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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 659-664, June 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1098303

RESUMO

Cephalofacial variables and the body height have priority importance in anthropological researches for a chronological study of the anthropological status of peoples. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the changeability of the cephalofacial variables and stature under the influence of exogenous factors during the over 80 years period-time. The realisation of the goal was done by comparing of some anthropometrical data (stature, 5 cephalofacial measurements and 2 cephalofacial indexes) done on the Albanian male population in three different time-line studies (Coon, 1950; Dhima, 1974-84; Rexhepi et al. 2018; cephalofacial measurements, 1997-2008, and stature, 2007-2017). Regarding the cephalofacial variables, some minor systematic differences were found between three different timeline studies, but without contradictions regarding the group's classification according to the corresponding scale. The major and meaningful differences between the three studies are noted in body height (Coon = 169.71 cm, Dhima=171.61cm; Rexhepi et al.=178.23 cm). The results of this study suggested that the timeline difference over 80 years, with all exogenous factor changes (environment, socioeconomic conditions, health, etc.) has a meaningful impact on body height, while not on the substantial changes on cephalofacial variables.


Las variables cefalofaciales y la altura del cuerpo tienen una importancia mayor en las investigaciones antropológicas para un estudio cronológico del estado antropológico de la población. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue evaluar la capacidad de cambio de las variables cefalofaciales y la estatura de acuerdo a la influencia de factores exógenos durante un período de más de 80 años. El objetivo se llevó a cabo mediante la comparación de algunos datos antropométricos (estatura, 5 mediciones cefalofaciales y 2 índices cefalofaciales) realizados en la población masculina albanesa en tres estudios de línea de tiempo diferentes (Coon, 1929-30; Dhima, 1974-84; Mediciones cefalofaciales de Rexhepi et al., 1997-2008, y estatura, 2007-2017). Con respecto a las variables cefalofaciales, se encontraron algunas diferencias sistemáticas menores entre tres estudios de línea de tiempo diferentes, pero sin contradicciones con respecto a la clasificación del grupo, según la escala correspondiente. Las diferencias principales y significativas entre los tres estudios se observaron en la altura del cuerpo (Coon = 169,71 cm, Dhima = 171,61 cm; Rexhepi et al. = 178,23 cm). Los resultados de esta investigación sugieren que la diferencia en la línea de tiempo en un periodo de 80 años, junto a todos los cambios de factores exógenos (ambiente, condiciones socioeconómicas, salud, etc.) tienen un impacto significativo en la altura corporal, mientras que esto no ocurre en los cambios de las variables cefalofaciales.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Estatura , Cefalometria/métodos , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Antropologia , Fatores de Tempo , Albânia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Kosovo
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 737-746, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1098314

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate changes in beige adipocytes at different times of melatonin administration, in the morning (ZT01) or in the evening (ZT11), at 30 mg/kg daily by gavage for 7 weeks or continuously with drinking water in the term of high-calorie diet-induced obesity (HCD). Melatonin received at ZT11 or with drinking water resulted in an increased area of the browning zone in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT), even in rats with HCD (compared with Control or HCD, respectively). The beige adipocyte and lipid droplet area after melatonin use were reduced compared to those with HCD and Control, in all administration modes (group ZT01 showed smaller changes compared to ZT11 or with drinking water groups). The fibrosis level decreased and significantly differed in HCD ZT01, HCD ZT11, and HCD water compared to that in HCD; moreover, the lowest value determined in HCD water, reached the control parameters. Furthermore, the IL-1b and IL-8 level was decreased in the HCD groups under melatonin treatment at ZT11 or with drinking water compared to that in HCD. The obtained results suggest that melatonin promotes sWAT browning in rats with diet-induced obesity and influences morphological signs of normal rats depending on the time of administration. Different functional activity of beige adipocytes was observed after melatonin was used depending on the time of administration, resulting in heat production and lipolysis (the relative mass of visceral fat was likewise diminished). More rapid browning was observed when melatonin treatment was performed at 1 h before lights-off (ZT11) or continuously via drinking water. Melatonin acted on beige adipocytes of obese rats through changing some parameters such as the area of adipocytes and lipid drops, the number of lipid drops, the relative area browning of sWAT, and the level of tissue fibrosis.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los cambios en los adipocitos beige en diferentes momentos de la administración de melatonina, en la mañana (ZT01) o por la noche (ZT11). Se administraron 30 mg/kg diariamente por sonda durante 7 semanas o continuamente con agua potable durante el periodo de obesidad inducida por una dieta alta en calorías (HCD). La melatonina recibida en ZT11 o con agua potable resultó en un aumento de área dorada en tejido adiposo blanco subcutáneo (sWAT), incluso en ratas con HCD (en comparación con Control o HCD, respectivamente). El área de gotas de lípidos y adipocitos de color beige después del uso de melatonina se redujo en comparación con aquellos con HCD y Control, en todos los modos de administración (el grupo ZT01 mostró cambios más pequeños en comparación con ZT11 o con grupos de agua potable). El nivel de fibrosis disminuyó y difirió significativamente en HCD ZT01, HCD ZT11 y agua HCD, en comparación con el HCD; además, el valor más bajo determinado en agua HCD alcanzó los parámetros de control. Además, el nivel de IL-1b e IL-8 disminuyó en los grupos HCD bajo tratamiento con melatonina en ZT11 o con agua potable en comparación con el de HCD. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la melatonina promueve el dorado sWAT en ratas con obesidad inducida por la dieta e influye en los signos morfológicos de las ratas normales dependiendo del momento de la administración. Se observó una actividad funcional diferente de los adipocitos de color beige después de usar melatonina dependiendo del tiempo de administración, dando como resultado la producción de calor y lipólisis (la masa relativa de grasa visceral también disminuyó). Se observó un ennegrecimiento más rápido cuando el tratamiento con melatonina se realizó 1 h antes de apagar las luces (ZT11) o de forma continua en grupos de agua potable. La melatonina actuó en los adipocitos beige de ratas obesas al cambiar algunos parámetros, como el área de adipocitos y gotas de lípidos, el número de gotas de lípidos, el área relativa de ennegrecimiento de sWAT y el nivel de fibrosis tisular.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Adipócitos Bege/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/administração & dosagem , Obesidade , Fatores de Tempo , Fibrose , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Interleucina-8/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta , Interleucina-1beta/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(2): 346-350, mayo 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1099683

