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1.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(2): 307-328, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1102488

RESUMO

O artigo objetiva analisar a cobertura midiática do desastre socioambiental ocorrido em 2018, em Barcarena, no Pará, e discutir tanto as diferenças entre a duração do desastre (prolongada) e a duração da cobertura (concentrada), quanto os direcionamentos de escuta entre a repercussão de eventos gerados por vozes oficiais/institucionais e a presença/ausência de vozes populares de comunidades e movimentos sociais. Como resultado, apresenta três momentos de análise dos dados coletados em clipping nacional ao longo de oito meses: uma análise quantitativa da frequência da cobertura indicando alcance e duração da visibilidade midiática; um recorte quanti-quali apontando como a mídia agenda e promove enquadramento por meio das fontes acionadas na produção da notícia; e uma análise qualitativa, na perspectiva de colonial, de como aparecem na cobertura do desastre as vozes historicamente silenciadas. Para compreender o desastre como processo, busca-se antes situar o contexto da mineração na Amazônia a partir do aporte da Ecologia Política.


The article aims to analyze the media coverage of the socio-environmental disaster that occurred in 2018, in Barcarena, Pará, and to discuss both the differences between the duration of the disaster (prolonged) and the duration of the coverage (concentrated), as well as the listening directions between the repercussion events generated by official/institutional voices and the presence/absence of popular voices from communities and social movements. As a result, it presents three moments of analysis of data collected in national clipping over eight months: a quantitative analysis of the frequency of coverage indicating reach and duration of media visibility; a quanti-quali cut pointing out how the media schedules and promotes framing through the sources used in the production of the news; a qualitative analysis, in the decolonial perspective, of how historically silenced voices appear in the coverage of the disaster. To understand disaster as a process, we first seek to situate the context of mining in the Amazon from the perspective of Political Ecology.


El artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la cobertura mediática del desastre socioambiental ocurrido en 2018, en Barcarena, en Pará, y discutir tanto las diferencias entre la duración del desastre (prolongada) y la duración de la cobertura (concentrada) en cuanto a los direccionamientos de la escucha entre la repercusión de eventos generados por voces oficiales/institucionales y la presencia/ausencia de voces populares de comunidades y movimientos sociales. Como resultado, presenta tres momentos de análisis de los datos recogidos en clipping nacional a lo largo de ocho meses: un análisis cuantitativo de la frecuencia de la cobertura indicando alcance y duración de la visibilidad mediática; un recorte cuanti-quali señalando cómo los medios de comunicación agenda y promueve encuadre a través de las fuentes impulsadas en la producción de las noticias; y un análisis cualitativo, desde la perspectiva decolonial, de cómo aparecen en la cobertura del desastre las voces históricamente silenciadas. Para entender el desastre como proceso se busca, primero, situar el contexto de la minería en la Amazonía a partir del aporte de la Ecología Política.


Assuntos
Humanos , Desastre Industrial , Poluição Ambiental , Jornalismo Ambiental , Comunicação Ambiental , Mineração , Brasil , Coleta de Dados , Meios de Comunicação de Massa
2.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(2): 329-341, abr.-jun. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1102499

RESUMO

O objetivo deste artigo é discutir, através de análise de conteúdo, as estratégias de comunicação pública adotadas pelas Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil no 'Espaço INB', um centro de informações localizado na cidade baiana de Caetité, onde a empresa realiza a mineração e o beneficiamento de urânio. Desde que foram iniciadas, essas atividades levantaram inúmeras suspeitas de danos ambientais e problemas de saúde pública. Diante disso, buscamos compreender como a INB se posiciona diante dessas suspeitas e se relaciona com as populações atingidas por suas atividades. De acordo com nosso argumento, ao adotar uma postura que denominamos tecnoentusiasta e tecnocrática, a empresa dificulta um debate público aberto e descentralizado sobre as controvérsias em torno da mineração de urânio


This article aims to use the content analysis to discuss the public communication stated by the 'Espaço INB', an information center managed by Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil located in the city of Caetité ­ BA, where the company mines and processes uranium. Since INB started its activities in Caetité, several suspicions of environmental damage and public health problems emerged. Thus, we analyze how INB responds to these suspicions and relates to the populations affected by its activities. We argue that INB adopts an attitude that we call techno-enthusiastic and technocratic, hindering an open public and decentralized debate about the controversies surrounding uranium mining.


