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1.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1272-1277, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS (Américas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1022701

RESUMO

Objective: The study's purpose has been to know the viewpoint of women crack users in regards to their motherhood experience. Methods: This qualitative study was carried out with five women who used crack during pregnancy. Data was collected from May to August 2014, through the participant observation, production of field diary and semi-structured interviews. The analysis process followed the Clifford Geertz Interpretivism. Results: The crack use is not a fundamental factor in the maternity process of women who do use it. Some factors may influence the relationship between mother and child, and also the women's experience during this process, such as the desire to be a mother, pregnancy planning and family context. Conclusion: It is imperative to think of intersectoral public health policies aiming to support the crack users in an integral manner, then reducing social inequality and proposing an approach that highlights the user possibilities, as well as the individual specificity and singularity


Objetivo: Conhecer a visão da mulher usuária de crack em relação a experiência da maternidade. Método: estudo qualitativo, com cinco mulheres que utilizaram crack na gestação. Dados coletados entre maio e agosto de 2014, através da observação participante, construção de diário de campo e entrevistas semiestruturadas. A análise seguiu o Interpretativismo, de Clifford Geertz. Resultados: o uso de crack não é fator fundamental no processo de maternidade das mulheres usuárias, alguns fatores podem influenciar na relação entre mãe e filho e na experiência da mulher neste processo, como o desejo de ser mãe, planejamento da gravidez e contexto familiar. Conclusão: deve-se pensar em políticas públicas de saúde intersetoriais, visando atender as usuárias de forma integral, diminuindo a desigualdade social e propondo uma abordagem que destaque as possibilidades, especificidade e singularidade do indivíduo


Objetivo: Conocer la visión de la mujer usuaria de crack en relación a la experiencia de maternidad. Método: estudio cualitativo, con cinco mujeres que utilizaron crack en la gestación. Los datos fueron recolectados entre mayo y agosto de 2014, a través de observación participante, construcción de diario de campo y entrevistas semiestructuradas. El análisis siguió el Interpretativismo de Clifford Geertz. Resultados: uso de crack no es un factor fundamental en el proceso de maternidad de las mujeres usuarias. Algunos factores pueden influenciar en la relación entre madre e hijo y en la experiencia de la mujer en este proceso, como lo deseo de ser madre, planeamiento del embarazo y contexto familiar. Conclusión: se debe pensar en políticas públicas de salud intersectoriales, visando atender a las usuarias de forma integral, reduciendo a la desigualdad social y proponiendo un abordaje que destaque las posibilidades, especificidad y singularidad del individuo


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Exposição Materna , Relações Materno-Fetais/psicologia , Fumar Cocaína/psicologia , Vulnerabilidade Social , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia
2.
Santiago; s.n; UC; jul. 2019. 293 p. tab, graf, ilus, mapas.
Tese em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1096384