RESUMO

The CoVID-19 pandemic may limit health resources in the hospital setting for the management of seriously ill patients, mainly adults; For this reason, strategies should be established from the pediatric field, which can consequently have an impact on the number of beds usually assigned to the child population. Of the patients who use prolonged mechanical ventilation, a significant number are managed at home, being considered to be at high risk of hospitalization and complications; on the other hand, there are some of them that remain institutionalized for clinical and / or social reasons. This article aims to provide guidelines for its safe handling both at home and in the pediatric services of our country, during times of pandemic CoVID - 19.


La pandemia de CoVID-19, puede limitar el recurso en salud en el escenario intrahospitalario para el manejo de pacientes graves, principalmente adultos; por lo cual se deben establecer estrategias desde el ámbito pediátrico, que pueden repercutir consecuentemente en los días camas destinados habitualmente a la población infantil. De los pacientes que emplean ventilación mecánica prolongada, un número importante es manejado en domicilio, siendo considerados de alto riesgo de hospitalización y complicaciones; por otro lado, existen algunos de ellos que permanecen institucionalizados por razones clínicas y/o sociales. Este artículo pretende entregar orientaciones para su manejo seguro, tanto en domicilio como en los servicios de pediatría de nuestro país, durante tiempos de pandemia CoVID ­ 19.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Pandemias
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 241-246, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1056429

RESUMO

El intervalo postmortem (IPM) es un importante desafío a resolver en patología forense, y consiste en poder determinar el tiempo transcurrido desde la muerte hasta el momento de la autopsia. Dada la poca confiablidad de algunos métodos por la gran influencia de factores externos, la Histoquímica (HQ) y la Inmunohistoquímica (IHQ), entre otros, han recibido considerable atención por sus niveles de objetividad en la investigación forense. Se presenta una revisión con búsqueda sistemática de estudios experimentales que apliquen métodos HQs e IHQs para la estimación del IPM sobre material cadavérico humano. Se identificaron 1053 artículos de los cuales 12 cumplieron con los criterios, a los que se agregaron 4 mediante una búsqueda manual (n=16 artículos). Alemania fue el país con más publicaciones destacando con 8 artículos. Las técnicas HQs de AgNORs, TRAP y PAS fueron utilizadas en 5 estudios (glándulas sudoríparas, piel, hígado, médula ósea y mucosa labial), mientras que las IHQs fueron empleadas con diferentes grupos antigénicos en 12 estudios (páncreas, cerebro, pulmón, tiroides, hígado, glándulas pituitarias, glándulas sudoríparas y mucosa gingival). Las estimaciones del IPM fueron posibles con márgenes entre 2-3 h. hasta los 20 días dependiendo de la técnica. El análisis de tejidos provenientes de cavidad oral asegura una vía no invasiva, de fácil acceso y bajo resguardo natural a la influencia de factores ambientales. Si bien no existe un método único que permita de manera confiable estas estimaciones, la introducción de nuevas técnicas permitiría evitar la producción de errores.


