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1.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-758485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the efficacy of the white matter (WM) to gray matter (GM) signal intensity ratio (SIR) in predicting the clinical prognosis of cardiac arrest patients. METHODS: Thirty-one patients who were resuscitated from cardiac arrest and underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were investigated retrospectively. Thirty one subjects with normal brain MRI findings served as the controls. The signal intensities (SI) were measured on T2-weighted image (T2WI). The circular regions of measurement (2–10 mm²) were placed over the regions of interest, and the average signals in GM and WM were recorded in the caudate nucleus (CN), putamen, anterior limb of the internal capsule, corpus callosum (CC), and in the cortex and WM of the frontal lobe. Cerebral performance category (CPC) 1–2 were classified as a good prognosis, and CPC 3–5 were classified as a poor prognosis. RESULTS: Most combinations of the SIR of WM to GM and most SIs of GM, except the frontal cortex, were significantly different between the two groups. On the other hand, the SI of WM was insignificant between both groups. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the SIR of the CC to CN had an area under the ROC curve (AUROC) of 1.00 for a cut-off value of 1.59 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 100%), the SIR of the CC to putamen had also an AUROC of 1.00 for a cut-off value of 1.43 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 100%). CONCLUSION: The SIR of WM to GM measured on a T2WI is related to the neurological outcome after a cardiac arrest.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Núcleo Caudado , Coma , Corpo Caloso , Extremidades , Lobo Frontal , Substância Cinzenta , Mãos , Parada Cardíaca , Humanos , Cápsula Interna , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Prognóstico , Putamen , Estudos Retrospectivos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Substância Branca
2.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 474-484, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-763780

RESUMO

Absence seizures (AS) are generalized non-convulsive seizures characterized by a brief loss of consciousness and spike-and-wave discharges (SWD) in an electroencephalogram (EEG). A number of animal models have been developed to explain the mechanisms of AS, and thalamo-cortical networks are considered to be involved. However, the cortical foci have not been well described in mouse models of AS. This study aims to use a high density EEG in pathophysiologically different AS models to compare the spatiotemporal patterns of SWDs. We used two AS models: a pharmacologically induced model (gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, GHB model) and a transgenic model (phospholipase beta4 knock-out, PLCβ4 model). The occurrences of SWDs were confirmed by thalamic recordings. The topographical analysis of SWDs showed that the onset and propagation patterns were markedly distinguishable between the two models. In the PLCβ4 model, the foci were located within the somatosensory cortex followed by propagation to the frontal cortex, whereas in the GHB model, a majority of SWDs was initiated in the prefrontal cortex followed by propagation to the posterior cortex. In addition, in the GHB model, foci were also observed in other cortical areas. This observation indicates that different cortical networks are involved in the generation of SWDs across the two models.


Assuntos
Animais , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência , Lobo Frontal , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Convulsões , Córtex Somatossensorial , Inconsciência
3.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-763532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dopamine plays a significant role in working memory by acting as a key neuromodulator between brain networks. Additionally, treatment of patients with schizophrenia using amisulpride, a pure dopamine class 2/3 receptor antagonist, improves their clinical symptoms with fewer side effects. We hypothesized that patients with schizophrenia treated with amisulpride and aripiprazole show increased working memory and glucose metabolism compared with those treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and aripiprazole instead. METHODS: Sixteen patients with schizophrenia (eight in the amisulpride group [aripiprazole+amisulpride] and eight in the CBT group [aripiprazole+CBT]) and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were recruited for a 12-week-long prospective trial. An [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computerized tomography scanner was used to acquire the images. RESULTS: After 12 weeks of treatment, the amisulpride group showed greater improvement in the Letter-Number Span scores than the CBT group. Additionally, although brain metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus, left occipital lingual gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobe was increased in all patients with schizophrenia, the amisulpride group exhibited a greater increase in metabolism in both the right superior frontal gyrus and right frontal precentral gyrus than the CBT group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a small dose of amisulpride improves the general psychopathology, working memory performance, and brain glucose metabolism of patients with schizophrenia treated with aripiprazole.