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El embarazo constituye una ventana que determina la carga de enfermedad que sufrirán los individuos a lo largo de su vida. Una exposición a variables ambientales adecuada permite una evolución intrauterina balanceada que resulta primordial para el crecimiento del feto; la ruptura de dicho balance genera consecuencias en el binomio madre-hijo. Una complicación común que afecta del 2 al 10% de las embarazadas es la preeclampsia, siendo una de las principales causas de mortalidad materna, fetal y neonatal, especialmente en países de ingresos medios y bajos. En Latinoamérica y Chile no existen estudios disponibles que cuantifiquen o dimensionen esta patología en términos de incidencia, factores protectores o predisponentes; asimismo, se desconoce el rol que ejercen las variables ambientales sobre ella. Recientemente, se ha descrito que el medio ambiente tendría influencia en el embarazo, específicamente, el espacio verde actuaría de forma beneficiosa probablemente a través de la actividad física en el tiempo de ocio y bienestar. Así también, el efecto que la combustión residencial de leña posee sobre la gestación no ha sido clarificado. Esta tesis doctoral se inserta en la tendencia actual de investigación mundial que busca conocer el efecto de la exposición crónica a variables ambientales, tanto positivas como negativas, específicamente durante el embarazo, dada su importancia en la salud materna como en el desarrollo del niño. OBJETIVO: Determinar el impacto de exposición crónica a variables ambientales espaciales (espacio verde y contaminación atmosférica) en el riesgo de preeclampsia, utilizando Temuco/Padre Las Casas como área de estudio. MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohorte histórica de mujeres embarazadas de las comunas de Temuco y Padre Las Casas (Región de La Araucanía), cuyos partos fueron asistidos en el Hospital Regional de Temuco Dr. Hernán Henríquez Aravena durante los años 2009 a 2015. De la ficha clínica de las embarazadas se obtuvieron datos sociodemográficos, de morbilidad y obstétricos. La variable resultado fue la preeclampsia, mientras que las de exposición fueron espacio verde y MP2,5 atribuido a emisiones de combustión por leña residencial. El espacio verde fue medido a través del Índice de Vegetación de Diferencia Normalizada (IVDN), mediante escaneo multiespectral del mapeador temático de Landsat 5-8 con una resolución de 30 x 30 m, el cual fue obtenido desde la NASA. Para estimar la exposición a MP2,5, se utilizó un modelo de regresión por uso de suelo, el cual fue construido mediante una campaña de medición de MP2,5 en todo Temuco durante un año, de modo de incluir variabilidad espacial y temporal. Las variables predictoras del modelo fueron obtenidas a partir de bases de datos del Sistema Información Geográfica en Temuco, las que incluyeron uso de suelo, topografía de elevación de modelos digitales, densidad de población y hogares, y vías, incluyendo tipo de camino, longitud y distancia a los caminos, características del tráfico. El análisis estadístico consideró validación de datos, análisis univariado, análisis bivariado, cálculos para incidencia, análisis de datos perdidos y modelamiento. Para estimar el efecto de la exposición a espacio verde se construyeron modelos de regresión logística y para MP2,5 atribuido a leña modelos aditivos generalizados. RESULTADOS: La muestra quedó conformada por 15.516 nacimientos. La media de edad de las embarazadas fue de 25,7 años, siendo predominante el nivel de escolaridad secundario (47%). La prevalencia de desórdenes hipertensivos del embarazo fue de 10% y de preeclampsia de 3%. Ambas ciudades se caracterizaron por contar con escasa vegetación urbana, con valores bajos de verdor (mediana IVDN=0,30; Rango Intercuartílico (RIC)=0,30). La cohorte residía en lugares con menor verdor (mediana IVDN=0,25; RIC=0,11) que la ciudad, encontrándose los mayores valores del IVDN en residencias periurbanas. Con respecto a áreas verdes, se encontró un aumento en el riesgo de desarrollar preeclampsia asociado a un aumento de NVDI en 300m (OR=1,20; IC 95% 1,05-1,37 para un aumento equivalente al RIC) y 500m (OR=1,23; IC 95% 1,07-1,41 para un RIC) alrededor del hogar de las participantes. Respecto a exposiciones a MP2,5, se observaron asociaciones en modelos lineales y modelos de umbral, teniendo este último un mejor desempeño. El modelo de umbral, encontró aumento del riesgo para preeclampsia de 17% (CI95% 1,01-1,36) y 11% (CI95%1,03-1,21) por cada 10 µg/m3 de aumento del contaminante por sobre un umbral de 100 µg/m3 para todo el embarazo y el segundo trimestre, respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN. La presente tesis doctoral ha evidenciado asociaciones entre la exposición a factores ambientales y preeclampsia permitiendo contar con 14 evidencia para apoyar la toma de decisiones a nivel público, tanto a nivel internacional como nacional, ya que ha cuantificado el efecto que las variables ambientales ejercen sobre la salud de la embarazada y el feto. Los resultados constituyen un llamado a la acción en primer lugar para evaluar la presencia de riesgo para la salud en las áreas periurbanas de Temuco y Padre Las Casas y en caso de existir por ejemplo microbasurales, eliminarlos para contribuir a la mejora en la seguridad y calidad de vida de la población. Luego, como un punto de inicio para re-pensar intervenciones específicas basadas en los efectos en salud de la leña como combustible durante el embarazo, dado el impacto que las exposiciones en la vida intrauterina tienen en todo el curso de vida de la población


INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy constitutes a window that determines the burden of disease that individuals will suffer throughout their lives. An exposure to adequate environmental variables allows a balanced intrauterine evolution that is essential for the growth of the fetus; the breakdown of this balance generates consequences in the mother and his child. A common complication that affects 2 to 10% of pregnant women is preeclampsia, being one of the main causes of maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality, especially in middle and low income countries. In Latin America and Chile there are no studies available that quantify this syndrome in terms of his incidence, protective or predisposing factors; Likewise, the role of environmental variables on it is unknown. Recently, it has been described that the environment would have an influence on pregnancy, specifically, the green space would act beneficially probably through physical activity at leisure and well-being. Also, the effect that residential combustion of firewood has on pregnancy has not been clarified. This doctoral thesis is inserted in the current global research trend that seeks to know the effect of chronic exposure to environmental variables, both positive and negative, specifically during pregnancy, given its importance in maternal health and in the development of the child. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of chronic exposure to spatial environmental variables (green space and air pollution) on the risk of preeclampsia, using Temuco/Padre Las Casas as a study area. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of pregnant women from Temuco and Padre Las Casas (La Araucanía Region), whose deliveries were assisted at the Temuco Regional Hospital Dr. Hernán Henríquez Aravena during 2009 to 2015. From the clinical record of the pregnant women were obtained sociodemographic, morbidity and obstetric data. The outcome variable was preeclampsia, while the exposure variables were green space and PM2.5 attributed to emissions from residential wood-burning. The green space was measured through the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), through multispectral scanning of the Landsat 5-8 thematic mapper with a resolution of 30 x 30 m, which was obtained from NASA. To estimate the exposure to PM2.5, a land use regression model was built with data from PM2.5 campaign measuring throughout Temuco for one year, to include spatial and temporal variability. The predictive variables of the model were obtained from databases of the Geographic Information System in Temuco, which included land use, elevation topography of digital models, population and household density, and roads, including road type, length and distance to roads, traffic characteristics. The statistical analysis considered data validation, univariate analysis, bivariate analysis, calculations for incidence, missing data analysis and modeling. To estimate the effect of exposure to green space, logistic regression models were developt and for PM2.5 attributed to wood burning generalized additive models. RESULTS: The sample was conformed of 15,516 births. The average age of the pregnant women was 25.7 years-old, the secondary level of education was predominant (47%). The prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was 10% and preeclampsia was 3%. Both cities were characterized by low urban vegetation, with low green values (median NDVI=0.30; Interquartile Range (IQR)=0.30). The cohort used to live in places with less greenness (median NDVI=0.25; IQR=0.11) in the city; the women with the highest values of the NDVI lived in peri-urban areas. Regarding green spaces, there was an increased risk of preeclampsia associated with an increase in NVDI by 300m (OR=1.20; 95% CI 1.05-1.37 for an increase equivalent to IQR) and 500m (OR=1.23; CI 95% 1.07-1.41 for a IQR) around the participants' residence. Regarding exposures to PM2.5, associations were observed in linear models and threshold models, the latter having a better performance. The threshold model found an increased risk for preeclampsia of 17% (CI95% 1.01-1.36) and 11% (CI95% 1.03-1.21) for every 10 µg/m3 increase of the pollutant over a threshold of 100 µg/m3 for the entire pregnancy and the second trimester, respectively. CONCLUSION: This doctoral thesis has shown associations between exposure to environmental factors and preeclampsia allowing evidence to support decision making at the public level, both internationally and nationally, since it has quantified the effect that environmental variables have on health of the pregnant woman and the fetus. The results constitute a call to action to evaluate the presence of health risk in the peri-urban areas of Temuco and Padre Las Casas and if any, for example, eliminate dumps to contribute to the improvement in safety and quality of population life. Then, as a starting point to rethink specific interventions based on the health effects of wood as a fuel during pregnancy, given the impact that exposures in intrauterine life have on the entire life course of the population