The postmortem interval (IPM) is an important challenge to be solved in forensic pathology, and it consists in determine the time elapsed since death until the autopsy. Given the low reliability of some methods due to the great influence of external factors, Histochemistry (HQ) and Immunohistochemistry (IHQ), among others, have received considerable attention for their levels of objectivity in forensic investigation. A scoping review of experimental studies that apply HQs and IHQs methods to estimate the MPI on human cadaveric material is presented. We identified 1053 articles, of which 12 met the criteria; we added 4 articles through a manual search (n = 16 articles). Germany was the most productive country, with 8 articles. HQ techniques of AgNORs, TRAP and PAS were used in 5 studies (on sweat glands, skin, liver, bone marrow and labial mucosa), while IHQs techniques were used with different antigenic groups in 12 studies (on pancreas, brain, lung, thyroid, liver, pituitary glands, sweat glands and gingival mucosa). IPM estimates were possible with margins between 2-3 hours up to 20 days depending on the technique. The analysis of oral tissues ensures a non-invasive route, easily accessible and under natural protection to the influence of environmental factors. Although there is no single method that reliably allows these estimates, the introduction of new techniques would prevent the production of errors.


Assuntos
Humanos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Autopsia/métodos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Cadáver , Medicina Legal
6.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 133(1): 12-20, mar. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1097697

RESUMO

La rigidez cadavérica (rigor mortis) es un proceso no muy bien comprendido por la mayoría de los médicos. El conocimiento de la intimidad del proceso de la rigidez cadavérica es de vital importancia ya que es una de las variables que junto con las livideces (livor mortis) y la temperatura (algor mortis) del cadáver ayudan a determinar el cronotanatodiagnóstico, tanatocronodiagnóstico o intervalo postmortal del período inmediato de la muerte. Para entender el mecanismo de la rigidez y el espasmo cadavérico es preciso hacer un repaso de la contracción muscular fisiológica en el vivo. Hay que tener presente que el tipo de fibra muscular predominante modificará las características de la contracción muscular fisiológica en el vivo, y también la rigidez y el espasmo cadavérico. (AU)


The cadaveric rigidity (rigor mortis) is a process which is not very well understood by the majority of the doctors. The knowledge of the intimacy of the cadaveric stiffness process is of vital importance since it is one of the variables that, as well as the postmortem lividity (livor mortis) and the body temperature post mortem (algor mortis) help determine the chronotanatodiagnostic, tanatochronodiagnostic or postmortal interval of the immediate period of death. In order to understand the mechanism of stiffness and cadaveric spasm, it is necessary to review the physiological muscle contraction in vivo. We should keep in mind that the predominant type of muscle fiber will modify the characteristics of physiological muscle contraction in vivo, as well as stiffness and cadaveric spasm. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Rigor Mortis/fisiopatologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Relaxamento Muscular/fisiologia
7.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 18-23, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1090550

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Cholesteatomas are benign tumors consisting of skin, and growing inside a retraction pocket in the tympanic membrane. Cholesteatomas can occupy the entirety of the middle ear, and are known for their osteolytic capabilities. Surgery is the only curative treatment for cholesteatomas. Objective To describe the risk of recurrence after first-time surgically-treated middle- ear cholesteatoma (STMEC1) on the island of Funen from 1983 to 2015. Methods Cases of STMEC1 were identified in the Danish National Hospital Register. The medical records were reviewed. Time-to-event analyses were applied. The ears were followed from STMEC1 to a secondary cholesteatoma, emigration, death, or end of follow-up. Results Records from 1,006 patients with STMEC1 were reviewed. A total of 54 patients were submitted to surgery on both ears. The total sample consisted of 1,060 ears with STMEC1; 300 were children's (< 16 years) ears, and 760 were adult's ears. The total observation time was of 12,049 years. The overall estimated proportion with recurrence 5 years after surgery was of 37% in children and of 15% in adults. The older the child was at the first surgery, the risk decreased by 7% per year. In children, canal wall up (CWU) mastoidectomy without obliteration was associated with a hazard ratio for recurrence of 1.9 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.2-3.0) compared with CWU with obliteration. Conclusion Compared with adults, children were had 2.6 times more risk of recurrence. Procedures performed without mastoidectomy had the lowest risk of recurrence. In children, obliteration was associated with a significantly lower risk of recurrence. However, patients were not randomized regarding the surgical approach; thus, the association between approach and risk of recurrence was likely influenced by confounding factors.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias da Orelha/cirurgia , Colesteatoma da Orelha Média/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Análise de Sobrevida , Registros Médicos , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cirurgia de Second-Look , Dinamarca , Mastoidectomia/métodos
8.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 68-71, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1055368

