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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 305-308, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1056439

RESUMO

Fixation is one of the processes in preparing histology and pathology. The common material for fixation is buffered formalin including paraformaldehyde. However, the effect of the damaged cells, which is fixed for a long time, causes the research for other fixation materials to become necessary. In addition, paraformaldehyde is also harmful to human body and natural environment. Ethanol is one of the alternative fixation materials, which has been used for two hundred years. It has been used for many purposes, both in routine staining and immunohistochemistry. Nonetheless, no research confirms its effect on the electron microscope. The authors studied the effect of 50 % of ethanol on the cell membrane, organelles, and nucleus of Purkinje cells (Neuron purkinjense) observed on a light microscope and Transmitted Electron Microscope (TEM). Then it was compared to buffered formalin. In the light microscope, it shows that both of fixations have no different effects of the morphology of the cell membrane, cytoplasm, the nucleus of Purkinje cells and the neutrophils. We assume that our 50 % of ethanol concentration is almost the same as BF 10 % in the ability of hardening tissue and color absorption based on the previous study. In TEM, the structure of the cell membrane, organelles, and cytoplasm of Purkinje cell look broken in the cerebellum of 50 % of ethanol except for the nucleus. There was no significant difference diameter of the nucleus. It happened in general because of the shrinkage effect of ethanol. However, the authors recommend using 50 % of ethanol for routine staining.


La fijación es uno de los procesos en la preparación de muestras para histología y patología. El material más común para la fijación es la formalina tamponada. Sin embargo, el daño a las células que se mantienen en formalina durante mucho tiempo, hace necesario buscar otros materiales de fijación. Además, el paraformaldehido también es perjudicial para el cuerpo humano y el medio ambiente natural. El etanol es uno de los materiales de fijación alternativos que se ha utilizado durante muchos años, con diversos objetivos, tanto en la tinción de rutina como en la inmunohistoquímica. Sin embargo no se ha confirmdo su efecto con microscopio electrónico. Los autores estudiaron el efecto del 50 % de etanol sobre la membrana celular, los orgánulos y el núcleo de las células de Purkinje observados en un microscopio óptico y un microscopio de transmisión electrónico (TEM). Luego se comparó con la formalina tamponada. En el microscopio óptico se observó que ambas fijaciones no tienen efectos diferentes a la morfología de la membrana celular, el citoplasma, el núcleo de las células de Purkinje y los neutrófilos. Suponemos que nuestra concentración de 50 % de etanol es casi la misma que BF 10 % en la capacidad de endurecer el tejido y la absorción de color según el estudio anterior. En TEM, la estructura de la membrana celular, los orgánulos y el citoplasma de la célula de Purkinje presentaban daño en el cerebelo con un 50 % de etanol, a excepción del núcleo. No hubo diferencia significativa en el diámetro del núcleo. En general lo anterior se debió al efecto de contracción del etanol. En conclusión los autores recomiendan usar 50% de etanol para la tinción de rutina.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/ultraestrutura , Fixação de Tecidos/métodos , Etanol/farmacologia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Organelas/efeitos dos fármacos , Organelas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 259-264, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1056432

RESUMO

The family of paired box (Pax) genes encodes the transcription factors that have been emphasized for the particular importance to embryonic development of the CNS, with the evidence obtained from various animal models. Human embryos have rarely been available for the detection of the expression of Pax family members. In this study 32 human embryos of Carnegie (CS) stages 10-20 were investigated to find the differences in the expression of Pax6 and Pax7 proteins in different regions of the neural tube and the caudal spinal cord. The expression of Pax6 and Pax7, as determined by immunohistochemistry, showed a tendency to increase in the later stages of the development both in the spinal cord and the brain. Significantly weaker expression of Pax6 and Pax7 was observed at CS 10 as compared to the later stages. At CS 10-12 weak expression of Pax6 was noticed in both dorsal and ventral parts of the developing spinal cord, while the expression of Pax7 was restricted to the cells in the roof plate and the dorsal part of the spinal cord. At CS 14-20 in the developing spinal cord Pax6 and Pax7 were detected mostly in the neuroepithelial cells of the ventricular layer, while only weak expression characterized the mantle and the marginal layers. At the same stages in the developing brain Pax6 and Pax7 were expressed in the different regions of the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain suggesting for their involvement in the differentiation of neurons in specific parts of the developing brain.


