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1.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 12(Suplemento Covid-19): 1-5, 23 de Julio 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas), BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1104048

RESUMO

El cuidado de una persona con demencia resulta habitualmente un desafío en sí mismo, pero en el contexto de una pandemia muchas de las dificultades se acrecientan. La ruptura de la continuidad de las actividades por la cuarentena y la ausencia de vínculos pueden afectar negativamente a la persona con deterioro y a su cuidador. Esta revisión tuvo por objetivo exponer las posibles dificultades presentadas por personas con demencia en el contexto de la pandemia por COVID-19, evaluar el impacto del aislamiento físico y del distanciamiento social en pacientes con compromiso cognitivo preexistente, y mitigar las consecuencias de la pandemia en los pacientes y en sus cuidadores. Asimismo, se propuso brindar orientación para profesionales que asisten a pacientes en domicilios e instituciones de cuidados continuos y hospitalarias, en tiempos de telemedicina, y finalmente discutir recomendaciones para la toma de decisiones en fases avanzadas de la enfermedad. La creatividad y la generación de rutinas estimulantes y proyectos promueven el bienestar de las personas con demencia y reducen la carga de trabajo en los cuidadores. Si se evita la sobreinformación sobre los efectos devastadores de la COVID-19, podría mejorar la experiencia de la cuarentena. Las videollamadas brindan cercanía familiar y del médico de cabecera. La continuidad de los cuidadores debe ser favorecida. En los adultos mayores que enferman, podrían ser de utilidad los cuidados basados en modelos de medicina centrada en la persona.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Demência
2.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 14(1): 35-40, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1089807

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Currently, the most likely hypotheses as the cause of Alzheimer's disease are deposition of amyloid beta peptide in the cerebral cortex and hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein. The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is based on the exclusion of other diseases, behavioral assessments, and blood and imaging tests. Biotechnology has created interesting perspectives for the early detection of Alzheimer's disease through blood analysis, with special attention to platelets, hemoglobin and vitamin B12. Objective: To evaluate the concentrations of platelets, hemoglobin and vitamin B12 in the blood of older adults with and without dementia of Alzheimer's disease. Methods: A case-control study involving 120 individuals was conducted, seeking to establish a correlation between changes in platelet, hemoglobin and vitamin B12 concentrations in patients with confirmed AD and in individuals in the inclusion group without AD. The study met the established ethical requirements. Results: Hemoglobin and platelet levels were statistically lower in patients with AD. The biochemical evaluation in AD patient and healthy groups for vitamin B12 showed a decrease in the levels of this compound in patients with AD. Conclusion: We demonstrated the feasibility of the use of blood biomarkers as predictive markers for the diagnosis of AD.


RESUMO Atualmente, as hipóteses mais prováveis como causa da doença de Alzheimer são a deposição do peptídeo beta amiloide no córtex cerebral e a hiperfosforilação da proteína Tau. O diagnóstico da doença de Alzheimer baseia-se na exclusão de outras doenças, avaliações comportamentais e exames de imagem e sangue. A biotecnologia criou perspectivas interessantes para a detecção precoce da doença de Alzheimer, pela análise sanguínea, com atenção especial às plaquetas, hemoglobina e vitamina B12. Objetivo: Avaliar as concentrações de plaquetas, hemoglobina e vitamina B12 no sangue de idosos com e sem demência de Alzheimer. Métodos: O estudo de caso-controle envolveu 120 indivíduos, buscando correlação entre mudanças nas concentrações de plaquetas, hemoglobina e vitamina B12 em pacientes com DA confirmada e indivíduos do grupo de inclusão, sem DA. Resultados: Os níveis de hemoglobina e plaquetas são estatisticamente mais baixos em pacientes com DA. A avaliação bioquímica em pacientes com DA e grupos saudáveis para vitamina B12 mostrou uma diminuição nos níveis deste composto em pacientes com DA. Conclusão: Demonstramos a viabilidade do uso de biomarcadores sanguíneos como marcadores preditivos para o diagnóstico de DA.