El objetivo de este artículo es discutir, a través del análisis de contenido, la comunicación pública transmitida por el 'Espaço INB', un centro de información administrado por Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil ubicado en la ciudad de Caetité/Bahia, donde la empresa hace la mínería y el procesamiento del uranio. Desde que comenzaron, estas actividades han generado numerosas sospechas de daños ambientales y problemas de salud pública. Por eso, analizamos como el INB contesta estas sospechas y se relaciona con las poblaciones afectadas por sus actividades. Argumentamos que el INB adopta una actitud que llamamos tecno-entusiasta y tecnocrática, lo que dificulta un debate público abierto y descentralizado sobre las controversias respecto a la minería de uranio.


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Urânio , Ciência, Tecnologia e Sociedade , Mineração , Energia Nuclear , Saúde Ambiental , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Riscos Ambientais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comunicação e Divulgação Científica , Comunicação Ambiental
3.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 702-706, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1047483

RESUMO

Esta nota resulta de reflexões iniciais sobre a atual conjuntura brasileira no que tange aos desafios postos aos povos indígenas, diante de um governo declaradamente anti-indígena. Considerando a perspectiva histórica da política indigenista brasileira, observam-se elementos que nos instigam a analisar a relação do Estado com os povos originários e a capacidade que o movimento indígena brasileiro tem de articulação visando à resistência. São necessários saberes e práticas que exigem, cada vez mais, o rompimento com o pensamento autoritário e colonialista tão presente no contexto brasileiro.


This text is product of the initial attempts to think about the current Brazilian conjuncture regarding the challenges posed to indigenous peoples since they are confronted with a government who have declared to be anti-indigenous. From the historical perspective of Brazilian governmental policy towards indigenous, we observe elements that push us to analyze the relationship of the State with the indigenous peoples and the Brazilian indigenous movement' capacity for interacting to resist. Knowledge and practices that demand more and more a break with the authoritarian and colonialist thinking so present in the Brazilian context are indispensable.


Esta nota resulta de reflexiones iniciales a cerca de la coyuntura brasileña actual por lo que se refiere a los desafíos que los pueblos indígenas tienen que enfrentar frente a un Gobierno que expresa clara y determinadamente ser antiindígena. Observando la perspectiva histórica de la política indigenista brasileña, hay elementos que instigan el análisis de la relación del Estado con los pueblos indígenas y la capacidad que el movimiento indígena brasileño tiene de articularse para resistir. Son necesarios saberes y prácticas que exigen cada vez más el rompimiento con el pensamiento autoritario y colonialista tan presente en el contexto brasileño.


Assuntos
Humanos , Autoritarismo , Brasil , Ecossistema Amazônico , Grupos Populacionais , Violência Étnica , Incêndios Florestais/estatística & dados numéricos , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Política Ambiental , Cultura Indígena , Mercúrio , Mineração
4.
Enferm. actual Costa Rica (Online) ; (37): 30-49, Jul.-Dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS (Américas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1039754

RESUMO

Resumo 24. O objetivo do estudo foi identificar as vulnerabilidades em saúde de garimpeiros de uma região amazônica. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório e qualitativo, realizado em um garimpo na Amazônia Legal, no interior de Rondônia, Brasil, em março de 2017. Realizou-se entrevistas semiestruturadas e os dados empíricos obtidos foram transcritos na íntegra e submetidos à análise de conteúdo. Evidenciou-se que a atividade garimpeira amplia a situação de vulnerabilidade do trabalhador, aproximando-o de situações de adoecimento, especialmente pela não adoção de medidas preventivas. Apesar de as vulnerabilidades que a atividade implica, condições periculosidade e insalubridade no trabalho, os garimpeiros não desejam abandonar a garimpagem. A vulnerabilidade desses garimpeiros é agravada por possuírem pouco conhecimento sobre os fatores de risco, como o contato direto e prolongado com a água, exposição solar e inutilização de EPI, por não disporem de serviço de saúde in loco e não realizarem práticas seguras de autocuidado. Ao término do estudo, notou-se que a existência das atuais políticas do setor, não garantem condições de vida, saúde e acesso aos serviços públicos, o que sustenta a vulnerabilidade desses trabalhadores.


Resumen 28. El objetivo del estudio fue identificar las vulnerabilidades en salud de los garimpeiros de una región amazónica. Se trata de un estudio exploratorio y cualitativo, realizado en un garimpo en la Amazonia Legal, en el interior de Rondônia, Brasil, en marzo de 2017. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas y los datos empíricos obtenidos fueron transcritos en su totalidad y sometidos al análisis de contenido. Se evidenció que la actividad garimpeira amplía la situación de vulnerabilidad del trabajador, acercándolo a situaciones de enfermedad, especialmente por la no adopción de medidas preventivas. A pesar de que las vulnerabilidades que la actividad implica, condiciones peligrosas e insalubridad en el trabajo, los garimpeiros no desean abandonar el garaje. La vulnerabilidad de estos garimpeiros es agravada por tener poco conocimiento sobre los factores de riesgo, como el contacto directo y prolongado con el agua, exposición solar e inutilización de EPI, por no disponer de servicio de salud y no realizar prácticas seguras de autocuidado. Al término del estudio, se notó que la existencia de actuales políticas del sector, no garantizan condiciones de vida, salud y acceso a los servicios públicos, lo que sostiene la vulnerabilidad de esos trabajadores.