La familia de genes Pax del inglés (Paired box) codifica los factores de transcripción debido a la particular importancia en el desarrollo embrionario del SNC, con la evidencia obtenida de varios modelos animales. Rara vez han estado disponibles embriones humanos para la detección de la expresión de genes de la familia Pax. En este estudio, se investigaron 32 embriones humanos de Carnegie (CS) etapas 10-20 para encontrar las diferencias en la expresión de las proteínas Pax6 y Pax7 en diferentes regiones del tubo neural y la médula espinal caudal. La expresión de Pax6 y Pax7, según la inmunohistoquímica, se observó una tendencia a aumentar en las etapas posteriores del desarrollo, tanto en la médula espinal como en el cerebro. Se observó una expresión significativamente más débil de Pax6 y Pax7 en CS 10 en comparación con las etapas posteriores. En CS 10-12 se notó una expresión débil de Pax6 en las partes dorsal y ventral de la médula espinal en desarrollo, mientras que la expresión de Pax7 se limitó a células en la placa del techo y dorsal de la médula espinal. En CS 14-20 en la médula espinal en desarrollo, Pax6 y Pax7 se observó principalmente en las células neuroepiteliales de la capa ventricular, mientras que expresión débil se caracterizó en las capas marginales. En las mismas etapas en el cerebro en desarrollo, Pax6 y Pax7 se expresaron en las diferentes áreas del prosencéfalo, el mesencéfalo y el mesencéfalo, lo que sugiere su participación en la diferenciación de las neuronas en partes específicas del cerebro en desarrollo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Fator de Transcrição PAX7/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição PAX6/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/embriologia , Encéfalo/embriologia , Imuno-Histoquímica
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 499-504, abr. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1056468

RESUMO

Several studies on the elasmobranchs neuroanatomy have shown that their brain is more complex than previously thought, and had significant intra and interspecific variations. The objective of this work was conducting a comparative encephalic neuroanatomy study of two species of genus Myliobatis. In total, 16 organisms of genera Myliobatis californica and Myliobatis longirostris, collected in the coasts of Kino Bay, Sonora, Mexico, were used. In Myliobatis, the brain has a long telencephalon and the posterior central nucleus is poorly developed. Their cerebellum is asymmetric, has several sulci, most of which are transversally oriented, with four lobes (anterior, medium and two posterior), a condition which has not been reported for any other species. It was observed that, despite the morphology of M. californica and M. longirostris is similar, there are some significant differences. Both species have moderate foliation, but M. californica has more sulci. In the diencephalon of M. californica, it was observed that the lobes of the infundibulum are oval-shaped and separated, while in M. longirostris, such lobes are rounded and near the medium line. It has to be highlighted that Myliobatis belongs to the most derived batoid group; nevertheless, its brain is considerably less complex, as compared to what has been reported for the most derived milyobatoids species.


Diversos estudios sobre la neuroanatomía de los elasmobranquios han demostrado que el cerebro es más complejo de lo que se pensaba y presenta considerables variaciones tanto intra como interespecíficas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar un estudio de neuroanatomía comparada del encéfalo de dos especies del género Myliobatis. Se utilizaron un total de 16 organismos de Myliobatis californica y Myliobatis longirostris, los cuales fueron colectados en las costas de Bahía Kino, Son., México. El cerebro de Myliobatis tiene un telencéfalo largo, el núcleo central posterior está poco desarrollado; el cerebelo es asimétrico, presenta surcos que en su mayoría están orientados transversalmente, con cuatro lóbulos (anterior, medio y dos posteriores), condición que no ha sido reportada para otra especie. Se observó que, aunque M. californica y M. longirostris presentan una morfología similar existen ciertas diferencias. En ambas especies presentan una foliación moderada; sin embargo, en M. californica se observan más surcos. En el diencéfalo de M. californica se observa que los lóbulos del infundíbulo son ovalados y están separados, mientras que en M. longirostris son redondeados y se encuentran próximos a la línea media. Es importante señalar que, pese a que Myliobatis pertenece al grupo de batoideos más derivado, su cerebro es considerablemente menos complejo de lo que se ha reportado para las especies de miliobatoideos más derivadas.