Assuntos
Humanos , Vitamina B 12 , Plaquetas , Hemoglobinas , Biomarcadores , Demência , Doença de Alzheimer
4.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 14(1): 56-61, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1089814

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The task of caring for a family member with dementia is associated with caregiver physical and emotional problems. The patient's decline in health and specific needs contribute directly to this situation. Objective: To evaluate burden, stress, depression and anxiety symptoms in family caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer's disease. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational and quantitative study was carried out. The sample consisted of 66 family caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer's disease, whom attended the Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of São Carlos, in the city of São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Results: Of the caregivers evaluated in the severe AD subgroup, 47.3% had intense burden; 86, 4% exhibited significant stress levels; 57% presented severe anxiety levels and 36.9% presented mild depression symptoms. Conclusion: Caring for a family member with Alzheimer's disease generates burden, stress, anxiety and depression. Support groups comprising a multiprofessional team can be set up to assist caregivers. These actions can help caregivers cope with the daily demands and challenges and ensure better care quality in an increasingly aging population.


RESUMO A tarefa de cuidar de um familiar com demência está relacionada a problemas físicos e emocionais no cuidador. O declínio do paciente e suas demandas específicas contribuem diretamente para essa situação. Objetivo: Avaliar sintomas de sobrecarga, estresse, depressão e ansiedade em cuidadores familiares de idosos com doença de Alzheimer. Métodos: Estudo transversal, descritivo, correlacional e de caráter quantitativo. A amostra foi composta por 66 cuidadores familiares de idosos com doença de Alzheimer, atendidos no Ambulatório de Neurologia da Universidade Federal de São Carlos, na cidade de São Carlos, SP, Brasil. Resultados: Dos cuidadores alocados no subgrupo DA avançada, 47,3% foram avaliados com sobrecarga intensa; 86,4% apresentaram níveis de estresse significativo; 57% apresentaram níveis graves de ansiedade e 36,9% apresentaram sintomas de depressão leve. Conclusão: Cuidar de um familiar com doença crônica e degenerativa como a doença de Alzheimer gera sobrecarga, assim como estresse, ansiedade e depressão. Grupos de apoio compostos por uma equipe multiprofissional podem ser implantados no sentido de garantir o acompanhamento desses cuidadores. Tais ações podem auxiliar a lidar com as demandas e os enfrentamentos diários e ainda garantir uma melhor qualidade no cuidado prestado, considerando o avanço do envelhecimento populacional.


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Família , Cuidadores , Demência , Doença de Alzheimer , Enfermagem Geriátrica
5.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 14(1): 28-34, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1089816

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Mild cognitive decline is a feared aspect of aging associated with frailty experienced by individuals. Objective: To determine the number of elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI); to determine the relationship of sociodemographic and clinical variables by group of individuals with or without MCI and to determine the relationship between MCI assessed by 6CIT and the cognitive domains assessed by the MoCA. Methods: A correlational study was conducted of 44 elderly individuals attending a day-care center or residing in a care home, with an average age of 88.9 ± 8.8 years who answered a structured interview collecting sociodemographic and clinical data. Results: The elderly living at home had higher average body mass index and number of pathologies than those living in an institution for the elderly (p < 0.01). 63.6% of the elderly did not have MCI, and no differences were found between residential settings. The comparison between 6CIT and MoCA yielded differences in the general domain and in visual, attention, abstraction and, orientation subdomains. Conclusion: Cognitive stimulation interventions should be optimized according to the residential setting at the level of comorbidities and nutrition.


RESUMO O declínio cognitivo leve é um aspecto temido do envelhecimento associado à fragilidade vivenciada pelos indivíduos. Objetivo: Determinar o número de idosos com comprometimento neurocognitivo leve; determinar a relação das variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas por grupo de indivíduos com ou sem comprometimento neurocognitivo leve e determinar a relação entre o comprometimento neurocognitivo leve avaliado pelo 6CIT e os domínios cognitivos avaliados pelo MoCA. Métodos: Estudo correlacional realizado em 44 idosos de instituições de creche e residência permanente, com idade média de 88,9 ± 8,8 anos, que responderam a uma entrevista estruturada composta por dados sociodemográficos e clínicos. Resultados: Os idosos que residem em casa apresentam maior índice de massa corporal médio e número de patologias que os idosos que vivem em uma instituição para idosos (p < 0,01). 63,6% dos idosos não apresentam comprometimento neurocognitivo leve e não são encontradas diferenças ao atravessar o contexto da residência. Na comparação entre 6CIT e MoCA produz diferenças no domínio geral e subdomínios visuais, de atenção, abstração e orientação. Conclusão: É necessário otimizar as intervenções de estimulação cognitiva de acordo com o contexto de residência no nível de comorbidades e nutrição.