RESUMO

Objective: Circadian dysregulation plays an important role in the etiology of mood disorders. Evening chronotype is frequent in these patients. However, prospective studies about the influence of chronotype on mood symptoms have reached unclear conclusions in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). The objective of this study was to investigate relationship between chronotype and prognostic factors for BD. Methods: At the baseline, 80 euthymic BD patients answered a demographic questionnaire and clinical scales to evaluate anxiety, functioning and chronotype. Circadian preference was measured using the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, in which lower scores indicate eveningness. Mood episodes and hospitalizations were evaluated monthly for 18 months. Results: Among the BD patients, 14 (17.5%) were definitely morning type, 35 (43.8%), moderately morning, 27 (33.7%) intermediate (neither) and 4 (5%) moderately evening. Eveningness was associated with obesity or overweight (p = 0.03), greater anxiety (p = 0.002) and better functioning (p = 0.01), as well as with mood episodes (p = 0.04), but not with psychiatric hospitalizations (p = 0.82). This group tended toward depressive episodes (p = 0.06), but not (hypo)mania (p = 0.56). Conclusion: This study indicated that evening chronotype predicts a poor prognostic for BD. It reinforces the relevance of treating rhythm disruptions even during euthymia to improve patient quality of life and prevent mood episodes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Prognóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Tempo , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 27-32, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1055350

RESUMO

Objective: Patients with schizophrenia have visual processing impairments. The main findings from the literature indicate that these deficits may be related to differences in paradigms, medications, and illness duration. This study is part of a large-scale study investigating visual sensitivity in schizophrenia. Here we aimed to investigate the combined effects of illness duration and antipsychotic use on contrast sensitivity function. Methods: Data were collected from 50 healthy controls and 50 outpatients with schizophrenia (classified according to illness duration and medication type) aged 20-45 years old. The contrast sensitivity function was measured for spatial frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 20 cycles per degree using linear sine-wave gratings. Results: Patients with an illness duration > 5 years had more pronounced deficits. Differences in the combined effects of illness duration and antipsychotic use were marked in patients on typical antipsychotics who had been ill > 10 years. No significant differences were found between typical and atypical antipsychotics in patients with an illness duration < 5 years. Conclusion: Visual impairment was related to both long illness duration and medication type. These results should be tested in further studies to investigate pharmacological mechanisms.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Transtornos da Visão/induzido quimicamente , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Fatores de Tempo , Visão Ocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sensibilidades de Contraste/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Clorpromazina/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 54-62, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1055351

RESUMO

Objective: Although studies have shown an association between poor sleep and chronotype with psychiatric problems in young adults, few have focused on identifying multiple concomitant risk factors. Methods: We assessed depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), circadian typology (Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire [MEQ]), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale [PSS]), social rhythm (Social Rhythm Metrics [SRM]), and salivary cortisol (morning, evening and night, n=37) in 236 men (all 18 years old). Separate analyses were conducted to understand how each PSQI domain was associated with depressive symptoms. Results: Depressive symptoms were more prevalent in individuals with higher perceived stress (prevalence ratio [PR] = 6.429, p < 0.001), evening types (PR = 2.58, p < 0.001) and poor sleepers (PR = 1.808, p = 0.046). Multivariate modeling showed that these three variables were independently associated with depressive symptoms (all p < 0.05). The PSQI items subjective sleep quality and sleep disturbances were significantly more prevalent in individuals with depressive symptoms (PR = 2.210, p = 0.009 and PR = 2.198, p = 0.008). Lower levels of morning cortisol were significantly associated with higher depressive scores (r = -0.335; p = 0.043). Conclusion: It is important to evaluate multiple factors related to sleep and chronotype in youth depression studies, since this can provide important tools for comprehending and managing mental health problems.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Militares/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Valores de Referência , Saliva/metabolismo , Sono/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Variância , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Depressão/metabolismo , Autorrelato
11.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 46-53, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1055354

RESUMO

Objective: To conduct a geospatial analysis of suicide deaths among young people in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil, and evaluate their association with socioeconomic and spatial determinants. Methods: Data were obtained from the Mortality Information System and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Data on suicide mortality rates (SMR) were extracted for three age groups (15-19, 20-24, and 25-29 years) from two 5-year periods (1998-2002 and 2008-2012). Geospatial data were analyzed through exploratory spatial data analysis. We applied Bayesian networks algorithms to explore the network structure of the socioeconomic predictors of SMR. Results: We observed spatial dependency in SMR in both periods, revealing geospatial clusters of high SMR. Our results show that socioeconomic deprivation at the municipality level was an important determinant of suicide in the youth population in Paraná, and significantly influenced the formation of high-risk SMR clusters. Conclusion: While youth suicide is multifactorial, there are predictable geospatial and sociodemographic factors associated with high SMR among municipalities in Paraná. Suicide among youth aged 15-29 occurs in geographic clusters which are associated with socioeconomic deprivation. Rural settings with poor infrastructure and development also correlate with increased SMR clusters.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio Consumado/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Brasil , Fatores de Risco , Teorema de Bayes , Cidades , Distribuição por Idade , Análise Espaço-Temporal
12.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 72-76, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1055367