Assuntos
Animais , Rajidae/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Telencéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Cerebelo/anatomia & histologia
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 13-16, Feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1056389

RESUMO

Plastination is currently the most important anatomical preservation technique due to the possibility of preserving bodies and organs for an indefinite period, in a dry and biosecure form, while preserving the morphological characteristics of the tissues. However, the shrinkage of the samples is also part of the plastination, perhaps becoming one of its few disadvantages. This paper presents the shrinkage caused by the classic technique of sheet plastination with polyester resin (Biodur® P40) in human brain slices, with the aim of statistically establishing the percentages of tissue shrinkage caused by this plastination protocol.


La plastinación es actualmente la técnica de preservación anatómica más importante debido a la posibilidad de preservar los cuerpos y órganos por un período indefinido, en forma seca y biosegura, al tiempo que preserva las características morfológicas de los tejidos. Sin embargo, la retracción de las muestras también es parte de la plastinación, quizás convirtiéndose en una de sus pocas desventajas. Este artículo presenta la retracción causada por la técnica clásica de plastinación de cortes con resina poliéster (Biodur® P40) en cortes de cerebro humano, con el objetivo de establecer estadísticamente los porcentajes de retracción de tejidos causados por este protocolo de plastinación.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tamanho do Órgão , Poliésteres/química , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Inclusão em Plástico/métodos , Preservação de Tecido , Análise Estatística , Resinas
6.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-787143

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to explore the neuroprotective role of imatinib in global ischemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral injury along with possible mechanisms. Global ischemia was induced in mice by bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 20 min, which was followed by reperfusion for 24 h by restoring the blood flow to the brain. The extent of cerebral injury was assessed after 24 h of global ischemia by measuring the locomotor activity (actophotometer test), motor coordination (inclined beam walking test), neurological severity score, learning and memory (object recognition test) and cerebral infarction (triphenyl tetrazolium chloride stain). Ischemia-reperfusion injury produced significant cerebral infarction, impaired the behavioral parameters and decreased the expression of connexin 43 and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) in the brain. A single dose administration of imatinib (20 and 40 mg/kg) attenuated ischemia-reperfusion-induced behavioral deficits and the extent of cerebral infarction along with the restoration of connexin 43 and p-STAT3 levels. However, administration of AG490, a selective Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 inhibitor, abolished the neuroprotective actions of imatinib and decreased the expression of connexin 43 and p-STAT3. It is concluded that imatinib has the potential of attenuating global ischemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral injury, which may be possibly attributed to activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway along with the increase in the expression of connexin 43.


Assuntos
Animais , Encéfalo , Artérias Carótidas , Infarto Cerebral , Conexina 43 , Mesilato de Imatinib , Isquemia , Aprendizagem , Memória , Camundongos , Atividade Motora , Neuroproteção , Fosfotransferases , Reperfusão , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Fator de Transcrição STAT3 , Transdutores , Caminhada
7.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-787141

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation is an important process underlying a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Carvacrol (CAR) is a phenolic monoterpene commonly used as a food additive due to its antibacterial properties, but it has also been shown to exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of CAR on inflammation in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. In our study, lipopolysaccharide was injected into the lateral ventricle of rats to induce memory impairment and neuroinflammation. Daily administration of CAR (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) for 21 days improved recognition, discrimination, and memory impairments relative to untreated controls. CAR administration significantly attenuated expression of several inflammatory factors in the brain, including interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, CAR significantly increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA, and decreased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA. Taken together, these results show that CAR can improve memory impairment caused by neuroinflammation. This cognitive enhancement is due to the anti-inflammatory effects of CAR medicated by its regulation of BDNF and TLR4. Thus, CAR has significant potential as an inhibitor of memory degeneration in neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Animais , Encéfalo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2 , Citocinas , Discriminação Psicológica , Aditivos Alimentares , Hipocampo , Inflamação , Ventrículos Laterais , Lipopolissacarídeos , Memória , Necrose , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Fenol , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Ratos , RNA Mensageiro , Receptor 4 Toll-Like
8.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-787140