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Transtornos Neurocognitivos , Demência , Disfunção Cognitiva , Casas de Saúde
6.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 14(1): 1-6, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1089817

RESUMO

ABSTRACT. The relationship between depressive disorders in the elderly and dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD), is highly complex. While the nature of this relationship is still a matter of debate, differential diagnosis and treatment remain a great clinical challenge. We review recent findings on the conundrum of depressive disorders in the elderly and AD. There is a biological continuum between depressive disorders in the elderly ­ or at least a subgroup of them ­ and AD. While elderly subjects with depression and patients with AD exhibit higher circulating levels of pro-inflammatory molecules and lower BDNF than matched controls, CSF levels of Aß42 can discriminate AD from depressive disorders in the elderly. The role of antidepressant treatment as a strategy to minimize the risk of AD remains to be established.


RESUMO. A relação entre transtornos depressivos em idosos e demência, particularmente a doença de Alzheimer (DA), é altamente complexa. Embora a natureza desse relacionamento ainda seja motivo de debate, o diagnóstico e o tratamento diferenciais continuam sendo um grande desafio clínico. Revisamos descobertas recentes sobre o dilema de transtornos depressivos em idosos e DA. Existe um contínuo biológico entre os transtornos depressivos em idosos ­ ou pelo menos um subgrupo deles ­ e a DA. Enquanto indivíduos idosos com depressão e pacientes com DA exibem níveis circulantes mais altos de moléculas pró-inflamatórias e menor BDNF do que os controles correspondentes, os níveis de Aß42 no LCR podem discriminar a DA de distúrbios depressivos em idosos. O papel do tratamento antidepressivo como estratégia para minimizar o risco de DA ainda precisa ser estabelecido.


Assuntos
Humanos , Terapêutica , Demência , Depressão , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doença de Alzheimer
7.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 14(1): 83-87, Jan.-Mar. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1089818

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Ekbom Syndrome, also known as parasitosis delusion or psychogenic parasitosis, is a rare condition in which patients present with a fixed belief of being infested by parasites, vermin or small insects, along with tactile hallucinations (such as pruritus or sensations of the parasites crawling over or under the skin). The syndrome may occur idiopathically or be associated with other medical conditions and drug use. This case report describes the occurrence of Ekbom syndrome in a patient diagnosed with Lewy Body Dementia (LBD), a neurodegenerative disease that commonly presents with sensory perception and thought disorders and other neuropsychiatric symptoms. Although visual hallucination is considered a core diagnostic criterion, other modalities of psychiatric symptoms can also occur posing a further challenge for correct diagnosis. Proper recognition allows early diagnosis and adequate treatment, preventing hazardous antipsychotic use in these patients.


RESUMO A síndrome de Ekbom, também conhecida como delírio parasitário ou parasitose psicogênica, é uma condição rara na qual os pacientes apresentam crença fixa de estarem infestados por parasitas, vermes ou insetos, acompanhada de alucinações táteis (como prurido ou sensação dos parasitas andando sobre ou sob a pele). A síndrome pode ocorrer de forma idiopática ou associada a outras condições médicas ou uso de drogas. Este relato de caso descreve a ocorrência da síndrome de Ekbom em um paciente diagnosticado com Demência com corpos de Lewy (DCL), uma doença degenerativa que comumente se apresenta com desordens de sensopercepção e pensamento, e outros sintomas neuropsiquiátricos. A alucinação visual é considerada um dos critérios diagnósticos nucleares, entretanto outras modalidades de sintomas psiquiátricos podem ocorrer criando desafios adicionais ao diagnóstico correto. O reconhecimento apropriado permite o diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado, prevenindo o uso arriscado de antipsicóticos nesses pacientes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas , Automutilação , Doença por Corpos de Lewy , Delírio , Demência , Delírio de Parasitose
8.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 14(1): 24-27, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1089820