Assuntos
Aripiprazol , Encéfalo , Cognição , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Dopamina , Elétrons , Lobo Frontal , Glucose , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Metabolismo , Neurotransmissores , Lobo Occipital , Lobo Parietal , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicopatologia , Esquizofrenia , Sulpirida
4.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-763097

RESUMO

Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) is rare, and the diagnosis is difficult to make because of its variable radiologic expressions. Early corticosteroid therapy often is effective. Herein we report the case of a 56-year-old man who had a well-enhanced cystic mass with severe edema in the right frontal lobe, which was initially felt to be a malignancy. Histologic examination of tissue removed at craniotomy revealed that it was a PCNSV. Despite early administration of corticosteroids, a new lesion developed within 3 days. The lesions responded to treatment with cyclophosphamide and corticosteroid.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides , Craniotomia , Ciclofosfamida , Diagnóstico , Edema , Lobo Frontal , Glucocorticoides , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vasculite , Vasculite do Sistema Nervoso Central
5.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-741399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alternate ascending/descending directional navigation (ALADDIN) is a novel arterial spin labeling technique that does not require a separate spin preparation pulse. We sought to compare the normalized cerebral blood flow (nCBF) values obtained by ALADDIN and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with primary brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients with primary brain tumors underwent MRI scans including contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, DSC perfusion MRI, and ALADDIN. The nCBF values of normal gray matter (GM) and tumor areas were measured by both DSC perfusion MRI and ALADDIN, which were compared by the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Subgroup analyses according to pathology were performed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. RESULTS: Higher mean nCBF values of GM regions in the bilateral frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and caudate were detected by ALADDIN than by DSC perfusion MRI (p <0.05). In terms of the mean or median nCBF values and the mean of the top 10% nCBF values from tumors, DSC perfusion MRI and ALADDIN did not statistically significantly differ either overall or in each tumor group. CONCLUSION: ALADDIN tended to detect higher nCBF values in normal GM, as well as higher perfusion portions of primary brain tumors, than did DSC perfusion MRI. We believe that the high perfusion signal on ALADDIN can be beneficial in lesion detection and characterization.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Lobo Frontal , Glioma , Substância Cinzenta , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Patologia , Perfusão , Lobo Temporal
6.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-739666

RESUMO

Supratentorial extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma (SEAE) in adults is a relatively rare intracranial tumor. Because of the very low prevalence, only a few cases have been reported. According to a recent study, SEAE is associated with a poor prognosis and there is no definite consensus on optimal treatment. We report a case of an adult SEAE patient who had no recurrence until seven years after a gross total resection (GTR) followed by conventional radiotherapy. A 42-year-old male had a persistent mild headache, left facial palsy, dysarthria, and left hemiparesis. Preoperative neuroimaging revealed an anaplastic astrocytoma or supratentorial ependymoma in the right frontal lobe. A GTR was performed, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. Histologic and immunohistochemical results revealed anaplastic ependymoma. After seven years of initial therapy, a regular follow-up MRI showed a 3-cm-sized partially cystic mass in the same area as the initial tumor. The patient underwent a craniotomy, and a GTR was performed. Histopathologic examination revealed recurrence of the SEAE. External radiotherapy was performed. The patient has been stable without any disease progression or complications for 12 months since the surgery for recurrent SEAE.


Assuntos
Adulto , Astrocitoma , Consenso , Craniotomia , Progressão da Doença , Disartria , Ependimoma , Paralisia Facial , Seguimentos , Lobo Frontal , Cefaleia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Paresia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Radioterapia , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Recidiva , Neoplasias Supratentoriais
7.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-786490

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate regional cerebral amyloid beta retention in cognitively normal Korean adults using F-18 florbetaben (FBB).METHODS: We prospectively analyzed F-18 FBB positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans of 30 cognitively healthy adults (age range, 50??0 years) using automated quantification. The standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) of F-18 FBB were calculated for predefined regions by normalizing the regional count with cerebellar cortex.RESULTS: The distribution of amyloid beta for each brain region revealed no age-related trends (p > 0.05). From all subjects, mean SUVR of amyloid deposit was 1.30 ± 0.18. The right parietal lobe showed the highest SUVR value (1.46 ± 0.23), whereas the right frontal lobe and left precuneus showed the lowest SUVR (1.23 ± 0.25).CONCLUSIONS: We provide reference values of normative data obtained from healthy elderly Koreans and suggest its use for accurate diagnosis of patients with Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer , Amiloide , Encéfalo , Córtex Cerebelar , Diagnóstico , Lobo Frontal , Humanos , Lobo Parietal , Placa Amiloide , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência
8.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-786253