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder causing dementia worldwide, and is mainly characterized by aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ). Increasing evidence has shown that plant extracts have the potential to delay AD development. The plant sterol β-Sitosterol has a potential role in inhibiting the production of platelet Aβ, suggesting that it may be useful for AD prevention. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of β-Sitosterol on deficits in learning and memory in amyloid protein precursor/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mice. APP/PS1 mice were treated with β-Sitosterol for four weeks, from the age of seven months. Brain Aβ metabolism was evaluated using ELISA and Western blotting. We found that β-Sitosterol treatment can improve spatial learning and recognition memory ability, and reduce plaque load in APP/PS1 mice. β-Sitosterol treatment helped reverse dendritic spine loss in APP/PS1 mice and reversed the decreased hippocampal neuron miniature excitatory postsynaptic current frequency. Our research helps to explain and support the neuroprotective effect of β-Sitosterol, which may offer a novel pharmaceutical agent for the treatment of AD. Taken together, these findings suggest that β-Sitosterol ameliorates memory and learning impairment in APP/PS1 mice and possibly decreases Aβ deposition.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Amiloide , Animais , Plaquetas , Western Blotting , Encéfalo , Transtornos Cognitivos , Demência , Espinhas Dendríticas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores , Aprendizagem , Memória , Metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Neurônios , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Extratos Vegetais , Plantas , Placa Amiloide , Aprendizagem Espacial
9.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-785548

RESUMO

Robots are being used to assist the recovery of walking ability for patients with neurologic disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and functional improvement of training with robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) using the Morning Walk®, an end-effector type robot using footplates and saddle seat support. A total of 189 individuals (65.1% men, 34.9% women; mean age, 53.2 years; age range: 5–87 years) with brain lesions, spinal cord injuries, Parkinson's disease, peripheral neuropathies, and pediatric patients were involved in this retrospectively registered clinical trial. Each participant performed 30 minutes of RAGT, five times a week, for a total of 24 sessions. Failure was defined as an inability to complete all 24 sessions, and the reasons for discontinuation were analyzed. Parameters of Medical Research Council scales and Functional Ambulation Categories were analyzed before and after RAGT training. Among the 189 patients, 22 (11.6%) failed to complete the RAGT. The reasons included decreased cooperation, musculoskeletal pain, saddle seat discomfort, excessive body-weight support, joint spasticity or restricted joint motion, urinary incontinence from an indwelling urinary catheter, and fatigue. Comparison between the pre- and post-training motor and ambulatory functions showed significant improvement. The result of the study indicates that the Morning Walk® is feasible and safe and useful for functional improvement in patients with various neurologic disordersTRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0003627


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Fadiga , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Serviços de Informação , Articulações , Masculino , Espasticidade Muscular , Dor Musculoesquelética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Doença de Parkinson , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Cateteres Urinários , Incontinência Urinária , Caminhada , Pesos e Medidas
10.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-812992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES@#To examine the changes of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and β-galactosyl transferase specific chaperone 1 (C1GALT1C1) in brain of rats with ischemic injury at different time points and to explore the protective mechanism of ultrashort wave (USW) on ischemic brain injury.@*METHODS@#Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (=10 per group): a sham group (control group) and 4 experimental group (ischemia for 2 h). The 4 experimental groups were set as a model 1 d group, a USW 1 d group, a model 3 d group and a USW 3 d group, respectively. Five rats were randomly selected for 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazoliumchloride (TTC) staining in each experimental group, and the remaining 5 rats were subjected to Western blotting and real-time PCR. The percentage of cerebral infarction volume and the relative expression level of CoQ10 and C1GALT1C1 in the brain were examined and compared.@*RESULTS@#The infarct volume percentage after TTC staining was zero in the sham group. With the progress of disease and USW therapy, the infarct volume percentage was decreased in the experimental groups (all <0.05); Western blotting and real-time PCR showed that the relative expression level of CoQ10 in the sham group was the highest, while in the experimental groups, the content of CoQ10 showed a upward trend with the extension of disease and USW therapy, with significant difference (all <0.05). The relative expression level of C1GALT1C1 in the sham group was the lowest, but in the experimental groups, they showed a downward trend with the extension of disease and USW therapy, with significant difference (all <0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Non-caloric USW therapy may upregulate the expression of CoQ10 to suppress the expression of C1GALT1C1 in rats, leading to alleviating cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury.