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Dementia is a chronic neurodegenerative disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent type. Objective: To describe the drug monitoring of patients enrolled in a Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines of Alzheimer's Disease (PCDTDA) in Brazil. Methods: A descriptive study based on interviews conducted in 2017 was performed. Patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) enrolled on the PCDTDA were included. The variables assessed were age, sex, time since diagnosis, clinical parameters of Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), drug therapy used and AD drug collection. Results: The drug monitoring of 143 patients was evaluated. Observing the requirements of the screening tests for patient enrolment on the PCDTDA, all patients had scores for at least one MMSE and CDR assessment at protocol admission. None of the patients underwent the first reassessment of the effectiveness of AD drug therapy or the semiannual reassessment. Conclusion: Although PCDTDA provides the best evidence of AD treatment, the data showed failures in the monitoring of the effectiveness of AD drug therapy at dispensing.


RESUMO A demência é uma doença crônica e neurodegenerativa, e a doença de Alzheimer (DA) é a mais prevalente. Objetivo: Descrever o monitoramento da farmacoterapia de pacientes inseridos no Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas da Doença de Alzheimer (PCDTDA), Brasil. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, conduzido por meio de entrevistas em 2017. Foram incluídos pacientes com diagnóstico da doença de Alzheimer (DA) inseridos no PCDTDA. As variáveis foram idade; sexo; tempo de diagnóstico e farmacoterapia da DA; os parâmetros clínicos Mini-exame do estado mental (MEEM) e Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR); e farmacoterapia em uso. Resultados: O monitoramento de 143 pacientes foi avaliado. Considerando a exigência dos testes de rastreio para a inserção do paciente no PCDTDA, observou-se que todos os pacientes tinham pelo menos um escore no MEEM e no CDR na admissão no protocolo. Nenhum paciente foi submetido à primeira reavaliação da efetividade da farmacoterapia da DA e nem à reavaliação semestral. Conclusão: Apesar do PCDTDA ser a maior evidência do tratamento da DA, dados evidenciam falhas no monitoramento da efetividade da farmacoterapia da DA na dispensação.


Assuntos
Humanos , Segurança , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos Clínicos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Demência , Doença de Alzheimer , Segurança do Paciente
9.
10.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-811254

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study assessed the food intake and nutritional status of the elderly in long-term care facilities in order to provide adequate food services and improve the nutritional status.METHODS: The survey was carried out from August 2019 to October 2019 for the elderly in long-term care facilities located in Gwangju Metropolitan City. The survey was conducted to collect data from 199 elderly persons (34 males and 165 females) aged over 65 years old. The food intake was assessed using a 1-day 24-hour recall method.RESULTS: More than 90% of the subjects were over 75 years old. Forty five percent of the subjects were active, 44.2% of the subjects perceived themselves as not being healthy. Dementia and Parkinson's disease were the most common diseases, followed by hypertension, musculo-skeletal disease, diabetes, and stroke. Only 25.6% of the subjects had most of their teeth intact, and 44.7% of the subjects had difficulty in chewing and swallowing. The total food intake was 1,127 g in males and 1,078 g in females. The most frequently consumed foods were kimchi, cooked rice with multi-grains, soybean soup, cooked rice with white rice, yogurt, pumpkin porridge, soy milk, and duck soup. The average energy intake of the subjects was 1,564.9 kcal in males and 1,535.5 kcal in females. The overall nutritional status of the elderly in the long-term care facilities was poor. In particular, the intake of vitamin D and calcium, vitamin C, riboflavin, and potassium were very low. The intake of vitamin D was 5 µg, and 86.4% of the elderly were below the estimated average requirement, while the intake of sodium was high.CONCLUSION: The results of this study can be used to understand the health and nutritional status and to improve the food services and nutrition management for the elderly in long-term care facilities.