Abstract 32. The objective of the study was to identify the health vulnerabilities of garimpeiros of an Amazon region. This is an exploratory and qualitative study, carried out in a garimpo in the Legal Amazon, in the interior of Rondônia, Brazil, in March 2017. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and the empirical data obtained were transcribed in full and submitted to content analysis. It was evidenced that the garimpeira activity amplifies the vulnerability situation of the worker, approaching him of situations of illness, especially for the non adoption of preventive measures. Despite the vulnerabilities that the activity implies, hazardous conditions and unhealthy work, the garimpeiros do not wish to leave the garment. The vulnerability of these garimpeiros is aggravated by their lack of knowledge about risk factors, such as direct and prolonged contact with water, sun exposure and the destruction of IPE, because they do not have health services in place and do not perform safe self-care practices. At the end of the study, it was noted that the existence of the current policies of the sector, do not guarantee living conditions, health and access to public services, which supports the vulnerability of these workers.


Assuntos
Humanos , Brasil , Riscos Ocupacionais , Saúde do Trabalhador , Vulnerabilidade em Saúde , Mineração
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 659-664, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1001473

RESUMO

Abstract The Doce River basin has suffered the largest environmental accident ever occurred in Brazil with the influx of tailings from Fundão and Santarém, belonging to Samarco mining company, due to the disaster in Mariana. A spill between 50 and 60 million m3 of tailings was estimated by the company. According to Samarco, the wastewater was composed mainly of clay, silt and heavy metals like iron, copper and manganese. Thereby, the objective of the present study was evaluated the genotoxic damage in juvenile of Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy e Gaimard, 1824) exposed to Doce river water before (DRWBA - Doce River water before acident) and after (DRWAA - Doce River water after acident) the influx of tailings from the Germano and Santarém Dam disasters in Mariana, MG, Brazil. For this, 24 individuals of the species G. brasiliensis (obtained on IFES/ALEGRE fish culture) were submitted to a bioassay with three treatments and eight replicates. The treatments were: 1) Control water (water from the urban water supply system, filtered with a 0.45 µm membrane), 2) DRBA and 3) DRAA. After 96 h, these fishes were anesthetized to remove blood for evaluation of genotoxic damage (micronucleus and comet). For the bioassay, a total of 80 L of The Doce River water were collected before the influx of tailings and after the influx and then submitted to metal quantification analysis. Fish exposed to DRWBA and DRWAA treatments showed a significant increase in both the number of erythrocyte micronuclei and the DNA damage index in relation to the control fish; however, they did not present any differences between the two treatments. The results demonstrate that the DRWBA treatment was already genotoxic for the fish, mainly due to dissolved Cu concentrations in the water. The DRWAA treatment probably presented genotoxicity due to the increase in the dissolved fraction and synergistic effects of several metals found in the tailings of the Mariana accident.


Resumo A bacia do Rio Doce sofreu o maior acidente ambiental com o influxo de rejeitos de Fundão e Santarém, pertencentes à empresa de mineração Samarco, devido ao desastre em Mariana. Um derramamento entre 50 e 60 milhões de m3 de rejeitos foi estimado pela empresa. De acordo com a Samarco, o rejeito despejado era composto principalmente de argila, silte e alguns metais pesados como ferro, cobre e manganês. Com isso, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os danos genotóxicos em juvenis de Geophagus brasilienses expostos a água do rio Doce antes (DRWAA - água do Rio Doce antes do acidente) e depois (DRWBA- água do Rio Doce depois do acidente) da chegada dos rejeitos do rompimento das barragens de Germano e Santarém em Mariana, MG, Brasil. Para isso, 24 indivíduos da espécie G. brasilienses (obtidos na piscicultura do IFES/ALEGRE) foram submetidos a um bioensaio com três tratamentos e oito réplicas. Os tratamentos eram: 1) Controle (com água do abastecimento urbano, filtrada com filtro analítico de 0,45 µm); 2) DRWBA e 3) DRWAA. Após um período de 96 h, esses peixes foram anestesiados para retirada de sangue para avaliação dos danos genotóxicos (micronúcleo e cometa). Para a realização do bioensaio, um total de 80 L de água do Rio Doce foram coletados antes da chegada dos rejeitos e outros 80 L foram coletados depois da chegada dos rejeitos e ambas foram submetidas a análises de quantificação de metal. Os peixes expostos ao DRWBA e ao DRWAA apresentaram um aumento significativo na quantidade de micronúcleos eritrocitários e no índice de danos do DNA em relação aos peixes controle, no entanto não apresentaram diferenças entre si. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que a DRWBA já era genotóxica para os peixes, principalmente, em função das concentrações de Cu dissolvido na água. A DRWAA apresentou genotixicidade, provavelmente, em função do aumento da fração dissolvida e do efeito sinérgico de diversos metais presentes nos rejeitos do acidente de Mariana.