Assuntos
Animais , Encéfalo , Isquemia Encefálica , Chaperonas Moleculares , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Ubiquinona
11.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-811293

RESUMO

Tobacco products are rapidly evolving. Since the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control came to effect in 2005, the parties of the treaty have been aiming to control tobacco use. Moreover, the social norm of smoking has changed. These changes have prompted the tobacco industry to evolve their products and business model. There have been several evolutions in tobacco products. Firstly, new tobacco products, such as electronic cigarettes and heated tobacco products were introduced into markets that were previously dominated by conventional cigarettes. Thus, smokers are able to select alternative tobacco products. Secondly, new devices for tobacco use, including universal serial bus, smart watch, and car key devices, have been developed and released. These devices are popular among females and youth, who wish to hide their smoking behavior. Thirdly, nicotine, which is used in tobacco products, has also evolved. Typically, ‘free-base nicotine’ has been the main form used in tobacco products, because it helps to deliver nicotine quickly to the smoker's brain. However, a new form of nicotine, ‘nicotine salt’, is used in electronic cigarettes. It can deliver a more highly concentrated dose of nicotine to the smoker’s brain. To regulate these evolving products, laws are required to prevent the easy access of new tobacco products in the Korean market and therefore, a new organization for monitoring the evolution of tobacco products is required. Additionally, we need to encourage young people and scholars to develop interest in tobacco product control, thus ensuring adequate regulation of new tobacco products.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Encéfalo , Comércio , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Jurisprudência , Nicotina , Fumaça , Fumar , Normas Sociais , Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco , Tabaco , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-811243

RESUMO

Meditation is one of the psychological therapeutic techniques that can be applied to many conditions, including stress reduction. Meditation can be an alternative to overcoming the limitations of existing therapies, including medication. In particular, this can be helpful for children who have limitations in using medication due to brain development and limitations of psychotherapy, which is done mainly by language. Previous studies have shown that mindfulness meditation helped enhance attention, increase the coping ability, reduce stress, and reduce depression and anxiety in children and adolescents, but there is insufficient evidence to use it as a primary treatment. A larger number of well-controlled studies will be needed to obtain an evidence base for expanding clinical application.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Ansiedade , Encéfalo , Criança , Depressão , Humanos , Meditação , Atenção Plena , Psicoterapia
13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 103-109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782116

RESUMO

Firefighters have a high risk of developing cardiovascular and mental disorders due to their physical and chemical environments. However, in Korea, few studies have been conducted on environmental risk of firefighters. The Firefighter Research on the Enhancement of Safety and Health (FRESH) study aimed to discover the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and mental disorders among firefighters. Former and current firefighters were recruited from three university hospitals. A total of 1022 participants completed baseline health examinations from 2016 to 2017. All participants were scheduled for follow-ups every 2 years. Baseline health survey, laboratory testing of blood and urine samples, blood heavy metal concentration, urine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) metabolites, stress-related hormone test, natural killer cell activity, as well as physical and mental health examinations that focused on cardiovascular and mental disorders, were conducted. In addition, 3 Tesla (3T) brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological tests were also performed to investigate structural and functional changes in the brains of 352 firefighters aged >40 years or new hires with less than 1 year of service.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Estudos de Coortes , Bombeiros , Seguimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais , Coreia (Geográfico) , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco
14.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782112