Assuntos
Idoso , Ácido Ascórbico , Cálcio , Cucurbita , Deglutição , Demência , Patos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Serviços de Alimentação , Humanos , Hipertensão , Assistência de Longa Duração , Masculino , Mastigação , Métodos , Estado Nutricional , Doença de Parkinson , Potássio , Riboflavina , Sódio , Leite de Soja , Soja , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Dente , Vitamina D , Iogurte
11.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated the prevalence of amyloid positivity and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in subjects with cognitive complaints with the aim of identifying differences in clinical parameters and cognitive function according to the pattern of coexistence.METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 200 subjects with memory impairment and applied both standardized ¹⁸F-florbetaben PET and brain MRI, including susceptibility-weighted imaging. The amyloid burden was visually classified as positive or negative, and the number and location of CMBs were also analyzed visually. Descriptive analysis was performed for the prevalence of amyloid positivity and CMBs. The relationship between the coexisting pattern of those two findings and clinical parameters including the results of neuropsychiatric tests was analyzed.RESULTS: Positive amyloid PET scans were exhibited by 102 (51.5%) of the 200 patients, and 51 (25.5%) of them had CMBs, which were mostly located in lobar areas in the patients with positive amyloid scans. The patients with CMBs were older and had a higher burden of white-matter hyperintensities than the patients without CMBs. The patients with CMBs also performed worse in confrontation naming and frontal/executive function. When classified by topographical region, parietal CMBs (odds ratio=3.739, p=0.024) were significantly associated with amyloid positivity.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of CMBs was higher in patients with cognitive decline than in the general population. CMBs play distinctive roles in affecting clinical parameters and neuropsychological profiles according to the coexistence of amyloid pathology.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Amiloide , Encéfalo , Cognição , Demência , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Memória , Lobo Parietal , Patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance and safety of a new ¹⁸F-labeled amyloid tracer, ¹⁸F-FC119S.METHODS: This study prospectively recruited 105 participants, comprising 53 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 16 patients with dementia other than AD (non-AD), and 36 healthy controls (HCs). In the first screening visit, the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery cognitive function test was given to the dementia group, while HC subjects completed the Korean version of the Mini Mental State Examination. Individuals underwent ¹⁸F-FC119S PET, ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, and brain MRI. The diagnostic performance of ¹⁸F-FC119S PET for AD was compared to a historical control (comprising previously reported and currently used amyloid-beta PET agents), ¹⁸F-FDG PET, and MRI. The standardized uptake value (SUV) ratio (ratio of the cerebral cortical SUV to the cerebellar SUV) was measured for each PET data set to provide semiquantitative analysis. All adverse effects during the clinical trial periods were monitored.RESULTS: Visual assessments of the ¹⁸F-FC119S PET data revealed a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 84% in detecting AD. ¹⁸F-FC119S PET demonstrated equivalent or better diagnostic performance for AD detection than the historical control, ¹⁸F-FDG PET (sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 76.0%), and MRI (sensitivity of 98.0% and specificity of 50.0%). The SUV ratios differed significantly between AD patients and the other groups, at 1.44±0.17 (mean±SD) for AD, 1.24±0.09 for non-AD, and 1.21±0.08 for HC. No clinically significant adverse effects occurred during the trial periods.CONCLUSIONS: ¹⁸F-FC119S PET provides high sensitivity and specificity in detecting AD and therefore may be considered a useful diagnostic tool for AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Amiloide , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Encéfalo , Cognição , Conjunto de Dados , Demência , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Programas de Rastreamento , Métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Seul
13.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of a short form of the Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaire-Cognition (KDSQ-C) as a screening tool for cognitive dysfunction.METHODS: This study recruited 420 patients older than 65 years and their informants from 11 hospitals, and categorized the patients into normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia subgroups. The KDSQ-C was completed separately by the patients and their informants. We abstracted three components of the KDSQ-C and combined these components into the following four subscales: KDSQ-C-I (items 1–5, memory domain), KDSQ-C-II (items 1–5 & 11–15, memory domain+activities of daily living), KDSQ-C-III (items 1–5 & 6–10, memory domain+other cognitive domains), and KDSQ-C-IV (items 6–10 & 11–15, other cognitive domains+activities of daily living). The reliability and validity were compared between these four subscales.RESULTS: A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of questionnaire scores provided by the patients showed that the areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) for the KDSQ-C, KDSQC-I, and KDSQ-C-II for diagnosing dementia were 0.75, 0.72, and 0.76, respectively; the corresponding AUCs for informant-completed questionnaires were 0.92, 0.89, and 0.92, indicating good discriminability for dementia.CONCLUSIONS: A short form of the patient- and informant-rated versions of the KDSQ-C (KDSQ-C-II) is as capable as the 15-item KDSQ-C in screening for dementia.