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between adolescents and adults, in the perspective-taking ability, as well as the brain activation patterns during the perspective-taking situation.METHODS: We recruited healthy adolescents aged 13 years to 15 years (n = 20) and adults aged 19 years to 29 years (n = 20). All the subjects were scanned while performing the perspective-taking task, in which an emotional situation was presented in the form of statements comprising first person, as well as third person perspectives. Differences in brain activation between groups were assessed by contrasting neural activity during the tasks.RESULTS: In the between-group analysis, while performing the third-person perspective-taking task, the adolescent group showed greater neural activities in the middle frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus as compared to the adult group. Positive correlation was observed between the activity in the frontal areas (Brodmann area 6/9) and the score of scales related to perspective-taking and social cognition in the adolescent group.CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that several frontal brain areas of adolescents needs to be overactivated in order to compensate for low perspective-taking ability when they ought to take another person's point of view.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo , Cognição , Lobo Frontal , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pesos e Medidas
9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 662-670, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-760982

RESUMO

The neuroimaging has been applied in the study of pathophysiology in major depressive disorder (MDD). In this review article, several kinds of methodologies of neuroimaging would be discussed to summarize the promising biomarkers in MDD. For the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetoencephalography field, the literature review showed the potentially promising roles of frontal lobes, such as anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In addition, the limbic regions, such as hippocampus and amygdala, might be the potentially promising biomarkers for MDD. The structures and functions of ACC, DLPFC, OFC, amygdala and hippocampus might be confirmed as the biomarkers for the prediction of antidepressant treatment responses and for the pathophysiology of MDD. The functions of cognitive control and emotion regulation of these regions might be crucial for the establishment of biomarkers. The near-infrared spectroscopy studies demonstrated that blood flow in the frontal lobe, such as the DLPFC and OFC, might be the biomarkers for the field of near-infrared spectroscopy. The electroencephalography also supported the promising role of frontal regions, such as the ACC, DLPFC and OFC in the biomarker exploration, especially for the sleep electroencephalogram to detect biomarkers in MDD. The positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in MDD demonstrated the promising biomarkers for the frontal and limbic regions, such as ACC, DLPFC and amygdala. However, additional findings in brainstem and midbrain were also found in PET and SPECT. The promising neuroimaging biomarkers of MDD seemed focused in the fronto-limbic regions.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo , Biomarcadores , Tronco Encefálico , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Eletroencefalografia , Lobo Frontal , Giro do Cíngulo , Hipocampo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Magnetoencefalografia , Mesencéfalo , Neuroimagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
10.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 370-378, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-760936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Biomarkers of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are crucial for early diagnosis and intervention, in which the identification of biomarkers in other areas of the body that represent the immature brain of children with ADHD is necessary. The present study aimed to find biomarkers of ADHD in the retina and assessed the relationship between macular thickness of the retina and cortical thickness of the brain in children with ADHD. METHODS: Twelve children with ADHD and 13 control children were recruited for the study. To find ocular markers of ADHD, we investigated the correlation between clinical symptoms of ADHD assessed with the Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS), cortical thickness of the brain, and macular thickness measured with the mean thickness from the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS). RESULTS: Children with ADHD showed increased macular thicknesses quantified as an ETDRS ring in both eyes, compared to control subjects. Moreover, the right inner ETDRS ring had a positive correlation with K-ARS scores. The ADHD group had an increased ratio of thickness of the right frontal lobe to that of the parietal cortex, compared with the control group. There were positive correlations between the means of the inner ETDRS ring (right) and the left paracentral/right isthmus cingulate thicknesses in the control group. However, there were negative correlations between the means of the inner ETDRS ring (right) and the left frontal pole/right pars triangularis thicknesses in the ADHD group. The results of both groups were at the uncorrected level. CONCLUSION: The different patterns of macular thickness might represent the immature cortical thickness of the brain in children with ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo , Área de Broca , Criança , Retinopatia Diabética , Diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Lobo Frontal , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Parietal , Projetos Piloto , Retina
11.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-741922