RESUMO

Objective: Depression has been associated with hepatitis C, as well as with its treatment with proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., interferon). The new direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have minimal adverse effects and high potency, with a direct inhibitory effect on non-structural viral proteins. We studied the incidence and associated factors of depression in a real-life prospective cohort of chronic hepatitis C patients treated with the new DAAs. Methods: The sample was recruited from a cohort of 91 patients with hepatitis C, of both sexes, with advanced level of fibrosis and no HIV coinfection, consecutively enrolled during a 6-month period for DAA treatment; those euthymic at baseline (n=54) were selected. All were evaluated through the depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9-DSM-IV), at three time points: baseline, 4 weeks, and end-of-treatment. Results: The cumulative incidence (95%CI) of major depression and any depressive disorder during DAA treatment was 13% (6.4-24.4) and 46.3% (33.7-59.4), respectively. No differences were observed between those patients with and without cirrhosis or ribavirin treatment (p > 0.05). Risk factors for incident major depression during DAA treatment included family depression (relative risk 9.1 [1.62-51.1]), substance use disorder (11.0 [1.7-73.5]), and baseline PHQ-9 score (2.1 [1.1-3.1]). Conclusions: The findings of this study highlight the importance of screening for new depression among patients receiving new DAAs, and identify potential associated risk factors.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C/psicologia , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Modelos Logísticos , Incidência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 43: 23-31, Jan. 2020. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1087514

RESUMO

Background: Hong Qu glutinous rice wine (HQGRW) is brewed under non-aseptic fermentation conditions, so it usually has a relatively high total acid content. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of the bacterial communities and total acid during the fermentation of HQGRW and elucidate the correlation between total acid and bacterial communities. Results: The results showed that the period of rapid acid increase during fermentation occurred at the early stage of fermentation. There was a negative response between total acid increase and the rate of increase in alcohol during the early fermentation stage. Bacterial community analysis using high-throughput sequencing technology was found that the dominant bacterial communities changed during the traditional fermentation of HQGRW. Both principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that there was a great difference between the bacterial communities of Hong Qu starter and those identified during the fermentation process. Furthermore, the key bacteria likely to be associated with total acid were identified by Spearman's correlation analysis. Lactobacillus, unclassified Lactobacillaceae, and Pediococcus were found, which can make significant contributions to the total acid development (| r| N 0.6 with FDR adjusted P b 0.05), establishing that these bacteria can associate closely with the total acid of rice wine. Conclusions: This was the first study to investigate the correlation between bacterial communities and total acid during the fermentation of HQGRW. These findings may be helpful in the development of a set of fermentation techniques for controlling total acid.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Vinho/microbiologia , Pediococcus/isolamento & purificação , Pediococcus/genética , Pediococcus/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Acetobacter/isolamento & purificação , Acetobacter/genética , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise de Sequência , Biologia Computacional , Análise de Componente Principal , Fermentação , Microbiota , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/metabolismo
14.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 27(1): 34-40, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1090406

RESUMO

RESUMO Na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) pediátrica, a falha de extubação pode aumentar o risco de mortalidade. Este estudo objetivou: (1) verificar a taxa de falha de extubação na UTI pediátrica de um hospital público do município de Bauru (São Paulo, Brasil); (2) identificar a principal causa atribuída à falha de extubação; (3) avaliar se características como a idade e o tempo de ventilação mecânica invasiva (VMI) estão associadas à falha de extubação; (4) avaliar se o tempo de permanência na UTI e hospital é maior entre os pacientes que apresentaram falha de extubação. Foi realizado estudo de coorte retrospectivo com 89 pacientes internados de maio de 2017 até julho de 2018. Os resultados mostraram taxa de falha de extubação correspondente a 16%. A principal causa atribuída à falha de extubação foi o estridor laríngeo, totalizando 57% dos casos. A comparação intergrupos (sucesso vs. falha de extubação) não mostrou diferenças em relação à idade (p=0,294) e ao tempo de VMI (p=0,228). No entanto, observamos que o grupo falha de extubação apresentou maior tempo de UTI (p=0,000) e hospital (p=0,010). Desta forma, concluímos que a taxa de extubação está de acordo com a observada em outros estudos. O estridor laríngeo foi responsável por mais da metade dos casos de falha de extubação. Embora a idade e o tempo de VMI não tenham sido características associadas à falha de extubação, esta contribuiu para o maior período de permanência na UTI e no hospital.