Assuntos
Área Sob a Curva , Cognição , Demência , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Memória , Disfunção Cognitiva , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Curva ROC , Autorrelato , Autoavaliação
14.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782062

RESUMO

No abstract available.


Assuntos
Demência , Quadril
15.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 50-54, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-787274

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is responsible for 10–20% of cerebral infarctions. Several mobile devices have been developed to screen for AF and studies of AF screening have been conducted in several countries to evaluate the applicability of these mobile devices. In this tradition, we conducted a community-based AF screening using an automated single-lead electrocardiogram (SL-ECG). This survey examined 2,422 participants in a community dementia screening program who were aged 60 years or older in the preliminary study, and 5,366 participants at 9 Senior Welfare Centers aged 60 years or older in the expanded study. AF screening was conducted using an automated SL-ECG (Kardia Mobile, AliveCor, Mountain View, CA, USA). AF was confirmed with a 12-lead electrocardiogram in subjects classified as having AF on the SL-ECG. In the preliminary study, of the 2,422 subjects, 124 had AF on the SL-ECG. The prevalence of AF was 3.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.4–3.8). The positive predictive value (PPV) of SL-ECG was 58.9% (95% CI: 50.1–67.1). Of the subjects diagnosed with AF, 65.8% (95% CI: 54.3–75.6) were newly diagnosed. In an expanded study, of the 5,366 subjects, 289 had AF on SL-ECG. The prevalence was 2.6% (95% CI: 2.2–3.1) and PPV of SL-ECG was 48.8% (95% CI: 43.1–54.5). In this community-based AF screening, we found that AF is underdiagnosed and undertreated. These results suggest that the early detection of AF using mobile devices is needed in Korea.


Assuntos
Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial , Infarto Cerebral , Demência , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Coreia (Geográfico) , Programas de Rastreamento , Prevalência
16.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-787140

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder causing dementia worldwide, and is mainly characterized by aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ). Increasing evidence has shown that plant extracts have the potential to delay AD development. The plant sterol β-Sitosterol has a potential role in inhibiting the production of platelet Aβ, suggesting that it may be useful for AD prevention. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of β-Sitosterol on deficits in learning and memory in amyloid protein precursor/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mice. APP/PS1 mice were treated with β-Sitosterol for four weeks, from the age of seven months. Brain Aβ metabolism was evaluated using ELISA and Western blotting. We found that β-Sitosterol treatment can improve spatial learning and recognition memory ability, and reduce plaque load in APP/PS1 mice. β-Sitosterol treatment helped reverse dendritic spine loss in APP/PS1 mice and reversed the decreased hippocampal neuron miniature excitatory postsynaptic current frequency. Our research helps to explain and support the neuroprotective effect of β-Sitosterol, which may offer a novel pharmaceutical agent for the treatment of AD. Taken together, these findings suggest that β-Sitosterol ameliorates memory and learning impairment in APP/PS1 mice and possibly decreases Aβ deposition.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Amiloide , Animais , Plaquetas , Western Blotting , Encéfalo , Transtornos Cognitivos , Demência , Espinhas Dendríticas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores , Aprendizagem , Memória , Metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Neurônios , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Extratos Vegetais , Plantas , Placa Amiloide , Aprendizagem Espacial
17.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-811143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of dementia. We aimed to comprehensively analyze the incidence and risk factors for dementia and young-onset dementia (YOD) in diabetic patients in Korea using the National Health Insurance Service data.METHODS: Between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012, a total of 1,917,702 participants with diabetes were included and followed until the date of dementia diagnosis or until December 31, 2015. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors for all dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) by Cox proportional hazards analyses. We also compared the impact of risk factors on the occurrence of YOD and late-onset dementia (LOD).RESULTS: During an average of 5.1 years of follow-up, the incidence of all types of dementia, AD, or VaD was 9.5, 6.8, and 1.3/1,000 person-years, respectively, in participants with diabetes. YOD comprised 4.8% of all dementia occurrence, and the ratio of AD/VaD was 2.1 for YOD compared with 5.5 for LOD. Current smokers and subjects with lower income, plasma glucose levels, body mass index (BMI), and subjects with hypertension, dyslipidemia, vascular complications, depression, and insulin treatment developed dementia more frequently. Vascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, and previous cardiovascular diseases were more strongly associated with the development of VaD than AD. Low BMI and a history of stroke or depression had a stronger influence on the development of YOD than LOD.CONCLUSION: The optimal management of modifiable risk factors may be important for preventing dementia in subjects with diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Demência , Demência Vascular , Depressão , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diagnóstico , Dislipidemias , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão , Incidência , Insulina , Coreia (Geográfico) , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Fumaça , Fumar , Acidente Vascular Cerebral
18.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-811142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk for dementia. The effects of hypoglycemia on dementia are controversial. Thus, we evaluated whether hypoglycemia increases the risk for dementia in senior patients with T2DM.METHODS: We used the Korean National Health Insurance Service Senior cohort, which includes >10% of the entire senior population of South Korea. In total, 5,966 patients who had ever experienced at least one episode of hypoglycemia were matched with those who had not, using propensity score matching. The risk of dementia was assessed through a survival analysis of matched pairs.RESULTS: Patients with underlying hypoglycemic events had an increased risk for all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's dementia (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) compared with those who had not experienced a hypoglycemic event (hazard ratio [HR], 1.254; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.166 to 1.349; P<0.001 for all-cause dementia; HR, 1.264; 95% CI, 1.162 to 1.375; P<0.001 for AD; HR, 1.286; 95% CI, 1.110 to 1.490; P<0.001 for VaD). According to number of hypoglycemic episodes, the HRs of dementia were 1.170, 1.201, and 1.358 in patients with one hypoglycemic episode, two or three episodes, and more than three episodes, respectively. In the subgroup analysis, hypoglycemia was associated with an increased risk for dementia in both sexes with or without T2DM microvascular or macrovascular complications.CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that patients with a history of hypoglycemia have a higher risk for dementia. This trend was similar for AD and VaD, the two most important subtypes of dementia.