Assuntos
Animais , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/classificação , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Ciclídeos/genética , Desastres , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/classificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Rios/química , Água Doce/química , Mineração
6.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(1): 13-38, jan.-mar. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-987694

RESUMO

Esta nota de conjuntura consiste numa análise das peças comunicacionais produzidas pela Vale e circuladas na região do Vale do Paraopeba, que engloba os municípios de Congonhas, Belo Vale e Brumadinho. O material analisado foi distribuído em 2018 após o desastre causado por essa empresa no município de Mariana (MG). No estudo, estabelecemos a hipótese de que a construção da imagem pública da Vale diante do ocorrido em Mariana e o recente desastre em Brumadinho (MG) esteve baseada na semântica do eufemismo, uma modalidade discursiva que privilegia a imagem idealizada pela empresa sobre si mesma. Além de apontar uma mudança dos atuais modelos de desenvolvimento econômico, é necessário rever os modelos informacionais e comunicacionais que não promovam o efetivo diálogo social. O texto ainda apresenta um testemunho do impacto do rompimento da barragem sobre a população de Brumadinho e região e as danosas e dramáticas consequências para a sociedade e o meio ambiente.


This note is an analysis of the communication produced by the global mining company Vale and circulated in the Paraopeba Valley's region, which includes the municipalities of Congonhas, Belo Vale and Brumadinho. The material analyzed was distributed in 2018 after the disaster caused by Vale in the municipality of Mariana (MG). In the study, it was hypothesized the construction of the public image of Vale in front of the Mariana and the recent disaster in Brumadinho (MG) was based on the euphemism semantics, a speech modality which favours the image idealized by the company about itself. Besides highlighting a change in current models of economic development, it is necessary to review informational and communication models that do not promote effective social dialogue. The text also shows a statement of the impact of the dam rupture on the population of Brumadinho and its region and the damaging and dramatic consequences for society and the environment.


Esta nota de coyuntura consiste en un análisis de las piezas comunicacionales producidas por la empresa global de minería Vale y circuladas en la región del Valle del Paraopeba, que engloba los municipios de Congonhas, Belo Vale y Brumadinho. El material analizado fue distribuido en 2018 tras el desastre causado por esa empresa en el municipio de Mariana (MG). En el estudio, establecimos la hipótesis de que la construcción de la imagen pública de la Vale ante lo ocurrido en Mariana y el reciente desastre en Brumadinho (MG) estuvo basada en la semántica del eufemismo, una modalidad discursiva que privilegia la imagen idealizada por la empresa sobre sí misma. Además de apuntar un cambio de los actuales modelos de desarrollo económico, es necesario revisar los modelos informativos y comunicacionales que no promuevan el efectivo diálogo social. El texto también presenta un testimonio del impacto del rompimiento de la represa sobre la población de Brumadinho y región y los daños y dramáticas consecuencias para la sociedad y el medio ambiente.


Assuntos
Humanos , Brasil , Comunicação , Desastres , Mineração , Sociedades , Barreiras de Comunicação , Discurso , Meio Ambiente
8.
Bogotá; Instituto Nacional de Salud; [2019]. 4 p.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas), PIE | ID: biblio-1047552

RESUMO

La minería de oro a cielo abierto se ha asociado a diversos problemas de salud en la población, entre esos la proliferación de enfermedades infecciosas como la malaria. El departamento del Chocó, uno de los más importantes productores de oro del país, ha venido siendo afectado por un aumento en el número de casos y muertes por Malaria. Con el fin de poner a prueba si estos dos eventos se encuentran relacionados el ONS llevó a cabo un estudio para evaluar la asociación entre los niveles de producción de oro en los municipios del Chocó y los casos de malaria. El estudio encontró que los municipios con mayor producción de oro también presentan en promedio el mayor número de casos de malaria anualmente. De acuerdo con los hallazgos de este y otros estudios es importante para el control de la malaria abrir los espacios necesarios para discutir la minería de oro como un factor determinante en la propagación de la malaria en el departamento del Chocó y probablemente otras regiones mineras de Colombia.