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Ambiente , Análise Espacial , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/induzido quimicamente , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Chile/epidemiologia , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-781569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND@#There have been inconsistent findings reported on maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and child risk of ADHD. In this study, ADHD symptoms at pre-school age children in association with prenatal passive and active tobacco smoke exposure determined by maternal plasma cotinine levels in the third trimester were investigated.@*METHODS@#This was a follow-up study of the birth cohort: the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Children whose parents answered Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to identify child ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity/inattention and conduct problems) and total difficulties at age 5 years with available maternal plasma cotinine level at the third trimester were included (n = 3216). Cotinine levels were categorized into 4 groups; ≦ 0.21 ng/ml (non-smoker), 0.22-0.51 ng/ml (low-passive smoker), 0.52-11.48 ng/ml (high-passive smoker), and ≧ 11.49 ng/ml (active smoker).@*RESULTS@#Maternal cotinine levels of active smokers were significantly associated with an increased risk of total difficulties (OR = 1.67) and maternal low- and high-passive smoking also increased the risk (OR = 1.11, 1.25, respectively) without statistical significance. Similarly, maternal cotinine levels of active smokers were associated with an increased risk of hyperactivity/inattention (OR = 1.49). Maternal low- and high-passive smoking and active smoking increased the risk of hyperactivity/inattention (OR = 1.45, 1.43, and OR = 1.59, respectively) only in boys.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings suggested that maternal active smoking during pregnancy may contribute to the increased risk of child total difficulties and hyperactivity/inattention at pre-school age. Pregnant women should be encouraged to quit smoking and avoid exposure to tobacco smoke.


Assuntos
Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Epidemiologia , Psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Cotinina , Sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão , Epidemiologia , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Mães , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Epidemiologia , Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar Tabaco , Epidemiologia
4.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(2): e00041018, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1039414

RESUMO

O objetivo deste artigo foi avaliar a conformidade entre as recomendações de uso de medicamentos antidepressivos durante a amamentação, presentes em bulas, e as recomendações de fontes bibliográficas baseadas em evidências científicas. Foram avaliadas as bulas padrão de 23 antidepressivos com registro ativo no Brasil. A presença de contraindicação do uso do antidepressivo durante a amamentação foi comparada com as informações presentes no manual técnico do Ministério da Saúde, no livro Medications and Mothers' Milk e nas bases de dados LactMed, Micromedex e UpToDate. Na maioria das bulas (62,5%), o antidepressivo é contraindicado na amamentação. Entre as fontes bibliográficas, esse percentual variou de 0% a 25%. O estudo aponta para baixa conformidade entre bulas e fontes bibliográficas, alertando sobre a necessidade de revisão do conteúdo e forma de apresentação das informações presentes nas bulas dos antidepressivos no Brasil.


This article sought to evaluate the conformity between recommendations regarding antidepressant use during breastfeeding found in drug package inserts with recommendations from science-based bibliographic sources. We evaluated the standard drug package inserts of 23 antidepressants with active registration in Brazil. The presence of contraindications of antidepressant use during breastfeeding was compared with information present in the Brazilian Ministry of Health technical manual, the book Medications and Mothers' Milk and on the databases LactMed, Micromedex and UpToDate. In most drug package inserts (62.5%), antidepressants are contraindicated during breastfeeding. Among bibliographical sources, that percentage varied between 0% and 25%. The study shows a low conformity between drug package inserts and bibliographical sources, alerting to the need for revising the content and presentation of information present in antidepressant drug package inserts in Brazil.