Assuntos
Estudos de Coortes , Demência , Demência Vascular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Hipoglicemia , Coreia (Geográfico) , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Pontuação de Propensão
19.
Med. lab ; 24(2): 111-129, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas), COLNAL | ID: biblio-1097081

RESUMO

El deterioro cognitivo es uno de los procesos que acompañan al envejecimiento y puede depender de factores nutricionales, genéticos o ambientales. La identificación de factores de riesgo modificables proporciona un enfoque esencial para la prevención de dicho deterioro y de los trastornos neurocognitivos. Uno de los factores de riesgo involucrados es la elevada concentración de homocisteína plasmática, la cual se ha relacionado con hallazgos histopatológicos en demencia senil y enfermedad de Alzheimer. Los diferentes estudios sobre esta asociación revelan inconsistencia o contradicción en los resultados. El propósito de esta revisión es relacionar la posible interacción de tres factores en la instalación y progresión del deterioro neurocognitivo: a) factores de tipo nutricional (homocisteína, ácido fólico y vitamina B12), b) la utilización de pruebas para el diagnóstico de disfunción o deterioro cognitivo como el Mini Examen del Estado Mental, y c) la presencia de variantes genéticas polimórficas de la enzima metilentetrahidrofolato reductasa. Una consecuencia directa de esta triple relación es que el tratamiento con ácido fólico y vitamina B12 logra disminuir las elevadas concentraciones de homocisteína plasmática, asumiendo que una mejoría en los síntomas clínicos de deterioro cognitivo puede retrasar los cambios relacionados con progresión a estados demenciales. La intervención temprana mediante políticas de promoción y prevención de la salud mental puede ser efectiva si se comienza con la administración de ácido fólico y vitamina B12 en los estadios iniciales de la alteración cognitiva, logrando así reducir sus funestas consecuencias. Las políticas de salud pública centradas en la salud mental de ancianos pueden identificar a las personas con disfunción cognitiva inicial a través de la promoción de la salud y medidas preventivas; en esta etapa puede ser posible la administración de vitaminas B para reducir o minimizar la progresión del deterioro cognitivo, que podría conducir a trastornos neurocognitivos como la demencia y la enfermedad de Alzheimer