RESUMO

Microvascular ultrasonographic imaging is the most recent and unique Doppler ultrasound technique. It uses an advanced clutter filter that can remove clutter artifacts and preserve the low-velocity microvascular flow signal. The potential advantages of microvascular ultrasonography are its superiority in detection and visualization of the small blood vessels in tissues, providing radiologists with more information on the vascular structures. Therefore, it has shown particular value in the clinical fields. The aim of this study was to provide microvascular ultrasonographic images for the tissue microvasculature, including the brain, thyroid gland, kidney, urinary bladder, small bowel, ovary, testis, lymph node, and hemangiomas in children, focusing on the comparison with conventional color Doppler ultrasonographic images.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Vasos Sanguíneos , Encéfalo , Criança , Feminino , Hemangioma , Humanos , Rim , Linfonodos , Microvasos , Ovário , Testículo , Glândula Tireoide , Ultrassonografia , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores , Bexiga Urinária
15.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is associated with atherosclerosis via nitric-oxide-associated endothelial dysfunction and calcium-phosphate-related bone mineralization. This study aimed to determine the association of the plasma FGF23 concentration with intracranial cerebral atherosclerosis (ICAS) and extracranial cerebral atherosclerosis (ECAS).METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 262 first-ever ischemic stroke patients in whom brain magnetic resonance was performed and a blood sample acquired within 24 h after admission. Plasma FGF23 concentrations were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The presence of ICAS or ECAS was defined as a ≥50% decrease in arterial diameter in magnetic resonance angiography. The burden of cerebral atherosclerosis was calculated by adding the total number of vessels defined as ICAS or ECAS.RESULTS: Our study population included 152 (58.0%) males. The mean age was 64.7 years, and the plasma FGF23 concentration was 347.5±549.6 pg/mL (mean±SD). ICAS only, ECAS only, and both ICAS and ECAS were present in 31.2% (n=82), 4.9% (n=13), and 6.8% (n=18) of the subjects, respectively. In multivariate binary and ordinal logistic analyses, after adjusting for sex, age, and variables for which p < 0.1 in the univariate analysis, the plasma FGF23 concentration (per 100 pg/mL) was positively correlated with the presence of ICAS [odds ratio (OR)=1.07, 95% CI=1.00–1.15, p=0.039], burden of ICAS (OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.04–1.15, p=0.001), and burden of ECAS (OR=1.06, 95% CI=1.00–1.12, p=0.038), but it was not significantly related to the presence of ECAS (OR=1.05, 95% CI=0.99–1.12, p=0.073).CONCLUSIONS: The plasma FGF23 may be a potential biomarker for cerebral atherosclerosis, particularly the presence and burden of ICAS in stroke patients.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Encéfalo , Calcificação Fisiológica , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Plasma , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral
16.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Square-wave jerks (SWJs) are the most common saccadic intrusion in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), but their genesis is uncertain. We aimed to determine the characteristics of SWJs in PSP (the Richardson subtype) and Parkinson's disease (PD) and to map the brain structures responsible for abnormal SWJ parameters in PSP.METHODS: Eye movements in 12 patients with PSP, 12 patients with PD, and 12 age-matched healthy controls were recorded using an infrared corneal reflection device. The rate, mean amplitude, and velocity of SWJs were analyzed offline. Voxel-based morphometry using a 3-Tesla MRI scanner was performed to relate changes in brain volume to SWJ parameters.RESULTS: The SWJ rate was more than threefold higher in PSP patients than in both PD patients and controls (mean rates: 33.5, 10.3, and 4.3 SWJs per minute, respectively). The volumes of neither the midbrain nor other infratentorial brain regions were correlated with the SWJ rate. Instead, highly significant associations were found for atrophy in the superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri in the PSP group.CONCLUSIONS: SWJs in PSP are not mediated by midbrain atrophy. Instead, supratentorial cortical structures located mainly in the temporal lobe appear to be deeply involved in the generation of abnormally high SWJ rates in these patients. Known anatomical connections of the temporal lobe to the superior colliculus and the cerebellum might play a role in SWJ genesis.