RESUMO

The core concept for pathophysiology in panic disorder (PD) is the fear network model (FNM). The alterations in FNM might be linked with disturbances in the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which is a common phenomenon in PD. The traditional FNM included the frontal and limbic regions, which were dysregulated in the feedback mechanism for cognitive control of frontal lobe over the primitive response of limbic system. The exaggerated responses of limbic system are also associated with dysregulation in the neurotransmitter system. The neuroimaging studies also corresponded to FNM concept. However, more extended areas of FNM have been discovered in recent imaging studies, such as sensory regions of occipital, parietal cortex and temporal cortex and insula. The insula might integrate the filtered sensory information via thalamus from the visuospatial and other sensory modalities related to occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. In this review article, the traditional and advanced FNM would be discussed. I would also focus on the current evidences of insula, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes in the pathophysiology. In addition, the white matter and functional connectome studies would be reviewed to support the concept of advanced FNM. An emerging dysregulation model of fronto-limbic-insula and temporooccipito-parietal areas might be revealed according to the combined results of recent neuroimaging studies. The future delineation of advanced FNM model can be beneficial from more extensive and advanced studies focusing on the additional sensory regions of occipital, parietal and temporal cortex to confirm the role of advanced FNM in the pathophysiology of PD.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Conectoma , Lobo Frontal , Sistema Límbico , Neuroimagem , Neurotransmissores , Lobo Occipital , Transtorno de Pânico , Pânico , Lobo Parietal , Rabeprazol , Lobo Temporal , Tálamo , Substância Branca
12.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-741915

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Accumulated evidence collected via functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has been reported with regard to mental disorders. A previous finding revealed that emotional words evoke left frontal cortex activity in patients with depression. The primary aim of the current study was to replicate this finding using an independent dataset and evaluate the brain region associated with the severity of depression using an emotional Stroop task. METHODS: Oxygenized and deoxygenized hemoglobin recording in the brain by fNIRS on 14 MDD patients and 20 normal controls. RESULTS: Hyperactivated oxygenized hemoglobin was observed in the left frontal cortex on exposure to unfavorable stimuli, but no significant difference was found among patients with depression compared with healthy controls on exposure to favorable stimuli. This result is consistent with previous findings. Moreover, an evoked wave associated with the left upper frontal cortex on favorable stimuli was inversely correlated with the severity of depression. CONCLUSION: Our current work using fNIRS provides a potential clue regarding the location of depression symptom severity in the left upper frontal cortex. Future studies should verify our findings and expand them into a precise etiology of depression.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Conjunto de Dados , Depressão , Lobo Frontal , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais , Oxigênio , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
13.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-787410