Assuntos
Ouro , Malária/epidemiologia , Mineração , Fatores Epidemiológicos , Fatores de Risco , Colômbia , Malária/etiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle
9.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2019017-2019.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-763745

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Occupational injuries are known to be the main adverse outcome of occupational accidents. The purpose of the current study was to identify control strategies to reduce the severity of occupational injuries in the mining industry using Bayesian network (BN) analysis. METHODS: The BN structure was created using a focus group technique. Data on 425 mining accidents was collected, and the required information was extracted. The expectation-maximization algorithm was used to estimate the conditional probability tables. Belief updating was used to determine which factors had the greatest effect on severity of accidents. RESULTS: Based on sensitivity analyses of the BN, training, type of accident, and activity type of workers were the most important factors influencing the severity of accidents. Of individual factors, workers’ experience had the strongest influence on the severity of accidents. CONCLUSIONS: Among the examined factors, safety training was the most important factor influencing the severity of accidents. Organizations may be able to reduce the severity of occupational injuries by holding safety training courses prepared based on the activity type of workers.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Teorema de Bayes , Grupos Focais , Mineração , Traumatismos Ocupacionais
10.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-772955

RESUMO

Exploring the mechanisms of maintaining microbial community structure is important to understand biofilm development or microbiota dysbiosis. In this paper, we propose a functional gene-based composition prediction (FCP) model to predict the population structure composition within a microbial community. The model predicts the community composition well in both a low-complexity community as acid mine drainage (AMD) microbiota, and a complex community as human gut microbiota. Furthermore, we define community structure shaping (CSS) genes as functional genes crucial for shaping the microbial community. We have identified CSS genes in AMD and human gut microbiota samples with FCP model and find that CSS genes change with the conditions. Compared to essential genes for microbes, CSS genes are significantly enriched in the genes involved in mobile genetic elements, cell motility, and defense mechanisms, indicating that the functions of CSS genes are focused on communication and strategies in response to the environment factors. We further find that it is the minority, rather than the majority, which contributes to maintaining community structure. Compared to health control samples, we find that some functional genes associated with metabolism of amino acids, nucleotides, and lipopolysaccharide are more likely to be CSS genes in the disease group. CSS genes may help us to understand critical cellular processes and be useful in seeking addable gene circuitries to maintain artificial self-sustainable communities. Our study suggests that functional genes are important to the assembly of microbial communities.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Genética , Genes Microbianos , Humanos , Microbiota , Genética , Mineração , Modelos Genéticos , Poluição da Água
11.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 461-469, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-786575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Collisions involving workers and mobile machines continue to be a major concern in underground coal mines. Over the last 30 years, these collisions have resulted in numerous injuries and fatalities. Recently, the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) proposed a rule that would require mines to equip mobile machines with proximity detection systems (PDSs) (systems designed for automated collision avoidance). Even though this regulation has not been enacted, some mines have installed PDSs on their scoops and hauling machines. However, early implementation of PDSs has introduced a variety of safety concerns. Past findings show that workers' trust can affect technology integration and influence unsafe use of automated technologies.METHODS: Using a mixed-methods approach, the present study explores the effect that factors such as mine of employment, age, experience, and system type have on workers' trust in PDSs for mobile machines. The study also explores how workers are trained on PDSs and how this training influences trust.RESULTS: The study resulted in three major findings. First, the mine of employment had a significant influence on workers' trust in mobile PDSs. Second, hands-on and classroom training was the most common types of training. Finally, over 70% of workers are trained on the system by the mine compared with 36% trained by the system manufacturer.CONCLUSION: The influence of workers' mine of employment on trust in PDSs may indicate that practitioners and researchers may need to give the organizational and physical characteristics of each mine careful consideration to ensure safe integration of automated systems.