El objetivo de este artículo fue evaluar la conformidad entre las recomendaciones de uso de medicamentos antidepresivos durante la lactancia, presentes en prospectos, y las recomendaciones de fuentes bibliográficas, basadas en evidencias científicas. Se evaluaron los prospectos estándar de 23 antidepresivos con registro activo en Brasil. La presencia de contraindicaciones en el consumo de antidepresivos durante la lactancia se comparó con la información presente en el manual técnico del Ministerio de la Salud, en el libro Medications and Mothers' Milk, y en las bases de datos LactMed, Micromedex y UpToDate. En la mayoría de los prospectos (62,5%), el antidepresivo está contraindicado durante la lactancia. Entre las fuentes bibliográficas el porcentaje varió de 0% a 25%. El estudio señala la escasa conformidad entre prospectos y fuentes bibliográficas, alertando sobre la necesidad de revisión del contenido, así como de la forma de presentación de la información que aparece en los prospectos de los antidepresivos en Brasil.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Indústria Farmacêutica/normas , Rotulagem de Medicamentos/normas , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Brasil , Lactação/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Serviços de Informação sobre Medicamentos/normas , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-777632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND@#We aimed to examine the association of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke with dental caries among preschool children. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was assessed in terms of urinary cotinine concentrations and pack-years of exposure to smoking by parents and other family members at home.@*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study included 405 preschool children aged 3-6 years from two preschools in Japan in 2006. Information on the smoking habits of family members living with the child was obtained from parent-administered questionnaires. Dental examination was conducted to assess dental caries, that is, decayed and/or filled teeth. Urinary cotinine levels were measured using first-void morning urine samples.@*RESULTS@#Overall, 31.1% of the children had dental caries, and 29.5% had decayed teeth. Exposure to current maternal and paternal smoking was positively associated with the presence of dental caries after controlling for covariates. More than three pack-years of exposure to maternal smoking and more than five pack-years of exposure to smoking by all family members were significantly associated with the presence of dental caries as compared with no exposure (odds ratio [OR] = 5.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.17-14.22, P for trend < 0.001 and OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.12-3.58, P for trend = 0.004, respectively). These exposure variables were similarly associated with the presence of decayed teeth (OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.23-6.96, P for trend = 0.01 and OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 0.96-3.20, P for trend = 0.03, respectively). As compared with lowest tertile of the urinary cotinine level, the highest tertile of the urinary cotinine level was significantly associated with the presence of dental caries as well as decayed teeth; the ORs for the highest vs. lowest tertile of urinary cotinine levels were 3.10 (95% CI = 1.71-5.63, P for trend = 0.012) and 2.02 (95% CI = 1.10-3.70, P for trend = 0.10), respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These data suggest that exposure to tobacco smoke may have a dose-dependent influence on the development of caries.


Assuntos
Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cotinina , Urina , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária , Epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Pais , Exposição Paterna , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco , Epidemiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-777605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND@#The effects of prenatal exposure to toxic elements on birth outcomes and child development have been an area of concern. This study aimed to assess the profile of prenatal exposure to toxic elements, arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi), cadmium (Cd), mercury (total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MHg), inorganic mercury (IHg)), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and tin (Sn), and essential trace elements, copper (Cu), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), using the maternal blood, cord blood and placenta in the Tohoku Study of Child Development of Japan (N = 594-650).@*METHODS@#Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of these elements (except mercury). Levels of THg and MeHg were measured using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry and a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector, respectively.@*RESULTS@#Median concentrations (25th-75th) of As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn and THg in the maternal blood were 4.06 (2.68-6.81), 1.18 (0.74-1.79), 10.8 (8.65-13.5), 0.2 (0.06-0.40) and 0.2 (0.1-0.38) ng mL and 5.42 (3.89-7.59) ng g, respectively. Median concentrations (25th-75th) of As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn and THg in the cord blood were 3.68 (2.58-5.25), 0.53 (0.10-1.25), 9.89 (8.02-12.5), 0.39 (0.06-0.92) and 0.2 (0.2-0.38) ng mL and 9.96 (7.05-13.8) ng g, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#THg and Sb levels in the cord blood were twofold higher than those in the maternal blood. Cord blood to maternal blood ratios for As, Cd and Sb widely varied between individuals. To understand the effects of prenatal exposure, further research regarding the variations of placental transfer of elements is necessary.


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Química , Humanos , Japão , Exposição Materna , Troca Materno-Fetal , Metais , Sangue , Placenta , Química , Gravidez , Sangue , Oligoelementos , Sangue , Saúde da População Urbana
7.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-777467

RESUMO

Curcumae Rhizoma is a Chinese medicinal herb that is contraindicated during pregnancy. Cold-congelation and blood-stasis are corresponding syndromes to Curcumae Rhizoma. Whether syndrome-based treatment is associated with developmental neurotoxicity of Curcumae Rhizoma remains to be unclear. To verify the theory of traditional Chinese medicine of "syndrome-based treatment during pregnancy", the present study induced the mice blood stasis model by immersing mice in ice water. Pregnant C57 BL/6 wild type(WT) mice and pregnant Nrf2 knock out(KO) mice were randomly divided into control groups and Rhizoma Curcumae exposure groups. The mice were exposed to Rhizoma Curcumae during day 5 to day 18 after pregnancy. The neurodevelopment was examined to evaluate the differences of developmental neurotoxicity between normal and blood-stasis pregnant mice exposed to Rhizoma Curcumae. caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity in brain of the offspring were measured by colorimetric assays. Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression in brain of the offspring were examined by Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. According to the findings, C57 BL/6 mice exposed to Rhizoma Curcumae(10.0 g·kg~(-1)) had a longer positive occurring time of the surface righting reflex test of offspring and higher caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in brain of offspring, compared with the normal control group, but with no significant change in those of blood-stasis pregnant mice offspring. However, mice exposed to Rhizoma Curcumae(10.0 g·kg~(-1)) showed no change in Bcl-2 gene expression and p38 MAPK phosphorylation in brain of the offspring. Nrf2 gene knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in a longer positive occurring time of the surface righting reflex test of offspring and higher caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in brain of offspring. In conclusion, developmental neurotoxicity of the blood-stasis pregnant mice exposed to Rhizoma Curcumae was weaker than that of the normal pregnant mice. Nrf2 activation involved in the phenomenon of Rhizoma Curcumae of "syndrome-based treatment during pregnancy", but the upstream signal pathway mechanism value shall be further investigated.