Cognitive impairment is one of the processes that accompany aging and may depend on nutritional, genetic or environmental factors. The identification of modifiable risk factors provides a crucial approach for the prevention of cognitive decline and neurocognitive disorders. One of the risk factors is the high concentration of plasma homocysteine and it has been associated to histopathological changes in senile dementia and Alzheimer´s disease. Clinical trials about this association has shown inconsistent and contradictory results. The purpose of this review is to describe the possible interaction of three factors related with cognitive impairment: a) nutritional factors (homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12), b) the use of mental tests such as the Mini Mental State Examination for the diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction, and c) the presence of polymorphic genetic variants of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase enzyme. A direct consequence of this triple relationship is the treatment with folic acid and vitamin B12, which decrease high concentrations of plasma homocysteine, with a potential for improvement of the clinical symptoms of cognitive decline, and possibly a delay in the progression towards neurocognitive disorder. Public health policies focused on mental health of older adults can identify people with initial cognitive dysfunction through health promotion and preventive measures, where it can be possible to administer B vitamins in order to reduce or minimize the progression of cognitive decline, that could lead to mental disturbances such as neurocognitive disorders


Assuntos
Homocisteína , Vitamina B 12 , Vitamina B 6 , Demência , Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Ácido Fólico
20.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1117497

RESUMO

AIMS: To establish the frequency potentially inappropriate medications use and the associated factors, such as signs and symptoms of depression and cognitive deficit among middle-aged and elderly people. METHODS: A cross-sectional population study was performed with 2,350 people, aged between 55-103 years, registered in the primary health care. Potentially inappropriate medications were defined by updated 2019 Beers criteria. Studied variables were sociodemographic, lifestyle and health, and signs and symptoms of depression and cognitive deficit. Multinomial regression analysis was executed. RESULTS: The frequency of potentially inappropriate medications use was 65.4%. Former and current smokers, regular self-perception of health, polypharmacy, and individuals with signs and symptoms of depression and cognitive deficit were significantly associated with potentially inappropriate medications use. Antiarrhythmics, antihistamines and antiadrenergic agents were the highest potentially inappropriate medications classes used for individuals with signs and symptoms of depression and cognitive deficit. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of use of potentially inappropriate medications is high among middle-aged people, a population that was previously under-researched, as well as among elderly people. Cognitive impairment alone or together with depression symptoms were associated factor for a potentially inappropriate medications use. Knowledge of the pharmacoepidemiology of potentially inappropriate medications is an important for the promotion of the rational use of drugs in public health.


OBJETIVOS: Estabelecer a frequência de uso de medicamentos potencialmente inapropriados e fatores associados, tais como sinais e sintomas de depressão e déficit cognitivo, em indivíduos de meia-idade e idosos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional com 2.350 indivíduos, de idade entre 55 e 103 anos, cadastrados na atenção primária à saúde. Medicamentos potencialmente inapropriados foram definidos pelos Critérios Beers atualizados em 2019. As variáveis estudadas foram sociodemográficas, estilo de vida, clínicas, bem como sinais e sintomas de depressão e déficit cognitivo. Foi realizada análise de regressão multinomial. RESULTADOS: A frequência de uso de medicamentos potencialmente inapropriados foi de 65,4%. O uso de medicações potencialmente inapropriadas foi significativamente associado a indivíduos ex-fumantes e fumantes atuais, com autopercepção de saúde regular, usuários de polifarmácia e com sinais e sintomas de depressão e déficit cognitivo. Antiarrítmicos, anti-histamínicos e antiadrenérgicos foram as classes de medicamentos potencialmente inapropriados mais utilizada pelos indivíduos com sinais e sintomas de depressão e déficit cognitivo. CONCLUSÕES: A frequência de utilização de medicamentos potencialmente inapropriados é alta em pessoas de meia-idade, faixa etária pouco pesquisada, bem como em idosos. O comprometimento cognitivo, isoladamente ou em conjunto com sintomas de depressão, foi um fator associado ao uso de medicações potencialmente inapropriadas. O conhecimento da farmacoepidemiologia de utilização de medicamentos potencialmente inapropriados é importante para a promoção do uso racional de medicamentos na saúde pública.


Assuntos
Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso , Farmacologia , Idoso , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Saúde Pública , Demência , Depressão
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