Assuntos
Automação , Carvão Mineral , Emprego , Mineração , Saúde do Trabalhador
12.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2019017-2019.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-785769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Occupational injuries are known to be the main adverse outcome of occupational accidents. The purpose of the current study was to identify control strategies to reduce the severity of occupational injuries in the mining industry using Bayesian network (BN) analysis.METHODS: The BN structure was created using a focus group technique. Data on 425 mining accidents was collected, and the required information was extracted. The expectation-maximization algorithm was used to estimate the conditional probability tables. Belief updating was used to determine which factors had the greatest effect on severity of accidents.RESULTS: Based on sensitivity analyses of the BN, training, type of accident, and activity type of workers were the most important factors influencing the severity of accidents. Of individual factors, workers' experience had the strongest influence on the severity of accidents.CONCLUSIONS: Among the examined factors, safety training was the most important factor influencing the severity of accidents. Organizations may be able to reduce the severity of occupational injuries by holding safety training courses prepared based on the activity type of workers.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Teorema de Bayes , Grupos Focais , Mineração , Traumatismos Ocupacionais
13.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 151-165, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-761357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in safety performance, the number and severity of mining-related injuries remain high and unacceptable, indicating that further reduction can be achieved. This study examines occupational accident statistics of the Ghanaian mining industry and identifies priority areas, warranting intervention measures and further investigations. METHODS: A total of 202 fatal and nonfatal injury reports over a 10-year period were obtained from five mines and the Inspectorate Division of the Minerals Commission of Ghana, and they were analyzed. RESULTS: Results of the analyses show that the involvement of mining equipment, the task being performed, the injury type, and the mechanism of injury remain as priorities. For instance, mining equipment was associated with 85% of all injuries and 90% of all fatalities, with mobile equipment, component/part, and hand tools being the leading equipment types. In addition, mechanics/repairmen, truck operators, and laborers were the most affected ones, and the most dangerous activities included maintenance, operating mobile equipment, and clean up/clearing. CONCLUSION: Results of this analysis will enable authorities of mines to develop targeted interventions to improve their safety performance. To improve the safety of the mines, further research and prevention efforts are recommended.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Gana , Mãos , Minerais , Mineradores , Mineração , Veículos Automotores
14.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 188-195, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-761353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mine workers in South Africa face challenges relating to poor health and safety, including fatigue risks, and poor socioeconomic and living conditions. Fatigue results in impaired mental and physical performance. The aim of this study was to assess contributors to fatigue of mine workers in South Africa. METHODS: Data collection took place at four gold mines and one platinum mine in South Africa. A total of 21 focus groups were held with individuals in management, union representatives, and mine workers, and 564 questionnaires were completed by mine workers to gather information about fatigue and potential contributors to fatigue at these mines. RESULTS: Qualitatively (through focus groups), fatigue was attributed to extended working hours, harsh working conditions, high workloads, production pressure, and resource constraints, along with aspects relating to demographic and socioeconomic factors, living conditions, lifestyle, health, and wellness. Greater fatigue was significantly associated with younger age, indebtedness, a lack of exercise, poor nutrition, less sleep, increased alcohol use, poor self-reported health, more sick leave, higher stress, and lower job satisfaction. CONCLUSION: The aim of the study was achieved; numerous work-, sociodemographic-, lifestyle-, and wellness-related factors were linked to fatigue in the participating mine workers. Contributors to fatigue should be addressed to improve health, safety, and sustainability in the industry.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados , Meio Ambiente e Saúde Pública , Fadiga , Grupos Focais , Satisfação no Emprego , Estilo de Vida , Mineradores , Mineração , Platina , Licença Médica , Condições Sociais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul
15.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 109-113, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-761329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In both developed and developing countries, noise is regarded as the most common occupational hazard in various industries. The present study aimed to examine the effect of sound pressure level (SPL) on serum cortisol concentration in three different times during the night shift. METHODS: This case–control study was conducted among 75 workers of an industrial and mining firm in 2017. The participants were assigned to one of the three groups (one control and two case groups), with an equal number of workers (25 participants) in each group. Following the ISO 9612 standard, dosimetry was adopted to evaluate equivalent SPL using a TES-1345 dosimeter. The influence of SPL on serum cortisol concentration was measured during the night shift. The serum cortisol concentration was measured using a radioimmunoassay (RIA) test in the laboratory. Repeated measure analysis of variance and linear mixed models were used with α = 0.05. RESULTS: The results indicated a downward trend in the serum cortisol concentration of the three groups during the night shift. Both SPL and exposure time significantly affected cortisol concentration (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001). Conversely, age and body mass index had no significant influence on cortisol concentration (p = 0.360, p = 0.62). CONCLUSION: Based on the obtained results, increasing SPL will lead to enhancement of serum cortisol concentration. Given that cortisol concentration varies while workers are exposed to different SPLs, this hormone can be used as a biomarker to study the effect of noise-induced stress.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Países em Desenvolvimento , Hidrocortisona , Mineração , Ruído , Ruído Ocupacional , Radioimunoensaio
16.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-719328