Assuntos
Animais , Apoptose , Encéfalo , Caspases , Genética , Curcuma , Química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Farmacologia , Feminino , Exposição Materna , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Genética , Gravidez , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2 , Genética , Distribuição Aleatória , Rizoma , Química , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 472-488, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-719054

RESUMO

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant because of its extensive use in plastics and its persistence. As an environmental endocrine disruptor, it is suspected to interfere with neurodevelopment in people. However, evidence of the effects of maternal DEHP exposure on cerebellar development in offspring is scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate maternal exposure to DEHP and its effect on apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) and related mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were administrated DEHP (0, 30, 300 and 750 mg/kg/d) by gavage from gestational day (GD) 0 to postnatal day (PN) 21. Primary CGCs were also exposed to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), the main metabolite of DEHP, for 24 h with concentrations of 0, 25, 100 and 250 µM. The CGCs of male offspring from 300 and 750 mg/kg/d DEHP exposure groups showed significantly increased apoptosis. In addition, the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was inhibited in the male offspring of the 300 and 750 mg/kg/d DEHP exposure groups. However, effects on female pups were not obvious. Apoptosis was also elevated and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was inhibited after primary CGCs were exposed to MEHP. Furthermore, apoptosis was reduced after treatment with the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway activator, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1, and increased after treatment with LY294002, an inhibitor of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. These results suggested that maternal DEHP exposure induced apoptosis in the CGCs of male pups via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and the apoptosis could be rescued by IGF1 and aggravated by LY294002.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Dietilexilftalato , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Plásticos , Ratos Wistar
9.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-715067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nicotine has various adverse effects including negative impacts associated with maternal exposure. In the current study, we examined nicotine-induced damage of hair cells and embryotoxicity during zebrafish development. METHODS: Zebrafish embryos were exposed to nicotine at several concentrations (5, 10, 20, and 40 μM) and embryotoxicity were evaluated at 72 hours, including hatching rate, mortality, teratogenicity rate, and heart rate. Hair cells within the supraorbital (SO1 and SO2), otic (O1), and occipital (OC1) neuromasts were identified at 120 hours. Apoptosis and mitochondrial damage of hair cells were analyzed using TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling) and DASPEI (2-[4-(dimethylamino)styryl]-N-ethylpyridinium iodide) assays, respectively, and changes of ultrastructure were observed by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The control group without nicotine appeared normal with overall mortality and teratogenicity rate < 5%. The hatching rate and mortality rate was not significantly different according to nicotine concentration (n=400 each). The abnormal morphology rate (n=400) increased and heart rate (n=150) decreased with increasing nicotine concentration (P < 0.05). Nicotine-induced hair cell damage significantly increased as nicotine concentration increased. A significantly greater number of TUNEL-positive cells (P < 0.01) and markedly smaller DASPEI area (P < 0.01) were shown as nicotine concentration increased. CONCLUSION: The current results suggest that nicotine induces dose-dependent hair cell toxicity in embryos by promoting apoptosis and mitochondrial and structural damage.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Estruturas Embrionárias , Feminino , Cabelo , Frequência Cardíaca , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Exposição Materna , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Mortalidade , Nicotina , Tabaco , Peixe-Zebra
10.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e24, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-889479

RESUMO

Abstract: Considering that environmental risk factors substantially contribute to the etiology of orofacial clefts and that knowledge about the characteristics and comorbidities associated with oral clefts is fundamental to promoting better quality of life, this study aimed to describe the risk factors, main characteristics, and comorbidities of a group of patients with cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P) from Rio Grande do Norte (RN), Brazil. Data were obtained from 173 patients with CL/P using a form from the Brazilian database on Orofacial Clefts. Most patients were male with cleft lip and palate and had a normal size and weight at birth; presented few neonatal intercurrent events; and had anemia and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases as main associated comorbidities. They also required timely surgical rehabilitation and multidisciplinary care to stimulate their neuropsychomotor development. In addition, a high frequency of familial recurrence and of parental consanguinity was evidenced in the studied population, especially for the cleft lip and cleft palate type. Other relevant findings were the considerable maternal exposure to alcohol, infections, smoking, and hypertension, as well as low supplementation with vitamins and minerals and deliberate consumption of analgesics, antibiotics, and antihypertensives during pregnancy. Characterization of the CL/P patient profile is essential for the planning of health services and integration among the health professionals involved in the diagnosis and treatment of these malformations. Our results reinforce the need for additional research to confirm the association between environmental factors and the development of orofacial clefts.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fenda Labial/etiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/etiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Comorbidade , Consanguinidade , Idade Materna , Exposição Materna , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-777660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND@#The Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) is a nation-wide birth cohort study investigating environmental effects on children's health and development. In this study, the exposure characteristics of the JECS participating mothers were summarized using two questionnaires administered during pregnancy.@*METHODS@#Women were recruited during the early period of their pregnancy. We intended to administer the questionnaire during the first trimester (MT1) and the second/third trimester (MT2). The total number of registered pregnancies was 103,099.@*RESULTS@#The response rates of the MT1 and MT2 questionnaires were 96.8% and 95.1%, respectively. The mean gestational ages (SDs) at the time of the MT1 and MT2 questionnaire responses were 16.4 (8.0) and 27.9 (6.5) weeks, respectively. The frequency of participants who reported "lifting something weighing more than 20 kg" during pregnancy was 5.3% for MT1 and 3.9% for MT2. The Cohen kappa scores ranged from 0.07 to 0.54 (median 0.31) about the occupational chemical use between MT1 and MT2 questionnaires. Most of the participants (80%) lived in either wooden detached houses or steel-frame collective housing. More than half of the questionnaire respondents answered that they had "mold growing somewhere in the house". Insect repellents and insecticides were used widely in households: about 60% used "moth repellent for clothes in the closet," whereas 32% applied "spray insecticide indoors" or "mosquito coil or an electric mosquito repellent mat."@*CONCLUSIONS@#We summarized the exposure characteristics of the JECS participants using two maternal questionnaires during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Adulto , Saúde da Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Japão , Exposição Materna , Mães , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 93(6): 610-618, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-894070