RESUMEN En la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) pediátrica, el fracaso de la extubación puede aumentar el riesgo de mortalidad. Este estudio tuvo el objetivo de: (1) verificar el índice de fracaso de la extubación en la UCI pediátrica de un hospital público en el municipio de Bauru (São Paulo, Brasil); (2) identificar la causa principal atribuida al fracaso de la extubación; (3) evaluar si las características edad y tiempo de ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI) están asociadas al fracaso de la extubación; (4) evaluar si la duración en la UCI y el hospital es mayor entre los pacientes que experimentaron este fracaso. Se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo con 89 pacientes hospitalizados desde mayo de 2017 hasta julio de 2018. Los índices del fracaso de la extubación fueron del 16%. El estridor laríngeo fue la causa principal atribuida al fracaso de la extubación, lo que totaliza el 57% de los casos. La comparación intergrupal (éxito versus fracaso de la extubación) no presentó diferencias en relación con la edad (p=0,294) y el tiempo VMI (p=0,228). Se observó que el grupo fracaso de la extubación estuvo más tiempo en la UCI (p=0,000) y el hospital (p=0,010). Se concluye que el índice de extubación está en consonancia con lo observado en otros estudios. El estridor laríngeo fue el responsable de más de la mitad de los casos de fracaso de la extubación. Las características edad y el tiempo de VMI no estuvieron asociadas al fracaso de la extubación, pero esta contribuyó a un período más prolongado en la UCI y en el hospital.


ABSTRACT In the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU), extubation failure may increase mortality risk. This study aimed: (1) to verify the rate of extubation failure in the pediatric ICU of a public hospital located in the city of Bauru (São Paulo, Brazil); (2) to identify the main cause attributed to extubation failure; (3) to evaluate whether age and time of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) are characteristics associated to extubation failure; (4) to evaluate whether the length of stay in the ICU/hospital is longer among patients who presented extubation failure. A retrospective study was performed with 89 hospitalized patients from May 2017 to July 2018. Results showed an extubation failure rate corresponding to 16%. The main cause attributed to extubation failure was laryngeal stridor, totaling 57% of the cases. Intergroup comparison (success vs. failure of extubation) showed no differences in relation to age (p=0.294) and IMV time (p=0.228). However, we observed that the extubation failure group had longer ICU (p=0.000) and hospital time (p=0.010). In this way, we conclude that the rate of extubation failure is in agreement with other studies. Laryngeal stridor was responsible for more than half of cases of extubation failure. Although IMV time and age were not associated with the extubation failure, they contributed to a longer stay in the ICU and in the hospital.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Extubação/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores Etários , Falha de Tratamento , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Extubação/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação
16.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(3): 110-117, 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1117582

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: El yodo radiactivo (131I) es una opción terapeútica segura y eficaz cuando se utiliza solo o con la estimulación previa de TSH recombinante humana (rhTSH) en el tratamiento del bocio multinodular (BMN). En espera de ensayos clínicos que determinen la dosis óptima, demuestren seguridad y confirmen la eficacia, diferentes protocolos se utilizan para aplicar la dosis de 131I. Analizamos la respuesta al tratamiento con una dosis calculada por protocolo mixto (dosis fijas y cálculo por porcentaje de captación) en pacientes con BMN toxico y no toxico en nuestro hospital, en el periodo 2010-2013. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio prospectivo en pacientes con BMN no quirúrgico (BMNNQ) que requerían reducción del volumen glandular y/o tratamiento del hipertiroidismo. Se evaluaron 134 pacientes, 14 cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión (13mujeres) de edad media 71.08 años. Un grupo con BMN toxico, otro grupo con BMN no toxico, un tercer grupo con BMN no toxico estimulado con 0,1 mg de rhTSH previo a la dosis. Se evaluó, función tiroidea, captación tiroidea de 99ᵐTc, volumen tiroideo y síntomas compresivos. Se siguió a los pacientes durante 12 meses. RESULTADOS: Se aplicaron dosis entre 15 y 30 mCi de 131I. Remitió el hipertiroidismo en 6 de 7 pacientes. Hubo una reducción del volumen glandular (p<0.01).Los pacientes con estímulo de 0,1 mg rhTSH, aumentaron el porcentaje de captación de 99ᵐTc a las 24 h en un 32.43±10.61 permitiendo aplicar menor dosis de 131I. La tasa de aparición de hipotiroidismo fue de 7.41 por cada 100 pacientes.mes, mayor en pacientes con BMN toxico tratados con dosis bajas (p-=0.03). Hubo una mejoría subjetiva de la clínica compresiva en todos los pacientes. No hubo eventos adversos. CONCLUSIONES: Una dosis de 131I calculada por protocolo mixto es efectiva y segura para la reducción del volumen glandular y control del hipertiroidismo asociado. La estimulación con rhTSH logra el mismo efecto con una menor dosis administrada.


