other adverse events can extend the potential application of CLZ for treatment-resistant schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Adulto , Antipsicóticos , Benzodiazepinas , Biperideno , Clozapina , Feminino , Humanos , Prognóstico , Agitação Psicomotora , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas , Esquizofrenia
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