RESUMO

Mindfulness is a process in which all thoughts, feelings, sensations, and all phenomena that happen to me are uncritically recognized as they are, so that they are eventually accepted and released without identifying or automatically responding to them. The clinical effects of mindfulness-based therapy have already been demonstrated in several studies. However, consistent results have not been reported for the mechanism of mindfulness-based treatment. Thus, this review aimed to describe a systematic review of the literature and research on the mechanisms of mindfulness-based interventions. Experienced meditators showed a physiological change in a ‘wakeful hypometabolic state’ during mindfulness meditation. In mindfulness meditation, it is known that certain areas other than brain activation during relaxation are additionally activated, particularly activation of fronto-limbic and fronto-parietal neural networks. The psychological mechanisms include meta-cognitive awareness, emotion regulation, reduction of automatic and self-referential thinking, concentration control, self-compassion, improvement of value clarification and self-regulation, exposure, extinction, and reconsolidation. Of the brain regions with changes in activity associated with mindfulness meditation, prefrontal cortex, the default mode network including cortical midline structures were associated with emotion regulation, concentration control, and reduction of automatic and self-referential thinking. In addition, brain regions associated with mindfulness meditation have been reported in the hippocampus, amygdala, and medical frontal cortices associated with memory reconsolidation and fear extinction. Thus, mindfulness-based interventions have a psychological and neurobiological effect with a special mechanism different from other psychological interventions, so that mindfulness based intervention can be an effective therapeutic intervention with a different mechanism from other psychological techniques.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo , Encéfalo , Lobo Frontal , Hipocampo , Meditação , Memória , Atenção Plena , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Técnicas Psicológicas , Relaxamento , Autocontrole , Sensação , Pensamento
14.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-766405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dysphagia is a common consequence of stroke with a negative effect on the clinical outcome. Given these potential outcomes, it is important to identify the precursors to dysphagia after stroke. The aims of this study were to identify lesions associated with dysphagia after an ischemic supratentorial stroke using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) and compare the difference in the lesion pattern between the oral and pharyngeal phase dysphagia. METHODS: Stroke patients who met the following inclusion criteria were screened retrospectively between January 2012 and November 2014: a first-ever stroke, supratentorial lesion and who underwent brain MRI and functional dysphagia scale (FDS) from videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS). Finally, the MRI data of 83 patients were analyzed. Statistical maps of the lesion contribution related to dysphagia were generated using VLSM. RESULTS: VLSM showed that FDS was associated with damage to the putamen, caudate, insula, frontal precentral gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus. The lesions were distributed more widely in the left than right hemisphere. Lesions correlated with the FDS oral score were distributed mainly in the frontal lobe and insula. Otherwise, the associated lesion with the FDS pharyngeal score was mainly the basal ganglia. CONCLUSION: In these results, lesions that correlated with dysphagia were distributed more widely in the left hemisphere, reflecting the possibility of lateralization of the swallowing function. Oral phase dysphagia was associated with left frontal lobe and insula; the lesion correlated with the cognitive function or apraxia. On the other hand, VLSM revealed the lesions associated with pharyngeal dysphagia to be the basal ganglia, which is a structure that plays a role in the automatic motor control network.


Assuntos
Apraxias , Gânglios da Base , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Cognição , Deglutição , Transtornos de Deglutição , Lobo Frontal , Mãos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroanatomia , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Putamen , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral
15.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(4): 367-375, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-959251

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effects of Hypericum perforatum (hypericum) on cognitive behavior and neurotrophic factor levels in the brain of male and female rats. Methods: Male and female Wistar rats were treated with hypericum or water during 28 days by gavage. The animals were then subjected to the open-field test, novel object recognition and step-down inhibitory avoidance test. Nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels were evaluated in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Results: Hypericum impaired the acquisition of short- and long-term aversive memory in male rats, evaluated in the inhibitory avoidance test. Female rats had no immediate memory acquisition and decreased short-term memory acquisition in the inhibitory avoidance test. Hypericum also decreased the recognition index of male rats in the object recognition test. Female rats did not recognize the new object in either the short-term or the long-term memory tasks. Hypericum decreased BDNF in the hippocampus of male and female rats. Hypericum also decreased NGF in the hippocampus of female rats. Conclusions: The long-term administration of hypericum appears to cause significant cognitive impairment in rats, possibly through a reduction in the levels of neurotrophic factors. This effect was more expressive in females than in males.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Hypericum , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/análise , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Ratos Wistar , Modelos Animais , Reconhecimento Fisiológico de Modelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Lobo Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas), COLNAL | ID: biblio-989567