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: The population-based cancer registries (PBCR) and the Information System on Live Births in Brazil (Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos [SINASC]) have information that enables the test for risk factors associated with leukemia at an early age. The aim of this study was to identify maternal and birth characteristics associated with early-age acute leukemia (EAL) in Brazil. Methods: A case-cohort study was performed using secondary dataset information of PBCR and SINASC. The risk association variables were grouped into (i) characteristics of the child at birth and (ii) characteristics of maternal exposure during pregnancy. The case-control ratio was 1:4. Linkage was performed using R software; odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by logistic regression models. Results: EAL was associated with maternal occupational exposure to chemicals (agricultural, chemical, and petrochemical industry; adjOR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16-4.10) and with birth defects (adjOR: 3.62, 95% CI: 1.19-11.00). Conclusions: The results of this study, with the identification of EAL risk factors in population-based case-cohort study, strengthen the knowledge and improve databases, contributing to investigations on risk factors associated with childhood leukemia worldwide.


Resumo Objetivos: Os registros de câncer de base populacional (RCBP) e o Sistema Nacional de Nascidos Vivos (SINASC) possuem informações que possibilitam testar hipóteses sobre fatores de riscos associados às leucemias. O objetivo principal deste projeto é identificar quais as características ao nascimento das crianças que estariam associadas ao risco de desenvolver Leucemia Aguda (LA) na primeira infância. Métodos: Foram utilizadas informações de 12 RCBP e do Sistema de Informação de Nascidos Vivos das mesmas localidades. Foram elegíveis 272 casos e 1.088 controles no período de 1996 a 2010. As associações de riscos de LA foram agrupadas em, (i) características da criança ao nascer, e (ii) características de exposição materna durante a gestação da criança. A relação de casos e controles foi de 1:4. As análises para padronização, estruturação do banco de dados e análises estatísticas foram realizadas através dos aplicativos Excel, R-Studio e SPSS 21. Resultados: Houve associação entre anomalias congênitas (RC 3,62, IC95% 1,19-11,00) e exposição ocupacional materna a produtos químicos (OR 2,18, p 0,002) com o risco do desenvolvimento de LA. Conclusão: A utilização de banco de dados secundários populacionais para a identificação de fatores de risco para LA fortaleceu o intercâmbio de conhecimentos e melhoria das bases de dados, e contribuiu para investigações sobre as associações de riscos nas leucemias agudas em contexto mundial.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Leucemia/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Brasil , Sistemas de Informação , Declaração de Nascimento , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Coortes
13.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(2): 159-167, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-841178

RESUMO

Abstract Reports have indicated that serotonin plays an important role in cell migration and differentiation during the organogenesis of several tissues, including the oral types. Administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drugs during pregnancy could affect the delivery of serotonin to embryonic tissues altering its development. Objective This study aimed to assess the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on the formation of the periodontal ligament during pregnancy and lactation in rat pups. Material and Methods Twelve pregnant rats of Wistar lineage were divided into four study groups. In the control group, 0.9% sodium chloride solution was administered orally, throughout the entire period of the 21 days of pregnancy (CG group) and in the CGL group, it was administrated during pregnancy and lactation (from day 1 of pregnancy to the 21st day after birth). Fluoxetine was administered orally at the dose of 20 mg/kg in a group treated during pregnancy only (FG group), and during pregnancy and lactation (FGL group). Histometrical, histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of the maxillary first molar periodontium region of the 24 rat pups was made under light microscopy, and periodontal ligament collagen was qualitatively evaluated under a polarizing light microscope. Results The quantity of fibroblasts (p=0.006), osteoblasts (p=0.027) and cementoblasts (p=0.001) was reduced in pups from the rats that received fluoxetine during pregnancy and lactation. No alterations were seen in the collagen fibers. Conclusion These findings suggest that periodontal tissue may be sensitive to fluoxetine, and its interference in reducing periodontal cells depends on exposure time during lactation.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligamento Periodontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Processo Alveolar/efeitos dos fármacos , Processo Alveolar/embriologia , Colágenos Fibrilares/análise , Imuno-Histoquímica , Lactação , Exposição Materna , Ligamento Periodontal/embriologia , Ligamento Periodontal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 93(2): 111-119, Mar.-Apr. 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-841331

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: Autism spectrum disorders are lifelong and often devastating conditions that severely affect social functioning and self-sufficiency. The etiopathogenesis is presumably multifactorial, resulting from a very complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The dramatic increase in autism spectrum disorder prevalence observed during the last decades has led to placing more emphasis on the role of environmental factors in the etiopathogenesis. The objective of this narrative biomedical review was to summarize and discuss the results of the most recent and relevant studies about the environmental factors hypothetically involved in autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis. Sources: A search was performed in PubMed (United States National Library of Medicine) about the environmental factors hypothetically involved in the non-syndromic autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis, including: air pollutants, pesticides and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, electromagnetic pollution, vaccinations, and diet modifications. Summary of the findings: While the association between air pollutants, pesticides and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, and risk for autism spectrum disorder is receiving increasing confirmation, the hypothesis of a real causal relation between them needs further data. The possible pathogenic mechanisms by which environmental factors can lead to autism spectrum disorder in genetically predisposed individuals were summarized, giving particular emphasis to the increasingly important role of epigenetics. Conclusions: Future research should investigate whether there is a significant difference in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among nations with high and low levels of the various types of pollution. A very important goal of the research concerning the interactions between genetic and environmental factors in autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis is the identification of vulnerable populations, also in view of proper prevention.