Assuntos
Atrofia , Encéfalo , Cerebelo , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Mesencéfalo , Doença de Parkinson , Colículos Superiores , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva , Lobo Temporal
17.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated the prevalence of amyloid positivity and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in subjects with cognitive complaints with the aim of identifying differences in clinical parameters and cognitive function according to the pattern of coexistence.METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 200 subjects with memory impairment and applied both standardized ¹⁸F-florbetaben PET and brain MRI, including susceptibility-weighted imaging. The amyloid burden was visually classified as positive or negative, and the number and location of CMBs were also analyzed visually. Descriptive analysis was performed for the prevalence of amyloid positivity and CMBs. The relationship between the coexisting pattern of those two findings and clinical parameters including the results of neuropsychiatric tests was analyzed.RESULTS: Positive amyloid PET scans were exhibited by 102 (51.5%) of the 200 patients, and 51 (25.5%) of them had CMBs, which were mostly located in lobar areas in the patients with positive amyloid scans. The patients with CMBs were older and had a higher burden of white-matter hyperintensities than the patients without CMBs. The patients with CMBs also performed worse in confrontation naming and frontal/executive function. When classified by topographical region, parietal CMBs (odds ratio=3.739, p=0.024) were significantly associated with amyloid positivity.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of CMBs was higher in patients with cognitive decline than in the general population. CMBs play distinctive roles in affecting clinical parameters and neuropsychological profiles according to the coexistence of amyloid pathology.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Amiloide , Encéfalo , Cognição , Demência , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Memória , Lobo Parietal , Patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Similar-sized stroke lesions at similar locations can have different prognoses in clinical practice. Lesion-network mapping elucidates network-level effects of lesions that cause specific neurologic symptoms and signs, and also provides a group-level understanding. This study visualized the effects of stroke lesions on the functional brain networks of individual patients.METHODS: We enrolled patients with ischemic stroke who were hospitalized within 1 week of the stroke occurrence. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed 3 months after the index stroke. For image preprocessing, acute stroke lesions were visually delineated based on diffusion-weighted images obtained at admission, and the lesion mask was drawn using MRIcron software. Correlation matrices were calculated from 280 brain regions using the Brainnetome Atlas, and connectograms were visualized using in-house MATLAB code.RESULTS: We found characteristic differences in connectograms between pairs of patients who had comparable splenial, frontal cortical, cerebellar, and thalamocapsular lesions. Two representative patients with bilateral thalamic infarctions showed significant differences in their reconstructed connectograms. The cognitive function had recovered well at 3 months after stroke occurrence in patients with well-maintained interhemispheric and intrahemispheric connectivities.CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study has visualized the effects of stroke lesions on the functional brain networks of individual patients. Consideration of the neurobiologic mechanisms underlying the differences between their connectograms has yielded new hypotheses about differences in the effects of stroke lesions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Infarto Cerebral , Cognição , Conectoma , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Infarto , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Máscaras , Manifestações Neurológicas , Projetos Piloto , Prognóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral
19.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance and safety of a new ¹⁸F-labeled amyloid tracer, ¹⁸F-FC119S.METHODS: This study prospectively recruited 105 participants, comprising 53 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 16 patients with dementia other than AD (non-AD), and 36 healthy controls (HCs). In the first screening visit, the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery cognitive function test was given to the dementia group, while HC subjects completed the Korean version of the Mini Mental State Examination. Individuals underwent ¹⁸F-FC119S PET, ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, and brain MRI. The diagnostic performance of ¹⁸F-FC119S PET for AD was compared to a historical control (comprising previously reported and currently used amyloid-beta PET agents), ¹⁸F-FDG PET, and MRI. The standardized uptake value (SUV) ratio (ratio of the cerebral cortical SUV to the cerebellar SUV) was measured for each PET data set to provide semiquantitative analysis. All adverse effects during the clinical trial periods were monitored.RESULTS: Visual assessments of the ¹⁸F-FC119S PET data revealed a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 84% in detecting AD. ¹⁸F-FC119S PET demonstrated equivalent or better diagnostic performance for AD detection than the historical control, ¹⁸F-FDG PET (sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 76.0%), and MRI (sensitivity of 98.0% and specificity of 50.0%). The SUV ratios differed significantly between AD patients and the other groups, at 1.44±0.17 (mean±SD) for AD, 1.24±0.09 for non-AD, and 1.21±0.08 for HC. No clinically significant adverse effects occurred during the trial periods.CONCLUSIONS: ¹⁸F-FC119S PET provides high sensitivity and specificity in detecting AD and therefore may be considered a useful diagnostic tool for AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Amiloide , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Encéfalo , Cognição , Conjunto de Dados , Demência , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Programas de Rastreamento , Métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Seul
20.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782061

RESUMO

No abstract available.


Assuntos
Encéfalo
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