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción. La neurocisticercosis (NCC) es causada por la ingesta de huevos de la tenia del cerdo (Taenia solium) provenientes de un individuo con teniosis (complejo tenia-siscisticercosis). Esta enfermedad produce la mayor morbimortalidad por sus efectos dañinos sobre el sistema nervioso central. El 80% de los casos pueden ser asintomáticos y el 20% restante presenta manifestaciones clínicas que son inespecíficas. Presentación del caso. Paciente con cefalea, tendencia dromomaníaca, síndrome de hipertensión intracraneal, deterioro cognitivo y alteración de la marcha. Se realizó una tomografía computarizada que reveló un quiste subcortical frontal derecho y calcificaciones frontoparietales bilaterales. Como diagnóstico principal se sospechó NCC del lóbulo frontal por su cuadro clínico, anamnesis y epidemiología regional. Discusión. Se sospecha que el paciente cursaba con reinfección por T. solium en el lóbulo frontal derecho por la presencia de edema perilesional, los nódulos calcificados distribuidos aleatoriamente en la imagen y la información suministrada por sus familiares durante la anamnesis. Los signos y síntomas de la NCC dependen de la ubicación, el número, las dimensiones, los estadios del cisticerco (vesicular, coloidal, granular-nodular y nódulo calcificado), el genotipo y el estado inmune del hospedero. El 60-90% de los cisticercos se ubican en el parénquima cerebral, siendo menos frecuentes las ubicaciones ventricular, subaracnoidea, ocular, meníngea y medular. Conclusiones. Es importante educar a la comunidad, por un lado, sobre el ciclo de vida del parásito T. solium y su epidemiología y, por el otro, acerca de las medidas de prevención y las manifestaciones clínicas de la NCC, esto con el fin de realizar un diagnóstico oportuno y un manejo efectivo.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the result of ingestion of pork tapeworm eggs (Taenia solium) from an individual with taeniasis (taeniasis/cysticercosis complex). This disease causes the highest helminthic-related morbidity and mortality rates due to its deleterious effects on the central nervous system. 80% of the cases can be asymptomatic and 20% show non-specific clinical manifestations. Case presentation: The following report presents the case of a patient with headache, dromomania, intracranial hypertension syndrome, and cognition and gait impairment. A brain CT showed a right frontal subcortical cyst and bilateral frontoparietal calcified nodules. Neurocysticercosis of the frontal lobe was suspected as the main diagnosis considering the clinical manifestations, anamnesis and local epidemiology. Discussion: T. solium reinfection in the right frontal lobe was suspected in this patient due to perilesional edema, calcified nodules randomly distributed on the imaging and the information supplied by his relatives during anamnesis. Symptoms and signs of NCC depend on localization, number, dimensions, cysticercus stage (vesicular, colloidal, granular-nodular and calcified nodule), genotype and immune status of the host. Between 60 and 90% of cysticerci are mainly observed in the brain parenchyma, but other less frequent localizations include ventricles, subarachnoid space, eyes, meninges and spinal cord. Conclusions: It is important to know and educate the community about the life cycle of parasites, epidemiology, prevention measures and clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis in order to make a timely diagnosis and administer an effective treatment.


Assuntos
Humanos , Neurocisticercose , Taenia solium , Lobo Frontal
17.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 12(1): 92-96, Jan.-Mar. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-891060

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Sports activities associated with repetitive cranial trauma have become a fad and are popular in gyms and even among children. It is important to consistently characterize the consequences of such sports activities in order to better advise society on the real risks to the central nervous system. We present the case of a former boxer reporting cognitive and behavioral symptoms that began six years after his retirement as a boxer, evolving progressively with parkinsonian and cerebellar features suggestive of probable chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Using our case as a paradigm, we extended the range of differential diagnosis of CTE, including corticobasal degeneration, multiple system atrophy, vitamin B12 deficiency, neurosyphilis, frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease.


RESUMO As atividades esportivas associadas ao trauma craniano repetitivo tornaram-se uma moda e são populares nas academias e entre as crianças. É importante fazer uma caracterização consistente das consequências de tais atividades esportivas, a fim de aconselhar melhor uma sociedade sobre os riscos reais para o sistema nervoso central. Apresentamos um antigo boxeador relatando sintomas cognitivos e comportamentais que começaram seis anos após sua aposentadoria como boxeador e evoluiu progressivamente com características parkinsonianas e cerebelares sugestivas de provável encefalopatia traumática crônica (ETC). Usando nosso caso como paradigma, ampliamos a gama de diagnóstico diferencial de ETC, incluindo degeneração corticobasal, atrofia de múltiplos sistemas, deficiência de vitamina B12, neurossífilis, demência frontotemporal e doença de Alzheimer.