OBJECTIVE: Radioactive iodine (131I) is a safe and effective therapeutic option when used alone or with prior stimulation of recombinant human Thyrotropin (rhTSH) in the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG). In absence of clinical trials that determine the optimal dose, demonstrate safety and confirm efficacy, different protocols are used to apply the dose of 131I. We analyze the response to treatment with a dose calculated by mixed protocol (fixed doses and calculation by percentage of uptake) in patients with toxic and non-toxic MNG in our hospital, in the period 2010-2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study in patients with non-surgical MNG that required glandular volume reduction and / or treatment of hyperthyroidism. 134 patients were evaluated, 14 met the inclusion criteria (13 women) of average age 71.08 years. One group with toxic MNG, another group with non-toxic MNG and a third with non-toxic multinodular goiter stimulated with 0.1 mg of rhTSH prior to the dose. Patients were followed for 12 months. Upon following, we assessed Thyroid function, 99ᵐTc thyroid uptake, thyroid volume and compressive symptoms. RESULTS: Doses between 15 and 30 mCi of 131I were applied. We observed hyperthyroidism remission in 6 of 7 patients. There was a reduction in glandular volume (p <0.01) considering all patients. Patients with a stimulus of 0.1 mg rhTSH, increased the percentage of uptake of 99ᵐTc at 24 h by 32.43 ± 10.61, allowing a lower dose of 131I to be applied. The rate of onset of hypothyroidism was 7.41 per 100 patients-month, and was higher in patients with toxic MNG treated with low doses (p = 0.03). There was a subjective improvement of the compression clinic in all patients. No adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: A dose of 131I calculated by a mixed protocol is effective and safe for achieving glandular volume reduction and associated hyperthyroidism control. Stimulation with rhTSH produces the same effect with a lower administered dose.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Tirotropina Alfa/uso terapêutico , Bócio Nodular/radioterapia , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Terapia Combinada , Pertecnetato Tc 99m de Sódio , Bócio Nodular/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(1): 1-7, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas), BBO | ID: biblio-1049765

RESUMO

Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito in vitro de águas aromatizadas no esmalte dental humano utilizando um método gravimétrico. Material e Métodos: As superfícies linguais dos molares inferiores foram utilizadas para obter amostras de esmalte. O esmalte (n = 3) foi lavado, seco, e posteriormente imerso em 6 diferentes águas aromatizadas com gás disponíveis na região, e avaliado periodicamente por até 9 dias através de análise gravimétrica. Além disso, as medições de pH das águas aromatizadas foram registradas. Resultados: Todas as águas aromatizadas testadas apresentaram valores de pH abaixo do pH crítico. Os testes t pareados demonstraram reduções significativas na massa média do grupo para todas as amostras de esmalte desde o primeiro dia após a imersão em água com sabor, em comparação com as medições de referência. Reduções adicionais na massa média continuaram até o nono dia de imersão. Conclusão: As águas aromatizadas são potencialmente erosivas para as amostras de esmalte humano, sendo o efeito erosivo cumulativo ao longo do tempo. (AU)


Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro effect of flavored waters on human tooth enamel using a gravimetric method. Lingual surfaces of lower molars were used to obtain enamel specimens. Material and Methods: Enamel (n=3) was washed and dried, immersed in 6 flavors of locally available flavored sparkling water and assessed using gravimetric analysis, periodically for up to 9 days. Additionally, pH measurements of the flavored waters were recorded. Results: All the tested flavored waters showed pH values below that of critical pH. Paired t-tests demonstrated significant reductions in the mean group mass for all enamel specimens from as early as day 1 after immersion in flavored water, compared to baseline measurements. Further reductions in mean mass continued up to day 9 of immersion. Conclusion: Flavored waters are potentially erosive to human enamel specimens with the erosive effect being cumulative over time. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Erosão Dentária , Esmalte Dentário , Gravimetria , Água Carbonatada , Aromatizantes , Fatores de Tempo , Técnicas In Vitro , Água Carbonatada/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Dente Molar
18.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3266, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1101728

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To verify factors associated with early newborn access to biological neonatal screening. Method: A cross-sectional quantitative study was carried out with all newborns who underwent tests in healthcare units, hospitals, and laboratories of a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, with programs linking healthcare information. The following variables were investigated: child's age at collection (dependent); place of collection; date of collection; and type of user (independent). Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. Results: Records of 15,652 screenings were found in the two years analyzed. In the first year analyzed, 7,955 births and 7,640 (96.0%) tests were recorded, of which 5,586 (73.1%) were undertaken with newborns between three and five days old. In the next year analyzed, 8,316 births and 8,012 (96.3%) screenings were recorded, of which 7,025 (87.6%) were undertaken with newborns in the same age group. A statistically significant association was found between the variables "child's age" and "type of user" in one year, and between the variables "child's age" and "place of collection" in both years. Conclusion: Early access to these tests enables the screening of diseases and referral for treatment. The present study contributes to the management of child care programs by presenting strategies linking data and actions to improve access to biological neonatal screening.