RESUMO

Since noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of prevalent issues in the occupational settings, hearing protection device (HPD) has been widely used to reduce noise exposure levels and to prevent developing NIHL. This review study aimed to introduce several types of the HPD in terms of current trends, its variety and functions, and application. Including a brief history of the HPD, we explain its two types, i.e., passive and active functions, in the first part of main body. The passive HPD has a flat attenuation across the overall frequency range, whereas the active HPD effectively preserves communication components such as meaningful speech with low intensity stimuli while filtering out the high levels of noise. In the second part of the main body, we discuss some negative issues of hearing functions when users are wearing the HPD. In detail, the active HPD does not much degrade the hearing performance for speech detection/recognition and sound source localization compared to the passive HPD. Rather, reduced sound (or music) quality is improved with active one in general. In the final part, we mention that although various applications in the special fields such as factory, mining, army, airplane, and music have been demonstrated, the usage and awareness of HPD in occupational aspect may not follow its fast technological development. Furthermore, most people do not know about either importance or use method of HPD in the non-occupational setting. For these reasons, we conclude that hearing professionals have to access the latest trends of the HPD and to increase their knowledge on it, and thus they should provide the best HPD prescription for the public as well as employees who have to protect their ears from hazard noise impacts.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Orelha , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Audição , Métodos , Mineração , Música , Ruído , Prescrições , Saúde Pública
17.
Salud trab. (Maracay) ; 26(2): 124-137, dic. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas), LIVECS | ID: biblio-1116835

RESUMO

La investigación tiene como propósito develar la prostitución como un determinante socioepidemiológico que posibilita el aumento de casos importados/introducidos de malaria con riesgo de endemia e instauración de casos autóctonos en Aragua. Incorporando las perspectivas de género en el área de la salud para hacer visible una problemática no abordada desde otras formas de hacer ciencia. La investigación se abordó desde una episteme feminista, siguiendo la metodología de género como categoría de análisis, desde una modalidad cualitativa. Las técnicas de recolección de datos fueron entrevistas enfocadas, obteniendo la representatividad de las sujetas de estudio por medio del punto de saturación alcanzado con 4 participantes, quienes cumplieron con los criterios de selección. La construcción de categorías de análisis de discursos quedó conformada con 5 eventos críticos: importación de la malaria: una realidad innegable, la prostitución como determinante de una endemia, el hogar primer foco de la endemia, atención primaria en salud: una urgencia en las zonas mineras y comercialización y retraso de la terapéutica: un binomio para la resistencia de la enfermedad. La investigación aporta un conocimiento teórico necesario para producir una transformación de la realidad implementándose políticas públicas que tomen en cuenta otros aspectos diferentes al modelo biologicista-sanitarista imperante en la epidemiologia y las ciencias de la salud(AU)


The objective of this study is to examine prostitution as a socio-epidemiological determinant of the increase of imported / introduced cases of malaria, leading to a greater risk of this disease becoming endemic in the state of Aragua. We incorporated a gender perspective in health areas, as a way to make visible a problem not addressed from other ways of doing science. The research was approached from a feminist episteme, following the qualitative methodology of gender as the category of analysis. The data collection techniques included focused interviews, and we secured the saturation point for study subject representativeness with four participants who met our selection criteria. Five critical events made up the discourse analysis categories: 1) importation of malaria: an undeniable reality; 2) prostitution as a determinant of an endemic disease; 3) the home as the primary focus of endemic disease; 4) primary health care: an urgency in mining areas, and 5) marketing and delay of therapeutics: binomial for the resistance of the disease. This research provides a theoretical knowledge base, necessary to produce a transformation of reality and leading to public policies that take into account other aspects of the biological-sanitary model prevalent in epidemiology and health sciences(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Trabalho Sexual , Venezuela , Epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Perspectiva de Gênero , Malária , Mineração
18.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(6): 1477-1487, nov./dec. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-968927

RESUMO

The large surface stacking volume of waste and tailings at the Serra Pelada gold mine, with a high content of potentially toxic elements (PTEs), has led to environmental damage in the area, which continues to this day and is yet to be measured. Total and available Cu, Mo, Pb, and Zn and an indicator index was formulated for soil contamination in the artisanal mining area of Serra Pelada, Amazônia, Brazil. To obtain these data, six soil samples were collected surrounding the lake formed from the mining trenches and one from a forest area outside the influence of mining activities. Metal solubilization and partial extraction were conducted by aqua regia and 0.5 mol L-1 HCl, respectively, followed by detection using argon plasma optical emission spectrometry. All PTEs showed total contents above the quality reference values for soils in the state of Para. The available fractions of Cu, Pb, and Zn were higher than the concentrations expected for Para in forest soils. The total Cu contents were above the value of prevention defined by the National Council of Environment. In general, there was Mo enrichment (41.0) > Cu (3.5) > Pb (1.4), indicating that the areas had been contaminated by PTEs a resulting from human activity.