Assuntos
Humanos , Encefalopatias , Degenerações Espinocerebelares , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas , Demência , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Encefalopatia Traumática Crônica , Lobo Frontal
18.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-740679

RESUMO

The authors report a case of an otherwise healthy 33-year-old man who presented with intracerebral hemorrhage in the right frontal lobe following chronic methamphetamine use. An autopsy was performed within 2 days after death. The postmortem examination revealed cerebral edema and intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage. Microscopic examination revealed endovasculitis in the systemic vessels including the aorta and carotid and coronary arteries, but no aneurysm or arterio-venous malformation. Acute toxicity and chronic methamphetamine use was verified using blood and segmental hair analysis, respectively. Cerebrovascular accidents including stroke and intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage are rare in young persons, but methamphetamine use is a risk factor for cerebrovascular accidents in young adults. Therefore, forensic pathologists should be aware of the acute and chronic harmful effects of methamphetamine. Detailed history taking and toxic screening tests for illicit drug use, especially methamphetamine, as well as a meticulous postmortem examination should be conducted in young patients who died due to cerebrovascular accident.


Assuntos
Adulto , Aneurisma , Aorta , Autopsia , Edema Encefálico , Hemorragia Cerebral , Vasos Coronários , Lobo Frontal , Cabelo , Hemorragia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Metanfetamina , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-740122

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The effect of global inhomogeneity on quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) was investigated. A technique referred to as Simultaneous Unwrapping Phase with Error Recovery from inhomogeneity (SUPER) is suggested as a preprocessing to QSM to remove global field inhomogeneity-induced phase by polynomial fitting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of global inhomogeneity on QSM was investigated by numerical simulations. Three types of global inhomogeneity were added to the tissue susceptibility phase, and the root mean square error (RMSE) in the susceptibility map was evaluated. In-vivo QSM imaging with volunteers was carried out for 3.0T and 7.0T MRI systems to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method. RESULTS: The SUPER technique removed harmonic and non-harmonic global phases. Previously only the harmonic phase was removed by the background phase removal method. The global phase contained a non-harmonic phase due to various experimental and physiological causes, which degraded a susceptibility map. The RMSE in the susceptibility map increased under the influence of global inhomogeneity; while the error was consistent, irrespective of the global inhomogeneity, if the inhomogeneity was corrected by the SUPER technique. In-vivo QSM imaging with volunteers at 3.0T and 7.0T MRI systems showed better definition in small vascular structures and reduced fluctuation and non-uniformity in the frontal lobes, where field inhomogeneity was more severe. CONCLUSION: Correcting global inhomogeneity using the SUPER technique is an effective way to obtain an accurate susceptibility map on QSM method. Since the susceptibility variations are small quantities in the brain tissue, correction of the inhomogeneity is an essential element for obtaining an accurate QSM.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Lobo Frontal , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Métodos , Voluntários
20.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 497-506, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-777033

RESUMO

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuropsychiatric disorder that has been linked to the dopaminergic system. This study aimed to investigate the effects of regulation of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) on functional brain activity during the resting state in ADHD children using the methods of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed in 49 children with ADHD. All participants were classified as either carriers of the DRD4 4-repeat/4-repeat (4R/4R) allele (n = 30) or the DRD4 2-repeat (2R) allele (n = 19). The results showed that participants with the DRD4 2R allele had decreased ReHo bilaterally in the posterior lobes of the cerebellum, while ReHo was increased in the left angular gyrus. Compared with participants carrying the DRD4 4R/4R allele, those with the DRD4 2R allele showed decreased FC to the left angular gyrus in the left striatum, right inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral lobes of the cerebellum. The increased FC regions included the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, and rectus gyrus. These data suggest that the DRD4 polymorphisms are associated with localized brain activity and specific functional connections, including abnormality in the frontal-striatal-cerebellar loop. Our study not only enhances the understanding of the correlation between the cerebellar lobes and ADHD, but also provides an imaging basis for explaining the neural mechanisms underlying ADHD in children.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Genética , Patologia , Encéfalo , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Cerebelo , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Criança , Corpo Estriado , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Feminino , Lobo Frontal , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Genótipo , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Repetições Minissatélites , Genética , Vias Neurais , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Oxigênio , Sangue , Receptores de Dopamina D4 , Genética , Metabolismo , Descanso
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