Resumo Objetivo: Os transtornos do espectro autista (TEAs) são vitalícios e normalmente são doenças devastadoras que afetam gravemente o funcionamento social e a autossuficiência. A etiopatogenia é presumivelmente multifatorial, resultante de uma interação muito complexa entre fatores genéticos e ambientais. O aumento drástico na prevalência de TEAs observado nas últimas décadas levou à maior ênfase no papel dos fatores ambientais na etiopatogenia. O objetivo desta análise da narrativa biomédica foi resumir e discutir os resultados dos estudos mais recentes e relevantes sobre os fatores ambientais hipoteticamente envolvidos na etiopatogenia dos TEAs. Fontes: Foi feita uma pesquisa na Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina dos Estados Unidos (PubMed) sobre os fatores ambientais hipoteticamente envolvidos na etiopatogenia dos TEAs não sindrômicos, inclusive poluentes atmosféricos, pesticidas e outros desreguladores endócrinos, poluição eletromagnética, vacinas e alterações na dieta. Resumo dos achados: Embora a associação entre poluentes atmosféricos, pesticidas e outros desreguladores endócrinos e o risco de TEA tenha recebido cada vez mais confirmações, a hipótese de uma relação causal real entre eles ainda precisa de mais dados. Os possíveis mecanismos patogênicos por meio dos quais os fatores ambientais podem causar TEA em indivíduos geneticamente predispostos foram resumidos, com ênfase especial no papel cada vez mais importante da epigenética. Conclusões: Futuras pesquisas devem investigar se há uma diferença significativa na prevalência de TEA entre nações com níveis altos e baixos de vários tipos de poluição. Um objetivo muito importante da pesquisa a respeito das interações entre fatores genéticos e ambientais na etiopatogenia do TEA é a identificação de populações vulneráveis, também em virtude da prevenção adequada.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Criança , Transtorno Autístico/etiologia , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Fatores de Risco , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Predisposição Genética para Doença
15.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 1063-1068, 2017.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-812834

RESUMO

Objective@#To induce hypospadias in male rat offspring by maternal exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) during late pregnancy and further investigate its mechanisms.@*METHODS@#We randomly divided 20 pregnant rats into a DBP exposure and a control group, the former treated intragastrically with DBP while the latter with soybean oil at 750 mg per kilogram of the body weight per day from gestation days (GD) 14 to 18. On postnatal day (PND) 1, we recorded the incidence rate of hypospadias and observed the histopathological changes in the genital tubercle of the hypospadiac rats. We also measured the level of serum testosterone (T) by radioimmunoassay and determined the mRNA and protein expressions of the androgen receptor (AR), sonic hedgehog (Shh), bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) and fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) in the genital tubercle by real-time PCR and Western blot.@*RESULTS@#No hypospadiac male rats were found in the control group. The incidence rate of hypospadias in male offspring was 43.6% in the DBP-treatment group. Histological analysis confirmed hypospadiac malformation. The serum testosterone concentration was decreased in the hypospadiac male rats as compared with the controls ([0.49 ± 0.05] vs [1.12 ± 0.05] ng/ml, P <0.05). The mRNA expressions of AR, Shh, Bmp4 and Fgf8 in the genital tubercle were significantly lower in the hypospadiac male rats than in the controls (AR: 0.50 ± 0.05 vs 1.00 ± 0.12, P <0.05; Shh: 0.65 ± 0.07 vs 1.00 ± 0.15, P <0.05; Bmp4: 0.42 ± 0.05 vs 1.00 ± 0.13, P <0.05; Fgf8: 0.46 ± 0.04 vs 1.00 ± 0.12, P <0.05), and so were their protein expressions (AR: 0.34 ± 0.05 vs 1.00 ± 0.09, P <0.05; Shh: 0.51 ± 0.07 vs 1.00 ± 0.12, P <0.05; Bmp4: 0.43 ± 0.05 vs 1.00 ± 0.11, P <0.05; Fgf8: 0.57 ± 0.04 vs 1.00 ± 0.13, P <0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Maternal exposure to DBP during late pregnancy can induce hypospadias in the male rat offspring. DBP affects the development of the genital tubercle by reducing the serum T concentration and expressions of AR, Shh, Bmp4 and Fgf8 in the genital tubercle, which might underlie the mechanism of DBP inducing hypospadias.