O empilhamento superficial de volume expressivo de rejeito e estéril, com alto teor de elementos potencialmente tóxicos causou danos ambientais até hoje não mensurados. Neste contexto, constituiu-se objetivo deste trabalho, avaliar os teores totais e disponíveis de Cu, Mo, Pb e Zn e determinar índices indicadores de contaminação em solos na área de exploração artesanal de Au em Serra Pelada -Amazônia, Brasil. Para tanto, foram coletados seis pontos amostrais no entorno do lago formado a partir da cava e um ponto em área de mata sem influência do garimpo. Os teores totais e disponíveis dos metais foram extraídos com água régia e solução 0,5 mol L-1 HCl respectivamente, seguidos das determinações através da espectrometria de emissão ótica com plasma de argônio acoplado indutivamente (ICP-OES). Todos os PTEs apresentaram teores totais acima dos valores de referência de qualidade para solos do estado do Pará. Os teores disponíveis de Cu, Pb e Zn foram superiores aos observados em solos de área de floresta do estado do Pará. Os teores de Cu total estão acima do valor de prevenção definido pelo Conselho Nacional de Meio Ambiente. Em média houve enriquecimento de Mo (41,0) > Cu (3,5) > Pb (1,4), o que indica que as áreas foram contaminadas por PTEs a partir das atividades antrópicas.


Assuntos
Solo , Contaminação Química , Substâncias Tóxicas , Metais Pesados , Ouro , Mineração
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 489-502, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-951803

RESUMO

Abstract Human activities on the Earth's surface change the landscape of natural ecosystems. Mining practices are one of the most severe human activities, drastically altering the chemical, physical and biological properties of the soil environment. Bacterial communities in soil play an important role in the maintenance of ecological relationships. This work shows bacterial diversity, metabolic repertoire and physiological behavior in five ecosystems samples with different levels of impact. These ecosystems belong to a historical area in Iron Quadrangle, Minas Gerais, Brazil, which suffered mining activities until its total depletion without recovery since today. The results revealed Proteobacteria as the most predominant phylum followed by Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, and Bacteroidetes. Soils that have not undergone anthropological actions exhibit an increase ability to degrade carbon sources. The richest soil with the high diversity was found in ecosystems that have suffered anthropogenic action. Our study shows profile of diversity inferring metabolic profile, which may elucidate the mechanisms underlying changes in community structure in situ mining sites in Brazil. Our data comes from contributing to know the bacterial diversity, relationship between these bacteria and can explore strategies for natural bioremediation in mining areas or adjacent areas under regeneration process in iron mining areas.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Filogenia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Brasil , Ecossistema , Mineração
20.
Rev. luna azul ; 47: [129]-[158], 01 julio 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1008821

RESUMO

La minería tradicional constituye una de las principales actividades económicas del municipio de Quinchía, localizado en el departamento de Risaralda. El municipio con una riqueza mineral en el 60 % de su territorio alberga 13 asociaciones mineras que, bajo la perspectiva neoliberal reflejada en aspectos como el neoextractivismo, han sido señaladas como insostenibles por sus efectos sobre los ecosistemas y los deficientes aportes a la economía nacional. Este es el contexto territorial que condujo a la investigación: "Evaluación de la sustentabilidad cultural y ambiental de la minería tradicional en Quinchía, Risaralda. Caso de estudio Corporación Área de Reserva Especial Minera (CORPOARE)". La investigación tuvo como objetivo analizar la minería tradicional del municipio de Quinchía hacia la evaluación de la sustentabilidad cultural y ambiental de la actividad. Para tal fin se definieron trece indicadores culturales y ambientales, nueve de ellos orientados a evaluar la sustentabilidad cultural y ambiental de la minería tradicional desarrollada por CORPOARE; una organización agrominera, conformada por 83 mineros tradicionales, localizada en un área de 584 hectáreas del municipio de Quinchía. Estos indicadores, orientados por el referente teórico sustentabilidad cultural y ambiental, permitieron concluir que la actividad minera desarrollada por CORPOARE en el contexto del desarrollo local es sustentable en los aspectos culturales, sociales y ambientales.


Traditional mining is one of the main economic activities of the Municipaliy of Quinchía, located in the Department of Risaralda. This Municipality, with a mineral wealth in 60% of its territory, houses 13 mining associations that, under the neoliberal perspective reflected in aspects such as neo-extractivism, has been identified as unsustainable due to their effects on ecosystems and the defficient contribution to the national economy. The objective of the research was to analyze the the traditional mining of the Municipality of Quinchía towards the evaluation of the cultural and environmental sustainability of the activity. To this end, thirteen cultural and environmental indicators were defined, nine of them aimed at assessing the cultural and environmental sustainability of traditional mining developed by to Special Mining Reserve Area Corporation (CORPOARE for its acronym in Spanish). This is an agro-mining organization conformed by 83 traditional miners, located in an area of 584 acres in the Municipality of Quinchía. These indicators, guided by the theoretical reference of cultural and environmental sustainability, allowed concluding that the mining activity developed by CORPOARE in the context of local development is sustainable in the cultural, social and environmental aspects.


Assuntos
Mineração
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