Resumo Objetivo: verificar fatores associados ao acesso precoce de recém-nascidos à triagem neonatal biológica. Método: estudo transversal, quantitativo, com todos os bebês que realizaram exame em unidades de saúde, hospitais ou laboratórios de um município do estado de São Paulo, Brasil, com programas que vinculam informações de atenção à saúde. Foram investigadas as variáveis: idade da criança na coleta (dependente), local da coleta, data da coleta, tipo de usuário (independentes). Aplicou-se estatística descritiva e inferencial. Resultados: há registro de 15.652 triagens nos dois anos analisados. No primeiro ano analisado, ocorreram 7.955 nascimentos e 7.640 (96,0%) exames, 5.586 (73,1%) deles em recém-nascidos de três a cinco dias de vida. Para 8.316 bebês nascidos no ano seguinte, foram registradas 8.012 (96,3%) triagens, 7.025 (87,6%) delas na mesma faixa etária. Encontrou-se associação estatisticamente significativa entre as variáveis "idade da criança" e "tipo de usuário" em um ano, e entre "idade da criança" e "local da coleta" em ambos os anos. Conclusão: o acesso precoce ao exame oportuniza a triagem de doenças e o encaminhamento para tratamento. O estudo contribui com a gestão de programas de atenção à criança, ao apresentar estratégias que articulam informações e ações para melhoria do acesso à triagem neonatal biológica.


Resumo Objetivo: verificar factores asociados al acceso precoz del recién nacido al tamizaje neonatal biológico. Método: estudio transversal, cuantitativo, con todos los bebés examinados en unidades de salud, hospitales o laboratorios de un municipio del estado de São Paulo, Brasil; con programas integradores de información de atención de salud. Fueron investigadas las variables: edad del niño en la recolección (dependiente), lugar de recolección, fecha de recolección y tipo de usuario (dependientes). Se aplicó estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Resultados: existen registrados 15.652 triajes en los dos años estudiados. Durante el primero, ocurrieron 7.955 nacimientos y 7.640 (96,0%) análisis, 5.586 (73,1%) en recién nacidos de tres a cinco días de vida. Hubo 8.316 nacimientos en el año siguiente, se registraron 8.012 triajes, 7.025 (87,6%) para la misma faja etaria. Se encontró asociación estadísticamente significante entre las variables "edad del niño" y "tipo de usuario" en un año, y entre "edad del niño" y lugar de recolección" en ambos años. Conclusión: el acceso precoz al análisis permite el tamizaje de enfermedades y la derivación para tratamiento. El estudio contribuye a la gestión de programas de atención infantil, presentando estrategias que articulan información y acciones para mejorar el acceso al tamizaje neonatal biológico.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Fatores de Tempo , Brasil , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem Neonatal , Diagnóstico Precoce , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Programas Nacionais de Saúde
19.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 21: 43161, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS (Américas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1087312

RESUMO

Objetivo: propor uma diretriz de monitorização de complicações pós-operatórias de pacientes no ambiente domiciliar. Métodos: pesquisa desenvolvida por meio da técnica Delphi com 45 profissionais de saúde brasileiros. Utilizaram-se o Google Forms para coleta de dados e a escala Likert para fins de consenso. Os dados foram analisados utilizando técnicas qualitativas (análise de conteúdo) e quantitativas (análise de frequências e percentuais). Resultados: foram elencadas 16 complicações elegíveis para serem utilizadas no monitoramento de pacientes cirúrgicos no pós-alta, sinais e sintomas a serem observados, frequência e tempo de monitoramento. De acordo com os juízes, é necessário o monitoramento, ao menos uma vez por dia (68,8%), do egresso cirúrgico. O tempo máximo de monitoramento apresentou variação de 48 horas até 30 dias, no caso de risco de infecção. Conclusão: a diretriz se mostra válida para ser usada na detecção de complicações em egressos cirúrgicos no domicílio e antever a necessidade de reinternação.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Assistência ao Convalescente , Assistência Domiciliar , Período Pós-Operatório , Fatores de Tempo , Monitorização Fisiológica
20.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 21: 42370, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS (Américas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1053226

RESUMO

Objetivo: determinar o perfil clínico-epidemiológico de pacientes cirúrgicos com ressecamento ocular e com o diagnóstico de enfermagem Risco de ressecamento ocular, no período pós-operatório. Métodos: estudo transversal, com 82 pacientes em pós-operatório. Para análise, utilizaram-se as frequências, medidas do centro de distribuição e respectivas variabilidades. Resultados: prevalência equivalente entre o ressecamento ocular e o diagnóstico de enfermagem. A média de idade foi 57,7 anos para pacientes com ressecamento ocular e 59,6 anos para aqueles com o diagnóstico de risco. Em ambos os grupos, existiu predominância do sexo feminino, cirurgias cardiovasculares e uso de anestésico geral. O tempo de procedimento cirúrgico obteve mediana de 105 minutos para pacientes com ressecamento ocular e 67,5 minutos para aqueles com o diagnóstico de risco. Conclusão: predominância de mulheres em meia idade submetidas a cirurgias eletivas de motivos cardiovasculares para ambos os grupos, entretanto, com tempo de procedimento cirúrgico distinto.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Diagnóstico de Enfermagem , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Período Pós-Operatório , Postura , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardiovasculares , Fatores de Tempo , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos/efeitos adversos
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