Assuntos
Animais , Peso Corporal , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4 , Sangue , Dibutilftalato , Toxicidade , Feminino , Fator 8 de Crescimento de Fibroblasto , Sangue , Proteínas Hedgehog , Sangue , Hipospadia , Sangue , Patologia , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Plastificantes , Toxicidade , Gravidez , RNA Mensageiro , Sangue , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Androgênicos , Sangue , Óleo de Soja , Testosterona , Sangue
16.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 59: e30, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-842788

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Immunological and clinical findings suggestive of some immune dysfunction have been reported among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children and adolescents. Whether these defects are persistent or transitory is still unknown. HEU pediatric population at birth, 12 months, 6-12 years were evaluated in comparison to healthy age-matched HIV-unexposed controls. Plasma levels of LPS, sCD14, cytokines, lymphocyte immunophenotyping and T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) were assessed. HEU and controls had similar LPS levels, which remained low from birth to 6-12 years; for plasma sCD14, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α, G-CSF, GM-CSF and MCP-1, which increased from birth to 12 months and then decreased at 6-12 years; and for TREC/106 PBMC at birth in HEU and controls. By contrast, plasma MIP-1β levels were lower in HEU than in controls (p=0.009) at 12 months, and IL-4 levels were higher in HEU than controls (p=0.04) at 6-12 years. Immune activation was higher in HEU at 12 months and at 6-12 years than controls based on frequencies of CD38+HLA-DR+CD8+T cells (p=0.05) and of CD38+HLA-DR+CD4+T cells (p=0.006). Resting memory and activated mature B cells increased from birth to 6-12 years in both groups. The development of the immune system in vertically HEU individuals is comparable to the general population in most parameters, but subtle or transient differences exist. Their role in influencing clinical incidences in HEU is unknown.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Criança , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/sangue , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Tempo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Exposição Materna , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Memória Imunológica
17.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-903158

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The right to a healthy pregnancy and to giving birth in a safe environment is source of comprehensive research. Decent birth facilities, respect, and no discrimination are already recognized as fundamental rights, but an accurate look at the outdoor environment is required. Air pollution is a dangerous factor to pregnant women and newborns, many of whom highly exposed to traffic-related atmospheric pollutants in urban areas. Such exposure can lead to low birth weight and long-lasting effects, such as respiratory diseases and premature death. Thus, this commentary, based on the analysis of literature, presents the importance of the exposome concept and of epigenetics in identifying the role of the environment for better health conditions of pregnant women and newborns. In the final considerations, this study proposes the deepening of the subject and the mobilization in this regard, with a human rights-based approach to environmental health and to the increased awareness of pregnant women on the risks of air pollution and its effects on health.


Assuntos
Emissões de Veículos/análise , Exposição Materna/prevenção & controle , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Resultado da Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
18.
Rev. saúde pública ; 51: 5, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-845858

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The right to a healthy pregnancy and to giving birth in a safe environment is source of comprehensive research. Decent birth facilities, respect, and no discrimination are already recognized as fundamental rights, but an accurate look at the outdoor environment is required. Air pollution is a dangerous factor to pregnant women and newborns, many of whom highly exposed to traffic-related atmospheric pollutants in urban areas. Such exposure can lead to low birth weight and long-lasting effects, such as respiratory diseases and premature death. Thus, this commentary, based on the analysis of literature, presents the importance of the exposome concept and of epigenetics in identifying the role of the environment for better health conditions of pregnant women and newborns. In the final considerations, this study proposes the deepening of the subject and the mobilization in this regard, with a human rights-based approach to environmental health and to the increased awareness of pregnant women on the risks of air pollution and its effects on health.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Emissões de Veículos , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Resultado da Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
19.
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(2): 87-90, 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-847958

RESUMO

Biliary atresia (BA) seems to be a multifactorial disorder in which environmental factors interact with the patient's genetic constitution. This study aimed to analyze information concerning environmental risk factors associated with BA in southern Brazil. A case-control study with mothers of patients with BA and mothers of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) was conducted. Inquiry included questions related to exposition to environmental risk factors during the periconceptional and gestational (second and third trimesters) periods. Mothers of BA patients had smoked during pregnancy more frequently in comparison with the mothers of CF patients, but no significant difference was found in a multivariate analysis. There was no between group difference in terms of seasonality, but the multivariate analysis showed a significant difference within the BA group between date of conception in winter compared to other seasons. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy seemed to increase the risk of BA while date of conception in winter decreased it (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Atresia Biliar/epidemiologia , Atresia Biliar/etiologia , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estações do Ano , Fumar/efeitos adversos
20.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 33(2): 118-130, 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1042616

RESUMO

Los cigarrillos electrónicos (Cig-e) son dispositivos que contienen un líquido compuesto por un solvente, saborizantes y, en la mayoría de los casos, nicotina. Este liquido, al ser calentado en el dispositivo, se vaporiza, siendo aspirado por el usuario. En los últimos años, el uso de los Cig-e ha aumentado rápidamente, especialmente entre escolares y gente joven, sin existir hasta el día de hoy evidencias ciertas sobre su seguridad y efectos a largo plazo. En este artículo revisamos la evidencia existente en cuanto a los efectos y seguridad de cada uno de los componentes de los Cig-e y analizamos sus potenciales indicaciones en distintos escenarios clínicos.


Electronic cigarettes (Cig-e) are devices that contain a liquid composed of a solvent, flavors and, in most cases, nicotine. This liquid, when heated in the device, vaporizes, being aspirated by the user. In recent years, the use of Cig-e has increased rapidly, especially among schoolchildren and young people, with no clear evidence of safety and long-term effects to date. In this article we review the existing evidence regarding the effects and safety of each of the components of Cig-e and analyze their potential indications in different clinical scenarios.


Assuntos
Humanos , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/métodos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Segurança , Solventes/administração & dosagem , Solventes/análise , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Exposição Materna , Aerossóis/administração & dosagem , Aerossóis/análise , Aromatizantes , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Nicotina/análise
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